Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Factor Xa: Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.Factor VII: Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Factor IX: Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Factor VIIa: Activated form of factor VII. Factor VIIa activates factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Factor XIII: A fibrin-stabilizing plasma enzyme (TRANSGLUTAMINASES) that is activated by THROMBIN and CALCIUM to form FACTOR XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which culminates the coagulation cascade.Whole Blood Coagulation Time: The time required by whole blood to produce a visible clot.Factor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Factor XIa: Activated form of factor XI. In the intrinsic pathway, Factor XI is activated to XIa by factor XIIa in the presence of cofactor HMWK; (HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN). Factor XIa then activates factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of calcium.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Blood Coagulation Factor Inhibitors: Substances, usually endogenous, that act as inhibitors of blood coagulation. They may affect one or multiple enzymes throughout the process. As a group, they also inhibit enzymes involved in processes other than blood coagulation, such as those from the complement system, fibrinolytic enzyme system, blood cells, and bacteria.Coagulants: Agents that cause clotting.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Factor IXa: Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Thrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.Factor XIIa: Activated form of factor XII. In the initial event in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, kallikrein (with cofactor HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN) cleaves factor XII to XIIa. Factor XIIa is then further cleaved by kallikrein, plasmin, and trypsin to yield smaller factor XII fragments (Hageman-Factor fragments). These fragments increase the activity of prekallikrein to kallikrein but decrease the procoagulant activity of factor XII.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Factor XII: Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Mutations in the gene for factor XII that appear to increase factor XII amidolytic activity are associated with HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPE III.Factor XI: Stable blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway. The activated form XIa activates factor IX to IXa. Deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C.Factor XI Deficiency: A hereditary deficiency of blood coagulation factor XI (also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent or PTA or antihemophilic factor C) resulting in a systemic blood-clotting defect called hemophilia C or Rosenthal's syndrome, that may resemble classical hemophilia.Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.International Normalized Ratio: System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.Factor XII Deficiency: An absence or reduced level of blood coagulation factor XII. It normally occurs in the absence of patient or family history of hemorrhagic disorders and is marked by prolonged clotting time.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Factor VIIIa: Activated form of factor VIII. The B-domain of factor VIII is proteolytically cleaved by thrombin to form factor VIIIa. Factor VIIIa exists as a non-covalent dimer in a metal-linked (probably calcium) complex and functions as a cofactor in the enzymatic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Factor VIIIa is similar in structure and generation to factor Va.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Factor Va: Activated form of factor V. It is an essential cofactor for the activation of prothrombin catalyzed by factor Xa.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Thrombomodulin: A cell surface glycoprotein of endothelial cells that binds thrombin and serves as a cofactor in the activation of protein C and its regulation of blood coagulation.1-Carboxyglutamic Acid: Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.Argon Plasma Coagulation: A method of tissue ablation and bleeding control that uses ARGON plasma (ionized argon gas) to deliver a current of thermocoagulating energy to the area of tissue to be coagulated.Hemophilia B: A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of inherited abnormalities in blood coagulation.Hypoprothrombinemias: Absence or reduced levels of PROTHROMBIN in the blood.Coagulation Protein Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders resulting from abnormalities or deficiencies of coagulation proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Prekallikrein: A plasma protein which is the precursor of kallikrein. Plasma that is deficient in prekallikrein has been found to be abnormal in thromboplastin formation, kinin generation, evolution of a permeability globulin, and plasmin formation. The absence of prekallikrein in plasma leads to Fletcher factor deficiency, a congenital disease.Fibrinopeptide A: Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Serine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Factor X Deficiency: Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.Viperidae: A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)Hemostatics: Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Polygeline: A 3.5 per cent colloidal solution containing urea-cross-linked polymerized peptides. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 and is prepared from gelatin and electrolytes. The polymeric solution is used as a plasma expander.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Electrocoagulation: Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.Arcidae: A family of ark shell mollusks, in the class BIVALVIA. They have soft bodies with platelike GILLS enclosed within two shells hinged together.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).alpha-2-Antiplasmin: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Factor VII Deficiency: An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Kininogens: Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Plasma Kallikrein: A peptidohydrolytic enzyme that is formed from PREKALLIKREIN by FACTOR XIIA. It activates FACTOR XII; FACTOR VII; and PLASMINOGEN. It is selective for both ARGININE and to a lesser extent LYSINE bonds. EC 3.4.21.34.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Carbon-Carbon Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptor, PAR-1: A thrombin receptor subtype that couples to HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS resulting in the activation of a variety of signaling mechanisms including decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP, increased TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES and increased PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Artocarpus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. Puag-haad extract, from A. lakoocha, contains STILBENES and related 4-substituted RESORCINOLS.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Sulfoglycosphingolipids: GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.Factor XIIIa: Activated form of FACTOR XIII, a transglutaminase, which stabilizes the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) culminating the blood coagulation cascade.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Benzamidines: Amidines substituted with a benzene group. Benzamidine and its derivatives are known as peptidase inhibitors.Horseshoe Crabs: An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.Hemorrhagic Disorders: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).Receptors, Thrombin: A family of proteinase-activated receptors that are specific for THROMBIN. They are found primarily on PLATELETS and on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Activation of thrombin receptors occurs through the proteolytic action of THROMBIN, which cleaves the N-terminal peptide from the receptor to reveal a new N-terminal peptide that is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The receptors signal through HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. Small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal peptide sequence can also activate the receptor in the absence of proteolytic activity.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.EuropeHirudins: Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ellagic Acid: A fused four ring compound occurring free or combined in galls. Isolated from the kino of Eucalyptus maculata Hook and E. Hemipholia F. Muell. Activates Factor XII of the blood clotting system which also causes kinin release; used in research and as a dye.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Cephapirin: Cephalosporin antibiotic, partly plasma-bound, that is effective against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Streptomycetaceae: A family of soil bacteria. It also includes some parasitic forms.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Tosylarginine Methyl Ester: Arginine derivative which is a substrate for many proteolytic enzymes. As a substrate for the esterase from the first component of complement, it inhibits the action of C(l) on C(4).Receptors, Proteinase-Activated: A class of receptors that are activated by the action of PROTEINASES. The most notable examples are the THROMBIN RECEPTORS. The receptors contain cryptic ligands that are exposed upon the selective proteolysis of specific N-terminal cleavage sites.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Infant, Postmature: An infant born at or after 42 weeks of gestation.Russell's Viper: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Viscoelastic Substances: Substances that display the physical properties of ELASTICITY and VISCOSITY. The dual-nature of these substances causes them to resist applied forces in a time-dependent manner.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Polyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.Agkistrodon: A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases: OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.Battered Child Syndrome: A clinical condition resulting from repeated physical and psychological injuries inflicted on a child by the parents or caregivers.Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.Plasminogen Inactivators: Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. The inhibitors belong to the serpin family of proteins and inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Fibrinolysin: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Erythrina: A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Aprotinin: A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Foreign Medical Graduates: Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Afibrinogenemia: A deficiency or absence of FIBRINOGEN in the blood.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.United StatesPentosan Sulfuric Polyester: A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Isoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Trypsin Inhibitors: Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
International normalized ratio (INR) which is a derivative of prothrombin time is a measurement of blood coagulation in the ... The results of the study Effect of Home Testing of International Normalized Ratio on Clinical Events (2010), comparing whether ... International Normalized Ratio) levels themselves, rather than at a clinic. People who self-monitor their INR levels use a ... From international consensus guidelines prepared by the International Self-Monitoring Association for Oral Anti-coagulation. " ...
... including the international normalized ratio, and decreased fibrinogen. Frank disseminated intravascular coagulation, or DIC, ... Other abnormalities may include an elevated white blood cell count, hypoglycemia, elevated coagulation parameters, ... elevated white blood cell count, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and a clinically unwell patient. A liver biopsy can ... In patients with more severe disease, pre-eclampsia may occur, which involves elevation of blood pressure and accumulation of ...
International normalized ratio, a laboratory test measure of blood coagulation). Individuals taking anticoagulant medications, ... Blood. 104 (10): 3231-3232. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-04-1277. Koos, R.; Mahnken, A. H.; Mühlenbruch, G.; Brandenburg, V.; ... Traditionally, K vitamins were recognized as the factor required for coagulation, but the functions performed by this vitamin ... Several human Gla-containing proteins synthesized in several different types of tissues have been discovered: Coagulation ...
... International normalized ratio of prothrombin time of blood coagulation Interventional neuroradiology, a minimally invasive ...
Notably, the prothrombin time (or international normalized ratio, INR) used to test the effect of warfarin is highly dependent ... The blood clots interrupt the blood supply to the skin, causing necrosis. Protein C is an innate anticoagulant, and as warfarin ... This coagulation factor imbalance leads to paradoxical activation of coagulation, resulting in a hypercoagulable state and ... The typical patient appears to be an obese, middle aged woman (median age 54 years, male to female ratio 1:3). This drug ...
The increasing liver damage also changes biochemical markers of liver function; International normalized ratio (INR) and the ... The need for transplant is often based on low blood pH, high blood lactate, poor blood clotting, or significant hepatic ... Laboratory studies may show evidence of liver necrosis with elevated AST, ALT, bilirubin, and prolonged coagulation times, ... In some cases, the AST and ALT levels can exceed 10,000 IU/L. Paracetamol may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine as a ...
... blood coagulation tests MeSH E01.450.375.115.320 --- international normalized ratio MeSH E01.450.375.115.600 --- partial ... whole blood coagulation time MeSH E01.450.375.120 --- blood grouping and crossmatching MeSH E01.450.375.125 --- blood ... blood circulation time MeSH E01.370.370.130 --- blood flow velocity MeSH E01.370.370.140 --- blood pressure determination MeSH ... blood glucose self-monitoring MeSH E01.450.150.100.110 --- blood protein electrophoresis MeSH E01.450.150.100.115 --- blood ...
... international normalized ratio). In people with fatty liver with associated inflammatory injury (steatohepatitis) blood tests ... Because the liver is important for making proteins used in coagulation some coagulation related studies are often carried out ... Moreover, boys are more likely to be diagnosed with NAFLD than girls with a ratio of 2:1. Studies have suggested that ... It has been suggested that in cases involving overweight patients whose blood tests do not improve on losing weight and ...
Correction of displayed international normalized ratio on two point-of-care test whole-blood prothrombin time monitors ( ... and international normalized ratio (INR)-are assays evaluating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. This test is also called " ... "Medicare expands coverage for home blood testing of prothrombin time international normalized ratio". The Centers for Medicare ... The prothrombin ratio (aka international normalized ratio) is the prothrombin time for a patient sample divided by the result ...
... and international normalized ratio (INR) are measures of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. This test is also called " ... It is raised in acute liver damage, but is also present in red blood cells, and cardiac and skeletal muscle, so is not specific ... The ratio of AST to ALT is mostly useful in differentiating between causes of liver damage. Elevated AST levels are not ... The liver is responsible for clearing the blood of unconjugated bilirubin, and about 30% of it is taken up by a normal liver on ...
"Oral vitamin K lowers the international normalized ratio more rapidly than subcutaneous vitamin K in the treatment of warfarin- ... "Biochemistry and physiology of blood coagulation". Thromb. Haemost. 82 (2): 165-74. பப்மெட்:10605701. http://www.schattauer.de/ ... 47.0 47.1 Kanai, T (1997). "Serum vitamin K level and bone mineral density in post-menopausal women". International Journal of ... "Blood 93 (6): 1798-808. பப்மெட்:10068650. http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/content/full/93/6/1798. ...
... prothrombin time with International Normalized Ratio-PTINR, thrombin time-TT, and fibrinogen level. Testing for factor IX may ... The individual's ABO blood group can influence presentation and pathology of vWD. Those individuals with blood group O have a ... Other coagulation factor assays may be performed depending on the results of a coagulation screen. Patients with von Willebrand ... Blood. 109 (1): 145-54. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-05-021105. PMID 17190853. Gill, JC; Endres-Brooks J; Bauer PJ; Marks WJ; ...
... a more robust assessment of the coagulation cascade compared to traditional methods of measuring international normalized ratio ... Instead of replacing blood volume with high volumes of crystalloid and packed red blood cells with the sporadic use of fresh ... They compared administration a higher ratio of plasma and platelets (1:1:1) compared to a lower ratio (1:1:2). The patients ... frozen plasma and platelets, we have now learned that maintaining a transfusion ratio of 1:1:1 of plasma to red blood cells to ...
"Oral vitamin K lowers the international normalized ratio more rapidly than subcutaneous vitamin K in the treatment of warfarin- ... Blood clotting (coagulation) studies in humans using 45 mg per day of vitamin K2 (as MK-4) and even up to 135 mg per day (45 mg ... The extent to which blood coagulation was restored by the diet was taken as a measure for its vitamin K content. Three groups ... Without vitamin K, blood coagulation is seriously impaired, and uncontrolled bleeding occurs. Preliminary clinical research ...
For people with an international normalized ratio (INR) between 4.5 and 10.0, a small dose (about 1000 mcg = one milligram) of ... 64: 553-6. Roderick LM (1931). "A problem in the coagulation of the blood; "sweet clover disease of the cattle"". Am J Physiol ... "Oral vitamin K lowers the international normalized ratio more rapidly than subcutaneous vitamin K in the treatment of warfarin- ... in areas of slowly running blood (such as in veins and the pooled blood behind artificial and natural valves) and in blood ...
"Medicare expands coverage for home blood testing of prothrombin time international normalized ratio". The Centers for Medicare ... Quick AJ, Stanley-Brown M, Bancroft FW (1935). "A study of the coagulation defect in hemophilia and in jaundice". Am J Med Sci ... International consensus guidelines prepared by International Self-Monitoring Association for Oral Anticoagulation". ... The bioassay of hemorrhagic concentrates by following the prothrombin level in the plasma of rabbit blood". J Biol Chem. 138: 1 ...
As a side effect of any anticoagulant, the risk of bleeding is increased, so the international normalized ratio of blood is ... The main mechanism is exposure of tissue factor to the blood coagulation system. Inflammatory and other stimuli (such as ... and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss. Even when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the ... Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system ...
... or international normalized ratio (INR) > 2 Disseminated intravascular coagulation Kidney dysfunction serum creatinine ≥ 2 ... Insufficient blood flow may be evident by low blood pressure, high blood lactate, or low urine output. Septic shock is low ... After six hours the blood pressure should be adequate, close monitoring of blood pressure and blood supply to organs should be ... and dysfunctions of blood coagulation (where clotting may lead to organ failure). The drop in blood pressure seen in sepsis may ...
The risk of bleeding may be increased if: prothrombin time > 21 seconds international normalized ratio > 1.6 platelet count < ... The ascitic white blood cell count can help determine if the ascites is infected. A count of 250 WBC per ml or higher is ... "Lack of increased bleeding after paracentesis and thoracentesis in patients with mild coagulation abnormalities". Transfusion. ... Cultures of the fluid can be taken, but the yield is approximately 40% (72-90% if blood culture bottles are used). Mild ...
Prothrombin time (PT) was above 100 s, partial thromboplastin time (PTT) was above 200 s and international normalized ratio ( ... "I smell a rat". Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis. doi:10.1097/mbc.0b013e328358e959. La Rosa F; Clarke S; Lefkowitz J. B. (1997 ... the blood plasma and blood itself begins to leak from the smallest blood vessels. A poisoned animal will suffer progressively ... A 20-year-old female college student presented with abdominal pain and blood in urine. She was tested for warfarin, a common ...
One anticoagulation protocol example targets the therapeutic window of coumadin of an International Normalized Ratio (INR) goal ... blood containing components of pump and any motor or other pump actuating mechanism that is housed with the blood contacting ... in a patient population where the coagulation system response to the CF LVAD device varies greatly between individuals. Common ... The malfunction is a blockage in the flow of blood anywhere along a vessel (upstream or downstream) and it is mainly due to the ...
international normalized ratio (INR) , 2. *Disseminated intravascular coagulation. *Kidney dysfunction *serum creatinine ≥ 2 ... After six hours the blood pressure should be adequate, close monitoring of blood pressure and blood supply to organs should be ... Insufficient blood flow may be evident by low blood pressure, high blood lactate, or low urine output.[8] Septic shock is low ... Blood productsEdit. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommended packed red blood cells transfusion for hemoglobin levels below 70 ...
The international normalized ratio should be ≥ 2.0 for 24 hours minimum, but if the ratio is > 3.0, then the parenteral ... With arterial thrombosis, blood vessel wall damage is required, as it initiates coagulation, but clotting in the veins mostly ... The VKA is generally taken for a minimum of three months to maintain an international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0, with 2.5 as ... Non-O blood type is common in all races, making it an important risk factor. Individuals without O blood type have higher blood ...
Warfarin therapy often requires a frequent dose adjustment and monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR). In PE, ... PE usually results from a blood clot in the leg that travels to the lung. The risk of blood clots is increased by cancer, ... Factor VIII concentration and rarer inherited coagulation abnormalities. In order to diagnose a pulmonary embolism, a review of ... Massive PE causing hemodynamic instability (shock and/or low blood pressure, defined as a systolic blood pressure 15 min if not ...
For people with an international normalized ratio (INR) between 4.5 and 10.0, a small dose (about 1000 mcg = one milligram) of ... Roderick LM (1931). "A problem in the coagulation of the blood; "sweet clover disease of the cattle"". Am J Physiol. 96 (2): ... "Oral vitamin K lowers the international normalized ratio more rapidly than subcutaneous vitamin K in the treatment of warfarin- ... International consensus guidelines prepared by International Self-Monitoring Association for Oral Anticoagulation" (PDF). ...
International Normalized Ratio), de jümmer mehr an de Steed vun den Quicktest kummt. De INR is beter to verglieken twüschen ... Blood coagulation (en) *↑ Rainer Klinke, Hans-Christian Pape, Stefan Silbernagl (Rtg.): Physiologie, 5. Opl., Georg Thieme ... Normalerwies bargt dat Blood bi'n Minschen twüschen 150.000 un 400.000 Thrombozyten op'n Mikroliter Blood.[2] In de Zellmembran ... Dat Stollen vun arteriell Blood kann dör Toföhren vun Kohlensüür langsomer un de vun't venös Blood dör Mehren vun'n Suerstoff ...
International normalized ratio calculations. Finally, we have estimate the ratios INRCT = (CTd/CTref)ISI calculated from the CT ... Prothombin Time and International Normalized Ratio. The prothrombin time (PT) is defined as the necessary time for citrated ... Results on Coagulation Time. 3.1.1.. Coagulation dynamics. We present here results obtained for a whole-blood sample. Figure 2 ... This allows the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR), which minimizes the differences between laboratories ( ...
Cr ,2, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) , 100mg/dL. *Blood coagulation parameters: international normalized ratio (INR) ≤ 1.5 ... Correlation of blood sugar levels by compliance level [ Time Frame: Up to 12 weeks ]. Correlate the relationship between blood ... Correlation of blood sugar levels by tumor response [ Time Frame: Up to 12 weeks ]. Correlate the relationship between blood ... To correlate levels of ketosis and blood sugar with treatment outcome.. *To correlate the level of MCT4 expression and IDH1 ...
international normalized ratio change (international unit) international normalized ratio level change (international unit IU) ... International Normalized Ratio) in Patients Taking Warfarin. *Blood Coagulation Disorders ... INR levels (international normalized ratio) - change is being assessed. 100. All. 18 Years to 90 Years (Adult, Senior). ... Assessment of Blood Coagulation Disorders in Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension. *Pulmonary Artery Hypertension ...
Relationship between chromogenic factor X and international normalized ratio differs during early warfarin initiation compared ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis.. ... For immediate assistance, contact Customer Service: 800-638-3030 (within USA), 301-223-2300 (international) [email protected] ...
... international normalized ratio of prothrombin time of blood coagulation. ... Blood tests indicated that the patient had cholestasis, elevated alanine aminotransferase, elevated aspartate transaminase, ... International Journal of Cancer, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 424-430, 1997. View at: Publisher Site , Google Scholar*J. Ferlay, I. ... International Journal of Cancer, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. 359-386, 2015. View at: Publisher Site , Google Scholar*M. Bhangoo, B. ...
Accuracy of a Portable International Normalized Ratio Monitor in Elderly Patients. *Blood Coagulation Disorders ... International Normalized Ratio) in Patients Taking Warfarin. *Blood Coagulation Disorders ... Difference between International normalized ratio (INR) measured in a veinous blood punction and with a capillary method on the ... International Normalized Ratio Measurements. 63. All. 18 Years to 65 Years (Adult). NCT02757482. CBU-2015-02. September 2014. ...
Adequate blood coagulation function as evidenced by an International Normalized Ratio (INR) ≤ 1.5. ... Blood pressure (BP) ≤ 140/90 millimeter of mercury (mmHg) at screening with or without antihypertensive medications and no ... Radiographic evidence of major blood vessel invasion/infiltration.. *Other active malignancy (except definitively treated ... test with a minimum sensitivity of 25 international units/liter (IU/L) or equivalent units of ß-hCG [or hCG]). A separate ...
11) Adequate blood coagulation function as evidenced by an International Normalized Ratio (INR) ,/=1.5. 12) Adequate liver ... Donate Blood Giving blood and platelets provides hope for cancer patients who depend on the generosity of donors like you. ... 12) Active hemoptysis (bright red blood of at least ½ teaspoon) within 3 weeks prior to the first dose of study drug. 13) ... 8) Adequately controlled blood pressure (BP) with or without antihypertensive medications, defined as BP ,/=150/90 mmHg at ...
PT results are usually expressed in terms of a standardized international normalized ratio (INR). ... Coagulation Studies. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) are recommended tests for all ... international normalized ratio [INR]). Initially, PT (INR) should be tested frequently to determine the maintenance dose (ie, ... encoded search term (Blood Dyscrasias and Stroke) and Blood Dyscrasias and Stroke What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ...
Blood work revealed multiple coagulation abnormalities, and International Normalized Ratio was 12. Intravenous phytonadione ( ... even before obtaining confirmatory blood work, fresh-frozen plasma, or blood transfusion.. ... 6403719 - Arterial blood gases and pulmonary function testing in acute bronchial asthma. predicti.... 24855549 - Derivation, ... He had fever and tachycardia, with normal blood pressure and respiratory status and physical examination showed several ...
Protime and International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR) / Anti Coagulation Therapy Blood Test. The PT/INR test is used for ... Valproic Acid Depakote Blood Test. The Valproic Acid test is used to monitor treatment of epilepsy/seizures with valproate and ... Recreational Drug Screen Blood Test. Measure the traces of illegal and certain prescription drugs in urine with our online drug ... Nicotine and Metabolite Blood Test. The Metabolite test is specifically designed to diagnose the presence of nicotine in the ...
... the Prostate Specific Antigen Blood Test is a great place to start. Order online and save! ... Protime and International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR) / Anti Coagulation Therapy Blood Test. The PT/INR test is used for ... Comprehensive STD Blood Test. The Comprehensive STD Test is used to identify a variety of STDs, including HIV and syphilis. ... If youre trying to find out if you have prostate cancer, the Prostate Specific Antigen Blood Test is a great place to start. ...
Coagulation tests. PT (Prothrombin time). PTT (Partial thromboplastin time). INR (International normalized ratio). These tests ... Commonly Used Blood Tests. *CBC (Complete blood count). This is a routine test to determine the number of red blood cells, ... A complete blood count might be used to diagnose anemia (too little blood) or infection (shown by too many white blood cells). ... white blood cells, and platelets in your blood. Hematocrit and hemoglobin are measures of the number of red blood cells. ...
Blood coagulation parameters: PT such that international normalized ratio (INR) is <. 1.5 (or an in-range INR, usually between ...
Odds ratios of patient characteristics were calculated as an estimate of … ... International Normalized Ratio * Middle Aged * Prospective Studies * Risk Factors * Warfarin / administration & dosage ... Blood Coagulation / drug effects * Drug Administration Schedule * Drug Interactions * Hemorrhage / chemically induced* ... Odds ratios of patient characteristics were calculated as an estimate of relative risk for the development of a high INR. The ...
... high international normalized ratio values for blood coagulation and thrombocytopenia). Cranial computed tomographic scan did ... He had a body temperature of 37.2°C, a pulse of 140 beats/min, an arterial blood pressure of 90/60 mm Hg, diffuse hemorrhagic ... Bacterial growth was not observed in cultures of urine and blood samples. ...
... measures of coagulation (prothrombin time; international normalized ratio [INR]; or specific coagulation factors, e.g., factor ... Infection should be monitored on a daily basis with repeated cultures of all blood, urine, sputum/bronchial secretions, etc. A ... which reduces the value of serial measurements of coagulation in this regard. The coagulation results must be interpreted in ... The pattern of coagulation test results gives valuable prognostic information. Some management protocols mandate the use of ...
... international normalized ratio, D-dimer, mortality. Citation: Sayad B; Rahimi Z. Blood coagulation parameters in patients with ... and international normalized ratio (INR) were measured using Coatron M2 coagulation analyzer (TECO Medical Instruments, Germany ... Results: Forty-two percent of patients had abnormal prothrombin time and international normalized ratio. The rates of mortality ... Blood coagulation parameters in patients with severe COVID-19 from Kermanshah Province, Islamic Republic of Iran ...
... tissue factor-induced whole-blood coagulation in patients on warfarin therapy with similar international normalized ratios ( ... The whole-blood model13-15 permits evaluation of coagulation, which integrates all blood component contributions to the ... Whole-Blood Coagulation. Blood was collected by venipuncture, and 1-mL aliquots were distributed into tubes containing corn ... Blood coagulation in hemophilia A and hemophilia C. Blood. 1998; 91: 4581-4592. ...
The routine laboratory examinations included full blood count and the coagulation profile (international normalized ratio [INR ... INR international normalized ratio; PLT platelets; WBC white blood cells ... 2]. Balloon micro-catheter intervention works by way of blood flow modification, through a drop of intra-arterial pressure that ... defined as the complete or partial obstruction of blood flow in the portal vein, due to the presence of a chronic, acute or ...
The degree of blood coagulation is determined by measuring the INR value (International Normalized Ratio). When values are ... Summary: Although previous studies suggest that capillary blood monitoring of the international normalize ratio (INR) is rapid ... 3. Validation of the international normalized ratio (INR) in a new point-of-care system designed for home monitoring of oral ... Summary: Until 2008, there has been no systematic examination of the relationship between international normalized ratio (INR) ...
International normalized ratio (INR) which is a derivative of prothrombin time is a measurement of blood coagulation in the ... The results of the study Effect of Home Testing of International Normalized Ratio on Clinical Events (2010), comparing whether ... International Normalized Ratio) levels themselves, rather than at a clinic. People who self-monitor their INR levels use a ... From international consensus guidelines prepared by the International Self-Monitoring Association for Oral Anti-coagulation. " ...
Prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and international normalized ratio (INR) are common blood clotting ... Blood clotting (coagulation) tests check if your blood is clotting properly. ... and blood clotting tests. A complete blood count (CBC) measures the number and quality of white blood cells, red blood cells ... Blood chemistry tests. Blood chemistry tests measure certain chemicals in the blood. They show how well certain organs are ...
... international normalized ratio [INR]). Despite a prolonged aPTT of 42 seconds, ,50% of nonhematologists would repeat the aPTT, ... Complete blood count revealed anemia and an aPTT twice the upper limit of normal; emergency medicine physicians remained least ... likely to request a consult.Conclusion: Determining the cause of an abnormal coagulation study result should carry equal weight ... of physicians within each specialty ordered a complete blood count or PT/INR/aPTT. Despite an aPTT of 63 seconds, the majority ...
... including the international normalized ratio, and decreased fibrinogen. Frank disseminated intravascular coagulation, or DIC, ... Other abnormalities may include an elevated white blood cell count, hypoglycemia, elevated coagulation parameters, ... elevated white blood cell count, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and a clinically unwell patient. A liver biopsy can ... In patients with more severe disease, pre-eclampsia may occur, which involves elevation of blood pressure and accumulation of ...
  • Endpoints were defined in two ways: as total amount of chest tube output (CTO) and blood product transfusion requirements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The impact of the coagulation profile on transfusion requirements, bleeding events, and short-term survival was assessed. (snfge.org)
  • Hypofibrinogenemia is an important cause of the coagulopathy encountered during these procedures and aggressive management of this complication is associated with less intraoperative blood loss, reduced transfusion requirements, and decreased transfusion-related cost. (thejns.org)
  • Medline was searched for investigations using results of SLTs as a means to determine coagulopathy or to guide bleeding management, and the outcomes (i.e. blood loss, transfusion requirements, mortality) were reported. (uzh.ch)
  • Injury to body parts activates several systems, including the autonomic nervous system, the coagulation system, the fibrinolytic system, the complement system, and the systemic inflammatory response. (medscape.com)
  • After presentation weeks later with bruising and abdominal/back pain, ≥90% of physicians within each specialty ordered a complete blood count or PT/INR/aPTT. (dovepress.com)
  • A longer-than-normal PTT or APTT can be caused by liver disease, kidney disease (such as nephrotic syndrome ), or treatment with blood thinners . (peacehealth.org)
  • Use: This lipid panel with LDL/HDL ratio measures your total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and HDL and LDL cholesterol to help you evaluate if you are at risk for heart disease. (personalabs.com)
  • Use: The Lipid Panel is used to evaluate hyperlipidemia (an abnormally high concentration of fats or lipids in the blood) as an index to heart disease. (personalabs.com)
  • Order Lithium Serum bloodwork online today through Personalabs to measure the amount of lithium in blood. (personalabs.com)
  • Blood serum samples were taken throughout the treatment period to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of bivatuzumab mertansine and to assess the human anti-bivatuzumab mertansine antibody response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 14 - 18 However, these studies vary widely with respect to the scope of POC measurements performed, availability and use of coagulation factor concentrates, and by consideration of either the intraoperative or postoperative period. (asahq.org)
  • Both groups were subdivided into 2 groups based on whether they had received intraoperative tranexamic acid (TXA), the only coagulation-modifying medication administered intraoperatively during the study period. (thejns.org)
  • 0.05), with a nonsignificant reduction in blood loss (median 2.6 L [range 0.9-5.4 L] in the ROTEM-TXA group vs 2.9 L [0.7-7.0 L] in the Conventional-TXA group, p = 0.21). (thejns.org)
  • Intrarater and interrater variability of point of care coagulation testing using the ROTEM delta. (uzh.ch)
  • Perioperative risk reduction strategies: The hematologist's recommendations regarding the use of DDAVP or specific blood products for labor and delivery should be available prior to delivery. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • This report describes the perioperative management of disseminated intravascular coagulation occurring abruptly during a planned cystectomy for non-metastatic bladder papillary carcinoma. (thefreelibrary.com)