Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Phytochemicals: A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Bacteria, AnaerobicGram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Anacardiaceae: The sumac plant family in the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and woody vines that have resin ducts in the bark. The sap of many of the species is irritating to the skin.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Peptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Cocci: A group of anaerobic coccoid bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Bacteria, AerobicPhenazinesCoagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Streptococcaceae: A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Candidemia: A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Antisepsis: The destruction of germs causing disease.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.MycosesReagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Staphylococcaceae: Family of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria, in the order Bacillales. Genera include Gemella, Macrococcus, Salinicoccus, and STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Viridans Streptococci: A large heterogeneous group of mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci. They colonize the respiratory tract at birth and generally have a low degree of pathogenicity. This group of species includes STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS; STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. The latter are often beta-hemolytic and commonly produce invasive pyogenic infections including brain and abdominal abscesses.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Micrococcaceae: A family of bacteria ranging from free living and saprophytic to parasitic and pathogenic forms.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptococcaceae: A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Brucella melitensis: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.Salmonella paratyphi A: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Propionibacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Catheter-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.Nucleic Acid Probes: Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.Veillonella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.Fever of Unknown Origin: Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Melioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Amdinocillin: An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.Pectinatus: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ACIDAMINOCOCCACEAE, isolated from spoiled BEER and pitching yeast.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Moraxella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria occurring as rods (subgenus Moraxella) or cocci (subgenus Branhamella). Its organisms are parasitic on the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.Veillonellaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the phylum FIRMICUTES.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Teicoplanin: Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Eikenella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the human mouth and intestine. Organisms of this genus can be opportunistic pathogens.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Staphylococcus haemolyticus: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS found on the skin of humans (and non-human primates), often causing hospital-acquired infections (CROSS INFECTION).Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Burkholderia pseudomallei: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Candidiasis, Invasive: An important nosocomial fungal infection with species of the genus CANDIDA, most frequently CANDIDA ALBICANS. Invasive candidiasis occurs when candidiasis goes beyond a superficial infection and manifests as CANDIDEMIA, deep tissue infection, or disseminated disease with deep organ involvement.Kingella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. Some species are pathogenic for man.Lysostaphin: A 25-kDa peptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans which cleaves a glycine-glcyine bond unique to an inter-peptide cross-bridge of the STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS cell wall. EC 3.4.24.75.Aneurysm, Infected: Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Fusobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus FUSOBACTERIUM.OsteomyelitisMethicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Cellulitis: An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.Paratyphoid Fever: A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.Corynebacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Neisseriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Gardnerella vaginalis: A species in the genus GARDNERELLA previously classified as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from the female genital tract of healthy women, is implicated in the cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Methanomicrobiaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.Megasphaera: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ACIDAMINOCOCCACEAE, found in the RUMEN of SHEEP and CATTLE, and also in humans.Sarcina: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Fusobacterium necrophorum: A species of gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria isolated from the natural cavities of man and other animals and from necrotic lesions, abscesses, and blood.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Endocarditis, Subacute Bacterial: ENDOCARDIUM infection that is usually caused by STREPTOCOCCUS. Subacute infective endocarditis evolves over weeks and months with modest toxicity and rare metastatic infection.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Pediococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Bartonella henselae: A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
Pneumococci are typically gram-positive cocci seen in pairs or chains. When cultured on blood agar plates with added optochin ... when positive identifies the actual cause) in pneumococcal infections. The test was initially validated on urine samples but ... Older detection kits, based on latex agglutination, added little value above Gram staining and were occasionally false-positive ... The organism spreads to the blood stream (where it can cause bacteremia) and is carried to the meninges, joint spaces, bones, ...
The most commonly encountered groupings of bacteria include gram-positive cocci, gram-negative bacilli, atypical bacteria, and ... Definitive diagnosis of the species of bacteria often occurs through culture of blood, sputum, or urine, and can be delayed by ... Alternatively, some species may be identified through a urine or stool test. Clinicians often use a step-wise approach to ... "gram-positive," those that take up the counterstain only are "gram-negative," and those that remain unstained are referred to ...
S. hominis cells are Gram-positive cocci, usually 1.2 to 1.4 μm in diameter. They appear normally in tetrads and sometimes in ... hominis have been isolated from blood and wound cultures in humans. When grown in agar cultures, colonies are usually circular ... Unlike S. epidermidis, S. hominis produces acid from trehalose, so the two tests together serve to identify the species. ... Twenty-three of these were from blood cultures, six from catheters, one from cerebrospinal fluid, one from a wound, and one ...
Anaerobic and microaerophilic cocci and gram-negative and gram-positive anaerobic bacilli are the predominate bacterial ... and meanwhile identifying the causative organism mainly by blood culture studies). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2 or HBOT) is ... Surgical drainage or aspiration is often necessary to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but once the diagnosis is made no ... Pulmonary infections-Aerobic and anaerobic streptococci, anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (e.g. Prevotella, Porphyromonas, ...
... gram-positive cocci, gram-positive bacilli, gram-negative cocci and gram-negative bacilli). Some organisms are best identified ... Specimens that are normally sterile, such as blood, urine or spinal fluid, are cultured under conditions designed to grow all ... called Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The names originate from the reaction of cells to the Gram stain, a long-standing test ... "gram-positive" cell wall stain purple, while the thin "gram-negative" cell wall appears pink. By combining morphology and Gram- ...
Gram-positive cocci with a chaining morphology on microscopic examination. They are leucine aminopeptidase positive, ... Isolates from the S. bovis group are most frequently encountered in blood cultures from patients with colon cancer. However, S ... of Gram-positive isolates were accurately identified by the Vitek2 system (21). Among the most problematic identifications ( ... The viridans streptococci are a large group of commensal streptococcal Gram-positive bacteria species that are either α- ...
It stains Gram negative and has been successfully cultured on chocolate agar and sheep blood agar. No hemolysis has been ... It tests positive for the oxidase test and negative for indole production. No acid is produced in the presence of dextrose, ... With the exceptions of N. elongata and N. weaveri, most members of the genus Neisseria have a cocci or diplococci cellular ... 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis has been used to identify a member of Neisseria from closely related genera, but this method is ...
... which should show typical Gram-positive bacteria, cocci, in clusters. Second, the isolate is cultured on mannitol salt agar, ... With more severe symptoms, blood tests and stool culture may be in order. Diagnostic microbiology laboratories and reference ... Staphylococcus was first identified in 1880 in Aberdeen, Scotland, by surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from a surgical ... Staphylococcus aureus (also known as golden staph) is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the ...
Gram-positive cocci and rod-shaped bacteria are the predominant microorganisms found in the small intestine. However, in the ... Many species in the gut have not been studied outside of their hosts because most cannot be cultured. While there are a small ... Additionally, the liver plays a dominant role in blood glucose homeostasis by maintaining a balance between the uptake and ... Indole-3-propionic acid (IPA)] has previously been identified in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of humans, but its ...
Culture (growing colonies of bacteria in order to isolate and identify them) and gram-stain (staining of bacterial cell walls ... If oxidase positive, gram-negative diplococci are isolated from a culture of a cervical/vaginal swab specimen, then the ... Neisseria species are fastidious Gram-negative cocci that require nutrient supplementation to grow in laboratory cultures. ... all possible mucosal sites should be cultured (e.g., pharynx, cervix, urethra, rectum). Three sets of blood cultures should ...
Gram-positive cocci species, such as streptococci and staphylococci, have historically been responsible for less than 25% of ... The fluid is also cultured to identify bacteria. If the sample is sent in a plain sterile container 40% of samples will ... If the fluid contains bacteria or large numbers of neutrophil granulocytes (>250 cells/µL) (a type of white blood cells), ... with gram-negative bacteria is the most common cause of SBP. The most frequently isolated gram negative bacterial species in ...
Assignment of a strain to the genus Staphylococcus requires it to be a Gram-positive coccus that forms clusters, produces ... an enzyme that causes blood clot formation. Six species are currently recognised as being coagulase-positive: S. aureus, S. ... and techniques for identifying and quantifying S. aureus adhesins in relation to adhesion to biomaterials: review" (PDF). ... such as the National Collection of Type Cultures. Members of the genus Staphylococcus frequently colonize the skin and upper ...
... is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order ... Beta-hemolytic species cause complete rupture of red blood cells. On blood agar, this appears as wide areas clear of blood ... Clostridium perfringens can be identified presumptively with this test. Listeria monocytogenes is also positive on sheep's ... The United Kingdom has chosen to adopt a risk factor-based protocol, rather than the culture-based protocol followed in the US ...
... is a gram-positive, spherical (coccus) bacterium that is about 1 micron in diameter. It does not form spores and it is non- ... Specialized culture media have been developed to better differentiate between MSSA and MRSA and in some cases, it will identify ... Normally, the bacterium must be cultured from blood, urine, sputum, or other body-fluid samples, and in sufficient quantities ... Rapid culture and sensitivity testing and molecular testing identifies carriers and reduces infection rates. MRSA can be ...
As mentioned, S. agalactiae is a Gram-positive coccus with a tendency to form chains, beta-haemolytic, catalase-negative, and ... The culture-based screening approach identifies candidates using lower vaginal and rectal cultures obtained between 35 and 37 ... Inoculating directly the vaginal and rectal swabs or the vaginorectal swab in a plate of an appropriate culture medium (blood ... S. agalactiae is a Gram-positive coccus (spherical bacterium) with a tendency to form chains (streptococcus), beta-haemolytic, ...
... (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS) is a gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) with a ... The culture-based screening approach identifies candidates to receive IAP using lower vaginal and rectal cultures obtained ... enrichment culture). After incubation the enrichment broth is subcultured to blood agar plates and GBS like colonies are ... The culture-based screening approach is followed in most developed countries such as the United States, France, Spain, Belgium ...
"First notification of positive blood cultures: high accuracy of the Gram stain report". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 45 (4 ... gram-positive cocci, in purple) and Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 11775, gram-negative bacilli, in red), the most common Gram ... It cannot identify bacteria to the species level, and for most medical conditions, it should not be used as the sole method of ... Gram-positive bacteria[edit]. Main article: Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria generally have a single membrane ( ...
Assignment of a strain to the genus Staphylococcus requires it to be a Gram-positive coccus that forms clusters, has an ... especially due to the acquisition of mobile genetic elements encoding resistance and virulence genes is helping to identify new ... such as the National Collection of Type Cultures. ... an enzyme that causes blood clot formation. ... Staphylococcus species can be differentiated from other aerobic and facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci by several ...
Classes of bacteria include Gram-positive cocci (e.g., Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) and Gram-negative rods and cocci (e.g ... A study of twenty skin sites on each of ten healthy humans found 205 identified genera in nineteen bacterial phyla, with most ... This acts as a protected blood-rich reservoir with nutrients for anaerobic pathogens. Systemic disease at various sites of the ... However, several studies using culture-independent methods confirmed that large numbers of acid-resistant bacteria belonging to ...
Antibiotic treatment may affect the results of microbiology tests, but a diagnosis may be made on the basis of blood-cultures ... The diagnosis is suspected, when Gram-negative diplococci are seen on Gram stain of a centrifuged sample of CSF; sometimes they ... Among the 13 identified capsular types of N. meningitidis, six (A, B, C, W135, X, and Y) account for most disease cases ... It tests positive for the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. N. meningitidis is a part of the normal nonpathogenic flora in the ...
Prontosil had a relatively broad effect against Gram-positive cocci, but not against enterobacteria. Research was stimulated ... Duchesne observed that E. coli was eliminated by Penicillium glaucum when they were both grown in the same culture. He also ... number of new antibiotics approved for marketing per year had been declining and identified seven antibiotics against the Gram- ... disorders or interpatient variability in oral contraceptive absorption affecting ethinylestradiol serum levels in the blood.[32 ...
... is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes[3] and the order ... Beta-hemolytic species cause complete rupture of red blood cells. On blood agar, this appears as wide areas clear of blood ... Clostridium perfringens can be identified presumptively with this test. Listeria monocytogenes is also positive on sheep's ... The United Kingdom has chosen to adopt a risk factor-based protocol, rather than the culture-based protocol followed in the US ...
Blood culture isolates were initially misidentified because of variable Gram stain results, which led to misdiagnoses and ... Notifying laboratory personnel who unknowingly processed cultures from brucellosis patients is an important preventive measure. ... From the blood culture, gram-positive cocci were isolated and identified as Micrococcus spp. by a commercial laboratory. RMSF ... and blood cultures were collected. The CSF culture was negative. From the blood culture, small, gram-positive bacilli were ...
Pneumococci are typically gram-positive cocci seen in pairs or chains. When cultured on blood agar plates with added optochin ... when positive identifies the actual cause) in pneumococcal infections. The test was initially validated on urine samples but ... Older detection kits, based on latex agglutination, added little value above Gram staining and were occasionally false-positive ... The organism spreads to the blood stream (where it can cause bacteremia) and is carried to the meninges, joint spaces, bones, ...
The blood culture became positive within 48 hours with Gram-positive cocci in pairs and chains that were eventually identified ... such as complete blood counts, urinalysis, urine culture, CSF analysis, CSF culture, and/or chest x-rays (CXR). White blood ... Evaluation of false-positive blood cultures: guidelines for early detection of contaminated cultures in febrile children. ... Table 4 shows that 78% of positive blood cultures grew S pneumoniae. Although there were not enough patients in this study to ...
Gram staining should be the first step in investigating any positive blood culture. Gram positive cocci will almost always be ... Neisseria, Haemophilus, Bacteroides and Gram positive bacilli can also usually be identified from microscopy. If diphtheroids ... Repeat subculture of known positive blood cultures is costly and ineffective in detecting polymicrobial bacteremias. Isolation ... Isolation rates also depend on the volume of blood cultured, average yields from 30 mL of blood being 61% greater than that ...
... gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli). These organisms were subsequently identified as Streptococcus pyogenes and A. ... Blood culture isolates were provisionally identified as Aeromonas spp. by Gram stain, oxidase test, and API 20NE and 20E kits ( ... Three days later, treatment was changed to ceftriaxone and metronidazole because of continuing fever and positive blood culture ... Complete blood count results were unavailable. A. veronii biovar sobria was isolated from blood collected at admission. ...
For this study, consecutive nonduplicate isolates of gram-negative rods and gram-positive cocci isolated and identified from ... performing 5,134 blood cultures, 11,215 urine cultures, 3,434 throat cultures, 4,390 wound cultures, 2,062 respiratory system ... The isolates collected included a total of 300 gram-negative rods and gram-positive cocci. Among the isolates collected, only ... VITEK 2 ID-GNB and ID-GPC cards were used for identification of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. The ...
50of the gram positive cocci were identified to be coagulase negative staphylococci and 21.42were Staphylococcus aureus. There ... Method: We sampled 80 refrigerated donor blood at the blood bank and cultured them for bacteria. The antimicrobial ... Results: 14 blood bags representing 17.5grew isolates of various bacteria. Ten (10) of the 14 isolates were Gram positive cocci ... Only the 10 Gram positive cocci were tested against erythromycin and Cloxacillin; where 70.00were sensitive to cloxacillin and ...
... which contained gram-positive cocci in clusters visible by microscopy. There were no discordant results between the BD GeneOhm ... with samples drawn immediately from 145 consecutive positive blood culture bottles (Bactec 9240; BD Systems) ... of the MRSA isolates identified by culture were correctly identified as MRSA by the BD GeneOhm assay. Genotyping of these by ... including 64/65 culture-proven MRSA isolates) within 2 hours of a positive Gram stain. Incorrect labeling caused two errors, ...
... one blood culture had been obtained that started growing gram-positive cocci in chains ultimately identified as Streptococcus ... identification of a typical organism in two or more separate blood cultures or persistently positive blood cultures; and 2. ... Listernick: In fact, she did have multiple positive blood cultures. Lets go over the physical findings one might see in IE. ... Ellen G. Chadwick, MD, pediatric infectious disease physician: Once she has a positive blood culture, she clearly needs a TTE. ...
Blood culture and CSF culture isolates were both identified as S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus on hospital day 3, with the ... A Gram stain of the CSF exhibited Gram-positive cocci in pairs, and ampicillin was changed to vancomycin therapy. On hospital ... Vancomycin was added on hospital day 1 when Gram stain of the CSF showed Gram-positive cocci in chains and pairs. Gentamicin ... Cefotaxime was restarted on hospital day 2 when the CSF Gram stain revealed Gram-positive cocci in chains and pairs. Magnetic ...
... specific for staphylococci was developed and evaluated with 290 clinical blood culture samples containing Gram-positive cocci ... For the 262 blood cultures identified to the species level with the MicroScan WalkAway system (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, ... The direct multiplex real-time PCR assay of positive blood cultures containing GPCC can provide essential information at the ... USA), the direct real-time PCR assay of positive blood cultures showed very good agreement for the categorization of ...
... cocci identified by the standard method were also investigated by a direct inoculation of culture fluids from positive blood ... Positive blood cultures containing Gram-negative rods and Gram-positive cocci that appeared monomicrobial in the Gram stain ... A total of 74 Gram-positive cocci were identified and tested (. Table 2 Identification of Gram-positive cocci using VITEK® 2 ID ... 233 positive aerobic blood cultures were analysed, including 166 cultures with Gram-negative bacilli and 74 with Gram-positive ...
... facultatively anaerobic bacteria that present a challenge for clinical labs to identify. Its α-he , Health And Medicine ... One set of blood cultures became positive after three days with Gram-positive cocci in chains. The colonies were pinpoint, non- ... and Gram-positive cocci in chains. The Gram-positive cocci had pinpoint growth, no hemolysis, and was PYR-positive. Since it ... His WBC count was significantly elevated and had 2 out of 2 blood cultures positive for Gram-positive cocci in chains. The ...
Blood cultures (two of six sets) grew a Gram positive coccus, identified as S capitis by the Staphylococcus Reference ... Fourteen sets of blood cultures all grew a CoNS which was identified asS capitis. This isolate was susceptible to vancomycin, ... However, within two days the fever resolved, CRP was normal, and blood cultures yielded no bacterial growth. The patient ... Haemoglobin was 144 g/l; white cells 9.1 × 109/l; platelets 296 × 109/l; and C reactive protein (CRP) 329 mg/l. Blood urea and ...
How should I identify the organism?. CoNS are gram-positive cocci that divide in "grape-like" clusters and are catalase- ... If the blood culture obtained from the periphery "turns positive" greater than 2 hours longer than blood obtained from the CVC ... Approximately 1-5% of blood cultures yield contaminants, and 70-80% of blood culture contaminants are CoNS. Hall and Lyman ... There are more than 45 recognized species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). CoNS are gram-positive cocci that divide ...
Three blood specimens for culture were drawn and within seven days all cultures were positive for Gram positive cocci, ... identified as ampicillin and high level gentamicin susceptible E faecalis. A diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made and a ... Blood cultures were positive for E faecalis. An echocardiogram showed aortic valve vegetations, and infective endocarditis was ... which mediates the adhesion of platelets to the subendothelium of damaged blood vessels.13 The reversibility of platelet ...
... of leukocytes had intracellular gram-positive cocci. The quantitative cultures of the BAL specimen grew mucoid, non-hemolytic, ... We have also identified lysine-267 as a methylation/demethylation site and demonstrate that the lysine methylation state of ... Efficacy and toxicity of plerixafor for peripheral blood stem cell mobilization in children with high-risk neuroblastoma. ... Rothia mucilaginosa is a gram-positive coccus of the family Micrococcaceae. R. mucilaginosa is considered a part of the normal ...
... blood cultures drawn the previous day yielded gram-negative bacilli (four of four bottles), gram-positive cocci (three of four ... the clinical laboratory identified the gram-positive cocci as nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS). An autopsy performed ... Y. pestis was isolated from premortem blood cultures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified the clinical isolate as a pgm ... Efforts to identify the slow-growing, gram-negative organism were under way when, on September 16, an ED physician learned that ...
The most commonly encountered groupings of bacteria include gram-positive cocci, gram-negative bacilli, atypical bacteria, and ... Definitive diagnosis of the species of bacteria often occurs through culture of blood, sputum, or urine, and can be delayed by ... Alternatively, some species may be identified through a urine or stool test. Clinicians often use a step-wise approach to ... "gram-positive," those that take up the counterstain only are "gram-negative," and those that remain unstained are referred to ...
Results: Positive culture was recovered in 490 isolates. Gram positive cocci and Gram negative bacilli represented 51% and 39.4 ... Culture media: blood agar plate, routine culture media, and identified culture media. Specimens were inoculated on culture ... Gram positive cocci is still the leading causative organism of bacteria keratitis, and the percentage of Gram positive cocci ... Of the 2220 corneal isolates, mono-bacterial positive culture was recovered in 490 isolates (table 1). Gram positive cocci were ...
... faecalis from other enterococcal species within 3 h directly from blood cultures demonstrating gram-positive cocci in pairs and ... PNA FISH identified E. faecalis 3 days earlier than conventional cultures (1.1 versus 4.1 days; P , 0.001). PNA FISH identified ... The primary outcome assessed was the time from blood culture draw to the implementation of effective antimicrobial therapy ... chains (GPCPC). A quasiexperimental study was performed over two consecutive years beginning in 2005 that identified GPCPC by ...
... to be further identified as E. faecalis (6/8, 75%) and E gallinarum (2/8, 25%). Intraperitoneal injection of healthy Nile ... to be further identified as E. faecalis (6/8, 75%) and E gallinarum (2/8, 25%). Intraperitoneal injection of healthy Nile ... With VRE emerging as a global threat to public health, we aimed to isolate, identify enterococci species from tilapia and their ... With VRE emerging as a global threat to public health, we aimed to isolate, identify enterococci species from tilapia and their ...
A form of eubacteria which are more or less spherical in shape Explanation of Gram-positive cocci ... Looking for Gram-positive cocci? Find out information about Gram-positive cocci. ... Within 24 hours, blood cultures identified gram-positive cocci which were preliminarily reported as alpha Streptococci spp.. ... Cultures were secured, and gram-positive cocci in short chains were noted in all blood culture bottles and in the synovial ...
Three sets of blood cultures and a culture of the PICC tip revealed the growth of Gram-positive cocci arranged in clusters. The ... The organism was identified as Kocuria varians using the MicroScan Walkaway system and K. varians/Kocuria rosea with a 99.7% ... BACKGROUND: Kocuria species are Gram-positive, aerobic cocci, and members of the Micrcoccaceae family that are known to be ... Cerebral oxygenation during umbilical arterial blood sampling in very low birth weight neonates. ...
... yet repeated blood and sputum cultures for bacteria were negative. Empiric vancomycin was added for possible gram-positive ... Four days after admission, clusters of Pneumocystis jiroveci cysts were unexpectedly and repeatedly identified in her sputa ... cocci infections to no avail.. ... Laboratory workup: complete blood count revealed WBC elevation ... Serum CEA 13.4 μg/L (0-5 μg/L), D-dimer 680 ng/mL (, 200 ng/mL). Arterial blood gas analysis (nasal oxygen, 3 L/min): pH 7.42, ...
  • With VRE emerging as a global threat to public health, we aimed to isolate, identify enterococci species from tilapia and their resistance to van -mediated glycopeptide ( van A and van C) as well as the presence of enterococcal surface protein ( esp ) using conventional and molecular methods. (frontiersin.org)
  • 11. The use of a culture medium as defined in one of claims 1 to 10 for detecting and/or distinguishing enterococci. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 12. A method for detecting and/or distinguishing enterococci in a sample, characterized in that it comprises the steps consisting in: a. inoculating a culture medium as defined in one of claims 1 to 10 with said sample of an inoculum derived from the sample, b. detecting the presence of enterococci on said culture medium. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It is frequently possible to obtain a quick identification of Escherichia coli by spinning down a portion of the culture fluid and performing an indole test on the supernate. (documentaryheaven.com)
  • alanine aminotransaminase [ALT]: 160 IU/L). Complete blood count showed severe leukocytosis (white blood cells: 79.2 10 3 /mL) with a left shift (22% band forms) and hemoglobin level and platelet count within normal limits. (cdc.gov)
  • A complete blood count with differential revealed leukocytosis of 31.98 × 103/µL (78.6% neutrophils, 16% bands). (aappublications.org)
  • Les isolats étudiés concernaient 166 bâtonnets à gram négatif et 74 cocci à gram positif prélevés sur des patients hospitalisés. (who.int)
  • Ces résultats suggèrent que les cartes VITEK 2 inoculées à l'aide de liquides prélevés directement dans des flacons d'hémoculture positifs sont adaptées à une identification et à un test de sensibilité rapides des bacilles à gram négatif et des cocci à gram positif. (who.int)
  • Although there were no findings specific for sepsis and her white blood cell count was normal (5,100), the infant's prematurity and history of intrapartum antibiotic exposure led to the initiation of intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin administration on the day of birth (after a blood culture was obtained). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Complete blood count results were unavailable. (cdc.gov)
  • We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. (bvsalud.org)
  • RESULTS: The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results: Changes in the logarithmic value of urinary albumin-creatinine ratio in 327 patients with blood pressure (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusion: Our results confirmed that blood pressure management status after treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors influences the extent of change in urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. (bvsalud.org)
  • Of these 7 patients with positive BG results, 4 (8%) had invasive aspergillosis and 3 (6%) had no invasive fungal disease. (asm.org)
  • A retrospective analysis of blood culture results obtained at MNH from January 2005 to December 2009 was done. (scielo.org.za)
  • Two blood cultures were both positive for K. kristinae , and these results were confirmed using the Vitek 2 system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fast turnaround times development of a simple and sensitive University, Egypt and the management for positive results, defined as definitive near-patient tool for the molecular de- board of the hospital. (who.int)
  • Except for the white blood cell count, none of these test results were available until at least 1 day following admission of the patient. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)