'Blood donors' are individuals who voluntarily and safely donate a specific amount of their own blood, which can be further separated into components, to be used for transfusion purposes or for manufacturing medical products, without receiving remuneration that is intended to reward them financially.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.
The degree to which the blood supply for BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS is free of harmful substances or infectious agents, and properly typed and crossmatched (BLOOD GROUPING AND CROSSMATCHING) to insure serological compatibility between BLOOD DONORS and recipients.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
HTLV-II (Human T-lymphotropic virus type II) infections are chronic viral infections primarily involving the CD4+ T lymphocytes, which can lead to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and other inflammatory diseases, but with a lower prevalence and geographical distribution compared to HTLV-I.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
DNA virus infections refer to diseases caused by viruses that incorporate double-stranded or single-stranded DNA as their genetic material, replicating within host cell nucleus or cytoplasm, and including various families such as Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Papillomaviridae, and Parvoviridae.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Antibodies reactive with the HTLV-I ANTIGENS.
HTLV-I (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1) infection is a retroviral infection that primarily targets CD4+ T-cells, potentially leading to the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy (TSP/HAM), as well as other inflammatory diseases.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies reactive with the HTLV-II ANTIGENS.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
A group of antigens consisting principally of Jk(a) and Jk(b), determined by allelic genes. Amorphs are encountered. Antibodies of these substances are usually weak and quite labile, stimulated by erythrocytes.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
I am not aware of any established medical definition for "Iran" as it is primarily used to refer to a country located in the Middle East, known officially as the Islamic Republic of Iran. If you are looking for information on healthcare or medical conditions within Iran, I would be happy to help with that!
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
The occupation concerned with the cutting and dressing of the hair of customers and, of men, the shaving and trimming of the beard and mustache. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Italy" is not a medical term or concept, it's a country located in Southern Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I'd be happy to help with those!
Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Albania" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in Southeastern Europe, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and beautiful landscapes. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Medical tests taken by couples planning to be married in order to determine presence of genetic and contagious diseases.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.

Variability of glutathione S-transferase alpha in human liver and plasma. (1/1625)

BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferases are a family of enzymes involved in the binding, transport, and detoxification of a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Little information is available about the variability of class alpha glutathione S-transferases in human liver, where they are highly expressed, or in serum. METHODS: Both total class alpha glutathione S-transferase (GST-alpha, composed of GSTA1-1, GSTA1-2, and GSTA2-2) as well as GSTA1-1 concentrations were measured by specific and sensitive ELISA in liver cytosols of 35 organ donors and in plasma samples of 350 healthy controls. RESULTS: The mean total GST-alpha and GSTA1-1 in liver cytosols were 25.1 +/- 9.4 and 10.7 +/- 5.3 microg/mg protein, respectively, and did not correlate with activities of aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase. The mean total GST-alpha in liver was significantly higher in females compared with males (28.8 +/- 10.0 vs 22.0 +/- 7.8 microg/mg protein; P <0.05). In contrast, the median total GST-alpha in plasma was lower in females compared with males (2.0 and 2.8 microg/L, respectively; P <0.0001). The median ratios for GSTA1-1/total GST-alpha in liver and plasma were 0.42 and 0.58, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: GSTA1-1 constitutes approximately one-half of the total amount of alpha class GSTs in human plasma and liver. Total GST-alpha values are higher in female liver but lower in plasma compared with the respective values in males.  (+info)

High prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) infections in dialysis staff. (2/1625)

BACKGROUND: Patients on renal replacement therapy, haemodialysis (HD), or after kidney transplantation (TX), are known to be at risk of acquiring blood-borne infections (HBV, HCV). GBV-C/Hepatitis G virus (HGV) has been described recently and is considered to cause blood-borne infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk for the medical staff of HD and TX patients to acquire HGV infection. METHODS: Eighty-five HD patients and 86 TX recipients were compared with 49 health-care workers and 64 blood donors as controls. The HGV prevalence was determined by RT-PCR and antibodies to E2 protein. RESULTS: A high prevalence of HGV was found in the medical staff (24%) which nearly corresponded to the prevalence of the patients (TX 36%, HD 25%) but not to the controls (9%). In contrast, the prevalence of HCV was low in the medical staff (2%) and controls (0%) but high in HD (13%) and TX (13%). Age and duration of employment in the department did not significantly influence the HGV prevalence in staff. The number of viraemic subjects in staff was high, possibly indicating a more recent infection. CONCLUSION: An occupational risk for HGV exists in medical staff of dialysis and transplant patients. Further routes of transmission than only parenteral may play a role in this setting.  (+info)

Single leukapheresis products collected from healthy donors after the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor contain ten-fold higher numbers of long-term reconstituting hematopoietic progenitor cells than conventional bone marrow allografts. (3/1625)

Cytokine-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) have been used successfully for hematopoietic reconstitution following allogeneic transplantation. The ease of harvest, the faster engraftment and the high yield of CD34+ cells have made this source of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) an attractive alternative to bone marrow (BM). In the present study we compared the engraftment potential of conventional BM allografts and single leukapheresis products (LPs) collected from healthy donors following the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). For this, lineage-committed and primitive HPCs were assessed by flow cytometry and by colony- and cobblestone area-forming cell (CFC, CAFC) assays. Mean numbers of CD34+ cells in LPs (n = 11) were similar to that of BM grafts (n = 12) (278+/-57 vs 227+/-34 x 10(6) CD34+ cells). The frequencies of CFCs, week 5 CAFCs and week 8 CAFCs were 1.6-, 8.4- and 10.3-fold higher in the CD34+ compartment of mobilized blood than that of marrow, resulting in significantly higher yields of clonogenic HPCs in LPs when compared to BM grafts. We conclude that G-CSF preferentially mobilizes clonogenic progenitors capable of short- and, in particular, longterm reconstitution, and that the engraftment potential of single LPs is superior to that of BM allografts. Hence, the use of PBPCs may be favorable for protocols that include graft manipulations with expected cell loss (eg T cell depletion, CD34+ selection). PBPCs may also be advantageous for gene therapy trials due to their high numbers of potential target cells (eg CAFCs).  (+info)

B cell lymphoproliferative disorders following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, treatment and outcome. (4/1625)

Twenty-six cases of B cell lymphoproliferative disorder (BLPD) were identified among 2395 patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) for which an overall incidence of BLPD was 1.2%. The true incidence was probably higher, since 9/26 of the diagnoses were made at autopsy. No BLPD was observed following autologous HSCT, so risk factor analyses were confined to the 1542 allogeneic HSCT. Factors assessed were HLA-mismatching (> or = 1 antigen), T cell depletion (TCD), presence of acute GvHD (grades II-IV), donor type (related vs unrelated), age of recipient and donor, and underlying disease. Factors found to be statistically significant included patients transplanted for immune deficiency and CML, donor age > or = 18 years, TCD, and HLA-mismatching, with recipients of combined TCD and HLA-mismatched grafts having the highest incidence. Factors found to be statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis were TCD, donor age and immune deficiency, although 7/8 of the patients with immunodeficiencies and BLPD received a TCD graft from a haploidentical parent. The overall mortality was 92% (24/26). One patient had a spontaneous remission, but subsequently died >1 year later of chronic GVHD. Thirteen patients received therapy for BLPD. Three patients received lymphocyte infusions without response. The only patients with responses and longterm survival received alpha interferon (alphaIFN). Of seven patients treated with alphaIFN there were four responses (one partial and three complete). These data demonstrate that alphaIFN can be an effective agent against BLPD following HSCT, if a timely diagnosis is made.  (+info)

Analysis of hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA, antibody to HGV envelope protein, and risk factors for blood donors coinfected with HGV and hepatitis C virus. (5/1625)

Serologic, biochemical, and molecular analyses were used to study hepatitis G virus (HGV), antibody to the HGV envelope protein (anti-E2), risk factors, clinical significance, and the impact of HGV on coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV). Among 329 donors with confirmed HCV infection, 12% were HGV RNA-positive and 44% were anti-E2-positive (total exposure, 56%). HGV RNA and anti-E2 were mutually exclusive except in 9 donors (1.5%); 8 of 9 subsequently lost HGV RNA but anti-E2 persisted. HGV had little impact on alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, or gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in donors with HGV infection alone or those coinfected with HCV. A multivariate analysis showed that intravenous drug abuse was the leading risk factor for HGV transmission, followed by blood transfusion, snorting cocaine, imprisonment, and a history of sexually transmitted diseases. In summary, HGV and HCV infections were frequently associated and shared common parenteral risk factors; HGV did not appear to cause hepatitis or to worsen the course of coexistent hepatitis C.  (+info)

Prevalence of TT virus infection in US blood donors and populations at risk for acquiring parenterally transmitted viruses. (6/1625)

Two overlapping sets of TT virus (TTV)-specific polymerase chain reaction primers were used to test for presence of TTV, which was found in approximately 10% of US volunteer blood donors, 13% of commercial blood donors, and 17% of intravenous drug abusers. The rate of TTV infection among US non-A, non-B, non-C, non-D, non-E hepatitis patients was only 2%. Among commercial blood donors and intravenous drug abusers, only 1%-3% of the TTV-positive individuals were coinfected with GB virus C (GBV-C), a parenterally transmitted virus. This suggests that GBV-C and TTV may have different routes of transmission. Comparison of the sensitivities of 2 TTV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets showed that the majority of samples were detected with only 1 of the 2 sets. Therefore, previous studies in which only a single PCR primer pair was used may have significantly underestimated the true prevalence of TTV.  (+info)

Neutrophil activation and hemostatic changes in healthy donors receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. (7/1625)

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances neutrophil functions in vitro and in vivo. It is known that neutrophil-derived products can alter the hemostatic balance. To understand whether polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) activation, measured as PMN degranulation and phenotypical change, may be associated to hemostatic alterations in vivo, we have studied the effect of recombinant human G-CSF (rHuG-CSF) administration on leukocyte parameters and hemostatic variables in healthy donors of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Twenty-six consecutive healthy donors receiving 10 micrograms/kg/d rHuG-CSF subcutaneously for 5 to 7 days to mobilize HPCs for allogeneic transplants were included in the study. All of them responded to rHuG-CSF with a significant white blood cell count increase. Blood samples were drawn before therapy on days 2 and 5 and 1 week after stopping rHuG-CSF treatment. The following parameters were evaluated: (1) PMN activation parameters, ie, surface CD11b/CD18 antigen expression, plasma elastase antigen levels and cellular elastase activity; (2) plasma markers of endothelium activation, ie, thrombomodulin (TM) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigens; (3) plasma markers of blood coagulation activation, ie, F1+2, TAT complex, D-dimer; and (4) mononuclear cell (MNC) procoagulant activity (PCA) expression. The results show that, after starting rHuG-CSF, an in vivo PMN activation occurred, as demonstrated by the significant increment of surface CD11b/CD18 and plasma elastase antigen levels. Moreover, PMN cellular elastase activity, which was significantly increased at 1 day of treatment, returned to baseline at day 5 to 6, in correspondence with the elastase antigen peak in the circulation. This change was accompanied by a parallel significant increase in plasma levels of the two endothelial and the three coagulation markers. The PCA generated in vitro by unstimulated MNC isolated from rHuG-CSF-treated subjects was not different from that of control cells from untreated subjects. However, endotoxin-stimulated MNC isolated from on-treatment individuals produced significantly more PCA compared with both baseline and control samples. All of the parameters were decreased or normal 1 week after stopping treatment. These data show that rHuG-CSF induces PMN activation and transiently affects some hemostatic variables in healthy HPC donor subjects. The clinical significance of these findings remains to be established.  (+info)

Evaluation of the INNO-LIA HTLV I/II assay for confirmation of human T-cell leukemia virus-reactive sera in blood bank donations. (8/1625)

We have evaluated a new serological confirmatory test (INNO-LIA HTLV I/II Ab [INNO-LIA]) for human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) using a large collection of samples from Brazilian blood donors (Sao Paulo region) and compared the results with those obtained by Western blotting (WB) tests (WB2.3 and WB2.4). Blood donations were initially screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on viral lysates, and repeatedly reactive samples were further tested by WB2.3. When available, samples were also tested by PCR, two additional ELISAs based on recombinant antigens (recombinant ELISAs), a new-generation WB assay (WB2.4), and the INNO-LIA. Of the 18,169 samples tested, 292 (1.61%) were repeatedly reactive in the ELISAs (viral lysate based) and were further tested by WB2.3; 97 were positive (19 that were typed as HTLV type I [HTLV-I], 12 that were typed as HTLV type II [HTLV-II], and 66 that were nontypeable), 17 were negative, and 178 had indeterminate results. Of the samples with indeterminate results, 172 were tested by INNO-LIA, which could resolve 153 samples as negative. Regarding the positive samples, WB2. 3 and INNO-LIA produced concordant results for all HTLV-I-positive samples, whereas for HTLV-II they agreed for 10 of 12 samples; the 2 samples with discordant results were considered to be positive for HTLV-II by WB with WB2.3 but negative for HTLV-II by INNO-LIA and the two recombinant ELISAs. Furthermore, of the 66 nontypeable samples, 60 underwent testing by INNO-LIA; 54 turned out to be negative by the latter test as well as by recombinant ELISAs. In conclusion, the new serological confirmatory assay for HTLV (INNO-LIA HTLV I/II Ab) resolved the results for the majority of the indeterminate and positive-untypeable samples frequently observed by WB assays.  (+info)

A blood donor is a person who voluntarily gives their own blood or blood components to be used for the benefit of another person in need. The blood donation process involves collecting the donor's blood, testing it for infectious diseases, and then storing it until it is needed by a patient. There are several types of blood donations, including:

1. Whole blood donation: This is the most common type of blood donation, where a donor gives one unit (about 450-500 milliliters) of whole blood. The blood is then separated into its components (red cells, plasma, and platelets) for transfusion to patients with different needs.
2. Double red cell donation: In this type of donation, the donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates two units of red cells from the whole blood. The remaining plasma and platelets are returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 112 days.
3. Platelet donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates platelets from the whole blood. The red cells and plasma are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every seven days, up to 24 times a year.
4. Plasma donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates plasma from the whole blood. The red cells and platelets are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 28 days, up to 13 times a year.

Blood donors must meet certain eligibility criteria, such as being in good health, aged between 18 and 65 (in some countries, the upper age limit may vary), and weighing over 50 kg (110 lbs). Donors are also required to answer medical questionnaires and undergo a mini-physical examination before each donation. The frequency of blood donations varies depending on the type of donation and the donor's health status.

A tissue donor is an individual who has agreed to allow organs and tissues to be removed from their body after death for the purpose of transplantation to restore the health or save the life of another person. The tissues that can be donated include corneas, heart valves, skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, veins, and cartilage. These tissues can enhance the quality of life for many recipients and are often used in reconstructive surgeries. It is important to note that tissue donation does not interfere with an open casket funeral or other cultural or religious practices related to death and grieving.

A blood bank is a facility that collects, tests, stores, and distributes blood and blood components for transfusion purposes. It is a crucial part of the healthcare system, as it ensures a safe and adequate supply of blood products to meet the needs of patients undergoing various medical procedures or treatments. The term "blood bank" comes from the idea that collected blood is "stored" or "banked" until it is needed for transfusion.

The primary function of a blood bank is to ensure the safety and quality of the blood supply. This involves rigorous screening and testing of donated blood to detect any infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and West Nile virus. Blood banks also perform compatibility tests between donor and recipient blood types to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

Blood banks offer various blood products, including whole blood, red blood cells, platelets, plasma, and cryoprecipitate. These products can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, such as anemia, bleeding disorders, cancer, and trauma. In addition, some blood banks may also provide specialized services, such as apheresis (a procedure that separates specific blood components) and therapeutic phlebotomy (the removal of excess blood).

Blood banks operate under strict regulations and guidelines to ensure the safety and quality of their products and services. These regulations are established by national and international organizations, such as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

A living donor is a person who voluntarily donates an organ or part of an organ to another person while they are still alive. This can include donations such as a kidney, liver lobe, lung, or portion of the pancreas or intestines. The donor and recipient typically undergo medical evaluation and compatibility testing to ensure the best possible outcome for the transplantation procedure. Living donation is regulated by laws and ethical guidelines to ensure that donors are fully informed and making a voluntary decision.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Donor selection is the process of evaluating and choosing potential organ, tissue, or stem cell donors based on various medical and non-medical criteria to ensure the safety and efficacy of the transplantation. The goal of donor selection is to identify a compatible donor with minimal risk of rejection and transmission of infectious diseases while also considering ethical and legal considerations.

Medical criteria for donor selection may include:

1. Age: Donors are typically required to be within a certain age range, depending on the type of organ or tissue being donated.
2. Blood type and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing: Compatibility between the donor's and recipient's blood types and HLA markers is crucial to reduce the risk of rejection.
3. Medical history: Donors must undergo a thorough medical evaluation, including a review of their medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests to assess their overall health and identify any potential risks or contraindications for donation.
4. Infectious disease screening: Donors are tested for various infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), among others, to ensure they do not transmit infections to the recipient.
5. Tissue typing: For organ transplants, tissue typing is performed to assess the compatibility of the donor's and recipient's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, which play a significant role in the immune response and rejection risk.

Non-medical criteria for donor selection may include:

1. Consent: Donors must provide informed consent for organ or tissue donation, and their next of kin or legal representative may be involved in the decision-making process for deceased donors.
2. Legal considerations: There are specific laws and regulations governing organ and tissue donation that must be followed, such as age restrictions, geographical proximity between the donor and recipient, and cultural or religious beliefs.
3. Ethical considerations: Donor selection should adhere to ethical principles, such as fairness, respect for autonomy, and non-maleficence, to ensure that the process is transparent, equitable, and free from coercion or exploitation.

Blood safety is a term used to describe the measures taken to ensure that blood and blood products are free from infectious agents and are safe for transfusion. This includes rigorous screening processes for donors, testing of donated blood for various infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and West Nile virus, and proper handling, storage, and distribution of blood products. Additionally, strict quality control measures are in place to ensure the accuracy and reliability of test results. The goal of blood safety is to protect recipients from transfusion-transmitted infections while ensuring an adequate supply of safe blood for those in need.

A blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which blood or its components are transferred from one individual (donor) to another (recipient) through a vein. The donated blood can be fresh whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, plasma, or cryoprecipitate, depending on the recipient's needs. Blood transfusions are performed to replace lost blood due to severe bleeding, treat anemia, support patients undergoing major surgeries, or manage various medical conditions such as hemophilia, thalassemia, and leukemia. The donated blood must be carefully cross-matched with the recipient's blood type to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

Hepatitis C antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Detection of these antibodies in the blood indicates a past or present HCV infection. However, it does not necessarily mean that the person is currently infected, as antibodies can persist for years even after the virus has been cleared from the body. Additional tests are usually needed to confirm whether the infection is still active and to guide treatment decisions.

Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It's primarily spread through contact with contaminated blood, often through sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for most — about 75-85% — it becomes a long-term, chronic infection that can lead to serious health problems like liver damage, liver failure, and even liver cancer. The virus can infect and inflame the liver, causing symptoms like jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, fatigue, and dark urine. Many people with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms, so they might not know they have the infection until they experience complications. There are effective treatments available for hepatitis C, including antiviral medications that can cure the infection in most people. Regular testing is important to diagnose and treat hepatitis C early, before it causes serious health problems.

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. The virus is transmitted through contact with infected blood, semen, and other bodily fluids. It can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby at birth.

Acute hepatitis B infection lasts for a few weeks to several months and often causes no symptoms. However, some people may experience mild to severe flu-like symptoms, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, and fatigue. Most adults with acute hepatitis B recover completely and develop lifelong immunity to the virus.

Chronic hepatitis B infection can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. People with chronic hepatitis B may experience long-term symptoms such as fatigue, joint pain, and depression. They are also at risk for developing liver failure and liver cancer.

Prevention measures include vaccination, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing needles or other drug injection equipment, and covering wounds and skin rashes. There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B, but chronic hepatitis B can be treated with antiviral medications to slow the progression of liver damage.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigens (HBsAg) are proteins found on the surface of the Hepatitis B virus. They are present in the blood of individuals infected with the Hepatitis B virus and are used as a marker for the presence of a current Hepatitis B infection. The detection of HBsAg in the blood indicates that an individual is infectious and can transmit the virus to others. It is typically used in diagnostic tests to detect and diagnose Hepatitis B infections, monitor treatment response, and assess the risk of transmission.

Viral hepatitis in humans refers to inflammation of the liver caused by infection with viruses that primarily target the liver. There are five main types of human viral hepatitis, designated as Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E virus (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, and HEV). These viruses can cause a range of illnesses, from acute self-limiting hepatitis to chronic hepatitis, which can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.

1. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is typically spread through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. It usually results in an acute self-limiting infection, but rarely can cause chronic hepatitis in individuals with weakened immune systems.
2. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is primarily transmitted through contact with infected blood, semen, and other bodily fluids. It can lead to both acute and chronic hepatitis, which may result in cirrhosis and liver cancer if left untreated.
3. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is predominantly spread through exposure to infected blood, such as through sharing needles or receiving contaminated blood transfusions. Chronic hepatitis C is common, and it can lead to serious liver complications like cirrhosis and liver cancer if not treated.
4. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an incomplete virus that requires the presence of HBV for its replication. HDV infection occurs only in individuals already infected with HBV, leading to more severe liver disease compared to HBV monoinfection.
5. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. It usually results in an acute self-limiting infection but can cause chronic hepatitis in pregnant women and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Prevention measures include vaccination for HAV and HBV, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing needles, and ensuring proper hygiene and sanitation to prevent fecal-oral transmission.

HTLV-II (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 2) infection is a condition caused by the retrovirus HTLV- II. This virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells and can lead to the development of several diseases, including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a malignancy of CD4+ T cells, and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM), a neurological disorder characterized by progressive weakness and stiffness in the lower extremities. However, the majority of people infected with HTLV-II remain asymptomatic throughout their lives. The virus is primarily transmitted through blood transfusions, sharing of needles, sexual contact, and from mother to child during breastfeeding.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Torque teno virus (TTV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family Anelloviridae. It was first identified in 1997 and has since been found to be present in the majority of human populations worldwide. The virus is classified into several genotypes and subtypes, with TTV being the prototype member of the genus Alphainellovirus.

TTV is a small virus, measuring only about 30-40 nanometers in diameter. It has a circular genome that ranges in size from 2.8 to 3.9 kilobases and encodes for several non-structural proteins involved in viral replication. The virus does not appear to cause any specific disease symptoms, but it has been associated with various clinical conditions such as liver disease, respiratory tract infections, and cancer.

TTV is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, although other modes of transmission have also been suggested, including saliva, blood, and vertical transmission from mother to child during pregnancy or delivery. The virus has been detected in various body fluids, tissues, and organs, including blood, stool, respiratory secretions, and the liver.

The clinical significance of TTV infection remains unclear, as it is frequently found in both healthy individuals and those with various diseases. However, some studies have suggested that TTV viral load or genotype may be associated with certain clinical conditions, such as liver disease, transplant rejection, and cancer. Further research is needed to better understand the role of TTV in human health and disease.

DNA virus infections refer to diseases or conditions caused by the invasion and replication of DNA viruses in a host organism. DNA viruses are a type of virus that uses DNA as their genetic material. They can cause a variety of diseases, ranging from relatively mild illnesses to severe or life-threatening conditions.

Some examples of DNA viruses include herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and adenoviruses. These viruses can cause a range of diseases, including cold sores, genital herpes, chickenpox, shingles, cervical cancer, liver cancer, and respiratory infections.

DNA virus infections typically occur when the virus enters the body through a break in the skin or mucous membranes, such as those found in the eyes, nose, mouth, or genitals. Once inside the body, the virus infects cells and uses their machinery to replicate itself, often causing damage to the host cells in the process.

The symptoms of DNA virus infections can vary widely depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Treatment may include antiviral medications, which can help to reduce the severity and duration of symptoms, as well as prevent the spread of the virus to others. In some cases, vaccines may be available to prevent DNA virus infections.

Hepatitis antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by a hepatitis virus. There are several types of hepatitis viruses, including A, B, C, D, and E, each with their own specific antibodies.

The presence of hepatitis antibodies in the blood can indicate a current or past infection with the corresponding hepatitis virus. For example, the detection of anti-HAV (hepatitis A virus) antibodies indicates a past infection or immunization against hepatitis A, while the detection of anti-HBs (hepatitis B surface antigen) antibodies indicates immunity due to vaccination or recovery from a hepatitis B infection.

It's important to note that some hepatitis antibodies may not provide immunity to future infections, and individuals can still be infected with the virus even if they have previously produced antibodies against it. Therefore, regular testing and vaccination are essential for preventing the spread of hepatitis viruses and protecting public health.

Hepatitis B antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of the Hepatitis B virus. There are two main types of Hepatitis B antibodies:

1. Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs): This is produced when a person has recovered from a Hepatitis B infection or has been successfully vaccinated against the virus. The presence of anti-HBs indicates immunity to Hepatitis B.
2. Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBC): This is produced during a Hepatitis B infection and remains present for life, even after the infection has been cleared. However, the presence of anti-HBC alone does not indicate immunity to Hepatitis B, as it can also be present in people who have a chronic Hepatitis B infection.

It's important to note that testing for Hepatitis B antibodies is typically done through blood tests and can help determine whether a person has been infected with the virus, has recovered from an infection, or has been vaccinated against it.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is a protein found in the core of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is present during active replication of the virus and plays a crucial role in the formation of the viral capsid or core. The antibodies produced against HBcAg (anti-HBc) can be detected in the blood, which serves as a marker for current or past HBV infection. It is important to note that HBcAg itself is not detectable in the blood because it is confined within the viral particle. However, during the serological testing of hepatitis B, the detection of anti-HBc IgM indicates a recent acute infection, while the presence of anti-HBc IgG suggests either a past resolved infection or an ongoing chronic infection.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Flaviviridae is a family of viruses that includes many important human pathogens. According to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), Flaviviridae is divided into four genera: Flavivirus, Hepacivirus, Pegivirus, and Pestivirus. These viruses are enveloped and have a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome.

1. Flavivirus genus includes several medically important viruses, such as dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Zika virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. These viruses are primarily transmitted by arthropod vectors (mosquitoes or ticks) and can cause a wide range of symptoms, from mild febrile illness to severe hemorrhagic fever and neuroinvasive disease.
2. Hepacivirus genus contains hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is a major causative agent of viral hepatitis and liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is primarily transmitted through percutaneous exposure to infected blood or blood products, sexual contact, and mother-to-child transmission during childbirth.
3. Pegivirus genus includes pegiviruses (formerly known as GB viruses) that are associated with persistent infection in humans and other animals. While pegiviruses can cause acute illness, they are mostly linked to asymptomatic or mild infections.
4. Pestivirus genus contains several animal pathogens, such as bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and border disease virus (BDV). These viruses can cause significant economic losses in the livestock industry due to reproductive failure, growth retardation, and immunosuppression.

In summary, Flaviviridae is a family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that includes several important human and animal pathogens. The family is divided into four genera: Flavivirus, Hepacivirus, Pegivirus, and Pestivirus.

Hepacivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae. The most well-known member of this genus is Hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. HCV infection can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer.

Hepaciviruses are enveloped viruses with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. They have a small icosahedral capsid and infect a variety of hosts, including humans, non-human primates, horses, and birds. The virus enters the host cell by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface and is then internalized through endocytosis.

HCV has a high degree of genetic diversity and is classified into seven major genotypes and numerous subtypes based on differences in its RNA sequence. This genetic variability can affect the virus's ability to evade the host immune response, making treatment more challenging.

In addition to HCV, other hepaciviruses have been identified in various animal species, including equine hepacivirus (EHCV), rodent hepacivirus (RHV), and bat hepacivirus (BtHepCV). These viruses are being studied to better understand the biology of hepaciviruses and their potential impact on human health.

HTLV-I antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type I (HTLV-I) antigens. These antibodies indicate a past or present infection with HTLV-I, which is a retrovirus that can cause adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. Detection of HTLV-I antibodies in the blood is typically done through serological tests such as ELISA and Western blot.

HTLV-I (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1) infection is a viral infection that attacks the CD4+ T-cells (a type of white blood cell) and can lead to the development of various diseases, including Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The virus is primarily transmitted through breastfeeding, sexual contact, or contaminated blood products. After infection, the virus becomes integrated into the host's DNA and can remain dormant for years, even decades, before leading to the development of disease. Most people infected with HTLV-I do not develop any symptoms, but a small percentage will go on to develop serious complications.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

HTLV-II antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of Human T-lymphotropic Virus type II (HTLV-II) in the body. HTLV-II is a retrovirus that can cause chronic infection and is associated with certain diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The detection of HTLV-II antibodies in the blood indicates exposure to the virus, but not all infected individuals will develop symptoms or disease.

Blood-borne pathogens are microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease. They include viruses such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and other bacteria and parasites. These pathogens can be transmitted through contact with infected blood or other bodily fluids, primarily through needlesticks or other sharps-related injuries, mucous membrane exposure, or skin exposure with open wounds or cuts. It's important for healthcare workers and others who may come into contact with blood or bodily fluids to be aware of the risks and take appropriate precautions to prevent exposure and transmission.

The Kidd blood group system is one of the human blood group systems, which is based on the presence or absence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). This system is named after Dr. Aepfelbacher Karl Landsteiner Kidd, who discovered it in 1951.

The Kidd system includes two primary antigens, Jka and Jkb, which are located on a protein called the Kidd antigen. The gene that encodes this protein is found on chromosome 18 and has multiple alleles, resulting in four possible genotypes and three different phenotypes:

* Jk(a+b-): Individuals with this phenotype have both Jka and Jkb antigens on their RBCs.
* Jk(a-b+): Individuals with this phenotype lack the Jka antigen but have the Jkb antigen on their RBCs.
* Jk(a-b-): Individuals with this phenotype lack both Jka and Jkb antigens on their RBCs.

The Kidd blood group system is clinically significant because individuals who are Jka or Jkb negative can develop antibodies against these antigens, which can cause hemolytic transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn if they receive blood products or have a fetus with compatible antigens.

It is important to note that the Kidd blood group system is not as well-known or widely tested as other blood group systems, such as ABO and Rh, but it can still be relevant in certain clinical situations.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family and causes the infectious disease known as hepatitis B. This virus primarily targets the liver, where it can lead to inflammation and damage of the liver tissue. The infection can range from acute to chronic, with chronic hepatitis B increasing the risk of developing serious liver complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.

The Hepatitis B virus has a complex life cycle, involving both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. It enters hepatocytes (liver cells) via binding to specific receptors and is taken up by endocytosis. The viral DNA is released into the nucleus, where it is converted into a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form, which serves as the template for viral transcription.

HBV transcribes several RNAs, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which is used as a template for reverse transcription during virion assembly. The pgRNA is encapsidated into core particles along with the viral polymerase and undergoes reverse transcription to generate new viral DNA. This process occurs within the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte, resulting in the formation of immature virions containing partially double-stranded DNA.

These immature virions are then enveloped by host cell membranes containing HBV envelope proteins (known as surface antigens) to form mature virions that can be secreted from the hepatocyte and infect other cells. The virus can also integrate into the host genome, which may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic cases.

Hepatitis B is primarily transmitted through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids containing the virus, such as through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. Prevention strategies include vaccination, safe sex practices, and avoiding needle-sharing behaviors. Treatment for hepatitis B typically involves antiviral medications that can help suppress viral replication and reduce the risk of liver damage.

Flaviviridae infections refer to a group of diseases caused by viruses that belong to the Flaviviridae family. This family includes several important human pathogens, such as dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Zika virus.

These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks. The symptoms of Flaviviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus, but they often include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In severe cases, these infections can lead to serious complications such as hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or neuropathy.

Prevention measures for Flaviviridae infections include avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and getting vaccinated if vaccines are available for the specific virus. Treatment is generally supportive and may include fluid replacement, pain relief, and management of complications. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for most Flaviviridae infections.

Human T-lymphotropic virus 2 (HTLV-2) is a retrovirus that primarily infects CD4+ T lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system. It is a deltaretrovirus closely related to HTLV-1, but with distinct biological properties and geographic distribution.

HTLV-2 infection is usually asymptomatic, although some individuals may develop neurological or skin disorders. However, the association between HTLV-2 and these diseases is not as clear as it is for HTLV-1 and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma or tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM).

HTLV-2 is primarily transmitted through breastfeeding, sexual contact, and sharing of needles among injecting drug users. It is endemic in certain populations, particularly indigenous communities in the Americas, such as the Guaraní and Kayapó in Brazil, and the Navajo and Pima in the United States. Prevalence rates can reach up to 30% in some of these populations.

There is currently no vaccine or specific treatment for HTLV-2 infection, and prevention efforts focus on reducing transmission risks through education and harm reduction strategies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Red Cross" is not a medical term per se. It is the name of an international humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, and education in communities around the world. The Red Cross, along with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and other national societies that make up the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, is guided by the Geneva Conventions to protect and assist victims of war and armed conflict.

However, in a broader sense, when people refer to "Red Cross" in a medical context, they might be referring to the American Red Cross or other national societies that provide various health-related services, such as blood donation and transfusion, first aid, CPR and AED training, disaster mental health services, and emergency preparedness education.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It progresses in several stages if left untreated, with symptoms varying in each stage. The primary stage involves the appearance of a single, painless sore or multiple sores at the site where the bacteria entered the body, often on the genitals or around the mouth. During the secondary stage, individuals may experience rashes, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and other flu-like symptoms. In later stages, syphilis can lead to severe complications affecting the heart, brain, and other organs, known as tertiary syphilis. Neurosyphilis is a form of tertiary syphilis that affects the nervous system, causing various neurological problems. Congenital syphilis occurs when a pregnant woman with syphilis transmits the infection to her unborn child, which can result in serious birth defects and health issues for the infant. Early detection and appropriate antibiotic treatment can cure syphilis and prevent further complications.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Hepatitis B antigens are proteins or particles present on the surface (HBsAg) or inside (HBcAg, HBeAg) the hepatitis B virus.

1. HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen): This is a protein found on the outer surface of the hepatitis B virus. Its presence in the blood indicates an active infection with hepatitis B virus. It's also used as a marker to diagnose hepatitis B infection and monitor treatment response.

2. HBcAg (Hepatitis B core antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core. It's not usually detected in the blood, but its antibodies (anti-HBc) are used to diagnose past or present hepatitis B infection.

3. HBeAg (Hepatitis B e antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core and is associated with viral replication. Its presence in the blood indicates high levels of viral replication, increased infectivity, and higher risk of liver damage. It's used to monitor disease progression and treatment response.

These antigens play a crucial role in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B infection.

A Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay (RIA) is a highly sensitive laboratory technique used to measure the presence and concentration of specific antigens or antibodies in a sample. This technique combines the use of radioisotopes, immunochemistry, and precipitation reactions.

In an RIA, a known quantity of a radioactively labeled antigen (or hapten) is incubated with a sample containing an unknown amount of antibody (or vice versa). If the specific antigen-antibody pair is present in the sample, they will bind together to form an immune complex. This complex can then be selectively precipitated from the solution using a second antibody that recognizes and binds to the first antibody, thus forming an insoluble immune precipitate.

The amount of radioactivity present in the precipitate is directly proportional to the concentration of antigen or antibody in the sample. By comparing this value to a standard curve generated with known concentrations of antigen or antibody, the unknown concentration can be accurately determined. RIAs have been widely used in research and clinical settings for the quantification of various hormones, drugs, vitamins, and other biomolecules. However, due to safety concerns and regulatory restrictions associated with radioisotopes, non-radioactive alternatives like Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iran" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in southwest Asia. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Blood grouping, also known as blood typing, is the process of determining a person's ABO and Rh (Rhesus) blood type. The ABO blood group system includes four main blood types: A, B, AB, and O, based on the presence or absence of antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells. The Rh blood group system is another important classification system that determines whether the Rh factor (a protein also found on the surface of red blood cells) is present or absent.

Knowing a person's blood type is crucial in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood. If a patient receives an incompatible blood type, it can trigger an immune response leading to serious complications such as hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells), kidney failure, or even death.

Crossmatching is a laboratory test performed before a blood transfusion to determine the compatibility between the donor's and recipient's blood. It involves mixing a small sample of the donor's red blood cells with the recipient's serum (the liquid portion of the blood containing antibodies) and observing for any agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis. If there is no reaction, the blood is considered compatible, and the transfusion can proceed.

In summary, blood grouping and crossmatching are essential tests in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood and prevent adverse reactions that could harm the patient's health.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Tissue and organ procurement is the process of obtaining viable tissues and organs from deceased or living donors for the purpose of transplantation, research, or education. This procedure is performed by trained medical professionals in a sterile environment, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines. The tissues and organs that can be procured include hearts, lungs, livers, kidneys, pancreases, intestines, corneas, skin, bones, tendons, and heart valves. The process involves a thorough medical evaluation of the donor, as well as consent from the donor or their next of kin. After procurement, the tissues and organs are preserved and transported to recipients in need.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

The ABO blood-group system is a classification system used in blood transfusion medicine to determine the compatibility of donated blood with a recipient's blood. It is based on the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), as well as the corresponding antibodies present in the plasma.

There are four main blood types in the ABO system:

1. Type A: These individuals have A antigens on their RBCs and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.
2. Type B: They have B antigens on their RBCs and anti-A antibodies in their plasma.
3. Type AB: They have both A and B antigens on their RBCs but no natural antibodies against either A or B antigens.
4. Type O: They do not have any A or B antigens on their RBCs, but they have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.

Transfusing blood from a donor with incompatible ABO antigens can lead to an immune response, causing the destruction of donated RBCs and potentially life-threatening complications such as acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. Therefore, it is crucial to match the ABO blood type between donors and recipients before performing a blood transfusion.

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan *Trypanosoma cruzi*. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the feces of triatomine bugs (also called "kissing bugs"), which defecate on the skin of people while they are sleeping. The disease can also be spread through contaminated food or drink, during blood transfusions, from mother to baby during pregnancy or childbirth, and through organ transplantation.

The acute phase of Chagas disease can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, body aches, headache, rash, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting. However, many people do not experience any symptoms during the acute phase. After several weeks or months, most people enter the chronic phase of the disease, which can last for decades or even a lifetime. During this phase, many people do not have any symptoms, but about 20-30% of infected individuals will develop serious cardiac or digestive complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or difficulty swallowing.

Chagas disease is primarily found in Latin America, where it is estimated that around 6-7 million people are infected with the parasite. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas disease have been reported in other parts of the world, including North America, Europe, and Asia. There is no vaccine for Chagas disease, but medications are available to treat the infection during the acute phase and to manage symptoms during the chronic phase.

Antibodies, protozoan, refer to the immune system's response to an infection caused by a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

When the body is infected with a protozoan, the immune system responds by producing specific proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a B-cell, and they recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the protozoan organism.

There are five main types of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each type of antibody has a different role in the immune response. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered pathogens. IgM is the first antibody produced in response to an infection and is important for activating the complement system, which helps to destroy the protozoan organism.

Overall, the production of antibodies against protozoan organisms is a critical part of the immune response and helps to protect the body from further infection.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

HIV seropositivity is a term used to describe a positive result on an HIV antibody test. This means that the individual has developed antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), indicating that they have been infected with the virus. However, it's important to note that this does not necessarily mean that the person has AIDS, as there can be a long period between HIV infection and the development of AIDS.

"Barbering" is a medical term that refers to the act of a bird or other animal feather-plucking or chewing on its own feathers, skin, or other animals' feathers or fur. This behavior can be a sign of various medical conditions, such as feather mites, nutritional deficiencies, or psychological disorders like feather-plucking syndrome. It is important to consult with a veterinarian if you notice barbering behavior in your bird or other animal, as it may indicate an underlying health issue that needs to be addressed.

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure where a healthy kidney from a deceased or living donor is implanted into a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or permanent kidney failure. The new kidney takes over the functions of filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, producing urine, and maintaining the body's electrolyte balance.

The transplanted kidney is typically placed in the lower abdomen, with its blood vessels connected to the recipient's iliac artery and vein. The ureter of the new kidney is then attached to the recipient's bladder to ensure proper urine flow. Following the surgery, the patient will require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ by their immune system.

Hepatitis E is a viral infection that specifically affects the liver, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). The disease is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated water or food. It can also be spread through blood transfusions and vertical transmission from mother to fetus.

The incubation period for hepatitis E ranges from 2 to 10 weeks. Symptoms of the disease are similar to other types of viral hepatitis and may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, and dark urine.

In most cases, hepatitis E is a self-limiting disease, meaning that it resolves on its own within a few weeks to months. However, in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems, the infection can lead to severe complications such as acute liver failure and death. Pregnant women, especially those in the third trimester, are at higher risk of developing severe disease and have a mortality rate of up to 25%.

Prevention measures include maintaining good hygiene practices, practicing safe food handling and preparation, and ensuring access to clean water sources. Currently, there is no specific treatment for hepatitis E, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. Vaccines are available in some countries to prevent the disease.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Italy" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southern Europe. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

The Rh-Hr blood group system is a complex system of antigens found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), which is separate from the more well-known ABO blood group system. The term "Rh" refers to the Rhesus monkey, as these antigens were first discovered in rhesus macaques.

The Rh system consists of several antigens, but the most important ones are the D antigen (also known as the Rh factor) and the hr/Hr antigens. The D antigen is the one that determines whether a person's blood is Rh-positive or Rh-negative. If the D antigen is present, the blood is Rh-positive; if it is absent, the blood is Rh-negative.

The hr/Hr antigens are less well known but can still cause problems in blood transfusions and pregnancy. The Hr antigen is relatively rare, found in only about 1% of the population, while the hr antigen is more common.

When a person with Rh-negative blood is exposed to Rh-positive blood (for example, through a transfusion or during pregnancy), their immune system may produce antibodies against the D antigen. This can cause problems if they later receive a transfusion with Rh-positive blood or if they become pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus.

The Rh-Hr blood group system is important in blood transfusions and obstetrics, as it can help ensure that patients receive compatible blood and prevent complications during pregnancy.

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Hepeviridae and genus Orthohepevirus. It primarily infects the liver, causing acute hepatitis in humans. The virus is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated water or food sources. Ingestion of raw or undercooked pork or deer meat can also lead to HEV infection.

HEV infection typically results in self-limiting acute hepatitis, characterized by symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and dark urine. In some cases, particularly among pregnant women and individuals with weakened immune systems, HEV infection can lead to severe complications, including fulminant hepatic failure and death.

There are four main genotypes of HEV that infect humans: genotype 1 and 2 are primarily found in developing countries and are transmitted through contaminated water; genotype 3 and 4 are found worldwide and can be transmitted through both zoonotic and human-to-human routes.

Prevention measures include improving sanitation, access to clean water, and food safety practices. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment for HEV infection, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. A vaccine against HEV is available in China and has shown efficacy in preventing the disease.

Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis. It's transmitted to humans and other mammals through the feces of triatomine bugs, often called "kissing bugs." The parasite can also be spread through contaminated food, drink, or from mother to baby during pregnancy or birth.

The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi involves two main forms: the infective metacyclic trypomastigote that is found in the bug's feces and the replicative intracellular amastigote that resides within host cells. The metacyclic trypomastigotes enter the host through mucous membranes or skin lesions, where they invade various types of cells and differentiate into amastigotes. These amastigotes multiply by binary fission and then differentiate back into trypomastigotes, which are released into the bloodstream when the host cell ruptures. The circulating trypomastigotes can then infect other cells or be taken up by another triatomine bug during a blood meal, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical manifestations of Chagas disease range from an acute phase with non-specific symptoms like fever, swelling, and fatigue to a chronic phase characterized by cardiac and gastrointestinal complications, which can develop decades after the initial infection. Early detection and treatment of Chagas disease are crucial for preventing long-term health consequences.

Histocompatibility testing, also known as tissue typing, is a medical procedure that determines the compatibility of tissues between two individuals, usually a potential donor and a recipient for organ or bone marrow transplantation. The test identifies specific antigens, called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), found on the surface of most cells in the body. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" cells.

The goal of histocompatibility testing is to find a donor whose HLA markers closely match those of the recipient, reducing the risk of rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue. The test involves taking blood samples from both the donor and the recipient and analyzing them for the presence of specific HLA antigens using various laboratory techniques such as molecular typing or serological testing.

A high degree of histocompatibility between the donor and recipient is crucial to ensure the success of the transplantation procedure, minimize complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a type of enzyme found primarily in the cells of the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cells of other tissues such as the heart, muscles, and kidneys. Its primary function is to catalyze the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to another alpha-keto acid, usually pyruvate, to form pyruvate and another amino acid, usually glutamate. This process is known as the transamination reaction.

When liver cells are damaged or destroyed due to various reasons such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or drug-induced liver injury, ALT is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the level of ALT in the blood is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating liver function and detecting liver damage. Normal ALT levels vary depending on the laboratory, but typically range from 7 to 56 units per liter (U/L) for men and 6 to 45 U/L for women. Elevated ALT levels may indicate liver injury or disease, although other factors such as muscle damage or heart disease can also cause elevations in ALT.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Albania" does not have a medical definition. Albania is a country located in southeastern Europe, known officially as the Republic of Albania. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south and southeast. Its capital and largest city is Tirana. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

HIV seroprevalence refers to the proportion or percentage of a population that has antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in their blood, indicating current or previous HIV infection. It is often determined through serological testing methods that detect the presence of HIV antibodies in blood samples. The data from HIV seroprevalence studies are essential for understanding the spread and distribution of HIV within a specific population or geographic area, helping to inform public health policies and interventions aimed at controlling and preventing HIV transmission.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

West Nile Fever is defined as a viral infection primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The virus responsible for this febrile illness, known as West Nile Virus (WNV), is maintained in nature between mosquito vectors and avian hosts. Although most individuals infected with WNV are asymptomatic, some may develop a mild, flu-like illness characterized by fever, headache, fatigue, body aches, skin rash, and swollen lymph glands. A minority of infected individuals, particularly the elderly and immunocompromised, may progress to severe neurological symptoms such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or acute flaccid paralysis (sudden weakness in the limbs). The diagnosis is confirmed through laboratory tests, such as serological assays or nucleic acid amplification techniques. Treatment primarily focuses on supportive care, as there are no specific antiviral therapies available for West Nile Fever. Preventive measures include personal protection against mosquito bites and vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations.

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

A premarital examination is a medical evaluation typically consisting of screening tests and counseling, performed for individuals who are planning to get married. The purpose of this examination is to identify any potential health issues that may affect the couple's future family plans or overall well-being. These evaluations often include:

1. Medical History Review: Detailed review of past medical history, surgical history, allergies, current medications, and immunization status.
2. Physical Examination: Complete physical examination to identify any existing health conditions.
3. Infectious Disease Screening: Tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, and sometimes gonorrhea and chlamydia.
4. Genetic Disorder Screening: Depending on family history or ethnic background, screening for genetic disorders may be recommended.
5. Blood Type Testing: Determination of blood types (A, B, AB, O) and Rh factor (positive or negative).
6. Counseling: Discussion about reproductive health, family planning, birth control methods, and prevention of sexually transmitted infections.
7. Vaccination Status Check: Ensuring up-to-date vaccinations for both partners.
8. Other Tests: Depending on specific circumstances, other tests like tuberculosis screening or cancer screenings might be advised.

It's important to note that laws regarding premarital examinations vary by country and state. Some places require certain tests by law while others do not.

Blood is the fluid that circulates in the body of living organisms, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. The main function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. It also transports nutrients, hormones, and other substances to the cells and removes waste products from them. Additionally, blood plays a crucial role in the body's immune system by helping to fight infection and disease.

... a blood donor James Ottaway - Casualty ward doctor Peggy Ann Clifford - Mrs Forsythe, a blood donor Anne Marryott - 2nd nurse ... "The Blood Donor" starred Paul Merton, with Suzy Aitchison as the nurse, the role played by her mother 48 years earlier. It was ... "The Blood Donor" is an episode from the television comedy series Hancock, the final BBC series featuring British comedian Tony ... "If you can't trust a blood donor, who can you trust?") After returning home, Hancock cuts himself on a bread knife and is ...
James Christopher Harrison OAM (born 27 December 1936), also known as the Man with the Golden Arm, is a blood plasma donor from ... As blood plasma, in contrast to blood, can be donated as often as once every two weeks, he was able to reach his 1,000th ... Realizing that the blood had saved his life, he made a pledge to start donating blood himself as soon as he turned 18, the then ... "James Harrison: FTA threatens blood donor system". The Australian. Australia. 19 January 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2010. "James ...
... , 14 June 2017 "World Blood Donor Day 2016: Blood connects us all". World Health Organization. Archived ... and to thank blood donors for their voluntary, life-saving gifts of blood. World Blood Donor Day is one of 11 official global ... "World Blood Donor Day 2012 - Every blood donor is a hero". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 2021-08-18. Retrieved ... "World Blood Donor Day". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 2020-06-14. Retrieved 2020-06-14. "World Blood Donor Day ...
"Making the Most of World Blood Donor Day" (PDF). International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. "World Blood ... adequate and sustainable blood supply. Since then World Blood Donor Day is celebrated on June 14 every year and it is sponsored ... anonymous and non-remunerated blood donors, as well as harmonization of the security standards for blood donation and ... "World Blood Donor Day (14 June)". Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2012. wbdd.org. " ...
"Gay Welsh poet tackles the stigma of 'gay blood' on World Blood Donor Day". Attitude.co.uk. 16 June 2017. Retrieved 30 January ... LGBT rights in the United Kingdom Tainted blood scandal (United Kingdom) Visceral: The Poetry of Blood "Blood donation: Rule ... Gay men blood donor ban to be lifted". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 21 September 2011. "Lifetime ban on gay men donating blood is ... Welsh writer and poet RJ Arkhipov exhibited a poetry series written with his own blood as ink in protest of the MSM blood donor ...
... based on eligibility criteria or A deferred donor subsequently may be found to be eligible as a donor of blood or blood ... would allow Allow blood and plasma collection facilities to retrieve recent dates of a donor's donations of blood or blood ... The donor's social security number or INDS number." The FDA has established rules under how a previously deferred donor may be ... "Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors Deferred Because of Reactive Test Results for ...
Luznik L, Fuchs EJ (2002). "Donor lymphocyte infusions to treat hematologic malignancies in relapse after allogeneic blood or ... Loren AW, Porter DL (2006). "Donor leukocyte infusions after unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation". Current ... to augment an anti-tumor immune response or ensure that the donor stem cells remain engrafted. These donated white blood cells ... Donor lymphocyte infusion is the infusion in which lymphocytes from the original stem cell donor are infused, after the ...
"Blood Donors". The Straits Times. 9 June 1948. Retrieved 8 December 2015. Malay Pioneers of Early Singapore (video and text) ( ... Another initiative that Che Zahara supported was to encourage women to give blood in order to help the Singapore Hospital meet ... demands for blood transfusions. After the Singapore Council of Women (SCW) was founded in 1952, Che Zahara had a "wider network ...
FDA-recommended restrictions on MSM tissue donation are much more strict than for MSM blood donors. As of April 2022,[update] ... "Revised Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission by Blood and Blood Products" (PDF). ... HIV is transferred through infected blood and sexual contact, and in the early 1980s, risk factors were reported to include ... "LGBTQ+ Donors". American Red Cross. Archived from the original on December 16, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2023. " ...
"The Guys Who Trade Your Blood For Profit". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-09-29. "Sperm Donors Australia , Donate Sperm". ... Important biologics include:[citation needed] Whole blood and other blood components Organ transplantation and tissue ... Different from totally synthesized pharmaceuticals, they include vaccines, whole blood, blood components, allergenics, somatic ... distinguishing them from products like blood, blood components, or vaccines, which are usually extracted directly from a ...
"The Sunflower Fund , non-profit organisation , stem cell donors , blood disease". The Sunflower Fund. Retrieved 19 October 2020 ... After four bone marrow biopsies and more than 50 blood transfusions a donor was found; the chances of finding a genetic match ... The Sunflower Fund and Worldwide Bone Marrow Donors. Rachel wrote a book on her experiences, Rachel's Second Chance(e-book). ...
"The Sunflower Fund , non-profit organisation , stem cell donors , blood disease". The Sunflower Fund. Retrieved 27 November ...
"The Screen; Any Blood Donors?". The New York Times. January 29, 1944. Retrieved April 21, 2020. King, Susan (October 22, 2006 ...
... and 53 cord blood banks from 36 countries. These global hematopoietic cells from donors or cord blood units are used to ... and cord blood units across the globe. The global database with volunteer donors was founded in the Netherlands in 1988. Today ... listing more than 38 million stem cell donors and over 800,000 cord blood units. WMDA participants consist of 75 hematopoietic ... World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) is an organization based in Leiden, Netherlands, that coordinates the collection of the ...
In October of the same year, she was hospitalized again and her children had to ask for blood donors to save her life. After ... "Gina y Gabriel Varela piden donadores de sangre para su mamá" [Gina and Gabriel Varela ask for blood donors for their mother]. ... ask for blood donors]. El Universal (in Spanish). 14 October 2020. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 25 ... Gina Romand is hospitalized and her son requested blood donors: "Help me save her," Gabriel Varela asked]. Infobae (in Spanish ...
"Overkill Blood Metal Donors - Band Members". Blood-Metal Donors.de. Retrieved October 27, 2011. "Ex-Overkill Axeman Bobby ...
"Inova Blood Donor Services - Save a Life Today. Give Blood". Inova Blood Donor Services. Retrieved 2020-07-26. "Cascade ... Blood Institute We Are Blood Utah ARUP Blood Services Virginia Inova Blood Donor Services Washington Cascade Regional Blood ... Blood Bank LifeStream Blood Bank Northern California Community Blood Bank San Diego Blood Bank Stanford Blood Center UCLA Blood ... "We Are Blood: Drawn together since 1951". We Are Blood. Retrieved 2020-07-02. "UtahBlood.org , Donate Blood at ARUP Blood ...
"At Blood Donors Party". Los Angeles Times. August 30, 1955. p. 5. Retrieved July 12, 2023 - via newspapers.com. "Football Hall ... He was frequently mentioned in Los Angeles-area newspapers for activities such as organizing blood drives. Schwegler died in ...
... refrigerated and stored donor blood, Fantus originated the term "blood bank". Within a few years, hospital and community blood ... A blood bank is a center where blood gathered as a result of blood donation is stored and preserved for later use in blood ... Several types of blood transfusion exist:[citation needed] Whole blood, which is blood transfused without separation. Red blood ... They used sodium citrate to dilute the blood samples, and after mixing the recipient's and donor's blood in 9:1 and 1:1 parts, ...
"Blood Donors Needed in National Blood Donation Week". 2016-09-07. "UBS looking for blood donors". "Governor urges blood donors ... 10 designated Blood Donation Day". "Governor declares blood donation day". "Blood centers nationwide seek more blood donors". ... Walker Declares September 2016 Alaska Blood Drive & Blood Donor Challenge Month". www.akbizmag.com. Archived from the original ... Uniting with United Blood Services and the American Red Cross, Nevada Blood Donation Day held blood drives across the state, ...
In the Netherlands, the virus was still able to propagate significantly in the population with over 93.4% of blood donors being ... Similar high seroimmunity levels occur in the United Kingdom in blood donors and general surveillance. A preprint found that ... "Antistoffen bij 95% van donors". Sanquin (in Dutch). Retrieved 30 October 2021. "Most Blood Donations Contain COVID-19 ... "Corona-antistoffen bij 93% van donors". Sanquin Netherlands (in Dutch). Retrieved 29 July 2021. " ...
"Blood bank overwhelmed by donors". The Canberra Times. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 10 February ... The Red Cross Blood Service received 6,000 offers of blood donations on the morning of 9 February alone. The Salvation Army ...
... living donors and deceased donors. In Australia the most common living donations not including blood donations are kidneys and ... Australian donor rates are on the rise. Between 2009 and 2013, donor numbers increased by 29%. In 2009 there were 11.4 donors ... People can register to be organ donors or they can register that they wish to not be an organ donor. The register is nationwide ... However most donations result in a positive psychological benefit to both the donor and recipient. If a donor is wanting to ...
"Now I value every day" (PDF). The Donor. National Blood Service. Summer 2008. "Sian Williams". BBC News. 31 January 2002. ... After giving birth to her third son in October 2006 she later disclosed in an interview that she received two litres of blood ...
Blood donations in India are conducted by organisations and hospitals through blood donation camps. Donors can also visit blood ... "World Blood Donor Day 2021: Why there is a dip in blood donation due to Covid-19". Financial Express. 14 June 2021. Archived ... Blood donors and their family members are often given priority in case of emergency or accidents. 32 mobile blood banks were ... "World Blood Donor Day 2016: Blood connects us all". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 12 June 2016. ...
"Blood Safety , Canadian Blood Services". blood.ca. Retrieved 2019-11-26. "Donor questionnaire , Canadian Blood Services". blood ... "Donating blood , Canadian Blood Services". blood.ca. Retrieved 2019-10-31. "Products , Canadian Blood Services". blood.ca. ... "Men who have sex with men , Canadian Blood Services". blood.ca. Retrieved 2019-11-18. "Changes to blood donor guidelines". ... The Canadian Blood Services collects, tests, and manufactures blood and blood products. These blood products are distributed to ...
The Donor. National Blood Service. Winter 2010, page 5. Wallis, Sara (2 July 2015). "Britain Beneath Your Feet: Dallas Campbell ...
"No Blood, Lots of Faith". Retrieved 13 April 2018 - via PressReader. "Blood donors line up to help". twincities.com. 1 August ... It formed a strategic partnership with New York Blood Center (NYBC) in 2016 to give them access to blood donors in the ... Memorial Blood Centers is a blood bank in Minnesota, United States. It is a division of Innovative Blood Resources (IBR), and ... In 2014, Memorial Blood Centers began providing blood type O negative red blood cells to air ambulances. It began screening for ...
"Marumalarchi blood donors save boy's life". The Hindu. 23 February 2006. Archived from the original on 6 September 2006. ... Vaiko started the Marumalarchi Blood Donors' Club. Vaiko has launched many engagement programmes in rural areas with the ...
Biagini P, Touinssi M, Galicher V, de Micco P (2012). "KIs virus and blood donors, France". Emerging Infect. Dis. 18 (8): 1374- ... "Novel DNA sequence isolated from blood donors with high transaminase levels". Hepatology Research. 41 (10): 971-81. doi:10.1111 ...
FDA Proposes End To Lifetime Ban On Gay Blood Donors. December 23, 2014 Men who havent had sex with other men in a year will ... New Blood Donation Rules Would Still Exclude Many Gay Men. Guest. December 24, 2014 The FDA recommends overturning a lifetime ... ban on blood donations by men who have sex with men. Its the right solution, but it still wont help me donate. ... be allowed to donate blood under a proposed change in FDA policy. ... gay blood donors gay blood donors Stories About gay blood ...
FDA updated guidance on blood donor screening to ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply. This revised guidance is intended ... blood collection centers can assess the risk of malaria exposure in potential blood donors. ... The U.S. blood supply is kept as safe as possible from infectious diseases, including malaria, through strict Food and Drug ... Most travelers to an area with malaria are deferred from donating blood for 3 months after their return (previously one year). ...
... a blood donor James Ottaway - Casualty ward doctor Peggy Ann Clifford - Mrs Forsythe, a blood donor Anne Marryott - 2nd nurse ... "The Blood Donor" starred Paul Merton, with Suzy Aitchison as the nurse, the role played by her mother 48 years earlier. It was ... "The Blood Donor" is an episode from the television comedy series Hancock, the final BBC series featuring British comedian Tony ... "If you cant trust a blood donor, who can you trust?") After returning home, Hancock cuts himself on a bread knife and is ...
Now, blood bank officials say it. . s time to change the rule, and the Federal Drug Administration. . s Blood Products ... says Debra Kessler, director of regional services at the New York Blood Center, the nation. . s largest blood bank. ... Safety of the blood supply is the first priority, agrees Doni Gewirtzman of the Lambda Legal Defense Fund, a legal-aid ... 14 -- A federal panel is considering overturning a ban on blood bank donations by gay men -. a rule implemented 15 years ago ...
... centers when reporting acute hepatitis B and C virus infections meeting the CSTE case definition among repeat blood donors. ... infections meeting CSTE acute case definition among repeat blood donors from blood collection centers to public health ... Incident HBV and HCV infections identified during repeat blood donations in which the donor tested first nucleic acid test ... Reporting of incident infections in repeat blood donors is in addition to routine laboratory reporting of HBV and HCV ...
... blood drives, and how you can give blood to help people who need a transfusion. ... Learn about the Mayo Clinic Blood Donor Program hours and locations, ... Because blood can only be stored for a limited time, theres a constant need for regular blood supply from healthy blood donors ... Mayo Clinic depends on blood donors. You can help meet the needs of people in health crises. Donated blood helps meet many ...
Currently, if an individual wants to donate blood, but they happen to be a man who has sex with other men, there is a 12-month ... It is important for us to be constructive, keeping in mind that if the chief goal is protect the nations blood supply, we can ... With this petition, well be respectfully asking the FDA to reconsider their views on who can and cannot donate blood. We want ... The Food and Drug Administration has the power to change the antiquated limitations on donor requirements. ...
... the American Red Cross is experiencing a national blood shortage and making an urgent plea for donors. ... Donors of all blood types are urgently needed, and there is an emergency need for platelet donors and Type O blood donors to ... Donors of all blood types are urgently needed, and there is an emergency need for platelet donors and Type O blood donors. ... Hurricane Idalia further strained the blood supply with blood drive cancellations and reduced blood and platelet donations in ...
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Americas Blood Supply Is Critically Low With Lower Donor Turnout & Recent Hurricanes. ... the countrys blood supply has dipped dangerously, falling nearly 25% in just a month. In some locations, blood drives had to ... Donors can receive a limited-edition shirt through September 18, a coupon for a free haircut at Sport Clips, and an automatic ... "The need for blood is constant." In fact, September is Sickle Cell Awareness month, a disease most affecting those of African ...
... from whole blood and returns the remaining blood components back to the donor. Since platelets must be used within five days of ... January is National Blood Donor Month, which has been celebrated for more than 50 years. During the month, the Red Cross ... The nationwide blood supply always runs low in January, and the designation highlights the dilemma to attract new donors. ... Hes been a regular Red Cross blood donor since 1983. "I tried it once to see what it was like," Wright says of his experience ...
Blood Donor Ambassador Chesterfield County - Moseley. This is an ongoing opportunity located in Moseley, Virginia. ... Blood Donor Ambassadors enhance the experience of donating blood by warmly welcoming and providing customer service to blood ... As a Blood Donor Ambassador, youll be a part of helping to save lives when you greet and engage with donors. ... Our volunteers engage with blood donors by greeting, registering, answering questions, providing information, and supporting ...
... the American Red Cross is still in need of donors of all blood types, especially type O. ... After issuing an emergency call for blood and platelet donations in early July, ... All blood type donors can make an appointment on the Red Cross website or by calling 1-800-RED-CROSS (1-800-733-2767). ... All eligible donors are urged to give now due to a severe blood shortage. ...
Were showing our love to all presenting blood donors Feb. 12-14 with $20 in Amazon.com* Gift Cards redeemable by email. Youll ... There is a SEVERE SHORTAGE of all blood types. Be sure to sign up to give blood at the St. Raphael Catholic Church blood drive ... To schedule an appointment, please visit donors.vitalant.org using blood drive code: 1057 ... Were showing our love to all presenting blood donors Feb. 12-14 with $20 in Amazon.com* Gift Cards redeemable by email. Youll ...
Donors needed for Holiday Blood Drive. 11/28/2016. 11/25/2016. Danielle Anthony-Goodwin Ballard ... Bloodworks NW is encouraging locals to give blood this Saturday during the Bloodworks NW Holiday Blood Drive. ... When accidents happen, Bloodworks needs to supply hospitals with extra blood.. "In order to meet the demand to keep our ... Bloodworks is our local blood bank and the sole provider for hospitals and clinics in Western Washington. ...
Blood transfusions are essential for Jonathan Riley during his treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ... Blood products are necessary for Jonathan Jonathan has regular blood tests to monitor his red blood cells, white blood cells ... Jonathan has already inspired friends to become blood donors. One of them, Angela Turner, had been a blood donor years ago, but ... And she couldnt be more thankful to blood donors. Now Kira Hall and her parents are helping us attract the 100,000 new donors ...
Donors of Blood and Blood Components: Notification of Donor Deferral, Small Entity Compliance Guide Guidance for Industry June ... Donors of Blood and Blood Components: Notification of Donor Deferral, Small Entity Compliance Guide ... a small entity that collects blood or blood components for transfusion or for further manufacturing (blood or blood components ... a small business within the blood industry is an enterprise with $10 million in average annual receipts.1 This guidance is ...
Donor Strong blood drive campaign, to avert regional blood shortage. ... The Donor Strong blood drive will be held from Monday through Sunday at the CBC Dayton Donor Center, 349 South Main Street with ... Blood drives are not mass gatherings. They are controlled events with infection safeguards to protect donors, staff, and blood ... The organization says it needs 300 donors per day to maintain the blood supply, but now faces multiple days with no blood drive ...
Come to give blood Aug. 2021 to be entered to win. Schedule now. ... Not sure where to go to give blood? Find a Drive.. Are you a ... To enter either present to donate blood at an American Red Cross blood donation facility or send an e-mail to customercare@ ... Come to give blood Aug. 1-31, 2021, and automatically be entered for a chance to win one of five tech packages!* You could win: ... Wed like to specially thank donors like you for rolling up a sleeve and providing a lifesaving gift for patients in need. ...
Figure 2 Prevalence of hepatitis B virus-DNA among blood donors with different antibodies to hepatitis B surface levels. Anti- ... Figure 1 Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core among hepatitis B surface antigen negative blood donors in different age ... Occult hepatitis B virus infection among Egyptian blood donors. World J Hepatol 2013; 5(2): 64-73 [PMID: 23646231 DOI: 10.4254/ ... Occult hepatitis B virus infection among Egyptian blood donors. World J Hepatol 2013; 5(2): 64-73 ...
Transfusion-related acute lung injury occurs mainly due to transfusions from female donors with a history of pregnancy and can ... Among female recipients of red blood cell transfusions, mortality rates for an ever-pregnant female donor vs male donor were 74 ... all-cause mortality rates after a red blood cell transfusion from an ever-pregnant female donor vs male donor were 101 vs 80 ... Blood Transfusion From Previously Pregnant Donor Increases Mortality Risk Personalised Printable Document (PDF). Please ...
Blood donors to receive special shirt. Published 11:29 am Saturday, August 10, 2013 ...
"Blood Assurance receives about 15% of our blood from high school student donations," Linda Hisey, Blood Assurances community ... Good Deed: Blood Assurance shares with donor schools. August 12, 2023 at 12:00 p.m. ... These schools held blood drives with Blood Assurance last year. Grant amounts were based on several factors, such as how many ... Blood donation / Getty Images. Just as a new school year started last week, 53 high schools in the tri-state area, including 12 ...
A family in Colorado is advocating for blood marrow transfusions after their 2-year-old was diagnosed with a rare blood ... Once the kit is sent back, the donor is added to the blood stem cell registry. ... Karinas parents took her in for testing, and her platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells were shockingly low. On Jan ... Girl, 2, battles rare blood disorder; family shares importance of bone marrow donors. ...
The Armed Services Blood Program and civilian centers nationwide are low on blood. Make it your new years resolution to donate ... Armed Services Blood Program Be A Donor Topic. Sep 18, 2023 Armed Services Blood Program. The Armed Services Blood Program ... National Blood Donor Month. Every drop counts, every donor matters! Join the league of heroes who save lives with their ... Give the Gift of Life this Summer by Donating Blood. Summer is here, and while blood donors take vacations, go on leave, or go ...
Many blood diseases will defer you from donating blood. Please call the Blood Donor Center to inquire about your specific ... This is to ensure safety for the blood donor and transfusion recipient. Please call the blood donor center if you have ... A female blood donor must have a hemoglobin between 12.5 and 18.4 g/dL; a male donor must have a hemoglobin between 13 and 18.4 ... Male donors must wait at least 3 months after having sex with another man before donating blood. All additional blood donation ...
  • Each year on June 14, the American Red Cross joins blood collection organizations around the world to celebrate World Blood Donor Day, which recognizes the importance of a safe and stable blood supply and the donors who make it possible. (redcrossblood.org)
  • June 14 is World Blood Donor Day. (cdc.gov)
  • On 14 June every year, the global community marks World Blood Donor Day to focus on the gift of life from voluntary unpaid blood donors around the world. (who.int)
  • On World Blood Donor Day today, I urge African governments and political leaders to prioritize the provision of adequate human and financial resources to secure the future of national blood transfusion services. (who.int)
  • The latest was the Donor Achievement Award presented to him during the 2021 World Blood Donor Day for his 100th blood donation, by the Lagos State Blood Transmission Committee. (punchng.com)
  • The theme of the 2012 World Blood Donor Day campaign, "Every blood donor is a hero" focuses on the idea that every one of us can become a hero by giving blood. (who.int)
  • Every year on 14 June, countries around the world celebrate World Blood Donor Day. (who.int)
  • World Blood Donor Day serves to thank these donors for their life-saving gifts of blood and to raise awareness of the universal need for safe blood in the delivery of health care. (who.int)
  • World Blood Donor Day 2020: Is it possible to eat your way to healthier blood? (lu.se)
  • The Faculty of Medicine at Lund University is highlighting the World Blood Donor Day on June 14 by publishing eight articles about research related to blood done at the university. (lu.se)
  • You can also read more about World Blood donor Day on the WHO website . (lu.se)
  • World Blood Donor Day - Message of WHO Regional Director for Africa, Dr Matshidiso Moeti. (who.int)
  • On 14 June every year, the African Region joins the global community to celebrate World Blood Donor Day. (who.int)
  • Each year, a country in the world stands as the official host of the global event of the World Blood Donor Day. (who.int)
  • Based on information about where malaria transmission occurs provided by CDC, blood collection centers can assess the risk of malaria exposure in potential blood donors. (cdc.gov)
  • The questionnaire is used by most U.S. blood centers to screen potential blood donors. (cdc.gov)
  • The ASBP ensures global military medical centers, hospitals and clinics have immediate and easy access to safe and viable blood and blood products . (health.mil)
  • ASBP blood donor centers are located throughout the United States and at locations around the world. (health.mil)
  • They blame inclement weather and a busy travel season, according to The Washington Post that reads: "The Red Cross said "back-to-back" months of climate disasters in parts of the country have made it harder for people to get to donation centers and blood drives even as weather events like flooding and hurricanes can put greater demand on the blood supply. (kxii.com)
  • The Red Cross will continue to socially distance wherever possible at blood drives, donation centers and facilities. (redcrossblood.org)
  • Indian Voluntary blood bank in Chennai is one of the foremost blood transfusion centers which collects blood and conducts camp and promotes blood donation. (linkcentre.com)
  • Routine testing for p24 antigen in settings other than blood and plasma centers as a method for diagnosing HIV infection is discouraged because the estimated average time from detection of p24 antigen to detection of HIV antibody is 6 days, and not all recently infected persons have detectable levels of p24 antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • It is important for us to be constructive, keeping in mind that if the chief goal is protect the nation's blood supply, we can arrive at alternative ways to assess individual risk and work toward a common goal in a manner that is free from discrimination. (ipetitions.com)
  • National Blood Donor Month was established in January 1969 to address blood shortages during the holiday and winter season and to thank donors who have supported the nation's blood supply throughout the year. (health.mil)
  • The nation's blood supply needs your help. (cdc.gov)
  • Think of the nation's blood supply like the gasoline in a car's fuel tank. (cdc.gov)
  • We have implemented enhanced blood drive precautions to ensure the safety of our team, donors and nation's blood supply. (volunteermatch.org)
  • During April 2020, in light of the COVID-19 public health emergency, FDA updated guidance on blood donor screening to ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply. (cdc.gov)
  • The goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) is for all countries to obtain their blood supplies entirely from voluntary unpaid donors by 2020. (who.int)
  • The circumstances and mechanism of death in organ donors from 1998 to 2020 are shown in Figure 2. (medscape.com)
  • Circumstances of clinical grain death in organ donors for 1998-2020. (medscape.com)
  • Between 1998 and 2020, motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) resulted in 36,791 donors, with an average of 1,363±135.5 each year. (medscape.com)
  • By contrast, the contribution of living donors on the overall donor pool with respect to organ/multiorgan transplantation performed in the United States between 1998 and 2020 is represented in Figure 3. (medscape.com)
  • Comparison of donor type to organ/multi-organ transplantation for 1988-2020. (medscape.com)
  • The generosity of blood donors also made it possible for Jonathan to enjoy Christmas 2021 with his granddaughters. (blood.ca)
  • Come to give blood Aug. 1-31, 2021, and automatically be entered for a chance to win one of five tech packages! (redcrossblood.org)
  • To enter either present to donate blood at an American Red Cross blood donation facility or send an e-mail to [email protected] and include the Giveaway name, "2021 Back to School Tech Package Giveaway. (redcrossblood.org)
  • Effective June 22, 2021, donors who have had a splenectomy (spleen removal) will not be eligible to donate platelets on our apheresis instruments (Trima Accel) due to a software change. (childrensnational.org)
  • It's shocking that in 2021 some members of the black community are still obstructed from saving lives by becoming new blood donors. (tht.org.uk)
  • Donating blood, platelets and AB Plasma is now easier than ever. (google.com)
  • You may choose to give whole blood donations, platelets, double red blood cells or plasma. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Dr. Kreuter says donated blood is separated into red blood cells, platelets and plasma, and each has different storage needs. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Donated blood is separated into red blood cells, platelets and plasma and safely stored until it's needed for a medical procedure. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Amid Hurricane Idalia 's impact in the Southeast, the Red Cross was unable to collect more than 700 life-saving units of blood and platelets during an already critical time. (yahoo.com)
  • During the month, the Red Cross recognizes the lifesaving donations of whole blood and platelets from volunteers. (redcross.org)
  • As of this month, Wright has donated almost 108 gallons of platelets during his life, an achievement that's being honored with an induction into the American Red Cross Blood Donor Hall of Fame. (redcross.org)
  • During a platelet donation, blood is collected by a device that separates platelets, along with some plasma, from whole blood and returns the remaining blood components back to the donor. (redcross.org)
  • Since platelets must be used within five days of donation, platelet donors are constantly needed. (redcross.org)
  • To Wright, the pandemic hasn't changed the constant need for blood and platelets. (redcross.org)
  • Come try donating platelets or whole blood. (redcross.org)
  • Jonathan has regular blood tests to monitor his red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets , and he receives transfusions as needed to support chemotherapy. (blood.ca)
  • Karina's parents took her in for testing, and her platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells were shockingly low. (nbc29.com)
  • If you are taking medications with aspirin, you can donate whole blood but must wait at least 48 hours before donating platelets. (childrensnational.org)
  • Nearly 2.5 million people volunteer to give lifesaving blood and platelets every year with the Red Cross. (redcrossblood.org)
  • Eligible donors are encouraged to be part of something big by making an appointment to give blood or platelets this month. (redcrossblood.org)
  • Make an appointment to donate blood and platelets by downloading the free American Red Cross Blood Donor App, visiting RedCrossBlood.org or calling 1-800-RED CROSS (1-800-733-2767). (buckscountyherald.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) changed some of the eligibility criteria for blood donation in 2022. (childrensnational.org)
  • Our Blood Donor Center implemented these new criteria at the end of September 2022. (childrensnational.org)
  • In partnership with the American Red Cross, the city of Santa Clarita has held nine blood drives in 2022, collecting 333 units of blood, which is enough blood to potentially save 999 lives. (signalscv.com)
  • There is no substitute for human blood - all transfusions use blood from a donor. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In fact, September is Sickle Cell Awareness month, a disease most affecting those of African descent who then require ongoing blood transfusions. (yahoo.com)
  • Blood transfusions may be used to treat it. (blood.ca)
  • And blood transfusions have continued to play a role. (blood.ca)
  • Jonathan Riley, left, requires blood transfusions while being treated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (blood.ca)
  • When Jonathan started getting his blood transfusions and I found out we had the same blood type, I told him he could have my blood any time. (blood.ca)
  • Blood transfusion from pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of death among male recipients of transfusions but not among female recipients. (medindia.net)
  • The most common cause of transfusion-related mortality is transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) , which has also been shown to be associated with transfusions from female donors. (medindia.net)
  • Furthermore, TRALI is associated specifically with transfusions from female donors with a history of pregnancy. (medindia.net)
  • Patients who received red blood cell transfusions from a female recipient who was pregnant are at an increased risk of death. (medindia.net)
  • For male recipients of red blood cell transfusions, all-cause mortality rates after a red blood cell transfusion from an ever-pregnant female donor vs male donor were 101 vs 80 deaths per 1,000 person-years. (medindia.net)
  • Among female recipients of red blood cell transfusions, mortality rates for an ever-pregnant female donor vs male donor were 74 vs 62 per 1,000 person-years. (medindia.net)
  • In a news release, the United Kingdom's National Health Services (NHS) announced its intention to test out lab-produced red blood cells transfusions to human volunteers in 2017. (medindia.net)
  • We reached out to our voluntary donors individually, arranged pick up and drop for them, and even forwarding short videos of children who need regular blood transfusions to motivate these people to come out and donate blood. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Since elective surgeries are not happening, and trauma cases have gone down, what we these days are getting is request for blood from people who undergo regular blood transfusions, such as people suffering from thalassemia and other blood disorders, chemotherapy patients, anaemic pregnant women etc. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Subtypes are important when someone has regular transfusions as they need blood that matches their own as closely as possible. (tht.org.uk)
  • Blood donations decline in late spring and early summer - especially during holiday weeks, like Memorial Day and Independence Day - but the need for blood and platelet transfusions doesn't take a summer break. (redcrossblood.org)
  • In the United States, the implementation of antibody testing in 1985 of all donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resulted in a substantial decrease in the transmission of HIV through blood transfusions (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, voluntary unpaid blood donations dropped significantly. (who.int)
  • Today, in 62 countries, national blood supplies are based on 100 % (or more than 99.9%) voluntary unpaid blood donation. (who.int)
  • However, 40 countries still depend on family donors and even paid donors and collect less than 25 % of their blood supplies from voluntary unpaid blood donors. (who.int)
  • Persuade ministries of health to show their appreciation of blood donors and provide adequate resources to move towards 100% voluntary unpaid blood donation. (who.int)
  • An adequate blood supply can only be ensured through regular donations by voluntary and unpaid blood donors. (who.int)
  • The commemoration of World Blood Day presents an opportunity to thank voluntary, unpaid blood donors for their life-saving gifts of blood. (who.int)
  • INDIANAPOLIS - After a summer of decreased donor turnout, the American Red Cross is experiencing a national blood shortage and making an urgent plea for donors. (11alive.com)
  • What's behind the current blood shortage? (yahoo.com)
  • All eligible donors are urged to give now due to a severe blood shortage. (wtkr.com)
  • There is a SEVERE SHORTAGE of all blood types. (edhat.com)
  • Community Blood Center has launched a campaign to help avert a regional blood shortage as the community acts to halt the spread of the coronavirus COVID-19. (daytondailynews.com)
  • Just a week ago, the American Red Cross declared a national blood shortage, and now that shortage is reaching mid-Michigan. (wnem.com)
  • Covid-19 in India: Despite the lockdown, there is no shortage of blood and its components as requirement for trauma cases and elective surgeries have gone down substantially. (hindustantimes.com)
  • The WBDD is being commemorated this year while the phenomenon of blood supplies shortage in hospitals and clinics is increasing out of 80 countries where blood donation rates are less than 10 donations to every 1000 people, 79 are developing countries. (who.int)
  • Both lymphoma and the treatment can prevent normal production of blood in the bone marrow. (blood.ca)
  • COLORADO SPRINGS, Colo. ( KKTV /Gray News) - A young girl in a Colorado community is battling a rare blood disorder, and her parents want others to know how bone marrow donation can save a life. (nbc29.com)
  • But I didn't realize you could also sign up to be a bone marrow donor, too. (nbc29.com)
  • Examples include haemorrhage associated with pregnancy and childbirth, severe anaemia due to malaria and malnutrition, bone marrow and inherited blood disorders, trauma and accidents, as well as man-made and natural disasters. (who.int)
  • It enhances good health and well-being, as the blood cells are reproduced in the bone marrow after blood donation. (punchng.com)
  • eg, bone, bone marrow, and skin grafts) Genetically identical (syngeneic [between monozygotic twins]) donor tissue (isografts) Genetically. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Currently, if an individual wants to donate blood, but they happen to be a man who has sex with other men, there is a 12-month deferral. (ipetitions.com)
  • http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/28/health/fda-gay-blood-ban-policy/index.html As you may or may not know, in December 2015 they changed their original lifelong ban for gay men to this 12-month deferral. (ipetitions.com)
  • Given current scrutiny of the blood donor deferral policy of Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), interpretations between MSM and non-MSM respondents also were compared. (cdc.gov)
  • A more individualised selection criteria would mean that instead of applying a blanket deferral to such groups, individuals at lower risk of infection within these groups would be allowed to donate blood. (blood.co.uk)
  • I made an appointment the other day and did RapidPass but when I arrived at the blood drive they had no record of it. (google.com)
  • Donors of all blood types are urgently needed, and there is an emergency need for platelet donors and Type O blood donors to make an appointment to give now to ensure patients across the country continue to receive critical medical care. (11alive.com)
  • All blood type donors can make an appointment on the Red Cross website or by calling 1-800-RED-CROSS (1-800-733-2767). (wtkr.com)
  • It's been in the back of my mind for a while to make an appointment with Canadian Blood Services," she says. (blood.ca)
  • Donors are asked to schedule an appointment prior to arriving at a drive. (redcrossblood.org)
  • Simply download the American Red Cross Blood Donor App , schedule online , call 1-800-RED CROSS or enable the Blood Donor Skill on any Alexa Echo device to make an appointment or for more information. (redcrossblood.org)
  • The American Red Cross urgently needs blood and platelet donors to make an appointment to give and help ensure patients can get the treatment they need at a moment's notice. (buckscountyherald.com)
  • And don't worry if the next appointment time that fits your schedule isn't for another week or so - patients' need for blood is constant and as we continue to navigate the ever-changing COVID-19 health situation, we will no doubt be continuing to rely on our donors in the coming weeks so that patients have a steady supply of blood available for whenever they need it most. (beth-david.org)
  • Residents may schedule an appointment and view other upcoming blood drives near them by visiting RedCrossBlood.org or calling 1-800-Red Cross. (signalscv.com)
  • Upon signing in for your blood donation appointment, you will review all basic eligibility requirements and answer questions regarding your health history. (signalscv.com)
  • To learn more about donating blood, review the eligibility requirements and to make your appointment, visit RedCrossBlood.org. (signalscv.com)
  • Figure 2 Prevalence of hepatitis B virus-DNA among blood donors with different antibodies to hepatitis B surface levels. (wjgnet.com)
  • Post your blood group requirement request in the app and we will connect you with our registered voluntary blood donors within your locality. (google.com)
  • This honour is based on the progress that the country has made in ensuring the safety and availability of blood and blood components, and increasing the collection of blood from voluntary blood donors. (who.int)
  • The U.S. blood supply is kept as safe as possible from infectious diseases, including malaria, through strict Food and Drug Administration (FDA) screening guidelines for accepting or deferring donors who have been in malaria-endemic areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Agency officials say they have reviewed the policy every few years and that their priority was the safety of the blood supply. (go.com)
  • Safety of the blood supply is the first priority, agrees Doni Gewirtzman of the Lambda Legal Defense Fund, a legal-aid organization for gay people and people with AIDS. (go.com)
  • Because blood can only be stored for a limited time, there's a constant need for regular blood supply from healthy blood donors. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Red Cross says fewer donors than needed gave this summer, drawing down the national blood supply and reducing distributions of some of the most needed blood products in recent weeks. (11alive.com)
  • Hurricane Idalia further strained the blood supply with blood drive cancellations and reduced blood and platelet donations in affected areas. (11alive.com)
  • As such, the country's blood supply has dipped dangerously, falling nearly 25% in just a month. (yahoo.com)
  • The nationwide blood supply always runs low in January, and the designation highlights the dilemma to attract new donors. (redcross.org)
  • When accidents happen, Bloodworks needs to supply hospitals with extra blood. (myballard.com)
  • The organization says it needs 300 donors per day to maintain the blood supply, but now faces multiple days with no blood drive activities due to cancellations. (daytondailynews.com)
  • We remind the public that we also have the responsibility to save lives in hospitals across our region by maintaining a safe and strong blood supply," CEO Jodi Minneman said. (daytondailynews.com)
  • The blood supply is safe, and it is safe to donate. (daytondailynews.com)
  • The Armed Services Blood Program says donations are down and is encouraging volunteers to step up and donate blood to replenish the supply. (health.mil)
  • Blood supply is critically low across the nation," not only for the ASBP, but for civilian organizations as well, said Army Col. Audra Taylor, the ASBP's division chief. (health.mil)
  • The American Red Cross reported that its blood supply dropped nearly 25 percent since early August. (kxii.com)
  • Versiti supplies blood to more than 70 Michigan hospitals, and the center said it needs 3,600 donors every day throughout the state to maintain a good supply of blood. (wnem.com)
  • To help address this critical need and increase the number of donations, the FDA is announcing today that based on recently completed studies and epidemiologic data, we have concluded that the current policies regarding the eligibility of certain donors can be modified without compromising the safety of the blood supply,' the notice said. (upworthy.com)
  • Since the government has declared blood as an essential supply on Thursday, vans for blood collection can move without restriction. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Young, first-time registrants are the key to safeguarding the future blood supply given that they often become lifelong donors. (econsultancy.com)
  • The summer months put incredible stress on the blood supply for patients in our state," said Dr. John Armitage, president and CEO of the OBI. (journalrecord.com)
  • At the same time Health Ministers in Scotland and Wales followed the advice of the NHS Blood and Transplant scientific committees to delete an antiquated restriction that stigmatises Black Britons and is desperately holding back Black blood donors while doing nothing to protect the blood supply. (tht.org.uk)
  • The Government should always be working with the latest science on HIV transmission risk, while continuing to ensure the safety of our blood supply. (tht.org.uk)
  • The Red Cross national blood supply has fallen by about 25% since early August. (redcrossblood.org)
  • All blood types are needed to ensure a reliable supply for patients. (redcrossblood.org)
  • In the African Region, demand regularly outstrips supply, negatively impacting timely access for all patients who need safe and quality-assured blood to save their lives. (who.int)
  • In addition, severe winter weather can cause blood drive cancellations and negatively affect the blood supply. (buckscountyherald.com)
  • In many countries, demand outstrips supply, and blood services face the challenge of making sufficient blood available, while also ensuring its quality and safety. (who.int)
  • Because maintaining a safe blood supply is a public health priority, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended in August 1995 that all donated blood and plasma also be screened for HIV-1 p24 antigen, effective within 3 months of licensure of a test labeled for such use. (cdc.gov)
  • While much attention has been focused on identifying other sources of organs for transplant, such as stem cell-derived organs and xenografts, the mainstay of organ supply comes from deceased donor donation (DDD) (ie, cadaveric donors). (medscape.com)
  • and set up systems for oversight and surveillance across the blood supply and transfusion chain. (who.int)
  • Regular review of effectiveness of donor selection criteria can help reduce TTIs prevalence amongst donors and thus make the blood supply safer. (bvsalud.org)
  • We'd like to specially thank donors like you for rolling up a sleeve and providing a lifesaving gift for patients in need. (redcrossblood.org)
  • addressing concerns of those running blood centres and blood transfusion services, especially regarding concerns with managing safety and adequacy of blood during this period of restrained gatherings and social distancing… it is essential that the supplies of safe blood continue to be maintained at licensed blood centres in the country. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Blood transfusion services in many countries reached out to blood donors through public awareness campaigns, transporting donors from and to their homes, using digital platforms and establishing call centres. (who.int)
  • In the Eastern Mediterranean Region, the WHO Regional office commemorates the event on Monday 11 June 2012 through a blood drive for EMRO staff to donate blood the National Centre for blood transfusion services will run the blood drive that aims at setting an example and roll modeling of donation. (who.int)
  • For this reason, I urge countries to support voluntary blood donations as a key component of achieving universal health coverage, and to ensure a sustainable funding for national blood transfusion services. (who.int)
  • Blood Donor Ambassadors enhance the experience of donating blood by warmly welcoming and providing customer service to blood donors. (volunteermatch.org)
  • Our Blood Donor Ambassadors provide excellent and enthusiastic customer service to enhance the blood donor experience. (volunteermatch.org)
  • Donor Ambassadors check people into blood drives, and they also play an important role in monitoring donors after they've given blood. (volunteermatch.org)
  • Donor Ambassadors do more than hand out juice, cookies, and thanks. (volunteermatch.org)
  • This year's theme, Donating blood is an act of solidarity. (who.int)
  • This year's theme, "Safe blood for all", draws attention to the crucial role that voluntary blood donations play in achieving the goal of universal health coverage. (who.int)
  • You can donate blood or plasma , join the stem cell registry , and register your intent to donate organs and tissues . (blood.ca)
  • Ahead of World Blood Day in June, the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Blood, Tissues and Organs (SaBTO) - which advises UK health departments - recommended changes to the criteria around who can give blood after examining the latest evidence relating to blood donation and sexual behaviour presented by the FAIR (For the Assessment of Individualised Risk) steering group. (tht.org.uk)
  • Rarely, living adult (usually parent-to-child) lobar transplantation is done when deceased-donor organs are unavailable. (msdmanuals.com)
  • December 24, 2014 The FDA recommends overturning a lifetime ban on blood donations by men who have sex with men. (npr.org)
  • Mayo Clinic tries to make it as convenient as possible for you to make life-saving blood donations at its campuses in Jacksonville, Florida, and Rochester, Minnesota. (mayoclinic.org)
  • He says blood donations enable much-needed patient care. (mayoclinic.org)
  • We screened 558 pools (53,234 samples) for HEV pools of plasma from blood donations that were processed RNA. (cdc.gov)
  • The estimated detection rate of blood donors in France and the risk for HEV transmission HEV RNA in plasma donations was 0.045% (95% CI by blood transfusion. (cdc.gov)
  • After issuing an emergency call for blood and platelet donations in early July, the American Red Cross is still in need of donors of all blood types, especially type O. (wtkr.com)
  • Blood donations are being distributed to hospitals faster than they are coming in, according to a Red Cross press release. (wtkr.com)
  • All donations will be tripled by a generous donor! (volunteermatch.org)
  • I was able to keep up with my granddaughters because of blood donations. (blood.ca)
  • Blood Assurance receives about 15% of our blood from high school student donations," Linda Hisey, Blood Assurance's community engagement and development administrator, said in the release. (timesfreepress.com)
  • We know that these students are the future of blood donations, and we hope to educate and inform them of the vital need for blood. (timesfreepress.com)
  • Blood donations are low, in Texoma and across the nation. (kxii.com)
  • SHERMAN, Texas (KXII) - Blood donations are low, in Texoma and across the nation. (kxii.com)
  • They collect and distribute about 40 percent of the country's blood donations. (kxii.com)
  • A phlebotomist at the Texoma Regional Blood Center, Luke Green, said that they get the most blood donations in the fall and spring seasons from the high school and college blood drives. (kxii.com)
  • A local blood center said they are in urgent need of blood donations. (wnem.com)
  • SAGINAW, Mich. (WNEM) - A local blood center said they are in urgent need of blood donations. (wnem.com)
  • While it's common for donations to dip in the summer, mid-Michigan is also seeing a decreasing number of first-time donors. (wnem.com)
  • In the early-to-mid '80s, countries across the globe enacted strict bans on blood donations from men who have sex with men (MSM). (upworthy.com)
  • A 2015 surveillance report by Canadian Blood Services found that the risk of HIV transfusion-transmitted infection was just one in 21.4 million donations. (upworthy.com)
  • France began to lift restrictions on blood donations in 2019 for MSM by allowing them to do so if they remained sexually abstinent for at least four months before donating. (upworthy.com)
  • By and large, we managed to stay afloat due to demand from a particular set of people going down that compensated for the reduced blood donations," says Jain. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Blood banks the world over are dependent on voluntary blood donations from healthy individuals to demand for blood and its components. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Right now, blood product distributions to hospitals are outpacing the number of blood donations coming in. (redcrossblood.org)
  • At a time when health information has never been more important, the Red Cross is screening all blood, platelet and plasma donations from self-identified African American donors for the sickle cell trait. (redcrossblood.org)
  • Blood transfusion is an essential treatment for those with sickle cell disease, and blood donations from individuals of the same race, ethnicity and blood type have a unique ability to help patients fighting sickle cell disease. (redcrossblood.org)
  • Fort Gordon's KMBC is one of 20 military blood collection sites and provides direct support to Eisenhower Army Medical Center and the ASBP with blood donations year-round. (army.mil)
  • Engage with blood donors to make the donation experience fulfilling and set the stage for a long-term commitment to regular blood donations. (volunteermatch.org)
  • Join the effort and save lives, highlights the critical role of voluntary blood donations in saving lives, and enhancing community solidarity and social cohesion. (who.int)
  • A seasonal decline in donations occurs from Thanksgiving to New Year's Day when donors get busy with family gatherings and travel. (buckscountyherald.com)
  • Reports are surfacing on social media that MDA donation stations are starting to turn away donors for lack of space to properly store new donations. (timesofisrael.com)
  • The blood donations worldwide is around 92 million provided annually by unknown heroes who save lives every day, through their voluntary unpaid and regular donations. (who.int)
  • While recognizing the silent and unsung heroes who save lives every day through their blood donations, the theme also strongly encourages more people all over the world to donate blood voluntarily and regularly. (who.int)
  • Blood donations in the United States have been screened for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) since March 1985 and type 2 (HIV-2) since June 1992. (cdc.gov)
  • Donor screening for p24 antigen is expected to reduce the number of otherwise undetected infectious donations by approximately 25% per year. (cdc.gov)
  • To further decrease the risk for transmission of HIV by transfusion, the testing of all blood donations with a combination antibody test for HIV-1 and HIV type-2 (HIV-2) was implemented by June 1992. (cdc.gov)
  • When whole-virus-lysate enzyme immunosorbent assays (EIAs) were used to screen blood donations from 1985 through 1990, the average length of the window period was 45 days (95% confidence interval {CI}=34- 55 days) (3). (cdc.gov)
  • It also serves to raise awareness of the need for regular blood donations to ensure the availability and access to safe, quality assured and affordable blood and blood components for all. (who.int)
  • Additionally, blood products will expire if left on the shelf for too long. (health.mil)
  • Additionally, donors at each location will receive an entry for a chance to win a weekend trip to Arlington, Texas, including four tickets to a Texas Rangers baseball game and $300 gift card. (journalrecord.com)
  • The American Red Cross Blood Donor App puts the power to save lives in the palm of your hand. (google.com)
  • Resolve to make a difference by joining the American Red Cross to collect lifesaving blood for those in need. (volunteermatch.org)
  • The American Red Cross prevents and alleviates human suffering in the face of emergencies by mobilizing the power of volunteers and the generosity of donors. (volunteermatch.org)
  • The American Red Cross, through its strong network of volunteers, donors and partners, is always there in times of need. (volunteermatch.org)
  • With the Centre issuing an order declaring blood services as essential services, the society will start holding blood donation camps by sending mobile blood collection units to various localities across Delhi from Monday. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Apart from the camps, the society will also run a fleet of cars to pick up donors from their homes, take them to the blood donation centre and drop them back home again. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Chennai Blood Centre is one of the leading Blood bank in Chennai to various blood bank in 24x7 has been providing blood products. (linkcentre.com)
  • Donors can quickly locate the blood drives on the website by using the sponsor code "CityofSantaClarita" for the City Hall location or "SportsComplexSC" for The Centre location. (signalscv.com)
  • Climate disasters and lower donor turnout can put these crucial treatments, as well as the needs of other medical patients who rely on the Red Cross, at risk. (yahoo.com)
  • It features eight screening rooms, a 15-bed phlebotomy area for donors, an additional five-bed apheresis section, and state-of-the-art laboratory testing, processing and storage equipment. (army.mil)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) changes blood donor eligibility guidelines periodically. (daytondailynews.com)
  • Am I Eligible to Donate Blood? (childrensnational.org)
  • As a result, some donors who were previously ineligible to donate may now be eligible. (childrensnational.org)
  • It will greatly increase the pool of eligible donors while reducing the stigma surrounding men who have sex with men. (upworthy.com)
  • Individuals who are 17 years of age in most states (16 with parental consent where allowed by state law), weigh at least 110 pounds and are in generally good health may be eligible to donate blood . (redcrossblood.org)
  • Respondents providing inaccurate answers did so by discounting experiences or events that they did not believe make their blood unsafe. (cdc.gov)
  • As these examples illustrate, respondents providing inaccurate answers did so by discounting experiences or events that they did not believe make their blood unsafe. (cdc.gov)
  • If you have a bleeding condition, this may make it unsafe to donate blood due to excessive bleeding. (childrensnational.org)
  • The WBBD aims at encouraging more people to donate blood, and identify the methods that should be followed by Health Systems and Policy makers to make blood transfusion safer and available to all the world's population. (who.int)
  • This year's campaign, which is marked during the COVID-19 pandemic, focuses on the contribution an individual blood donor can make to improve health for others in their community. (who.int)
  • Most low- and middle-income countries in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region struggle to make enough blood available while also ensuring its quality and safety, especially during emergencies. (who.int)
  • Each individual blood donor can make a crucial contribution to help others in their community. (who.int)
  • Through the campaign, we call on all countries in the Region to celebrate and thank individuals who donate blood, and to encourage those who have not yet donated blood to start donating, to make access to safe blood a reality for everyone in need, especially during the pandemic. (who.int)
  • Give blood and make the world a healthier place. (who.int)
  • Once the kit is sent back, the donor is added to the blood stem cell registry. (nbc29.com)
  • The ASBP provides lifesaving blood products to service members, their families, retirees and veterans worldwide. (health.mil)
  • This year, it's all of those things in addition to COVID-19 restrictions and overall health and safety concerns for potential donors and ASBP blood donor center team members. (health.mil)
  • But it's not possible for ASBP to fulfill its mission if not for our donors," Taylor said. (health.mil)
  • As the official provider of blood products to the U.S. armed forces and military community, the ASBP helps ensure mission readiness around the world. (health.mil)
  • KMBC is part of the ASBP, the military's official provider of blood products for service members and their families in both peace and war. (army.mil)
  • The ASBP manages blood requests from the five major combatant commands by sending blood supplies to service members in combat environments. (army.mil)
  • And we are certainly leading the way in the ASBP within the transfusion medicine industry with our collection and distribution of newer blood products. (army.mil)
  • That is why the donor community here at Fort Gordon - like the 15th Regimental Signal Brigade - are vital to the overall success of the ASBP mission," Corley said. (army.mil)
  • This single donor center is a big reason why the ASBP has been able to continually support operations in the Middle East over the past two years. (army.mil)
  • Rutger A. Middelburg, Ph.D., of Sanquin Research, Leiden, the Netherlands, and colleagues conducted a study of first-time transfusion recipients at six major Dutch hospitals to quantify the association between red blood cell transfusion from female donors with and without a history of pregnancy and mortality of red blood cell recipients. (medindia.net)
  • While many Nigerians distance themselves from voluntary blood donation for cultural and religious reasons, Aghoro says he feels great that he is among those whose blood is useful to the recipients or end-users. (punchng.com)
  • UNOS maintains the lists of potential recipients divided by organ and ABO blood type. (medscape.com)
  • Potential recipients can be listed under multiple blood group lists as well as in multiple regions. (medscape.com)
  • Donor and recipients must be size-matched anatomically (by chest x-ray), physiologically (by total lung capacity), or both. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Agbhoro started this rare humanitarian service of voluntary blood donation in 1996 and has already donated his blood to save many people not known to him. (punchng.com)
  • I started donating blood in 1996 and so far, I have donated 102 pints. (punchng.com)
  • Click here to find a blood drive or donation center near you. (11alive.com)
  • The Donor Strong blood drive will be held from Monday through Sunday at the CBC Dayton Donor Center, 349 South Main Street with the choice of a free Kings Island ticket or Cinemark movie ticket for everyone who registers to donate. (daytondailynews.com)
  • The community blood center announced that through its Heroes Grant Program, the schools will share a portion of $52,500, ranging from $500 to $2,000 each, according to a news release. (timesfreepress.com)
  • Please call the Blood Donor Center to inquire about your specific condition. (childrensnational.org)
  • The Texoma Regional Blood Center is welcoming people to donate blood. (kxii.com)
  • Colon-Sosa was one of the first donors at the new Kendrick Memorial Blood Center on Oct. 15. (army.mil)
  • 4 / 4 Show Caption + Hide Caption - A sign marks the street where the new Kendrick Memorial Blood Center can be found. (army.mil)
  • The Fort Gordon community and Armed Services Blood Program celebrated the reopening of Kendrick Memorial Blood Center with a ribbon cutting ceremony Oct. 15. (army.mil)
  • Kelly Tucker, chief of blood services for the Department of Pathology, Eisenhower Army Medical Center, said that "any patient needing blood affiliated with the military - either in a combat zone or at a [medical treatment facility] - will likely get that blood from the Armed Services Blood Program. (army.mil)
  • I know that I personally rely on this donor center often for last-minute blood requests … and they always come through. (army.mil)
  • a cross sectional study was conducted between November 2011 to January 2012 among 594 blood donors in the Regional Blood Transfusion Center Nakuru and Tenwek Mission Hospital . (bvsalud.org)
  • There are no reported cases of coronavirus transmission through blood transfusion. (daytondailynews.com)
  • Blood donors are now asked for the health status, including symptoms of the coronavirus disease (Covid-19), but they are not being tested for it even as the numbers of cases cross 6,500. (hindustantimes.com)
  • All respondents understood that the goal of the questionnaire was to screen out those with blood that could transmit infection. (cdc.gov)
  • It's a cancer that develops in the lymphatic system and causes infection-fighting white blood cells called lymphocytes to multiply in an abnormal way. (blood.ca)
  • They are controlled events with infection safeguards to protect donors, staff, and blood products. (daytondailynews.com)
  • The tests have become so sophisticated they can detect the presence of HIV in blood two to six weeks after infection. (upworthy.com)
  • And at the time we will follow all infection control and social distancing measures such as two couches instead of the earlier practice of four to draw blood. (hindustantimes.com)
  • A similar campaign the previous year generated more than 10,000 blood donor registrations, so that was the figure to beat in 2015. (econsultancy.com)
  • People diagnosed with malaria cannot donate blood for 3 years after treatment, during which time they must have remained free of symptoms of malaria. (cdc.gov)
  • Many people become regular donors as a way of giving back. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In whatever way you give, you'll have the gratitude of the people receiving your life-saving blood donation. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Blood donors help people of all ages, from accident victims to cancer patients to children with severe diseases. (mayoclinic.org)
  • People with any cough or cold symptoms should not come to a blood drive. (daytondailynews.com)
  • In general, most people don't think about blood until it's needed, she added. (health.mil)
  • A lot of people don't even know that blood donation is a thing or they're scared of needles. (kxii.com)
  • We are tying up with various residents' welfare associations to park our blood collection vans near residential localities so that people don't have to travel long distances to donate blood. (hindustantimes.com)
  • During the launch campaign, NHSBT revealed the hashtag #MissingType and encouraged people to lose the As, Os and Bs from their social media accounts and register to donate blood. (econsultancy.com)
  • A blood drive is planned for 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. Saturday at each of their locations: Bass Pro Shops at 200 Bass Pro Dr. and Cabela's at 1200 Memorial Rd. People who roll up sleeves to give blood will receive a limited-edition "All-American" baseball-style T-shirt and Bass Pro folding camp chair. (journalrecord.com)
  • It also acts as a significant barrier for many people who may wish to donate blood, and this comes at the expense of the NHS Blood and Transplant's current push to get more Black people to give blood . (tht.org.uk)
  • The website states: "At the moment we need Black donors because of a rise in demand for some rare blood types that are more common in people of black heritage. (tht.org.uk)
  • Black donors are 10 times more likely - than white people - to have the Ro and B positive blood types urgently needed to treat the 15,000 people in the UK suffering from the blood disorder sickle cell. (tht.org.uk)
  • The Japanese Red Cross Society was criticized for using a large-breasted manga character to encourage young people to donate blood, although others said it was an effective way to promote a good cause. (asahi.com)
  • He gets more thank you cards than I get because people know where the blood came from," Spencer said. (ksla.com)
  • Once again, we, as WHO in the African Region, join the call for more people to become regular blood donors. (who.int)
  • Whenever I donate blood voluntarily, I have a feeling of self-fulfilment, knowing that I have helped to save the lives of people I don't even know and may never meet in my lifetime. (punchng.com)
  • It is important to urge sufficient number of healthy people to donate their blood regularly to insure enough quantities of safe blood. (who.int)
  • This theme strongly encourages more people all over the world to become blood donors and donate blood regularly. (who.int)
  • Figure 1 Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core among hepatitis B surface antigen negative blood donors in different age groups. (wjgnet.com)
  • This report provides PHS guidelines for a) interpreting p24-antigen-assay results, b) counseling and follow-up of blood donors who have positive or indeterminate p24-antigen-test results, and c) using p24-antigen testing in settings other than blood banks. (cdc.gov)
  • CBC is making an urgent plea to the community to continue to donate blood and is urging blood drive sponsors to keep the blood drives they have scheduled. (daytondailynews.com)
  • The Blood Donor" starred Paul Merton, with Suzy Aitchison as the nurse, the role played by her mother 48 years earlier. (wikipedia.org)
  • January is National Blood Donor Month, which has been celebrated for more than 50 years. (redcross.org)
  • One of them, Angela Turner, had been a blood donor years ago, but had gotten out of the habit. (blood.ca)
  • Donors must be at least 17 years of age (16 years old with parental consent: form available at www.givingblood.org or at CBC branch & blood drive locations), weigh a minimum of 110 pounds (you may have to weigh more, depending on your height), and be in good physical health. (daytondailynews.com)
  • For receipt of transfusion from a never-pregnant female donor vs male donor, mortality rates were 78 vs 80 deaths per 1,000 person-years. (medindia.net)
  • Karina Haney is battling an extremely rare blood disorder at just 2 years old. (nbc29.com)
  • Military leaders and medical providers are very grateful for the many military community members who have participated in blood donor programs in recent years. (health.mil)
  • But over the past 40 years, tests that can detect HIV in blood have become much more sophisticated. (upworthy.com)
  • High school students and other donors 18 years of age and younger also have to meet certain height and weight requirements. (redcrossblood.org)
  • UPSHUR COUNTY, Texas (KLTV) - Blitz the dog was a blood donor for years at a veterinarian's clinic in Upshur County. (ksla.com)
  • Kennel Tech Jaclyn Taylor said Blitz was a donor for 12 years and he was comfortable with his job. (ksla.com)
  • Interested blood donors must be at least 16 years of age and should be in good health. (signalscv.com)
  • Despite the general low interest in voluntary blood donation, there are Nigerians who have chosen to be committed blood donors - some for as long as 25 years. (punchng.com)
  • Because of these control measures, malaria transmitted through blood transfusion is very rare in the United States and occurs at a rate of less than 1 per 1 million units of blood transfused. (cdc.gov)
  • Most travelers to an area with malaria are deferred from donating blood for 3 months after their return (previously one year). (cdc.gov)
  • Malaria is also a blood -borne disease which is not currently screened for. (bvsalud.org)
  • Each donor sample was screened, for HIV-1 and HIV-2 , HBV, HCV, syphilis and malaria parasites . (bvsalud.org)
  • When you donate blood regularly, it can also help to reduce blood pressure and reduce the possibility of haemorrhagic stroke because you regulate your blood volume and strengthen your blood vessels. (punchng.com)
  • In a social media campaign that won them an award at the Masters of Marketing last year, NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) took advantage of National Blood Week to try and turn the trend around. (econsultancy.com)
  • The surveys are being carried out by Public Health England (PHE) on behalf of NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT). (blood.co.uk)
  • As an organization "that depends on volunteers and the generosity of the American public," the Red Cross supplies about 40% of the country's blood in times of need. (yahoo.com)
  • The SPH Portal provides a comprehensive one-stop platform for partners and donors to identify gaps in a country's health security capacities, assess opportunities to target their financial and technical resources for the maximum public health benefit, and explore mechanisms for collaboration with countries. (who.int)
  • Hancock arrives at his local hospital to give blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1985 ban declares that any man who has had sex with another man even once since 1977 cannot give blood. (go.com)
  • Blood is the most precious gift that you can give. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Infections in Blood plasma samples (50 µL from each sample) was prepared by using a distributor (Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland) to Donors, France give a final volume of 4.8 mL. (cdc.gov)
  • All who give blood from Sept. 1-18 will receive a limited-edition Red Cross T-shirt, while supplies last. (11alive.com)
  • The organization also announced in August that they're widening the parameters of individuals who can give blood in a "more inclusive, risk-based assessment. (yahoo.com)
  • Be sure to sign up to give blood at the St. Raphael Catholic Church blood drive so you don't miss out on $20 in gift cards! (edhat.com)
  • Bloodworks NW is encouraging locals to give blood this Saturday during the Bloodworks NW Holiday Blood Drive. (myballard.com)
  • Not sure where to go to give blood? (redcrossblood.org)
  • It could give treatment to those with blood-borne illnesses, with certain cancers, for burn victims. (health.mil)
  • Making blood transfusion safer in India was the focus of the symposium on Sunday that had experts from Transfusion Medicine speaking on the event organized by Jeevan Blood Bank, Chennai, India. (medindia.net)
  • You may also volunteer to donate blood and save the lives of others by responding to requests near you. (google.com)
  • It depends on 1,200 volunteer donors a day to provide blood needed by patients in more than 160 hospitals and medical facilities across Oklahoma. (journalrecord.com)
  • The closing of all Ohio schools has also cancelled all scheduled high school blood drives and triggered cancellations by several corporate and business blood drive sponsors. (daytondailynews.com)
  • The total number of blood drive cancellations is more than 50 with a projected loss of more than 2,000 units of blood, and those numbers are expected to rise, according to the CBC. (daytondailynews.com)
  • The Red Cross will also adhere to more stringent face mask requirements per state and/or local guidance, or at the request of blood drive sponsors. (redcrossblood.org)
  • Blood and platelet donors can save time at their next donation by using RapidPass® to complete their pre-donation reading and health history questionnaire online, on the day of their donation, before arriving at the blood drive. (redcrossblood.org)
  • France's new law means there are at least 18 countries in the world that have no blood donor restrictions for MSM including Argentina, Italy, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Hungary and the United Kingdom. (upworthy.com)
  • Situation of blood safety in Africa : 1997. (who.int)
  • Donating blood is a simple, safe way to get involved and help save lives in your community. (cdc.gov)
  • A blood service that gives patients access to safe blood and blood products, in sufficient quantities, is a key component of an effective health system. (who.int)
  • According to the Lagos State Blood Transfusion Committee, the award was in recognition and appreciation of his immense support in ensuring safe blood in Lagos State. (punchng.com)
  • Aghoro, a member of the Nigerian Red Cross, said he enjoys what he does, noting that he is happy to contribute to the safe pool of blood for safe blood transfusion in the community. (punchng.com)
  • The doctors disagreed, saying that vaccinated blood is perfectly safe, and in the end the parents apparently lost custody of their baby simply because they were labeled as "conspiracy theorists" and dared to disagree with the doctors. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • Safe blood and blood products : distance learning materials. (who.int)
  • Safe blood is critical to save millions of lives every year. (who.int)
  • Although the need for safe blood is universal, access remains a privilege of the few. (who.int)
  • The theme of this year's campaign focuses on blood donation and universal access to safe blood transfusion as a means of achieving universal health coverage. (who.int)
  • In the African region, countries have made significant progress to improve the availability and access to safe and quality assured blood and blood components. (who.int)
  • December 23, 2014 Men who haven't had sex with other men in a year will be allowed to donate blood under a proposed change in FDA policy. (npr.org)
  • He spends 72 hours a year in a blood donor chair, as each visit lasts about three hours. (redcross.org)
  • Just as a new school year started last week, 53 high schools in the tri-state area, including 12 in Hamilton County, received some extra money for programs, thanks to Blood Assurance. (timesfreepress.com)
  • These schools held blood drives with Blood Assurance last year. (timesfreepress.com)
  • Grant amounts were based on several factors, such as how many blood drives the school hosted during the year and the number of blood units collected. (timesfreepress.com)
  • In 2015, the U.S. began to allow MSM to donate blood if they were abstinent for one year. (upworthy.com)
  • 20,000 year-on-year (YoY) increase in new donor registrations. (econsultancy.com)
  • Compared to other Regions globally, the African Region sees a disproportionate number of conditions requiring donor blood, impacting as many as seven million patients every year. (who.int)
  • The transfusion of blood and blood products helps save millions of lives every year. (who.int)
  • However, you can donate whole blood (red blood cells and plasma) even if you have recently taken aspirin. (childrensnational.org)
  • The Government is crying out for new blood and plasma donors from members of the black community in England but this antiquated ban is hurtful, discriminatory and perpetuates a stigma about HIV that is just wrong. (tht.org.uk)
  • The Mayo Clinic Blood Donor Program benefits from anyone who is willing to donate - once or on a regular basis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • He's been a regular Red Cross blood donor since 1983. (redcross.org)
  • ANGELA ONWUZOO spoke with some of them about their passion to save lives through regular voluntary blood donation. (punchng.com)
  • Aghoro, since 2005, has been bagged several awards and received many certificates for regular and consistent voluntary blood donation. (punchng.com)
  • Aghoro says beyond saving lives, he has found out that regular blood donation has lots of health benefits for the donor as well. (punchng.com)
  • Regular blood donation equally removes excess iron from the blood for those who are prone to this blood-related problem. (punchng.com)
  • There is a continuous need for regular supplies of blood. (who.int)
  • Donors of all blood types are urgently needed, and there is an emergency need for platelet donors and Type O blood donors. (11alive.com)
  • Did you know a single blood donation can save up to three lives? (mayoclinic.org)
  • As a Blood Donor Ambassador, you'll be a part of helping to save lives when you greet and engage with donors. (volunteermatch.org)
  • The number of new blood donors in the UK has fallen by 40% in the last decade, a worrying statistic for anyone aware of how critical blood transplants are in saving lives. (econsultancy.com)
  • It may not be the same without that big old dog rolling around on the floor near reception, but his blood lives on. (ksla.com)
  • Donating just one unit of blood can save the lives of up to three patients. (who.int)
  • Beaming with smiles, Mr. Benjamin Aghoro says he is still committed to voluntary blood donation, even after having donated his blood to save lives 102 times. (punchng.com)
  • He narrated, "As a blood donor, there have been so many times that I have saved lives. (punchng.com)
  • Mr. Augustine Umude, 59, is another voluntary blood donor who has remained unwavering in donating blood to save lives. (punchng.com)
  • Blood transfusion is critical to achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goal 3.8, which seeks to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. (who.int)
  • If you've been thinking about donating blood, now is a great time to support your community. (yahoo.com)
  • Angela Turner, right, is a friend of Jonathan's, and she has started donating blood in his honour. (blood.ca)
  • Many blood diseases will defer you from donating blood. (childrensnational.org)
  • If you received a blood transfusion in the United States or another country, wait three months before donating blood. (childrensnational.org)
  • If you were exposed to someone else's blood, for example through a needle stick, wait three months before donating blood. (childrensnational.org)
  • The change in rules was announced by public health chief Jérôme Salomon , who said there would be 'no more reference to sexual orientation' in questionnaires prior to donating blood. (upworthy.com)
  • Donors were obtained through systematic sampling. (bvsalud.org)
  • Obviously there must be a health safety framework to be respected, but this must not be based on the sexual orientation of the donor," he added. (upworthy.com)
  • The selection criteria questions are an important safety measure for blood donation, which ask about lifestyle, health and travel. (blood.co.uk)
  • As WHO in the African Region, we provide support to countries at various levels, including resource mobilization for the implementation of national blood transfusion plans, advocacy for integrating blood safety in these plans, and strengthening the legal and regulatory framework for blood safety. (who.int)
  • The Public Health Service (PHS) has recommended a multifaceted approach to blood safety in the United States that includes stringent donor selection practices and the use of screening tests. (cdc.gov)