The transfer of blood components such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma from a donor to a recipient or back to the donor. This process differs from the procedures undertaken in PLASMAPHERESIS and types of CYTAPHERESIS; (PLATELETPHERESIS and LEUKAPHERESIS) where, following the removal of plasma or the specific cell components, the remainder is transfused back to the donor.
The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.
Any procedure in which blood is withdrawn from a donor, a portion is separated and retained and the remainder is returned to the donor.
'Blood donors' are individuals who voluntarily and safely donate a specific amount of their own blood, which can be further separated into components, to be used for transfusion purposes or for manufacturing medical products, without receiving remuneration that is intended to reward them financially.
The removal of LEUKOCYTES from BLOOD to reduce BLOOD TRANSFUSION reactions and lower the chance of transmitting VIRUSES. This may be performed by FILTRATION or by CYTAPHERESIS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.

Decreased lactic acidosis and anemia after transfusion of o-raffinose cross-linked and polymerized hemoglobin in severe murine malaria. (1/192)

Severe anemia is a major cause of death in falciparum malaria. Blood transfusion increases survival in humans and in animal models of this disease. Because of logistic constraints and viral contamination of the blood supply, transfusions are frequently not practical in endemic regions. Modified hemoglobin is an effective O2 carrier in hemorrhagic shock. It is free of infectious contamination, may not require refrigeration, and because of its nitric oxide scavenging and small size, may have pharmacologic benefits in malaria. The effects of transfusions of modified hemoglobin in rats with high-grade parasitemia were evaluated. Modified hemoglobin decreased lactic acidosis and corrected anemia as well as transfusions with red blood cells; these findings may correlate with improved survival and suggest a possible proerythropoietic effect. Further study of this novel therapy is warranted.  (+info)

Serious hazards of transfusion (SHOT) initiative: analysis of the first two annual reports. (2/192)

OBJECTIVE: To receive and collate reports of death or major complications of transfusion of blood or components. DESIGN: Haematologists were invited confidentially to report deaths and major complications after blood transfusion during October 1996 to September 1998. SETTING: Hospitals in United Kingdom and Ireland. SUBJECTS: Patients who died or experienced serious complications, as defined below, associated with transfusion of red cells, platelets, fresh frozen plasma, or cryoprecipitate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Death, "wrong" blood transfused to patient, acute and delayed transfusion reactions, transfusion related acute lung injury, transfusion associated graft versus host disease, post-transfusion purpura, and infection transmitted by transfusion. Circumstances relating to these cases and relative frequency of complications. RESULTS: Over 24 months, 366 cases were reported, of which 191 (52%) were "wrong blood to patient" episodes. Analysis of these revealed multiple errors of identification, often beginning when blood was collected from the blood bank. There were 22 deaths from all causes, including three from ABO incompatibility. There were 12 infections: four bacterial (one fatal), seven viral, and one fatal case of malaria. During the second 12 months, 164/424 hospitals (39%) submitted a "nil to report" return. CONCLUSIONS: Transfusion is now extremely safe, but vigilance is needed to ensure correct identification of blood and patient. Staff education should include awareness of ABO incompatibility and bacterial contamination as causes of life threatening reactions to blood.  (+info)

Allogeneic blood stem cell and bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplasia: influence of stem cell source on outcome. (3/192)

We have compared the outcomes of 87 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplasia (MDS) receiving matched sibling transplants with stem cells from peripheral blood (blood cell transplant, BCT) or bone marrow (BMT). In good risk patients (AML in CR1) granulocytes recovered to 0.5 x 10(9)/l a median of 14 days after BCT compared with 19 days after BMT (P < 0.0001). For patients with poor risk disease (AML beyond CR1 and MDS) corresponding figures were 16 vs 26 days (P < 0.0001). Platelet recovery to 20 x 10(9)/l was also faster after BCT (good risk 12 vs 20 days, P < 0.0001; poor risk 17 vs 22 days, P = 0.04). Red cell transfusions were unaffected by cell source, but BCT recipients required less platelet transfusions (good risk 1 vs 5, P = 0.002; poor risk 5 vs 11, P = 0.004). Blood cell transplants resulted in more chronic GVHD (86% vs 48%, P = 0.005) and a significantly higher proportion of recipients with KPS of 80% or less (48% vs 5%, P = 0.004). Disease-free survival at 4 years was 23% for both groups of poor risk patients but outcome in good risk patients was better after BCT (93% vs 62%, P = 0.047) related mainly to less relapse. While disease-free survival may be better after BCT than BMT for AML in CR1, quality of life may be relatively impaired.  (+info)

Use of rituximab and irradiated donor-derived lymphocytes to control Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferation in patients undergoing related haplo-identical stem cell transplantation. (4/192)

Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-LPD) is an uncommon but potentially fatal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We report here two patients who underwent T cell-depleted mismatched-related stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies and required aggressive post-transplant immunosuppression for graft-versus host disease (GVHD). Both patients subsequently developed markedly elevated EBV-DNA titers in association with monoclonal, light chain-restricted B cell populations in the blood. Although immunosuppressive medications were rapidly tapered, neither patient could receive potentially curative therapy with unmanipulated donor-derived lymphocyte infusions (DLI) because of the substantial risk of severe GVHD. Therefore, both patients received repeated courses of rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, in combination with irradiated DLI. This therapeutic strategy resulted in normalization of the elevated EBV-DNA titers and disappearance of the monoclonal B cell populations. Our results suggest that rituximab and possibly irradiated DLI played an important role in controlling early EBV-LPD in these two patients and may be an effective alternative therapeutic strategy for patients who develop EBV-LPD post transplant and are unable to receive unmanipulated DLI.  (+info)

Hematopoietic stem cell allografts using a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen can be safely performed on an outpatient basis: report of four cases. (5/192)

Using a non-myeloablative, immunosuppressive, fludarabine-based conditioning regimen, we performed allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplants totally on an outpatient basis in four patients (two with chronic myelogenous leukemia, one with acute myelogenous leukemia and one with thalassemia major). The median granulocyte recovery time to 0.5 x 109/l was 10 days and the lowest absolute neutrophil count was 0.064 x 109/l; only one patient developed thrombocytopenia below 20 x 109/l. No patient required red blood cell transfusions and one was given a single prophylactic platelet transfusion. All patients are alive at 210-390 (median 285) days and have definite evidence of chimerism; one developed biopsy-proven GVHD on day 50, with a limited cutaneous rash. The procedure is less costly than its counterpart using myeloablative conditioning regimens and may represent another approach in the management of patients requiring an allogeneic stem cell transplant. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 131-133.  (+info)

Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease after a cord blood transplant for Diamond-Blackfan anemia. (6/192)

A 7-year-old boy with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) developed lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) after a cord blood transplant (CBT). 3.1 x 107/kg mononuclear cells from an HLA one-locus mismatched CB were transplanted after conditioning with total body irradiation (8 Gy), cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) and antithymocyte globulin (10 mg/kg). Complete engraftment occurred on day 33 post transplant. Despite the resolution of grade II graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), he died of lymphoma on day 130 post transplant. The tumor was of donor origin, indicating clonal proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells. This is the first report of EBV-LPD after CBT. Post-transplant LPD can be a serious EBV-associated complication of CB grafts. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 209-212.  (+info)

A successful cord blood transplant in a child with second accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia following lymphoid blast crisis. (7/192)

We describe a 5-year-old girl with Ph(+) CML who received a cord blood transplant in a second accelerated phase after a very early lymphoid blast crisis. She was induced into CR by ALL-directed chemotherapy and then maintained with IFN-alpha2b together with weekly rotational chemotherapy. Nineteen months after diagnosis, her mother gave birth to an HLA-compatible sibling, whose cord blood was cryopreserved. The patient's second acceleration occurred 22 months after the CML diagnosis. The subsequent conditioning regimen included busulfan 16 mg/kg, Ara-C 12 g/m2 and melphalan 140 mg/m2. In order to prevent GVHD, CsA alone was administered, 3 mg/kg i.v. per day for a total of 40 days. The total number of nucleated cells infused was 0.8 x 108/kg, with CD34+ cells 1.8 x 106/kg and CFU-GM 1 x 104/kg. Engraftment occurred on day +35. Respiratory distress, severe VOD and grade II acute gastrointestinal GVHD complicated the post-transplant period. No chronic GVHD occurred. The girl is alive 23 months after transplantation with complete donor chimerism; both Ph chromosome and bcr/abl RNA are negative. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 213-215.  (+info)

Successful treatment of relapsed CML after cord blood transplantation with donor leukocyte infusion IL-2 and IFNalpha. (8/192)

A 3-year-old girl with BCR/ABL-positive CML relapsed after related HLA-identical cord blood transplantation. She was treated with three cycles of donor lymphocyte (DLI) infusion from her 15-month-old brother. Interferon alpha was added after the second DLI, whereas a trial of IL-2 had to be discontinued because of increasing immature myeloid cells in the blood smear. No signs of GVHD were observed, but she developed myelosuppression and needed one platelet and one red blood cell transfusion. She achieved a molecular remission after 6 months with transient molecular relapse followed by sustained remission for 15 months. Thus, DLI with or without interferon alpha might prove to be a promising treatment option with tolerable side-effects in relapsed CML after cord blood transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 219-222.  (+info)

A blood component transfusion is the process of transferring a specific component of donated blood into a recipient's bloodstream. Blood components include red blood cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate (a fraction of plasma that contains clotting factors). These components can be separated from whole blood and stored separately to allow for targeted transfusions based on the individual needs of the patient.

For example, a patient who is anemic may only require a red blood cell transfusion, while a patient with severe bleeding may need both red blood cells and plasma to replace lost volume and clotting factors. Platelet transfusions are often used for patients with low platelet counts or platelet dysfunction, and cryoprecipitate is used for patients with factor VIII or fibrinogen deficiencies.

Blood component transfusions must be performed under strict medical supervision to ensure compatibility between the donor and recipient blood types and to monitor for any adverse reactions. Proper handling, storage, and administration of blood components are also critical to ensure their safety and efficacy.

An erythrocyte transfusion, also known as a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, is the process of transferring compatible red blood cells from a donor to a recipient. This procedure is typically performed to increase the recipient's oxygen-carrying capacity, usually in situations where there is significant blood loss, anemia, or impaired red blood cell production.

During the transfusion, the donor's red blood cells are collected, typed, and tested for compatibility with the recipient's blood to minimize the risk of a transfusion reaction. Once compatible units are identified, they are infused into the recipient's circulation through a sterile intravenous (IV) line. The recipient's body will eventually eliminate the donated red blood cells within 100-120 days as part of its normal turnover process.

Erythrocyte transfusions can be lifesaving in various clinical scenarios, such as trauma, surgery, severe anemia due to chronic diseases, and hematologic disorders. However, they should only be used when necessary, as there are potential risks associated with the procedure, including allergic reactions, transmission of infectious diseases, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), and iron overload in cases of multiple transfusions.

A blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which blood or its components are transferred from one individual (donor) to another (recipient) through a vein. The donated blood can be fresh whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, plasma, or cryoprecipitate, depending on the recipient's needs. Blood transfusions are performed to replace lost blood due to severe bleeding, treat anemia, support patients undergoing major surgeries, or manage various medical conditions such as hemophilia, thalassemia, and leukemia. The donated blood must be carefully cross-matched with the recipient's blood type to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

A platelet transfusion is the process of medically administering platelets, which are small blood cells that help your body form clots to stop bleeding. Platelet transfusions are often given to patients with low platelet counts or dysfunctional platelets due to various reasons such as chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and other medical conditions leading to increased consumption or destruction of platelets. This procedure helps to prevent or treat bleeding complications in these patients. It's important to note that platelet transfusions should be given under the supervision of a healthcare professional, taking into account the patient's clinical condition, platelet count, and potential risks associated with transfusion reactions.

A blood bank is a facility that collects, tests, stores, and distributes blood and blood components for transfusion purposes. It is a crucial part of the healthcare system, as it ensures a safe and adequate supply of blood products to meet the needs of patients undergoing various medical procedures or treatments. The term "blood bank" comes from the idea that collected blood is "stored" or "banked" until it is needed for transfusion.

The primary function of a blood bank is to ensure the safety and quality of the blood supply. This involves rigorous screening and testing of donated blood to detect any infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and West Nile virus. Blood banks also perform compatibility tests between donor and recipient blood types to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

Blood banks offer various blood products, including whole blood, red blood cells, platelets, plasma, and cryoprecipitate. These products can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, such as anemia, bleeding disorders, cancer, and trauma. In addition, some blood banks may also provide specialized services, such as apheresis (a procedure that separates specific blood components) and therapeutic phlebotomy (the removal of excess blood).

Blood banks operate under strict regulations and guidelines to ensure the safety and quality of their products and services. These regulations are established by national and international organizations, such as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Blood component removal, also known as blood component therapy or apheresis, is a medical procedure that involves separating and removing specific components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, or plasma, while returning the remaining components back to the donor or patient. This process can be used for therapeutic purposes, such as in the treatment of certain diseases and conditions, or for donation, such as in the collection of blood products for transfusion. The specific method and equipment used to perform blood component removal may vary depending on the intended application and the particular component being removed.

A blood donor is a person who voluntarily gives their own blood or blood components to be used for the benefit of another person in need. The blood donation process involves collecting the donor's blood, testing it for infectious diseases, and then storing it until it is needed by a patient. There are several types of blood donations, including:

1. Whole blood donation: This is the most common type of blood donation, where a donor gives one unit (about 450-500 milliliters) of whole blood. The blood is then separated into its components (red cells, plasma, and platelets) for transfusion to patients with different needs.
2. Double red cell donation: In this type of donation, the donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates two units of red cells from the whole blood. The remaining plasma and platelets are returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 112 days.
3. Platelet donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates platelets from the whole blood. The red cells and plasma are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every seven days, up to 24 times a year.
4. Plasma donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates plasma from the whole blood. The red cells and platelets are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 28 days, up to 13 times a year.

Blood donors must meet certain eligibility criteria, such as being in good health, aged between 18 and 65 (in some countries, the upper age limit may vary), and weighing over 50 kg (110 lbs). Donors are also required to answer medical questionnaires and undergo a mini-physical examination before each donation. The frequency of blood donations varies depending on the type of donation and the donor's health status.

Leukocyte reduction procedures are medical processes that aim to decrease the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) in a unit of blood or blood component, such as red blood cells or platelets. These procedures are often used during transfusions for patients who have heightened reactions to leukocytes, or to lower the risk of complications like febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions, allergic reactions, and transmission of certain infectious agents.

The most common method for leukocyte reduction is filtration, where the blood component passes through a specialized filter that captures and removes the white blood cells. This process can reduce the leukocyte count to less than 1 x 10^6 per unit, which is significantly lower than the typical 5-10 x 10^6 leukocytes per unit found in unprocessed components.

Leukocyte reduction procedures are beneficial for specific patient populations, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation, and help improve overall transfusion safety and efficacy.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

The jugular veins are a pair of large, superficial veins that carry blood from the head and neck to the heart. They are located in the neck and are easily visible when looking at the side of a person's neck. The external jugular vein runs along the surface of the muscles in the neck, while the internal jugular vein runs within the carotid sheath along with the carotid artery and the vagus nerve.

The jugular veins are important in clinical examinations because they can provide information about a person's cardiovascular function and intracranial pressure. For example, distention of the jugular veins may indicate heart failure or increased intracranial pressure, while decreased venous pulsations may suggest a low blood pressure or shock.

It is important to note that medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can also affect the jugular veins and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly.

Blood circulation, also known as cardiovascular circulation, refers to the process by which blood is pumped by the heart and circulated throughout the body through a network of blood vessels, including arteries, veins, and capillaries. This process ensures that oxygen and nutrients are delivered to cells and tissues, while waste products and carbon dioxide are removed.

The circulation of blood can be divided into two main parts: the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation. The pulmonary circulation involves the movement of blood between the heart and the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. The systemic circulation refers to the movement of blood between the heart and the rest of the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues while picking up waste products for removal.

The heart plays a central role in blood circulation, acting as a pump that contracts and relaxes to move blood through the body. The contraction of the heart's left ventricle pushes oxygenated blood into the aorta, which then branches off into smaller arteries that carry blood throughout the body. The blood then flows through capillaries, where it exchanges oxygen and nutrients for waste products and carbon dioxide with surrounding cells and tissues. The deoxygenated blood is then collected in veins, which merge together to form larger vessels that eventually return the blood back to the heart's right atrium. From there, the blood is pumped into the lungs to pick up oxygen and release carbon dioxide, completing the cycle of blood circulation.

Blood volume refers to the total amount of blood present in an individual's circulatory system at any given time. It is the combined volume of both the plasma (the liquid component of blood) and the formed elements (such as red and white blood cells and platelets) in the blood. In a healthy adult human, the average blood volume is approximately 5 liters (or about 1 gallon). However, blood volume can vary depending on several factors, including age, sex, body weight, and overall health status.

Blood volume plays a critical role in maintaining proper cardiovascular function, as it affects blood pressure, heart rate, and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body. Changes in blood volume can have significant impacts on an individual's health and may be associated with various medical conditions, such as dehydration, hemorrhage, heart failure, and liver disease. Accurate measurement of blood volume is essential for diagnosing and managing these conditions, as well as for guiding treatment decisions in clinical settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Portraits as Topic" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to portraits, which are visual representations or images of a person, usually showing the face and shoulders. The term "as Topic" indicates that it is the subject or theme being discussed. Therefore, "Portraits as Topic" generally relates to the study, analysis, or discussion of portraits in various contexts, such as art, psychology, sociology, or history. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, please don't hesitate to ask!

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "history" in medical terms usually refers to the detailed account of a patient's symptoms, illnesses, and treatments received, which is used by healthcare professionals to understand their health status and provide appropriate care. It is not typically associated with a specific century like the 17th century.

If you are asking for information about the medical practices or significant developments in the field of medicine during the 17th century, I would be happy to provide some insight into that. The 17th century was a time of great advancement in medical knowledge and practice, with several key figures and events shaping the course of medical history.

Some notable developments in medicine during the 17th century include:

1. William Harvey's discovery of the circulation of blood (1628): English physician William Harvey published his groundbreaking work "De Motu Cordis" (On the Motion of the Heart and Blood), which described the circulatory system and the role of the heart in pumping blood throughout the body. This discovery fundamentally changed our understanding of human anatomy and physiology.
2. The development of the microscope (1600s): The invention of the microscope allowed scientists to observe structures that were previously invisible to the naked eye, such as cells, bacteria, and other microorganisms. This technology opened up new avenues of research in anatomy, physiology, and pathology, paving the way for modern medical science.
3. The establishment of the Royal Society (1660): The Royal Society, a prominent scientific organization in the UK, was founded during this century to promote scientific inquiry and share knowledge among its members. Many notable scientists and physicians, including Robert Hooke and Christopher Wren, were part of the society and contributed significantly to the advancement of medical science.
4. The Smallpox Vaccination (1796): Although this occurred near the end of the 18th century, the groundwork for Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine was laid during the 17th century. Smallpox was a significant public health issue during this time, and Jenner's development of an effective vaccine marked a major milestone in the history of medicine and public health.
5. The work of Sylvius de le Boe (1614-1672): A Dutch physician and scientist, Sylvius de le Boe made significant contributions to our understanding of human anatomy and physiology. He was the first to describe the circulation of blood in the lungs and identified the role of the liver in metabolism.

These are just a few examples of the many advancements that took place during the 17th century, shaping the course of medical history and laying the foundation for modern medicine.

Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It's primarily spread through contact with contaminated blood, often through sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for most — about 75-85% — it becomes a long-term, chronic infection that can lead to serious health problems like liver damage, liver failure, and even liver cancer. The virus can infect and inflame the liver, causing symptoms like jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, fatigue, and dark urine. Many people with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms, so they might not know they have the infection until they experience complications. There are effective treatments available for hepatitis C, including antiviral medications that can cure the infection in most people. Regular testing is important to diagnose and treat hepatitis C early, before it causes serious health problems.

Hepacivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae. The most well-known member of this genus is Hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. HCV infection can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer.

Hepaciviruses are enveloped viruses with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. They have a small icosahedral capsid and infect a variety of hosts, including humans, non-human primates, horses, and birds. The virus enters the host cell by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface and is then internalized through endocytosis.

HCV has a high degree of genetic diversity and is classified into seven major genotypes and numerous subtypes based on differences in its RNA sequence. This genetic variability can affect the virus's ability to evade the host immune response, making treatment more challenging.

In addition to HCV, other hepaciviruses have been identified in various animal species, including equine hepacivirus (EHCV), rodent hepacivirus (RHV), and bat hepacivirus (BtHepCV). These viruses are being studied to better understand the biology of hepaciviruses and their potential impact on human health.

Chronic Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that lasts for more than six months. This long-term infection can lead to scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), which can cause serious health problems, such as liver failure or liver cancer, in some individuals. The infection is usually asymptomatic until complications arise, but it can be detected through blood tests that identify antibodies to the virus or viral RNA. Chronic hepatitis C is typically managed with antiviral therapy, which can help clear the virus from the body and reduce the risk of liver damage.

Hepatitis C antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Detection of these antibodies in the blood indicates a past or present HCV infection. However, it does not necessarily mean that the person is currently infected, as antibodies can persist for years even after the virus has been cleared from the body. Additional tests are usually needed to confirm whether the infection is still active and to guide treatment decisions.

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. The virus is transmitted through contact with infected blood, semen, and other bodily fluids. It can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby at birth.

Acute hepatitis B infection lasts for a few weeks to several months and often causes no symptoms. However, some people may experience mild to severe flu-like symptoms, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, and fatigue. Most adults with acute hepatitis B recover completely and develop lifelong immunity to the virus.

Chronic hepatitis B infection can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. People with chronic hepatitis B may experience long-term symptoms such as fatigue, joint pain, and depression. They are also at risk for developing liver failure and liver cancer.

Prevention measures include vaccination, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing needles or other drug injection equipment, and covering wounds and skin rashes. There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B, but chronic hepatitis B can be treated with antiviral medications to slow the progression of liver damage.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

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A component laboratory was established in the Central Blood Bank.[citation needed] By 1982, volunteer non-remunerated blood ... "Safe Blood for Saving Mothers". "History of Blood Transfusion Service in Sri Lanka". National Blood Transfusion Service of Sri ... In 1988, the Central Blood Bank's component laboratory facility was extended to some of the larger blood banks (Colombo North ... Mobile blood donation programs were initiated with two mobile blood collection teams. In 1981, the NHSL's blood bank (then ...
Transfusion medicine-blood transfusion. New England Journal of Medicine. 1999 Feb 11;340(6):438-47. (Cited 1068 times, ... Bacterial contamination of blood components. Clinical microbiology reviews. 2005 Jan;18(1):195-204. (Cited 450 times, according ... He subsequently completed a blood banking and transfusion medicine fellowship at the Mayo Clinic. He was a member of the ... Mark Elliot Brecher is a physician specializing in pathology, in particular blood transfusion. In 1982, Brecher earned a MD at ...
... while still maintaining good quality blood components for transfusion. This type of approach to increase blood safety is also ... White blood cells - due to the effective inactivation of white blood cells in donated blood products, riboflavin and UV light ... pathogen reduction performance for transfused blood components". Transfusion. 50 (8): 1827-37. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010. ... Despite measures that are in place in the developed world to ensure the safety of blood products for transfusion, a risk of ...
Irradiated blood components should be issued in the following situations: Intrauterine transfusions Prematurity, low ... host disease and irradiated blood components". Archived from the original on 2006-07-22. Kardon E (8 July 2022). "Transfusion ... Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GvHD) is a rare complication of blood transfusion, in which the ... Prevention includes gamma irradiation of the lymphocyte-containing blood components such as red blood cells, platelets and ...
Fractions from red blood cells: Hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying component of red blood cells. Fractions from white blood cells ... Blood introduced directly into the veins circulates and functions as blood, not as nutrition. Hence, blood transfusion is a ... In 1945, the application of the doctrine on blood was expanded to prohibit blood transfusions of whole blood, whether ... This includes the use of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and blood plasma. Other fractions derived from blood are ...
Most of the components of blood used for transfusions have a short shelf life, and maintaining a constant supply is a ... separation of whole blood components). Donation may be of whole blood, or of specific components directly (apheresis). Blood ... "Transfusion handbook, Summary information for Red Blood Cells". National Blood Transfusion Committee. Archived from the ... Blood bank#History (history of blood donation) Blood donation restrictions on men who have sex with men Blood substitute James ...
... blood components; and plasma derivatives. Whole blood is not commonly used in transfusion medicine. Blood components include: ... Cryoprecipitate Cryosupernatant Fresh frozen plasma PF24 Platelet transfusion Red blood cells The Clinical Use of Blood ... Blood products may also be called blood-based products to differ from blood substitutes, which generally refer to artificially ... A blood product is any therapeutic substance prepared from human blood. This includes whole blood; ...
"Postpartum hemorrhage and transfusion of blood and blood components". Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey. 60 (10): 663-671. doi ... reduced peripartum blood reserves, increased risk for peripartum blood product transfusion, and increased risk for maternal ... Anemia is a condition in which blood has a lower-than-normal amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin. Anemia in pregnancy is a ... A mild form of anemia can be a result of dilution of blood. There is a relatively larger increase in blood plasma compared to ...
... bacterial contamination of the blood component, or another type of transfusion reaction, e.g. acute hemolytic transfusion ... Febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR) is the most common type of transfusion reaction. It is a benign occurrence ... Sharma, RR; Marwaha, N (January 2010). "Leukoreduced blood components: Advantages and strategies for its implementation in ... "Complications of Transfusion: Transfusion Medicine: Merck Manual Professional". Retrieved 2009-02-09. (Articles with short ...
Schlenke, Peter (2014). "Pathogen Inactivation Technologies for Cellular Blood Components: an Update". Transfusion Medicine and ... These two blood components were found to be suitable to treat in ex-vivo isolation with the company's UV-A light process due to ... Blood Transfusion. 11 (3): 343-348. doi:10.2450/2013.0218-12. ISSN 1723-2007. PMC 3729123. PMID 23522896. "New procedure could ... Approves System That May Make Blood Transfusions Safer". The New York Times. December 16, 2014. Archived from the original on ...
In addition, Georgia provided blood components, transfusion materials, and diagnostics. On 4 March, The Georgian Health ...
CPR is licensed by Health Canada for component preparation and testing. Health Canada is considered a leader in blood safety ... This collected plasma cannot be used for direct transfusion into patients. ... Harper Government Adopts New Blood Regulations - Rules further strengthen the safety of Canada's blood supply - Canada News ... Should we pay for blood? The prospect of a for-profit plasma enterprise tests the Canadian system-MACLEAN'S Payment for plasma ...
One cause of morbilliform rash is an allergic reaction to transfused blood/blood components. In such a case, the skin lesions ... 4hours) of transfusion along with pruritus. The condition may even present with other symptoms, such as conjunctival oedema, ... Transfusion may even be continued after, if no further progression is seen. Primary Care Dermatology Module. Nomenclature of ... Management usually relates to the stoppage of transfusion for around 30minutes, until given antihistamines take effect. ...
SANBS collects blood from volunteer unpaid donors and processes that blood into components for transfusion. The donors are ... Whole blood is collected to make packed red blood cells and plasma for transfusion. Plasma and platelets for transfusion are ... The South African National Blood Service (SANBS) is a non-profit organisation that provides human blood for transfusion that ... but SANBS also collects blood on mobile blood drives at community locations such as shopping centres. The blood is then ...
... is any component of blood which is collected from a donor for use in a blood transfusion. Blood transfusions can be used in ... Early blood transfusions consisted of whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such ... Avery P, Morton S, Tucker H, Green L, Weaver A, Davenport R (June 2020). "Whole blood transfusion versus component therapy in ... Blood transfusions may also be used to treat a severe anaemia or thrombocytopenia caused by a blood disease. ...
... impact on platelet and red blood cell component use". Transfusion. 49 (7): 1412-1422. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2009.02151.x. ... in platelet and plasma blood components prepared for transfusion support of patients. Prior to clinical use, amotosalen-treated ... 2010). "An active hemovigilance program characterizing the safety profile of 7,483 transfusions with plasma components prepared ... The technology is currently in routine use in certain European blood centers and has been recently approved in the US. Psoralen ...
... typically red blood cells and a plasma component such as fresh frozen plasma. Platelets for transfusion can also be prepared ... Whole blood has similar risks to a transfusion of red blood cells and must be cross-matched to avoid hemolytic transfusion ... Whole blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and blood plasma. It is best within a day of ... Historically, blood was transfused as whole blood without further processing. Most blood banks now split the whole blood into ...
Asfour M, Narvios A, Lichtiger B (July 2004). "Transfusion of RhD-incompatible blood components in RhD-negative blood marrow ... Blood samples can be obtained through venipuncture of the mother. Since plasma and other components of blood have different ... Flegel WA (April 2007). "The genetics of the Rhesus blood group system". Blood Transfusion = Trasfusione del Sangue. 5 (2): 50- ... can segregate blood contents into multiples layers. Blood plasma can then be isolated from the other components for rhesus ...
"FDA advises testing for Zika virus in all donated blood and blood components in the US". Food and Drug Administration. 26 ... It can also be sexually transmitted and potentially spread by blood transfusions. Infections in pregnant women can spread to ... Like other flaviviruses it could potentially be transmitted by blood transfusion and several affected countries have developed ... Diagnosis is by testing the blood, urine, or saliva for the presence of the virus's RNA when the person is sick, or the blood ...
It also prepares blood components, derivatives, and products for transfusion. This area determines a patient's blood type and ... Blood bank involves the testing of blood specimens in order to provide blood transfusion and related services. Molecular ... Hematology analyzes whole blood specimens to perform full blood counts, and includes the examination of blood films. Other ... Immunohematology, or blood bank determines blood groups, and performs compatibility testing on donor blood and recipients. ...
Some patients require blood and platelet transfusion, or G-CSF injections to boost neutrophil counts. Fludarabine is associated ... For this reason, all patients who have ever received fludarabine should only be given irradiated blood components. Fludarabine ... Blood. 103 (1): 363-365. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-05-1449. PMID 12969985. Sneader W (2005). Drug discovery: a history. New York: ... Being phosphorylated, fludarabine is ionized at physiologic pH and is effectually trapped in blood. This provides some level of ...
In blood banking, the fractions of Whole Blood used for transfusion are also called components. Reference ranges for common ... Pecora, P.; Suraci, C. (1980). "Blood Glycerol: Are there normal values?". IRCS Medical Science. 8 (1): 62-63. Harkness, R. A ... blood tests "Harmonisation of Reference Intervals" (PDF). Pathology Harmony (UK). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 August ...
The single unit policy is helpful in platelet transfusion as there this blood component has a short shelf-life than other ... Transfusion of a single unit also encourages less wastage of blood products and can be cost-effective. Single unit transfusion ... A post transfusion full blood count could be undertaken to assess for the rise in hemoglobin. Transfusion of fresh frozen ... "Single Unit Transfusion Guide , National Blood Authority". Retrieved 2019-03-08. "ISBT: 6. Single unit ...
The phrase "FFP" is sometimes used to refer to any frozen blood plasma product intended for transfusion. PF24 is stored, thawed ... The proposed mechanism of TRALI involves antibodies from donor blood components (predominantly plasma) that are directed ... Much of the donor blood supply is obtained at "remote" blood donation events, such as blood drives at colleges, community ... However, the (male) donor blood can be separated into packed red blood cells and plasma within 24 hours (and usually less).[ ...
Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, which contains dissolved proteins, nutrients, ions, and other soluble components ... The Institute of Transfusion Medicine in Skopje, North Macedonia is a plasma fractionation center in the Balkans. Their ... In whole blood, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are suspended within the plasma. The goal of plasma ... There are several components that make up blood plasma, one of which is the protein albumin. Albumin is a highly water-soluble ...
... red blood cells); or to collect blood for later uses, mainly transfusion either in the donor or in another person. Blood ... to obtain blood for diagnostic purposes; to monitor levels of blood components; to administer therapeutic treatments including ... The culture will determine if there are pathogens in the blood. Normally blood is sterile. When drawing blood from cultures use ... If too much blood is collected, there is the risk of a hospital-induced anemia and the ratio of blood-to-nutrient broth will ...
Early platelet transfusions used a filter to remove white blood cells at the time of transfusion. It takes a trained person ... a component of blood involved in blood clotting. The term specifically refers to the method of collecting the platelets, which ... Since it takes up to 3 liters of whole blood (the amount of a dozen blood bags) to generate a dose of platelets, white blood ... as they can be made from blood donations that are also used for packed red blood cells and plasma components.[citation needed] ...
After the war, Cohn worked to develop systems by which every component of donated blood would be used, so that nothing would be ... which is essential for maintaining the osmotic pressure in the blood vessels, preventing their collapse. Transfusions with ... Starr D. (1998) Blood: An Epic History of Medicine and Commerce, Quill. ISBN 0-688-17649-6 Surgenor DM (2002) Edwin Cohn and ... Cohn became famous for his work on blood fractionation during World War II. In particular, he worked out the techniques for ...
The mare's blood may be used for transfusion if the red blood cells are washed multiple times to remove the serum component ... Transfusion usually consists of 2-4 L of blood, or 1-2 L of packed cells, over the course of 2-4 hours. Blood transfusion is ... Treatment includes fluid support and blood transfusions. The condition is most commonly seen in kittens with type-A blood born ... PCV declines 4-7 days after initial transfusion. Dexamethasone is also sometimes used, but can affect blood glucose regulation ...
Blood Components. When you receive a transfusion, you wont be getting whole blood. Instead, youll receive components of blood ... Blood transfusion using cells donated by healthy volunteers can help replace red cells, platelets and other blood components. ... Blood Transfusion Safety. Every patient and doctor is concerned about blood supply safety. The good news is that the risk of ... Albumin Transfusion. Albumin is the most common human blood protein. Rarely, transfusion of albumin is needed in patients ...
Early transfusions used whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood ... Blood Transfusion Leaflets (NHS Blood and Transplant) Blood Transfusion Leaflets (Welsh Blood Service) Blood Transfusion ... Anemia Arnault Tzanck Blood transfusion in Sri Lanka Blood type (non-human) Xenotransfusion Young blood transfusion, a ... American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) British Blood Transfusion Society (BBTS) International Society of Blood Transfusion ...
Blood Component Transfusion / statistics & numerical data* * Clinical Protocols * Double-Blind Method * Female ... Effect of Low-Dose Supplementation of Arginine Vasopressin on Need for Blood Product Transfusions in Patients With Trauma and ... Importance: Current therapies for traumatic blood loss focus on hemorrhage control and blood volume replacement. Severe ... At 48 hours, patients who received AVP required significantly less blood products (median, 1.4 [IQR, 0.5-2.6] vs 2.9 [IQR, 1.1- ...
Blood transfusion and blood components / by C. Th. Smit Sibinga ; editors : C. C. Heuck, M. M. El-Nageh, L. Poller. by Smit ... Results of search for su:{Blood component transfusion} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Guidelines for blood transfusion (haemotherapy) / compiled by the Scientific Advisory Board of the German Medical Association ... Aide-memoire for national health authorities : safe blood components. by World Health Organization. Dept. of Essential Health ...
Information sheets for blood components and products handled by blood banks and transfustion services in Alberta. ... Transfusion Medicine, Alberta Precision Laboratories. *Blood Inventory in Alberta Hospitals. Blood Components. *Red Blood Cells ... Transfusion of Blood Components and Blood Products Policy *Consent to Treatment / Procedures Policy Information for Medical ... Blood Components & Products Information/Monographs. Blood Components & Products Information/Monographs. ...
... blood component separation, Transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) testing, storage and issue of blood products. DTM also ... bacterial testing of blood components for BMT patients. The routine Quality control of all blood products are performed as per ... The Department of Transfusion Medicine (DTM) continually strives to maintain high quality standards in provision of safe blood ... Therefore, efforts have been put to increase indoor and outdoor voluntary blood donation and the goal of 100% voluntary blood ...
Blood Transfusion - 6 2020 (November-December)/. *Pathogen reduction of blood bank components: a matter of swings and ... Pathogen reduction of blood bank components: a matter of swings and roundabouts. Authors. Albert Farrugia , Vincenzo de Angelis ... Penetration of the blood supply by infectious agents transmissible by blood had severe consequences on those patients who ...
Transfusions may be in the form of whole blood (WB) or blood components (BC). Blood components include red blood cells, ... The difference in potential harms between whole blood and component blood transfusion in major bleeding: a rapid systematic ... Benefits and Harms of Whole Blood versus Component Blood Transfusions Remain Unclear. November 9, 2021. ... However, storing WB solely for these patients could result in increased blood wastage. Few studies have examined whether WB is ...
Blood Component Transfusion. ACI Training & Consultancy. This training course contains information on all aspects of blood ...
Provisions relating to the quality and safety requirements of blood and blood components (no. 15A09709). GU general series no. ... In conclusion, bacterial contamination of donated blood and blood components still represents a major public health issue ... transfusion treatment with concentrated red blood cells, and empirical antibiotic therapy with piperacillin-tazobactam. Blood ... Bacterial contamination of blood components. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18:195-204. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Allogeneic blood transfusion is a form of temporary transplantation. This procedure introduces a multitude of foreign antigens ... Allogeneic blood transfusion is an essential component of medical care. It is estimated that nearly 24 million units of blood ... Blood collection and transfusion in the United States in 2001. Transfusion. 2007 Mar. 47 (3):385-94. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full ... Alloimmunization after blood transfusion in patients with hematologic and oncologic diseases. Transfusion. 1999 Jul. 39 (7):763 ...
Commentary on "Whole Blood Is Superior to Component Transfusion for Injured Children: A Propensity Matched Analysis". Annals of ... Commentary on "Whole Blood Is Superior to Component Transfusion for Injured Children: A Propensity Matched Analysis". / Wolf, ... Commentary on "Whole Blood Is Superior to Component Transfusion for Injured Children: A Propensity Matched Analysis". ... Wolf, S. E. (2020). Commentary on "Whole Blood Is Superior to Component Transfusion for Injured Children: A Propensity Matched ...
Traceability of transfused and non-transfused blood and blood components. *Laboratory serological investigation of transfusion ... 2. Blood Transfusion. The blood transfusion laboratory provides the following services:. *A comprehensive blood transfusion ... The Pathology Laboratory, Cavan General Hospital provides comprehensive laboratory services including blood transfusion, ...
people who received a transfusion of blood or blood components before July 1992 ... Prior recipients of transfusions or organ transplants, including: *people who received clotting factor concentrates produced ... people who were notified that they received blood from a donor who later tested positive for HCV infection ...
... ordered by Province. ... Request for Pre-transfusion Testing (PDF). (Electronic Fillable Form). Request for Blood Components (PDF). (Electronic Fillable ... Request for Pre-transfusion Testing (PDF). (Electronic Fillable Form). Request for Blood Components (PDF). (Electronic Fillable ... Request for Pre-transfusion Testing (PDF). (Electronic Fillable Form). Request for Blood Components (PDF). (Electronic Fillable ...
Challenges encountered by blood transfusion services in Europe to supply adequate blood components in 2023 Veronique Deneys, ... International Society for Blood Transfusion international survey on blood product wastage in low- and middle-income countries. ... International Society for Blood Transfusion international survey on blood product wastage in low- and middle-income countries ... The BLOODSAFE program: Building the future of access to safe blood in Sub-Saharan Africa Meghan Delaney, Lucy Asamoa Akuoko, ...
A myriad of agents can potentially be transmitted through blood transfusions, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. ... Blood transfusion has been and continues to be a possible source of disease transmission. ... Kunishima S, Inoue C, Kamiya T, Ozawa K. Presence of Propionibacterium acnes in blood components. Transfusion. 2001 Sep. 41(9): ... Both dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) pose a risk to the safe transfusion of blood components, including ...
... treatment inactivates high levels of Zika virus in red blood cell components. Transfusion 2017, 57, 779-789. [Google Scholar] [ ... Blood 2009, 113, 4656-4666. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]. *Schatz, J.H.; Oricchio, E.; Wolfe, A.L.; Jiang, M.; Linkov, ... Masoudi, S.; Ploen, D.; Kunz, K.; Hildt, E. The adjuvant component α-tocopherol triggers via modulation of Nrf2 the expression ...
Outline the structure, function, and regulation of the Canadian blood system.. *List the common indications for blood component ... Blood Transfusion: Overview of Blood Transfusion. MDcme (on behalf of its consortium partners) protects the privacy of personal ... A transfusion is considered a liquid transplant.. In this module, the principles of transfusion will be addressed through the ... Recognize available alternatives to transfusion.. *Describe the physician responsibilities for transfusion. (inc. informed ...
Categories: Blood Component Transfusion Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
It covers the general principles of blood transfusion, but does not make recommendations relating to specific conditions ... This guideline covers the assessment for and management of blood transfusions in adults, young people and children over 1 year ... operative blood loss. Important outcomes should include the use of red blood cells and other blood components, clinical ... 1. Red blood cell transfusion thresholds for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. What is the clinical and cost ...
She said that Blood Transfusion is important component of health system. Moreover, while Pakistan and other Southeast Asian ... Talking to media after inaugurating Blood Transfusion Authority office here Friday, Dr Yasmin Rashid said that after Delta, a ... She said that 549 blood banks are registered and efforts are underway to raise their standard to international level. ...
BloodSafe has developed a set of resources to provide clinicians with information on recommended transfusion practices. ... Pocket guide to consent for transfusion (PDF 46KB). Prescribing of blood and blood components. Quick reference guides on red ... Administration of blood and blood components. *Sunrise EMR How-to guide - to assist with double independent checking and ... The Blood Book: Australian Blood Administration Handbook - A bedside resource to assist with correct transfusion administration ...
2019) Association of blood component ratios with 24-hour mortality in injured children receiving massive transfusion. Critical ... 2019) Blood utilization in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of current data. Transfusion. 59(7):2446-2454. doi: 1111/trf ... Butler EK, McCullough J. (2018) Pathogen reduction combined with rapid diagnostic tests to reduce the risk of transfusion- ...
A brief overview on the key components involved in successful In vitro diagnostic (IVD) assay development. Learn more on IVD ... Blood Typing. An overview on blood typing, the importance of blood grouping tests for safe blood transfusion & organ transplant ... Learn more about the reagents, devices and components involved in blood typing. ... In vitro diagnostics (IVD) involves testing samples, such as tissue or blood, to detect diseases or other conditions using ...
Purchase Transfusion Medicine and Hemostasis - 1st Edition. E-Book. ISBN 9780080922300 ... transfusion-medicine chapters examine the components for transfusion, pre-transfusion immunohematology testing, blood groups, ... 1 Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine - the Field, the Discipline and the Industry 2 Brief History of Blood Transfusion 3 ... 5 The Blood Donor, Donation Process and Technical Aspects of Blood Collection 6 Apheresis Blood Component Collections 7 ...
... transfusion of infected blood or its components; transplantation of infected tissues or organs; or breastfeeding. Infants may ...
  • Blood transfusion using cells donated by healthy volunteers can help replace red cells, platelets and other blood components. (
  • Early transfusions used whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, platelets, and other clotting factors. (
  • Platelets are involved in blood clotting, preventing the body from bleeding. (
  • Genomic analysis revealed that L. monocytogenes isolates from the donor blood unit, the transfused platelets, and the patient's blood culture were genetically closely related, confirming transfusion transmission. (
  • The estimated residual risk of contamination of blood products with bacterial agents is 1 in 5,000 for platelets and 1 in 30,000 for red blood cells. (
  • Red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), cryoprecipitated anti-hemophilic factor (AHF), and granulocytes are some of the components separated using the process. (
  • This can be secondary to cancer, severely low platelet counts (platelets are the blood cells that aid in blood clotting), or severe inflammatory disorders of the gut. (
  • Blood establishments may continue collecting and preparing platelets and plasma if an FDA-approved, pathogen-reduction device is used. (
  • The source of blood to be transfused can either be the potential recipient (autologous transfusion), or someone else (allogeneic or homologous transfusion). (
  • Refractoriness to granulocyte transfusion involves either HLA or granulocyte-specific antibodies and is similar to platelet refractoriness, except that refractoriness to granulocyte transfusion results in the patient failing to respond clinically to the infused granulocytes. (
  • Hemolytic transfusion reactions, posttransfusion purpura, febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, and transfusion-related acute lung injury are discussed in Transfusion Reactions . (
  • transfusion-medicine chapters examine the components for transfusion, pre-transfusion immunohematology testing, blood groups, blood products and their modifications, approaches to transfusion therapy in specific clinical settings, and transfusion reactions and complications. (
  • Blood preparation also involves the modification of components using irradiation, leukoreduction, and pathogen inactivation to improve the quality during storage and reduce adverse effects, such as allergic reactions. (
  • As a result, they can have severe, even life-threatening reactions to transfusions of blood and blood products. (
  • Allergic reactions The most common complications of transfusion are Febrile nonhemolytic reactions Chill-rigor reactions The most serious complications, which have very high mortality rates, are Acute hemolytic. (
  • Because fever and chills also herald a severe hemolytic transfusion reaction, all febrile reactions must be investigated as for acute hemolytic transfusion reaction, as with any transfusion reaction. (
  • A recipient who is immunocompetent may mount an immune response to the donor antigens (i.e., alloimmunization), resulting in various clinical consequences, depending on the blood cells and specific antigens involved. (
  • What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of restrictive compared with liberal red blood cell thresholds and targets for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease? (
  • What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of an electronic decision support system compared with current practice in reducing inappropriate blood transfusions, overall rates of blood transfusion and mortality? (
  • An evaluation of the clinical and cost effectiveness of electronic decision support systems for blood transfusion is needed. (
  • For patients having cardiac surgery with a significant risk of post‑operative blood loss, is post‑operative cell salvage and reinfusion clinically and cost effective in reducing red blood cell use and improving clinical outcomes, compared with existing practice? (
  • Important outcomes should include the use of red blood cells and other blood components, clinical outcomes and quality of life. (
  • This study showed that a high proportion of fresh frozen plasma transfusions had unproven clinical benefit. (
  • The Part 1 examination will cover the Stage 1 curriculum for the Transfusion Medicine HSST curriculum for Clinical Scientists. (
  • The Part 2 FRCPath Examination in Transfusion Science is the final summative assessment of clinical, scientific and laboratory skills, and may be taken once a candidate has successfully completed the Part 1 examination and acquired additional significant experience of practice as a clinical scientist. (
  • The standard required to pass this examination is that which would be expected of a Consultant Clinical Scientist in Transfusion Science, capable of safe independent practice. (
  • All written papers in the Part 2 Examination are marked by members of the Transfusion Clinical Science Examiners Panel. (
  • She completed a general surgery internship at Georgetown University, an anatomic & clinical pathology residency at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and a transfusion medicine fellowship at Harvard Medical School. (
  • 2002. Effective clinical transfusion practice requires that whole blood be separated into its components. (
  • These conditions may be suggested by the clinical presentation, laboratory test values and peripheral blood smear, or by failure of the anemia to respond to iron supplements or nutrient replacement. (
  • About 20 people die yearly in the US as a result of acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. (
  • ABO incompatibility is the most common cause of acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. (
  • Allogeneic blood transfusion is an essential component of medical care. (
  • The adverse reaction was reported to the Italian National Blood Centre on June 20, 2022. (
  • The National Centre for Blood Transfusion (NCBT) has unveiled high precision technology capable of separating blood components during donation. (
  • On June 14, 2022, the patient underwent a transfusion of buffy coat-pooled platelet derived from 5 different donors. (
  • The safety of blood transfusion as it relates to frequency of blood donation and malaria occurrence on the part of donors is an aspect that has not been properly investigated hence this study. (
  • This study was conducted to assess the frequency of blood donation and occurrence of malaria among blood donors at OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. (
  • One hundred and thirty-three consenting blood donors aged between 18-50 years were recruited for the study. (
  • Malaria is highly prevalent among blood donors and occurs more in recurring blood donors than first time donors. (
  • The commercial blood donors have malaria burden in Africa, while 97 % of the total continued to increase in Nigeria due to the financial population (approximately 173 million) is at risk of 8 gratification and the deficit in blood supply. (
  • the number of donors who are willing to donate regularly, seasonal factors affecting donation e.g. public holidays, the blood services ability to adequately predict the number of units of blood required throughout the year and to ensure that they do not overstock and therefore increase wastage, the clinicians' awareness of appropriate blood ordering and transfusion and the hospital laboratories ability to ensure sufficient stock yet have minimal wastage. (
  • The guidance also recommends blood establishments update donor education materials with information about Zika virus signs and symptoms and ask potentially affected donors to refrain from giving blood. (
  • The hospital's blood supply is obtained from volunteer donors who are extensively screened and tested for infectious diseases to minimize transfusion risks. (
  • ALL (also called acute lymphocytic leukemia) is an aggressive type of leukemia characterized by the presence of too many lymphoblasts or lymphocytes in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. (
  • Cells destined to become immune cells, like all other blood cells, are produced in the bone marrow, the soft tissue in the hollow shafts of long bones. (
  • This enables management and investigation of any suspected transfusion related disease transmission or transfusion reaction. (
  • After transfusion of ≈150 mL of platelet products, the woman experienced chills, nausea, and fever of 37.8°C. Treatment was stopped and hydrocortisone was administered, based on the diagnosis of transfusion reaction. (
  • Early recognition of symptoms suggestive of a transfusion reaction and prompt reporting to the blood bank are essential. (
  • Further transfusion should be delayed until the cause of the reaction is known, unless the need is urgent, in which case type O Rh-negative red blood cells (RBCs) should be used. (
  • This involves removing certain components from a donor's blood and returning the unneeded parts to the donor. (
  • It is unclear whether applying alcohol swab alone or alcohol swab followed by antiseptic is able to reduce contamination of donor's blood. (
  • Bacteria or, for that matter, any infective agent that potentially evades the sterility of the transfusion loop can come from the donor's blood or skin or from a contaminated environment. (
  • Reducing blood loss during cardiac surgery may reduce the risk of complications. (
  • On the basis of antithrombotic and anticoagulants application, the market has been classified into thrombocytosis, pulmonary embolism, renal impairment, angina blood vessel complications, and others. (
  • Blood component therapy instead of whole blood transfusion and homologous blood saving methods]. (
  • citation needed] Before a blood transfusion is given, there are many steps taken to ensure quality of the blood products, compatibility, and safety to the recipient. (
  • In first-world countries, donations are usually anonymous to the recipient, but products in a blood bank are always individually traceable through the whole cycle of donation, testing, separation into components, storage, and administration to the recipient. (
  • In third-world countries, the donor is sometimes specifically recruited by or for the recipient, typically a family member, and the donation occurs immediately before the transfusion. (
  • Alloimmunization from leukocyte-reduced cellular blood products requires recognition of the alloantigen by recipient APCs and activation of recipient CD4+ T cells. (
  • Probable contamination - The blood culture from the recipient is negative or could not be done, but there is definite bacterial growth in the donor blood product. (
  • Mislabeling the recipient's pretransfusion sample at collection and failing to match the intended recipient with the blood product immediately before transfusion are the usual causes. (
  • Note: People with complete IgA deficiency may develop anti-IgA antibodies if given blood products and immunoglobulins. (
  • plasma antibodies, or hemolyzed or fragile RBCs (eg, by overwarming stored blood or contact with hypotonic IV solutions). (
  • Antibodies directed against white blood cell (WBC) human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in otherwise compatible donor blood are one possible cause. (
  • Antibodies against blood group antigens other than ABO can also cause AHTR. (
  • However the prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections is much higher in low income countries compared to middle and high income countries. (
  • The increasing demand for blood transfusion due to the rising prevalence of blood disorders, such as anemia, hemophilia, leukocytosis, sickle cell disease, and cancer, is one of the key factors driving the market growth. (
  • performed a rapid systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1975 and 2021 examining 24-hour and 30-day mortality after WB or BC transfusion. (
  • However, screening of blood for malaria is cases in 2021 in 84 malaria endemic countries with not routinely carried out in most blood banks in SSA most of this increase coming from countries in the 8 despite the recommendation by WHO. (
  • Currently, transfusion policies usually depend on the patient's condition, an individual doctor's training and experience and long-held medical standards of practice. (
  • Studies are needed to determine whether post‑operative cell salvage is more clinically and cost effective than existing practice for patients having cardiac surgery with a significant risk of post‑operative blood loss. (
  • Overseas candidates wishing to sit the examination should be aware that the examination is based on UK standards of practice and guidelines, and that experience in a routine hospital transfusion laboratory and/or a general laboratory Masters degree are unlikely to provide sufficient depth of knowledge to pass the examination. (
  • Conversely, 2 case reports describe platelet products contaminated by L. monocytogenes , but the contamination was intercepted before transfusion ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Blood transfusion has been and continues to be a possible source of disease transmission. (
  • Despite the potential for disease transmission through transfused blood, the safety of the blood supply in the United States continues to improve and, in fact, is the greatest that it has ever been. (
  • The incidence of bacterial transmission depends on the blood product and also on the definition of the cases. (
  • Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles moucheti are especially as it relates to frequency of blood the major vectors that result in all year donation and malaria occurrence on the part of 6 transmission. (
  • The FDA first issued guidance on Feb. 16 recommending that only areas with active Zika virus transmission screen donated Whole Blood and blood components for Zika virus, use pathogen-reduction devices, or halt blood collection and obtain Whole Blood and blood components from areas of the U.S. without active virus transmission. (
  • Expanded testing will continue to reduce the risk for transmission of Zika virus through the U.S. blood supply and will be in effect until the risk of transfusion transmission of Zika virus is reduced. (
  • In 2002, several cases of serologically confirmed West Nile virus infection occurred in persons with little or no known exposure to mosquitoes, and epidemiologic evidence suggested transmission of the virus through blood transfusions. (
  • Laboratory and epidemiologic data substantiated this mode of virus transmission and documented that the organ donor had likely acquired West Nile virus through a blood transfusion. (
  • In areas with active Zika virus transmission , the FDA recommends that Whole Blood and blood components for transfusion be obtained from areas of the U.S. without active transmission. (
  • In this guideline a level of 80-100 g/litre was used for patients with acute coronary syndrome, but further studies are needed to determine the optimal transfusion threshold for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. (
  • Fresh frozen plasma transfusions may cause adverse outcomes in people who are critically ill, including transfusion‑related acute lung injury, transfusion‑related circulatory overload, multi‑organ failure and an increased risk of infections. (
  • In the myelodysplastic syndrome, blood cell components fail to mature, and the condition may progress to acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. (
  • Subsequent investigation by CDC verified 23 cases in 2002 of West Nile virus acquired through blood or blood components. (
  • The remainder of the blood product and clotted and anticoagulated samples of the patient's blood should be sent to the blood bank for investigation. (
  • Another process that separates some blood components is called apheresis or hemapheresis. (
  • A meta-analysis of 22 studies of bacterial contamination rate estimates for apheresis (AP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and buffy coat (BC) collection methods found an overall mean contamination rate of 0.51 per 1000 components (95% confidence index [CI], 0.38-0.67). (
  • The Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization was established in May 1974 with a mis- sion to ensure effective and safe transfusion therapy throughout the country. (
  • The disorder may masquerade as mild iron deficiency anemia, but iron therapy and transfusions are often not indicated. (
  • Iron deficiency was under-recognized because of an insufficient history, a lack of stool examination for blood or poor responses to iron therapy because of continued blood loss or the suboptimal use of iron supplements. (
  • Blood preparation is carried out for transfusion, component therapy, and manufacturing pharmaceuticals. (
  • Other factors, including increasing demand for blood component therapy, significant growth in the pharmaceutical industry, and rapid development of healthcare infrastructure, are anticipated to drive the market growth. (
  • most hospitals use previously stored, leukoreduced (WBC-depleted RBCs) blood components. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all donated blood be tested for transfusion-transmissible infections. (
  • Penetration of the blood supply by infectious agents transmissible by blood had severe consequences on those patients who depend on regular treatment with concentrates of the proteins they lacked, particularly people with haemophilia requiring coagulation factors and immunodeficiency patients treated with immunoglobulins. (
  • A rare but potentially life-threatening complication of transfusion is graft versus host disease , which occurs when a donor's white cells attack the recipient's immune system. (
  • The greatest malaria burden globally however a major risk for acquiring transfusion occurs in Nigeria, with approximately 51 million transmitted malaria. (
  • Significant internal blood loss in cats most often occurs due to either bleeding into the intestinal tract or bleeding into the abdominal cavity. (
  • Red blood cell destruction commonly occurs in cats due to an immune-mediated disease in which the body destroys its own red blood cells. (
  • Platelet transfusions are given to prevent or treat bleeding because of severely low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia). (
  • Two millilitres of blood were collected from each study participant and immediately transported to the laboratory for processing. (
  • The advisory caution to use blood transfusion only with more severe anemia is in part due to evidence that outcomes are worsened if larger amounts are given. (
  • The principal cause of the anemia of renal disease is a decreased production of red blood cells related to a relative deficiency of erythropoietin. (
  • In the anemia of chronic disease, impaired iron transport decreases red blood cell production. (
  • In addition, the pathophysiologic mechanisms of anemia (red blood cell production defects and increased red blood cell destructive processes) are screened by reticulocyte counts, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) determinations and occult stool blood tests. (
  • Anemia is defined as a low red blood cell count and can be caused by a number of different processes, including blood loss, red blood cell destruction, and inadequate red blood cell production. (
  • The most important component of treating anemia is treating the underlying disease process that is causing the anemia. (
  • If anemia is severe, patients might require a blood transfusion, or multiple transfusions. (
  • The most common causes of severe anemia in cats include blood loss and red blood cell destruction. (
  • and pre‑transfusion haemoglobin levels, platelet count and coagulation results. (
  • How to best balance the benefits and risks of transfusions is the subject of some debate in the medical field. (
  • Because each unit of blood given carries risks, a trigger level lower than that, at 70 to 80g/L, is now usually used, as it has been shown to have better patient outcomes. (
  • The treatment for some immunodeficiency conditions can require the administration of blood products, which pose additional risks for patients' health, although not generally connected with L. monocytogenes bacteremia. (
  • In vitro diagnostics (IVD) involves testing samples, such as tissue or blood, to detect diseases or other conditions using sensitive tests. (
  • Important outcomes are rates of inappropriate transfusion, overall rates of transfusion, and patient safety outcomes including mortality and transfusion errors. (
  • For example, almost all patients with leukemia (which primarily affects the marrow and blood) require some transfusions during their care. (
  • Stem cell transplantation patients receive high doses of chemotherapy, which depletes stores of normal blood cells. (
  • The whole blood is collected from the donor and sent to a lab for separation, allowing one donation to benefit up to four patients and conserving precious blood resources. (
  • To prevent this, some centers irradiate (treat with radiation) blood components for patients receiving intensive chemotherapy, undergoing stem cell transplant or who are considered to have impaired immune system. (
  • Most doctors prescribe red cell transfusions before a patient develops serious symptoms, particularly when managing older patients or those who have a history of heart or blood vessel disease. (
  • Blood donated to patients with blood diseases should always have the white cells removed by filtration, a process called leukoreduced or leukodepleted. (
  • Because of this scientific misunderstanding, many patients died because of incompatible blood transferred to them. (
  • Patients with poor oxygen saturation may need more blood. (
  • Recently, studies have suggested that bleeding cardiac surgery and trauma patients may benefit from WB transfusions. (
  • However, storing WB solely for these patients could result in increased blood wastage. (
  • Leukocyte reduction of transfused blood products virtually eliminates donor APCs, but patients may still develop alloimmunization. (
  • It maximizes the utility of one whole blood unit, increases the therapeutic efficacy of components, and benefits multiple patients simultaneously. (
  • Patients are billed for fees that cover the testing, handling, and storage of blood and blood components. (
  • Patients should also be treated (eg, with acetaminophen ) before future transfusions. (
  • Antihemorrhagics are for use in patients with blood-product deficiencies. (
  • Donated platelet units should have the white cells removed by filtration before transfusion, and if appropriate, they should be irradiated as well. (
  • Red blood cells (RBC) contain hemoglobin, and supply the cells of the body with oxygen. (
  • White blood cells are not commonly used during transfusion, but they are part of the immune system, and also fight infections. (
  • The accumulation of toxic metabolites, which are normally excreted by the kidneys, shortens the life span of circulating red blood cells. (
  • When you receive a transfusion, you won't be getting whole blood. (
  • Blood is most commonly donated as whole blood obtained intravenously and mixed with an anticoagulant. (
  • Transfusions may be in the form of whole blood (WB) or blood components (BC). (
  • The difference in potential harms between whole blood and component blood transfusion in major bleeding: a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs. (
  • 10% of blood is transfused as whole blood. (
  • The availability and use of blood components is limited in many low and medium HDI countries: the use of whole blood is around 10 times higher in these countries compared to high HDI countries, e.g. (
  • 90% is transfused as whole blood in Bangladesh, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India and Nepal [2]. (
  • As a further safety measure against the emerging Zika virus outbreak, today the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a revised guidance recommending universal testing of donated Whole Blood and blood components for Zika virus in the U.S. and its territories. (
  • The revised guidance announced today recommends that all states and U.S. territories screen individual units of donated Whole Blood and blood components with a blood screening test authorized for use by the FDA under an investigational new drug (IND) application, or a licensed test when available. (
  • Blood preparation refers to the process of separating components from one unit of whole blood using the centrifugation technique. (
  • Which factors determine the critical hematocrit as an indication for transfusion? (
  • In fact, there is an inverse relationship between blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and red blood cell life span. (
  • Donated blood is usually subjected to processing after it is collected, to make it suitable for use in specific patient populations. (
  • All donated blood should also be tested for the ABO blood group system and Rh blood group system to ensure that the patient is receiving compatible blood. (
  • We describe a case of transfusion-related L. monocytogenes infection in a patient who received a pooled-platelet concentrate. (
  • The blood supply chain starts with the blood donor and ends with the patient, but ultimately it is the requirement for blood by the patient that drives the chain and hence the number of blood donations required. (
  • ABO and Rh typing There has been a gradual decrease in overall transfusion due to patient blood management programs. (
  • Furthermore, the anesthesiologist is often intervening in patient care that has already been initiated in the prehospital setting or in the emergency department (ED). Examples range from a patient who is already orotracheally intubated with large-bore venous access and is undergoing massive transfusion resuscitation to a combative patient who is in systemic shock with little or no access and whose vital signs are faltering. (
  • One may consider transfusion for people with symptoms of cardiovascular disease such as chest pain or shortness of breath. (
  • Many chemotherapy drugs can temporarily impair blood cell production in the marrow and depress immune system functions. (
  • If you receive ongoing red cell transfusions, you're at risk of developing iron overload, which, if not treated, can damage your heart and liver. (
  • The literature suggests that there may be some evidence of harm with the use of restrictive red blood cell thresholds in populations with coronary ischaemia at baseline. (
  • Beth H. Shaz, MD, is Chief Medical and Scientific Officer, Executive Vice President at New York Blood Center, and Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University. (
  • Blood cell development. (
  • A blood stem cell goes through several steps to become a red blood cell, platelet, or white blood cell. (
  • More important, however, is the diminished renal production or the dysfunction of erythropoietin that results in decreased red blood cell production. (
  • Claudia Cohn introduced the three main topics covered in this meeting: the HOPE Act, the formation of a working group by the ACBTSA to address tissue donation tracking, and the Red Blood Cell Antibody Exchange. (
  • The administration of a single unit of blood is the standard for hospitalized people who are not bleeding, with this treatment followed with re-assessment and consideration of symptoms and hemoglobin concentration. (
  • If any of these symptoms (other than localized urticaria and itching) occur, the transfusion should be stopped immediately and the IV line kept open with normal saline. (
  • Our aim is to optimise the use of donated blood and blood component wastage along the whole chain. (
  • It is essential that all staff working in each area of the blood supply chain is aware of their responsibilities to ensure minimal wastage of this freely given resource. (
  • Doctors take different approaches when deciding if transfusion is appropriate. (
  • Additional surveillance and secondary bacterial screening could improve transfusion safety. (
  • Refractoriness to platelet transfusion (an increase in the platelet count after platelet transfusion that is significantly lower than expected [e.g. (
  • Transfusion transmitted malaria contributes significantly to the burden of malaria in SSA. (
  • In 2009, the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) published a detailed description of 68 infectious agents capable of being transmitted by blood transfusion and prioritizing emerging infectious diseases for which there was not yet an implemented intervention. (
  • All testing meets the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration and the American Association of Blood Banks. (
  • We are issuing revised guidance for immediate implementation in order to help maintain the safety of the U.S. blood supply. (