Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Factor Xa: Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Factor VII: Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Factor IX: Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Factor VIIa: Activated form of factor VII. Factor VIIa activates factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Factor XIII: A fibrin-stabilizing plasma enzyme (TRANSGLUTAMINASES) that is activated by THROMBIN and CALCIUM to form FACTOR XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which culminates the coagulation cascade.Whole Blood Coagulation Time: The time required by whole blood to produce a visible clot.Factor XIa: Activated form of factor XI. In the intrinsic pathway, Factor XI is activated to XIa by factor XIIa in the presence of cofactor HMWK; (HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN). Factor XIa then activates factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of calcium.Factor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Blood Coagulation Factor Inhibitors: Substances, usually endogenous, that act as inhibitors of blood coagulation. They may affect one or multiple enzymes throughout the process. As a group, they also inhibit enzymes involved in processes other than blood coagulation, such as those from the complement system, fibrinolytic enzyme system, blood cells, and bacteria.Coagulants: Agents that cause clotting.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Factor IXa: Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Thrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.Factor XIIa: Activated form of factor XII. In the initial event in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, kallikrein (with cofactor HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN) cleaves factor XII to XIIa. Factor XIIa is then further cleaved by kallikrein, plasmin, and trypsin to yield smaller factor XII fragments (Hageman-Factor fragments). These fragments increase the activity of prekallikrein to kallikrein but decrease the procoagulant activity of factor XII.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Factor XII: Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Mutations in the gene for factor XII that appear to increase factor XII amidolytic activity are associated with HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPE III.Factor XI: Stable blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway. The activated form XIa activates factor IX to IXa. Deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Factor XI Deficiency: A hereditary deficiency of blood coagulation factor XI (also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent or PTA or antihemophilic factor C) resulting in a systemic blood-clotting defect called hemophilia C or Rosenthal's syndrome, that may resemble classical hemophilia.Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Factor XII Deficiency: An absence or reduced level of blood coagulation factor XII. It normally occurs in the absence of patient or family history of hemorrhagic disorders and is marked by prolonged clotting time.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Factor VIIIa: Activated form of factor VIII. The B-domain of factor VIII is proteolytically cleaved by thrombin to form factor VIIIa. Factor VIIIa exists as a non-covalent dimer in a metal-linked (probably calcium) complex and functions as a cofactor in the enzymatic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Factor VIIIa is similar in structure and generation to factor Va.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Factor Va: Activated form of factor V. It is an essential cofactor for the activation of prothrombin catalyzed by factor Xa.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Thrombomodulin: A cell surface glycoprotein of endothelial cells that binds thrombin and serves as a cofactor in the activation of protein C and its regulation of blood coagulation.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.1-Carboxyglutamic Acid: Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.Argon Plasma Coagulation: A method of tissue ablation and bleeding control that uses ARGON plasma (ionized argon gas) to deliver a current of thermocoagulating energy to the area of tissue to be coagulated.Hemophilia B: A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of inherited abnormalities in blood coagulation.Hypoprothrombinemias: Absence or reduced levels of PROTHROMBIN in the blood.Coagulation Protein Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders resulting from abnormalities or deficiencies of coagulation proteins.Prekallikrein: A plasma protein which is the precursor of kallikrein. Plasma that is deficient in prekallikrein has been found to be abnormal in thromboplastin formation, kinin generation, evolution of a permeability globulin, and plasmin formation. The absence of prekallikrein in plasma leads to Fletcher factor deficiency, a congenital disease.Fibrinopeptide A: Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Serine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Factor X Deficiency: Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.Viperidae: A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Hemostatics: Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Polygeline: A 3.5 per cent colloidal solution containing urea-cross-linked polymerized peptides. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 and is prepared from gelatin and electrolytes. The polymeric solution is used as a plasma expander.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Electrocoagulation: Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.Arcidae: A family of ark shell mollusks, in the class BIVALVIA. They have soft bodies with platelike GILLS enclosed within two shells hinged together.Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).alpha-2-Antiplasmin: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.Factor VII Deficiency: An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Kininogens: Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Plasma Kallikrein: A peptidohydrolytic enzyme that is formed from PREKALLIKREIN by FACTOR XIIA. It activates FACTOR XII; FACTOR VII; and PLASMINOGEN. It is selective for both ARGININE and to a lesser extent LYSINE bonds. EC 3.4.21.34.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Dyslexia: A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Carbon-Carbon Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptor, PAR-1: A thrombin receptor subtype that couples to HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS resulting in the activation of a variety of signaling mechanisms including decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP, increased TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES and increased PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Artocarpus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. Puag-haad extract, from A. lakoocha, contains STILBENES and related 4-substituted RESORCINOLS.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Sulfoglycosphingolipids: GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)Factor XIIIa: Activated form of FACTOR XIII, a transglutaminase, which stabilizes the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) culminating the blood coagulation cascade.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Benzamidines: Amidines substituted with a benzene group. Benzamidine and its derivatives are known as peptidase inhibitors.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hemorrhagic Disorders: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).Receptors, Thrombin: A family of proteinase-activated receptors that are specific for THROMBIN. They are found primarily on PLATELETS and on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Activation of thrombin receptors occurs through the proteolytic action of THROMBIN, which cleaves the N-terminal peptide from the receptor to reveal a new N-terminal peptide that is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The receptors signal through HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. Small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal peptide sequence can also activate the receptor in the absence of proteolytic activity.Hirudins: Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Ellagic Acid: A fused four ring compound occurring free or combined in galls. Isolated from the kino of Eucalyptus maculata Hook and E. Hemipholia F. Muell. Activates Factor XII of the blood clotting system which also causes kinin release; used in research and as a dye.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Cephapirin: Cephalosporin antibiotic, partly plasma-bound, that is effective against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Streptomycetaceae: A family of soil bacteria. It also includes some parasitic forms.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Tosylarginine Methyl Ester: Arginine derivative which is a substrate for many proteolytic enzymes. As a substrate for the esterase from the first component of complement, it inhibits the action of C(l) on C(4).Receptors, Proteinase-Activated: A class of receptors that are activated by the action of PROTEINASES. The most notable examples are the THROMBIN RECEPTORS. The receptors contain cryptic ligands that are exposed upon the selective proteolysis of specific N-terminal cleavage sites.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Infant, Postmature: An infant born at or after 42 weeks of gestation.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Russell's Viper: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Viscoelastic Substances: Substances that display the physical properties of ELASTICITY and VISCOSITY. The dual-nature of these substances causes them to resist applied forces in a time-dependent manner.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Polyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.Agkistrodon: A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)Battered Child Syndrome: A clinical condition resulting from repeated physical and psychological injuries inflicted on a child by the parents or caregivers.Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.Plasminogen Inactivators: Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. The inhibitors belong to the serpin family of proteins and inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Fibrinolysin: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Erythrina: A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Aprotinin: A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Kininogen, Low-Molecular-Weight: A protein, molecular weight 50 kD, located in various normal tissues. Upon cleavage by KALLIKREINS, it forms KALLIDIN. Kallidin, in turn, is converted into BRADYKININ. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Afibrinogenemia: A deficiency or absence of FIBRINOGEN in the blood.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester: A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases: OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.Isoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Trypsin Inhibitors: Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Cadaverine: A foul-smelling diamine formed by bacterial decarboxylation of lysine.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Annexins: Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Factor XIII Deficiency: A deficiency of blood coagulation FACTOR XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor (FSF) that prevents blood clot formation and results in a clinical hemorrhagic diathesis.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Hemostasis, Surgical: Control of bleeding during or after surgery.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor: An antiphospholipid antibody found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. In vitro, the antibody interferes with the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and prolongs the partial thromboplastin time. In vivo, it exerts a procoagulant effect resulting in thrombosis mainly in the larger veins and arteries. It further causes obstetrical complications, including fetal death and spontaneous abortion, as well as a variety of hematologic and neurologic complications.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.

Exosites 1 and 2 are essential for protection of fibrin-bound thrombin from heparin-catalyzed inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II. (1/3556)

Assembly of ternary thrombin-heparin-fibrin complexes, formed when fibrin binds to exosite 1 on thrombin and fibrin-bound heparin binds to exosite 2, produces a 58- and 247-fold reduction in the heparin-catalyzed rate of thrombin inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II, respectively. The greater reduction for heparin cofactor II reflects its requirement for access to exosite 1 during the inhibitory process. Protection from inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II requires ligation of both exosites 1 and 2 because minimal protection is seen when exosite 1 variants (gamma-thrombin and thrombin Quick 1) or an exosite 2 variant (Arg93 --> Ala, Arg97 --> Ala, and Arg101 --> Ala thrombin) is substituted for thrombin. Likewise, the rate of thrombin inhibition by the heparin-independent inhibitor, alpha1-antitrypsin Met358 --> Arg, is decreased less than 2-fold in the presence of soluble fibrin and heparin. In contrast, thrombin is protected from inhibition by a covalent antithrombin-heparin complex, suggesting that access of heparin to exosite 2 of thrombin is hampered when ternary complex formation occurs. These results reveal the importance of exosites 1 and 2 of thrombin in assembly of the ternary complex and the subsequent protection of thrombin from inhibition by heparin-catalyzed inhibitors.  (+info)

Nonanticoagulant heparin prevents coronary endothelial dysfunction after brief ischemia-reperfusion injury in the dog. (2/3556)

BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial dysfunction after brief ischemia-reperfusion (IR) remains a clinical problem. We investigated the role of heparin and N-acetylheparin, a nonanticoagulant heparin derivative, in modulating coronary endothelial function after IR injury, with an emphasis on defining the role of the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in the heparin-mediated effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male mongrel dogs were surgically instrumented, and the effects of both bovine heparin and N-acetylheparin on coronary endothelial vasomotor function, expressed as percent change from baseline flow after acetylcholine challenge, were studied after 15 minutes of regional ischemia of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. In dogs treated with placebo (saline), coronary vasomotor function was significantly (P+info)

Distinct contributions of residue 192 to the specificity of coagulation and fibrinolytic serine proteases. (3/3556)

Archetypal members of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteases, such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase, exhibit relatively broad substrate specificity. However, the successful development of efficient proteolytic cascades, such as the blood coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, required the evolution of proteases that displayed restricted specificity. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), for example, possesses exquisitely stringent substrate specificity, and the molecular basis of this important biochemical property of t-PA remains obscure. Previous investigations of related serine proteases, which participate in the blood coagulation cascade, have focused attention on the residue that occupies position 192 (chymotrypsin numbering system), which plays a pivotal role in determining both the inhibitor and substrate specificity of these enzymes. Consequently, we created and characterized the kinetic properties of new variants of t-PA that contained point mutations at position 192. These studies demonstrated that, unlike in coagulation serine proteases, Gln-192 does not contribute significantly to the substrate or inhibitor specificity of t-PA in physiologically relevant reactions. Replacement of Gln-192 with a glutamic acid residue did, however, decrease the catalytic efficiency of mature, two-chain t-PA toward plasminogen in the absence of a fibrin co-factor.  (+info)

Age-related changes in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in mice fed on a high-cholesterol diet. (4/3556)

To investigate the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis, we examined age-dependent changes in platelet activity, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in susceptibility to a high cholesterol diet (HCD) feeding in male ICR mice. Pretreatment of platelet-rich-plasma from HCD feeding mice for 3 days with epinephrine (300 microM) resulted in a marked enhancement of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP: 0.1 microM) or collagen (0.7 microgram/ml)-stimulated aggregation compared with the same in control mice. Yohimbine as alpha 2-adrenergic blocker antagonized these aggregations in a dose-dependent manner. A significant increase in plasma total cholesterol and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein)-LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol and the liver/body weight ratio was observed in mice fed on HCD for 3 months (3-month HCD mice). In the early phase of this experiment, a significant increase in fibrinogen was observed. In the middle phase, increases in the activity of antithrombin III (ATIII) and alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2-Pl) followed. Plasminogen content gradually decreased in both normal diet and HCD mice throughout the experiment. The activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) decreased in 3-month HCD mice. Morphological observation of the aortic arch from 3-month HCD mice revealed apparent atheromatous plaques not seen in control mice. These results suggest that 3-month HCD mice can be a convenient hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerotic model and the changes in platelet activity, coagulation and fibrinolysis in the early phase may be a cause of pathologic changes in this model.  (+info)

PPARgamma activation in human endothelial cells increases plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 expression: PPARgamma as a potential mediator in vascular disease. (5/3556)

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) is a major physiological inhibitor of fibrinolysis, with its plasma levels correlating with the risk for myocardial infarction and venous thrombosis. The regulation of PAI-1 transcription by endothelial cells (ECs), a major source of PAI-1, remains incompletely understood. Adipocytes also produce PAI-1, suggesting possible common regulatory pathways between adipocytes and ECs. Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR)gamma is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to various mediators such as 15-deoxy-Delta12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and oxidized linoleic acid (9- and 13-HODE). The present study tested the hypotheses that human ECs express PPARgamma and that this transcriptional activator regulates PAI-1 expression in this cell type. We found that human ECs contain both PPARgamma mRNA and protein. Immunohistochemistry of human carotid arteries also revealed the presence of PPARgamma in ECs. Bovine ECs transfected with a PPAR response element (PPRE)-luciferase construct responded to stimulation by the PPARgamma agonist 15d-PGJ2 in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting a functional PPARgamma in ECs. Treatment of human ECs with 15d-PGJ2, 9(S)-HODE, or 13(S)-HODE augmented PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression, whereas multiple PPARalpha activators did not change PAI-1 levels. Introduction of increasing amounts of a PPARgamma expression construct in human fibroblasts enhanced PAI-1 secretion from these cells in proportion to the amount of transfected DNA. Thus, ECs express functionally active PPARgamma that regulates PAI-1 expression in ECs. Our results establish a role for PPARgamma in the regulation of EC gene expression, with important implications for the clinical links between obesity and atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Antithrombotic efficacy of thrombin inhibitor L-374,087: intravenous activity in a primate model of venous thrombus extension and oral activity in a canine model of primary venous and coronary artery thrombosis. (6/3556)

The small molecule direct thrombin inhibitor L-374,087 was characterized across species in an in vitro activated partial thromboplastin clotting time (aPTT) assay and in vivo in rhesus monkey and dog thrombosis models. In vitro in rhesus, dog, and human plasma, L-374,087 concentrations eliciting 2-fold increases in aPTT were 0.25, 1.9, and 0.28 microM, respectively. In anesthetized rhesus monkeys, 300 microgram/kg bolus plus 12 microgram/kg/min and 300 microgram/kg bolus plus 30 microgram/kg/min L-374,087 i.v. infusions significantly reduced jugular vein thrombus extension, with both regimens limiting venous thrombus extension to 2-fold that of baseline thrombus mass compared with a 5-fold extension observed in the vehicle control group. Antithrombotic efficacy in the rhesus with the lower-dose regimen was achieved with 2.3- to 2.4-fold increases in aPTT and prothrombin time. In a conscious instrumented dog model of electrolytic vessel injury, the oral administration of two 10 mg/kg L-374,087 doses 12 h apart significantly reduced jugular vein thrombus mass, reduced the incidence of and delayed time to occlusive coronary artery thrombosis, and significantly reduced coronary artery thrombus mass and ensuing posterolateral myocardial infarct size. Antithrombotic efficacy in the dog was achieved with 1.6- to 2.0-fold increases in aPTT at 1 to 6 h after oral dosing with L-374,087. These results indicate significant antithrombotic efficacy against both venous and coronary arterial thrombosis with L-374,087 with only moderate elevations in aPTT or prothrombin time. The oral efficacy of L-374,087 characterizes this compound as a prototype for the further development of orally active direct thrombin inhibitors.  (+info)

Risk of clot formation in femoral arterial sheaths maintained overnight for neuroangiographic procedures. (7/3556)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of blood clots in femoral arterial sheaths maintained after cerebral angiography and the effect of heparinized saline on clot formation. METHODS: Twenty-three sheaths were evaluated in 18 patients. Sheaths were maintained for 14 to 80 hours (average, 33 hours; median, 24 hours). After the sheaths were removed, they were vigorously flushed with 60 mL of normal saline and the number and size of clots found in each sheath were recorded. Additionally, patients' age, catheter size, presence of heparin, amount of time the sheath was kept in the artery, and patients' coagulation status were recorded. RESULTS: Clots were found in 17 (74%) of the 23 sheaths. Ten catheters had continuous heparin drip, of which seven (70%) sustained clots. Of the 13 sheaths without heparin, 10 sustained clots (77%). The difference was not statistically significant. The average number of clots was 2.2, and the maximal length of clots ranged from 0.5 to 105 mm. No thromboembolic complications associated with sheath placement were encountered in our patient population. CONCLUSION: Blood clots are present in the vast majority of intraarterial sheaths maintained after cerebral angiography. These clots constitute a risk of thromboembolic complications in the event of repeat angiography. Sheath exchange should be considered before obtaining repeat cerebral angiograms.  (+info)

Thrombelastographic changes and early rebleeding in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding. (8/3556)

BACKGROUND: Routine coagulation tests do not necessarily reflect haemostasis in vivo in cirrhotic patients, particularly those who have bleeding varices. Thrombelastography (TEG) can provide a global assessment of haemostatic function from initial clot formation to clot dissolution. AIM: To evaluate TEG changes in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding and their association with early rebleeding. PATIENTS/METHODS: Twenty cirrhotic patients with active variceal bleeding had serial TEG and routine coagulation tests daily for seven days. The TEG variables before the day of rebleeding (n = 6) were compared with those of patients without rebleeding (n = 14). RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of the rebleeding and non-rebleeding groups were comparable apart from a higher incidence of uncontrolled infection on the day of rebleeding in the rebleeding group (p = 0.007). The patients in the rebleeding group were more hypocoagulable before the day of rebleeding as shown by longer r (42 v 24 mm, p < 0.001) and k (48 v 13 mm, p < 0.001) and smaller a (12 v 38 degrees, p < 0.001) compared with the mean of daily results of the non-rebleeding group. Routine coagulation tests, however, showed no significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The results of serial TEG measurements suggest that hypocoagulability may be associated with early rebleeding in cirrhotic patients.  (+info)

*Sigmund Rascher

Blood coagulation experiments[edit]. Rascher experimented with the effects of Polygal, a substance made from beet and apple ... He conducted deadly experiments on humans about high altitude, freezing and blood coagulation under SS leader Heinrich Himmler' ... pectin, which aided blood clotting. He predicted that the preventive use of Polygal tablets would reduce bleeding from gunshot ...

*Fibronectin type II domain

Type II domains have also been found in a range of proteins including blood coagulation factor XII; bovine seminal plasma ... Fibronectins are involved in a number of important functions e.g., wound healing; cell adhesion; blood coagulation; cell ... Structural similarity of the protease precursor to blood coagulation factor XII". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (14): 10024-10028. PMID ...

*Earl Davie

Davie studies the blood proteins involved in coagulation and was among the first scientists to describe the steps of the ... "1962: Blood Coagulation". UW Office of Research. November 1996. Retrieved November 12, 2015. "Earl Davie". University of ... The Centre for Blood Research at the University of British Columbia established the Earl W. Davie Symposium in his honor. " ... Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert; Hill, Robert (December 1, 2006). "The waterfall sequence for blood clotting: The work of Earl W ...

*FCGR3A

Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis. 23 (1): 45-50. doi:10.1097/mbc.0b013e32834d7ce3. PMID 22024796. Keane C, Nourse JP, Crooks P ... Blood. 90 (3): 1109-14. PMID 9242542. Nourse JP, Lea R, Crooks P, Wright G, Tran H, Catalano J, Brighton T, Grigg A, Marlton P ...

*Kadmon Corporation

Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis. 19 (7): 709-18. doi:10.1097/MBC.0b013e32830b2891. PMC 2713681 . PMID 18832915. Lee, J; Zheng ... for DX-2400, a Matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MPP-14) tarageted monoclonal antibody intended to inhibit tumor blood vessel ...

*Brodifacoum

"I smell a rat". Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis. doi:10.1097/mbc.0b013e328358e959. La Rosa F; Clarke S; Lefkowitz J. B. (1997 ... the blood plasma and blood itself begins to leak from the smallest blood vessels. A poisoned animal will suffer progressively ... A complete blood count and complete metabolic panel were normal. Prothrombin time (PT) was above 100 s, partial thromboplastin ... A 20-year-old female college student presented with abdominal pain and blood in urine. She was tested for warfarin, a common ...

*Protein C inhibitor

... inhibiting several blood coagulation enzymes counting thrombin and factor Xa. In the beginning, protein C inhibitor(PCI) was ... Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis. 4 (6): 921-6. doi:10.1097/00001721-199304060-00009. PMID 8148485. Hayashi T, Suzuki K ( ... Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis. 4 (1): 153-8. doi:10.1097/00001721-199304010-00027. PMID 8384496. Moore A, Penfold LM, ... Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis. 6 (5): 382-7. doi:10.1097/00001721-199507000-00003. PMID 8589203. The MEROPS online database ...

*Hemoglobinemia

Coagulation Blood diseases. ... in which hemoglobin separates from red blood cells, a form of ... When hemoglobinemia is internally caused, it is a result of recessive genetic defects that cause the red blood cells to lyse, ... In externally caused hemoglobinemia, an outside attacker acts as an antibody against the red blood cells. This can cause the ... Hemoglobinemia (British Haemoglobinaemia) is a medical condition in which there is an excess of hemoglobin in the blood plasma ...

*Craterellus lutescens

Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis. 12 (2): 123-8. doi:10.1097/00001721-200103000-00006. PMID 11302474. Craterellus lutescens ...

*Lactarius

Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis. 12 (2): 123-8. doi:10.1097/00001721-200103000-00006. PMID 11302474. North American species ...

*Gloeophyllum

Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis. 12 (2): 123-8. doi:10.1097/00001721-200103000-00006. PMID 11302474. Mlinarič, A.; Kreft, S ...

*Amanita virosa

Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis. 12 (2): 123-8. doi:10.1097/00001721-200103000-00006. PMID 11302474. Benjamin, Denis R. ( ... and impaired coagulation. No definitive antidote for amatoxin poisoning is available, but some specific treatments have been ...

*Hypholoma fasciculare

Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis. 12 (2): 123-8. doi:10.1097/00001721-200103000-00006. PMID 11302474. Media related to ...

*Quebec platelet disorder

Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis. 19 (2): 109-119. doi:10.1097/mbc.0b013e3282f41e3e. McKay & Haq, 2004 Paterson AD, Rommens ... Blood. 115 (6): 1264-6. doi:10.1182/blood-2009-07-233965. PMID 20007542. Kahr, 2001 Sheth, 2003 Diamandis & Adam, 2006 "Gene ... Blood. 87: 4967-78. Diamandis M, Veljkovic DK, Maurer-Spurej E, Rivard GE, Hayward CPM (2008). "Quebec platelet disorder: ... The mutation causes overproduction of an enzyme that accelerates blood clot breakdown. The disorder is characterized by large ...

*Clitocybe

Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis. 12 (2): 123-8. doi:10.1097/00001721-200103000-00006. PMID 11302474. Clitocybe in Index ...

*Suillus tridentinus

Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis. 12 (2): 123-8. doi:10.1097/00001721-200103000-00006. PMID 11302474. E. Garnweidner. ...

*Prothrombin G20210A

... which plays a key role in causing blood to clot (blood coagulation). G20210A can thus contribute to a state of ... "Blood. 88 (10): 3698-703. PMID 8916933.. *^ Ye Z, Liu EH, Higgins JP, Keavney BD, Lowe GD, Collins R, et al. (2006). "Seven ... Occasionally, blood-thinning medication may be indicated to reduce the risk of clotting.[10][better source needed] ... Deficiencies in the anticoagulants Protein C and Protein S further increase the risk five- to tenfold.[2] Behind non-O blood ...

*Factor VIII

... participates in blood coagulation; it is a cofactor for factor IXa which, in the presence of Ca2+ and phospholipids ... Villoutreix BO, Dahlbäck B (June 1998). "Structural investigation of the A domains of human blood coagulation factor V by ... "NIH: F8 - coagulation factor VIII". National Institutes of Health. "Entrez Gene: F8 coagulation factor VIII, procoagulant ... The active protein (sometimes written as coagulation factor VIIIa) interacts with another coagulation factor called factor IX. ...

*Pathophysiology of asthma

8 (5). de Boer JD, Majoor CJ, van 't Veer C, Bel EH, van der Poll T (April 2012). "Asthma and coagulation". Blood. 119 (14): ... doi:10.1182/blood-2011-11-391532. PMID 22262775. Middleton's Allergy Principles & Practice, N. F. Adkinson, B. S. Bochner, W. W ...

*Prothrombinase

"Five novel mutations in the gene for human blood coagulation factor V associated with type I factor V deficiency". Blood. 98 (2 ... Both Factor X and Factor V circulate in the blood as inactive precursors prior to activation by the coagulation cascade. The ... doi:10.1182/blood.V98.2.358. PMID 11435304. Auerswald G (2006). "Prophylaxis in rare coagulation disorders -- factor X ... Furie B, Furie BC (May 1988). "The molecular basis of blood coagulation". Cell. 53 (4): 505-18. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(88)90567- ...

*Factor XII

Blood. 69 (5): 1421-4. PMID 2882793. Cool DE, MacGillivray RT (Oct 1987). "Characterization of the human blood coagulation ... Hepatocytes express blood coagulation factor XII. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000131187 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... Gordon EM, Gallagher CA, Johnson TR, Blossey BK, Ilan J (Apr 1990). "Hepatocytes express blood coagulation factor XII (Hageman ... Cool DE, Edgell CJ, Louie GV, Zoller MJ, Brayer GD, MacGillivray RT (Nov 1985). "Characterization of human blood coagulation ...

*Naftalan oil

During treatment there is an increase in the blood of hemoglobin and erythrocytes. It also slows the blood coagulation. ...

*Hyperprothrombinemia

Blood coagulation Hyperprothrombinemia Merriam Webster Dictionary. Accessed January 19, 2012.. ... Hyperprothrombinemia is a state of high of prothrombin levels in the blood which leads to hypercoagulability. An example of a ...

*Vitamin K

Blood clotting (coagulation) studies in humans using 45 mg per day of vitamin K2 (as MK-4) and even up to 135 mg per day (45 mg ... The extent to which blood coagulation was restored by the diet was taken as a measure for its vitamin K content. Three groups ... Without vitamin K, blood coagulation is seriously impaired, and uncontrolled bleeding occurs. Preliminary clinical research ... Mann, K. G. (Aug 1999). "Biochemistry and physiology of blood coagulation". Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 82 (2): 165-174. PMID ...

*F13B

Coagulation factor XIII is the last zymogen to become activated in the blood coagulation cascade. Plasma factor XIII is a ... 1993). "Two genetic defects in a patient with complete deficiency of the b-subunit for coagulation factor XIII". Blood. 82 (1 ... Coagulation factor XIII B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the F13B gene. This gene encodes coagulation factor ... Muszbek L, Adány R, Mikkola H (1997). "Novel aspects of blood coagulation factor XIII. I. Structure, distribution, activation, ...

*Factor I

Fibrinogen, a protein involved in blood coagulation.. ...

*Category:Blood proteins

Pages in category "Blood proteins". The following 39 pages are in this category, out of 39 total. This list may not reflect ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Blood_proteins&oldid=804272786" ...

*Atheris desaixi

Poor coagulation may even require blood transfusions. List of viperine species and subspecies Viperinae by common name ...
0070] In this case, the analyzing section 42 determines whether or not the aggregability of the platelets is good depending on whether the shortening width (or delay width) Δt of the blood coagulation time of the sample blood to which the platelet activating agent etc. is added is larger or smaller than the reference value (Δts). Specifically, the analyzing section 42 determines that the aggregability of the platelets is high if the shortening width Δt of the blood coagulation time of the sample blood to which the platelet activating agent is added is larger than the reference value (Δts). Conversely, the analyzing section 42 determines that the aggregability of the platelets is low if the shortening width Δt is smaller than the reference value (Δts). Alternatively, the analyzing section 42 determines that the aggregability of the platelets is high if the delay width Δt of the blood coagulation time of the sample blood to which the platelet inactivating agent is added is larger than the ...
The effects of treadmill exercise on platelet function, blood coagulability and fibrinolytic activity were evaluated in 20 patients with lone atrial fibrillation (AF) and 15 age-matched normal controls (normals). Multistage treadmill exercise up to 8
Platelets play a major role in the complex interactions involved in blood coagulation via multiple mechanisms. As reported in this issue, Schoergenhofer et al. tested the hypothesis that platelet inhibition by prasugrel, a potent platelet P2Y12 ADP receptor antagonist, attenuates the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the blood coagulation system in healthy human subjects. LPS, a bacterial product with potent pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic effects, plays a central role in sepsis. It activates monocytes and endothelial cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and other TLRs to stimulate production of TF and other pro-coagulant molecules, chemokines and cytokines. Treatment with prasugrel did not decrease biomarkers of coagulaion. A better understanding of the relative roles of platelet and coagulation mechanisms in triggering the pro-thrombotic state may lead to more effective antithrombotic strategies. ...
Blood coagulation functions as part of the innate immune system by preventing bacterial invasion and it is critical to stopping blood loss (hemostasis). Coagulation involves the external membrane surface of activated platelets and leukocytes. Using lipidomic, genetic, biochemical, and mathematical modeling approaches, we found that enzymatically oxidized phospholipids (eoxPLs) generated by the activity of leukocyte or platelet lipoxygenases (LOXs) were required for normal hemostasis and promoted coagulation factor activities in a Ca2+- and phosphatidylserine (PS)- dependent manner. In wild-type mice, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-phospholipids (HETE-PLs) enhanced coagulation and restored normal hemostasis in clotting-deficient animals genetically lacking p12-LOX or 12/15-LOX activity. Murine platelets generated 22 eoxPL species, all of which were missing in the absence of p12-LOX. Humans with the thrombotic disorder antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) had statistically significantly increased ...
Research could lead to new therapies. In our not-so-distant evolutionary past, stress often meant imminent danger, and the risk of blood loss, so part of our bodys stress response is to stock-pile blood-clotting factors. Scientists in the Molecular Medicine Partnership Unit (MMPU), a collaboration between the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany, and the University of Heidelberg Medical Centre, have discovered how stressed cells boost the production of the key blood-clotting factor, thrombin. Their work, published today in Molecular Cell, shows how cancer cells may be taking advantage of this process, and opens new possibilities for fighting back, not only against cancer but also against septicaemia, where increased blood clotting is still one of the leading causes of death.. Blood clots tend to form more often in the veins of people with cancer, a syndrome first described almost 150 years ago by French physician Armand Trousseau. In recent years, doctors have ...
Background: In recent years, research has been done into various aspects of blood coagulation system, while the effect of exercise on this system has not been studied. Exercise may be able to contribute to the processes of coagulation and fibrinolysis cascades.Aim: To investigate the effect of six months of aerobic exercise on proteins C, S and platelets in sedentary middle-aged women.Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 19 inactive middle-aged women were randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control. The experimental group attended aerobic exercise with the intensity of 55 to 65% of the heart rate reserve for six months; three sessions per week, each 60 minutes. A Coulter type CO-BASS device measured the coagulation factors. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 16, independent and paired t-tests.Results: the mean age was 42.2 ± 3.3 years old and weight 64.0 ± 8.6 kg. Sample were identical and normal confirmed by statistical tests of levene and Shapiro-Willkie (p|0.05). The results of
The process of fibrin formation takes place in two different pathways of the coagulation cascade of the secondary hemostasis. The pathways are the contact activation and the tissue factor pathway.. Contact activation pathway (intrinsic pathway). The step starts with the formation of collagen (Laposata, M. 2011, p. 109).. This step has a minor role in initiating the clot formation process compared to the tissue factor pathway as evidenced by lack of bleeding disorder in patients with severe deficiencies of FXII, prekallikrein and HMWK.. The course is however, much involved in the process of inflammation.. Tissue factor pathway (extrinsic pathway). This pathway generates the thrombin bust that leads to the release of thrombin from the complex prothrombinase.. Thrombin is a very important component of the coagulation cascade as it activates feedback.. It also activates the other components of the coagulation cascade. The process starts when the blood vessels are damaged (Amy M. K., 2012, p. ...
R. T. BAILLY 3,814,585 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TESTING BLOOD COAGULATION June 4, 1974 Filed Sept. 26. 1972 EVENTUALLY REACHES ZERO FIG. 2 FIG. 3 United States Patent ice 3,814,585 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TESTING BLOOD COAGULATION Robert T. Bailly, Hinman Road, Barneveld, NY. 13304 Filed Sept. 26, 1972, Ser. No. 292,399 Int. Cl. G011! 33/16 US. Cl. 23230 B Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A freshly drawn sample of venous blood is placed in a container, such as a hypodermic syringe, and a thread is moved lengthwise through the sample until a substantially continuous mass of fibrin and/or red blood cells form thereon, marking the endpoint of the test. The thread is of a material to which blood coagulation substances adhere, preferably a water wettable material such as glass, or plant or animal fibers, e.g., cotton or wool. The thread may be inserted through the needle of the syringe and an electric motor with suitable reduction gearing used to draw the thread through the needle and blood sample ...
© 2014 The British Infection Association. Objectives: Human tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of death globally. Bangladesh is one of the most affected countries. We aimed to investigate the impact of pulmonary TB on pro- and anticoagulant mechanisms. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in Chittagong, Bangladesh. We performed an in-depth analysis of coagulation activation and inhibition in plasma obtained from 64 patients with primary lung TB and 11 patients with recurrent lung TB and compared these with 37 healthy controls. Additionally, in nine patients coagulation activation was studied in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the site of infection and compared with BALF from a contralateral unaffected lung subsegment. Results: Relative to uninfected controls, primary and recurrent TB were associated with a systemic net procoagulant state, as indicated by enhanced activation of coagulation (elevated plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, D-dimer and
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Synonyms for Coagulation factors in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Coagulation factors. 2 synonyms for coagulation: clotting, curdling. What are synonyms for Coagulation factors?
Schistosomes, parasitic worms that cause the tropical disease schistosomiasis, are able to survive in the hosts bloodstream for up to 30 years. Their survival in this hostile environment without activation of the coagulation system or clearance by the immune system is remarkable. The aim of this thesis is to describe ... read more the strategies used by schistosomes to allow their survival in the circulation. Blood coagulation around the parasite is inhibited at many different levels by schistosomes. In addition, the parasitic surface forms a protective barrier against immune recognition and immune damage. Furthermore, schistosomes have several strategies to inhibit or modulate host immune responses. These different strategies are often a clever combination of mimicking or using host mechanisms for regulation of the immune and haemostatic system and schistosome specific strategies to inhibit host blood coagulation and immune responses or to protect the parasite from immune damage. Insight in ...
Global Blood Coagulation Testing Market Information by instruments (prothrombin time, APTT, thrombo test) by methods (Global test, Local test) by End Users (Hospitals, clinics, Research Institutes) - Forecast to 2027
Coagulation proteases, in addition to their role in the regulation of blood coagulation, can modulate intracellular signaling events by activating a subfamily o...
There is a large amount of experimental evidence that supports the concept of an association between blood coagulation and malignant disease. Since several chapters within this volume describe...
When an artery to the heart becomes narrow or blocked due to plaque build-up, doctors may try to surgically widen the artery in a procedure called balloon angioplasty. After surgery, blood clots are more likely to form, raising chances for heart attacks. To avoid this, doctors give blood-thinning medications. Researchers wanted to test the anti-clotting capacity of omega-3s. Fifty-four men and women, average age 63, with stable coronary artery disease and a recent successful balloon angioplasty, took the standard anti-clot medications, aspirin and clopidogrel, with or without 460 mg of EPA plus 380 mg of DHA per day. Compared to those who did not take EPA and DHA, those who did had fewer abnormal blood-clotting factors, better blood-clotting traits, and a more balanced and controlled clotting process. Doctors also observed less oxidative stress in the omega-3 group. Reference: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology; 2011, Vol. 31, No. 7, 1696-702 ...
When an artery to the heart becomes narrow or blocked due to plaque build-up, doctors may try to surgically widen the artery in a procedure called balloon angioplasty. After surgery, blood clots are more likely to form, raising chances for heart attacks. To avoid this, doctors give blood-thinning medications. Researchers wanted to test the anti-clotting capacity of omega-3s. Fifty-four men and women, average age 63, with stable coronary artery disease and a recent successful balloon angioplasty, took the standard anti-clot medications, aspirin and clopidogrel, with or without 460 mg of EPA plus 380 mg of DHA per day. Compared to those who did not take EPA and DHA, those who did had fewer abnormal blood-clotting factors, better blood-clotting traits, and a more balanced and controlled clotting process. Doctors also observed less oxidative stress in the omega-3 group. Reference: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology; 2011, Vol. 31, No. 7, 1696-702 ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. The report, Global Coagulation Testing Market 2017-2021, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. This report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market.. Key players in the global coagulation testing market: Roche Diagnostics, Alere, Abbott Laboratories, and Siemens Healthcare. Other Prominent Vendors in the market are: Accriva Diagnostics, CoaguSense, Diagon, Helena Laboratories, HemoSonics, iLine Microsystems, Medtronic, Micropoint Bioscience, and Sysmex.. Purchase a Copy of the Report @ http://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/contacts/purchase?rname=864996. The analysts forecast the global coagulation testing market to grow at a CAGR of 6.43% during the period 2017-2021. Coagulation testing helps measure the ability of blood to form a clot. Clotting occurs ...
Blood clots are typically a very useful mechanism within the body. When you get a papercut or other minor injury, you may notice that the blood eventually stops flowing. This stoppage happens because of blood clots at the site of the wound, preventing you from losing all of your blood through one small cut. When the blood within your veins forms a clot, however, this same mechanism that usually protects you can turn deadly instead. Blood clots in your veins can break off and travel to important organs, causing a heart attack or stroke, among other issues. It is important to know what the common causes of blood clots are, to find out if you may be at a higher risk for this complication.. ...
inhibits neutrophil adhesion to vascular endothelium. 2. Hypertension associated with pregnancy. - resemble deficiency of NO and PG. - possible role of enhancing NO levels via nutritional supp.w/L-arginine. 3. Respiratory disorders. - used via inhalation to newborns w/pulmonary hypertension and ARDS. - decreases pulmonary arterial pressure and improves blood oxygenation. - also used in open trials in adults with ARDS. - may act also act as bronchodilator by relaxing airway smooth muscle. 4. Septic shock. -Urinary excretion of NO3, oxidative product of nitric oxide in 0- bacterial infection. 5. Atherosclerosis. - may act as antioxidant, blocking oxidation of LDL, preventing foam cell formation in the vascular wall. 6. Platelets. -nitric oxide = potent inhibitor of platelet adhesion and aggregation - as in vascular sm.muscle, cGMP mediates protective effect of NO in platelets. -may have additional effect on blood coagulation by enhancing fibrinolysis via effect on plasminogen. 7. Organ ...
In the coagulation system two mechanisms operate that are indispensable to life and normally work in opposite directions, each counterbalancing the other. On the one hand, coagulation involves a thickening of the blood so that a plug can form and prevent excessive bleeding from damaged vessels. On the other hand, there is "fibrinolysis", a process that keeps the blood fluid and breaks down clots. In the case of the anxiety-disorder patients, however, the researchers observed through close analysis of the blood an activation of coagulation accompanied by an inhibition of fibrinolysis. Yet, apart from the prick for blood sampling, no real injury had occurred. For these types of patients, the coagulation system goes out of balance as the coagulation tendency rises "" possibly with dangerous consequences. In extreme cases the imbalance can lead to blockage of a coronary artery ...
Gene therapy has freed 10 men from nearly all symptoms of hemophilia for a year so far, in a study that fuels hopes that a one-time treatment can give long-lasting help and perhaps even cure the blood...
Activation of local and systemic coagulation processes are induced by several renal diseases and may require specific anticoagulation therapy. The first parts of this chapter are devoted to these...
Assay designed for the specific measurement of Factors VII-X in human citrated plasma. The assay measures Factors VII+X in human citrated plasma using a clotting method, triggered with calcium thromboplastin. Highly stable and fully reproducible assay from lot to lot.
After a more thorough reading and research to better understand this subject, I added excerpts and package them in such a way that readers would readily undestand and find answers to their curiosity. First of all I will start by describing the role of vit K in the coagulation process. Second, I will discuss why…
This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the German coagulation market, including:Major issues pertaining to the German coagulation laboratory
Blood clots are caused by a variety of things and can exhibit signs and symptoms depend upon the location of the clot, and may include pain, redness, and swelling in the leg; or chest pain, shortness of breath, and a rapid pulse if its in the lung. Treatment for blood clots depend upon the cause.
Blood clots are caused by a variety of things and can exhibit signs and symptoms depend upon the location of the clot, and may include pain, redness, and swelling in the leg; or chest pain, shortness of breath, and a rapid pulse if its in the lung. Treatment for blood clots depend upon the cause.
Every year, consistently more than 900,000 individuals in the U.S. are influenced by deep vein thrombosis (DVT), as indicated by the Center of Disease Cont
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Find out why blood clots are such a big deal and why doctors and nurses go to great lengths to prevent blood clots from forming following surgery.
View Notes - Prevention of Inappropriate Coagulation from BSC BSC1085 at Broward College. in the plasma. At increasing distances from the damaged area, the amount of activated thrombin present will
Coagulation involves the regulated sequence of proteolytic activation of a series of zymogens to achieve an appropriate and timely hemostasis in an injured ves...
... reagents and assays. Antibodies, proteins, small molecules, immunoassays at Bio-Techne.
[106 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Automated Coagulation Analyzer Market Professional Survey Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. This report Mainly covers the following product types The segment...
Investigation of Al-hydroxide Precipitate Fouling on the Nanofiltration Membrane System with Coagulation Pretreatment: Effect of Inorganic Compound, Organic Compound, and Their Combination;kpubs;kpubs.org
U.K. Coagulation Reagent and Instrument Market: Supplier Shares, Country Volume and Sales Segment Forecasts, Innovative Technologies, Competitive Strategies Published by VPGMarketResearch.com at researchbeam.com 409 Pages
Find coagulation chemical articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
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Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Coagulation in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and anatomy chart templates that you can modify and make your own.
Blood clot formation is the result of a series of chemical interactions in which platelets and proteins in plasma work together to stop bleeding, according to the American Society of Hematology....
Blood clotting or coagulation is a normal but complex bodily process that is designed to prevent bleeding in response to an injury or cut. However, sometimes blood clots form in critical locations such as the heart, lung or brain and can cause serious complications if they are not treated in time.
A blood clot - basically just a hardened lump of blood - is formed when blood converts from a liquid to solid form by a process known as coagulation. Th...
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23714057. Whole blood clots are more resistant to lysis than plasma clots--greater efficacy of rivaroxaban.. Varin R, Mirshahi S, Mirshahi P, Klein C, Jamshedov J, Chidiac J, Perzborn E, Mirshahi M, Soria C, Soria J. ...
Q: My husband had a blood clot in his leg last year and the doctor recommended the kids be tested for some condition having to do with factor five. At first my daughter did not want to be tested, but now she says she will. Can you tell me what this condition is?A: Many of the systems in the human body maintain proper balance by having mechanisms that turn on certain pathways while at the same time having other mechanisms that turn off the same (or competing)
A numerical approach based on Lagrangian particle tracking is presented to better understand the impact of the geometry and flow on properties that influence coagulation. The results show that the Dean-Hex meandering geometry provides narrower residence time and shear rate distributions, as well as higher mean average shear rates and Camp number distribution than the other geometries. This is attributed to the generation of transverse flows and radial mixing in the Dean-Hex reactor and suggests that a faster and more homogenous coagulation can be expected. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Intraoperative changes in blood coagulation and thrombelastographic monitoring in liver transplantation. AU - Kang, Y. G.. AU - Martin, D. J.. AU - Marquez, J.. AU - Lewis, J. H.. AU - Bontempo, F. A.. AU - Shaw, B. W.. AU - Starzl, T. E.. AU - Winter, P. M.. PY - 1985/11/13. Y1 - 1985/11/13. N2 - The blood coagulation system of 66 consecutive patients undergoing consecutive liver transplantations was monitored by thrombelastograph and analytic coagulation profile. A poor preoperative coagulation state, decrease in levels of coagulation factors, progressive fibrinolysis, and whole blood clot lysis were observed during the preanhepatic and anhepatic stages of surgery. A further general decrease in coagulation factors and platelets, activation of fibrinolysis, and abrupt decrease in levels of factors V and VIII occurred before and with reperfusion of the homograft. Recovery of blood coagulability began 30-60 min after reperfusion of the graft liver, and coagulability had returned ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fibrinogen γ′ chain carboxy terminal peptide selectively inhibits the intrinsic coagulation pathway. AU - Lovely, Rehana S.. AU - Boshkov, Lynn. AU - Marzec, Ulla M.. AU - Hanson, Stephen R.. AU - Farrell, David. PY - 2007/11. Y1 - 2007/11. N2 - The minor γA/γ′ isoform of fibrinogen contains a high affinity binding site for thrombin exosite II that is lacking in the major fibrinogen isoform, γA/γA fibrinogen. The biological consequences of γ′ chain binding to thrombin were therefore investigated. Coagulation assays, thrombin activity assays, and a primate thrombosis model were used to characterize the biological effects of the γ′ 410-427 peptide. The γ′ peptide had little effect on thrombin cleavage of the small peptidyl substrate tosyl-glycyl-prolyl-arginine-4-nitranilide acetate. However, in vitro assays demonstrated that the γ′ peptide inhibited thrombin cleavage of larger proteinaceous substrates, including fibrinogen and factor VIII. The γ′ peptide ...
The present study demonstrates that activation of the extrinsic coagulation pathway occurs during clinical CPB and that PBMC TF contributes to this process. TF is a cell surface transmembrane protein that, in conjunction with factor VII, causes thrombus formation through the extrinsic coagulation pathway. TF is expressed constitutively on subendothelium and organ capsules and acts as a hemostatic envelope when injury occurs to the physical barrier that normally separates factor VII from TF.14 TF usually is not present on cells in the blood or on cells that come in direct contact with blood. Specific tissues known to constitutively express TF include myocardial myocytes.13 In addition to constitutive TF expression, certain cells such as monocytes and endothelial cells can be induced to express TF in response to cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. Cytokines are short-acting mediators of inflammation released in response to infection or tissue injury. Endotoxin (LPS), found ...
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating TG-related parameters following PCC administration in acute trauma patients. PCC therapy resulted in significantly higher ETP than in patients who received fibrinogen concentrate only or no coagulation therapy at all and, importantly, this was sustained over the first 3 to 4 days following PCC administration. AT was significantly lower in the FC-PCC group from ER admission until 3 to 4 days later, reaching a nadir on day 2. Hemostasis relies on a delicate balance between pro- and anticoagulant factors, and between thrombin potential and thrombin inhibition potential. This balance may have been impaired in the FC-PCC group, during a period when fibrinogen levels were increased above the normal range; similar findings have been reported in previous studies [34, 35]. The overall picture is increased thrombin potential (day 1 to day 4), increased substrate for coagulation (that is, fibrinogen reaching a plateau on day 4) and ...
The aim of this thesis is to evaluate thrombin generation in patients with thrombophilia (Paper I), in patients with venous thromboembolism (Paper II), in healthy women during the menstrual cycle (Paper III), in patients with liver disease (Paper IV) and in patients with mild deficiency of factor VII (Paper V).. For this purpose, thrombin generation was measured in platelet poor plasma by the calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT®) assay. Thrombin generation expresses the overall haemostatic potential, in contrast to the more traditional coagulation tests, which concentrate on individual factors or coagulation pathways. The thrombin generation markers that were measured and studied were: lagtime (clotting time), endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, total thrombin concentration), peak (maximum thrombin concentration) and time to peak (ttpeak).. The cohorts for Papers I and II are part of a larger cohort (The LInköping Study on Thrombosis, LIST), which included 516 consecutive patients who ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of DETANONOate, a nitric oxide donor, on hemostasis in rabbits. T2 - An in vitro and in vivo thrombelastographic analysis. AU - Nielsen, Vance G. AU - Geary, Brian T.. AU - Baird, Manuel S.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if whole blood thrombelastographic variables (reaction time, K, α, and maximum amplitude) would be adversely effected by exposure to the nitric oxide (NO) donor, DETANONOate, in vitro or after alveolar instillation in vivo. Materials and Methods: Conscious rabbits (n = 10) had blood sampled from ear arteries anticoagulated with sodium citrate. The blood was then incubated with 0, 1, 5, 10, or 20 mmol/L DETANONOate for 30 minutes. Arterial blood from anesthetized rabbits (n = 4) was obtained and anticoagulated before and 60 minutes after 1 mmol/L DETANONOate (2 mL/kg) was instilled into the right lung. After incubation, all samples were placed in a thrombelastograph and recalcified, with thrombelastographic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for factor IX-independent roles for factor XIa in blood coagulation. AU - Matafonov, A.. AU - Cheng, Q.. AU - Geng, Y.. AU - Verhamme, I. M.. AU - Umunakwe, O.. AU - Tucker, E. I.. AU - Sun, M. F.. AU - Serebrov, Vladimir Yurievich. AU - Gruber, A.. AU - Gailani, D.. PY - 2013/12. Y1 - 2013/12. N2 - Summary: Background: Factor XIa is traditionally assigned a role in FIX activation during coagulation. However, recent evidence suggests this protease may have additional plasma substrates. Objective: To determine whether FXIa promotes thrombin generation and coagulation in plasma in the absence of FIX, and to determine whether FXI-deficiency produces an antithrombotic effect in mice independently of FIX. Methods: FXIa, FXIa variants and anti-FXIa antibodies were tested for their effects on plasma coagulation and thrombin generation in the absence of FIX, and for their effects on the activation of purified coagulation factors. Mice with combined FIX and FXI deficiency were ...
Thromboelastography (TEG) is a method of testing the efficiency of blood coagulation. It is a test mainly used in surgery and anesthesiology, although few centers are capable of performing it. More common tests of blood coagulation include prothrombin time (PT,INR) and partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) which measure coagulation factor function, but TEG also can assess platelet function, clot strength, and fibrinolysis which these other tests cannot. Thromboelastometry (TEM), previously named rotational thromboelastography (ROTEG) or rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), is another version of TEG in which it is the sensor shaft, rather than the cup, that rotates. A small sample of blood is taken from the selected person and rotated gently through 4º 45, six times a minute, to imitate sluggish venous flow and activate coagulation. A thin wire probe is used to measure, which the clot forms around. The speed and strength of clot formation is measured in various ways, typically by computer. The ...
Abstract. Human antithrombin III (ATIII) is a plasma inhibitor of several serine proteases of the blood coagulation system. Previous investigations have report
5-R-Rivaroxaban is a selective inhibitor of human Factor Xa with IC50 value of 0.7 nmol/L. Factor Xa is a serine endopeptidase enzyme and plays an important role in the convergence point of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in blood coagulation system. 5-R-Rivaroxaban is an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor and the inhibition is species-dependent. When tested with purified factoe Xa from human or rabbit, 5-R-Rivaroxaban showed similar affinity with IC50 value of 0.7 nmol/L and 0.8 nmol/L, respectively, while had a IC50 value as low as 3.4 nmol/L when tested with rat factor Xa. Pre-treated anaesthetised rat model with intravenous 5-R-Rivaroxaban at a dose of 2 mg/kg, and after bleeding initiated intravenous treated with rFVIIa (100/400 μg/kg), PCC (25/50 U/kg) or aPCC (50/100 U/kg), the result showed that 5-R-Rivaroxaban pre-treatment significantly shorten bleeding time and clotting time compared with 5-R-Rivaroxaban alone treated group. Similar results were obtained when tested with rabbit ...
Coronary artery bypass grafting with extracorporal circulation is established as the golden standard. The conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system is associated with inflammatory reaction, hemolysis, hemodilution an disturbances of the blood coagulation system. Also its well known that neurological disturbances caused by embolic material and air bubbles are potential risks of CPB. The new minimized perfusion circuit ROCsafeTM is a closed, reservoir-less, reduced prime, surface coated circuit, with optimized safety features in effectively eliminate both macro and micro air bubbles and should optimize the clinical outcome after CABG using cardiopulmonary bypass. ...
Thromboelastography (TEG) is a point-of-care whole blood coagulation monitor which provides information on specific aspects of coagulation including time to production of initial fibrin strands (R-time), time to develop clot (R-time, K-time), rate of fibrin build-up and cross linking (-angle), maximum clot strength (maximum amplitude bMA) and measures of fibrinolysis (decreasing amplitude post-MA). Abnormal TEG data may predict patients who will bleed. Spiess [2] found that TEG correlated well with ACT and coagulation profiles and whilst no coagulation test was consistently abnormal the TEG was the most accurate predictor of bleeding. Ereth studied a Platelet-activated clotting test (PACT HemoSTATUS), ACT and clotting studies, and TEG. Whilst PACT sensitivity and specificity was comparable to conventional coagulation tests in predicting blood loss, TEG was more predictive at both blood loss levels. Essell found that whilst the bleeding time and platelet count had sensitivities similar to the ...
1JC9: The 2.0-A crystal structure of tachylectin 5A provides evidence for the common origin of the innate immunity and the blood coagulation systems.
OBJECTIVES: Exercise induces changes in haemostatic parameters and core body temperature (CBT). We aimed to assess whether exercise-induced elevations in CBT induce pro-thrombotic changes in a dose-dependent manner. DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: CBT and haemostatic responses were measured in 62 participants of a 15-km road race at baseline and immediately after finishing. As haemostasis assays are routinely performed at 37°C, we corrected the assay temperature for the individuals actual CBT at baseline and finish in a subgroup of n=25. RESULTS: All subjects (44±11 years, 69% male) completed the race at a speed of 12.1±1.8km/h. CBT increased significantly from 37.6±0.4°C to 39.4±0.8°C (p,0.001). Post-exercise, haemostatic activity was increased, as expressed by accelerated thrombin generation and an attenuated plasmin response. Synchronizing assay temperature to the subjects actual CBT resulted in additional differences and stronger acceleration of thrombin generation parameters. ...
The evolutionary forces that produced the canonical genetic code before the last universal ancestor remain obscure. One hypothesis is that the arrangement of amino acid/codon assignments results from selection to minimize the effects of errors (e.g., mistranslation and mutation) on resulting proteins. If amino acid similarity is measured as polarity, the canonical code does indeed outperform most theoretical alternatives. However, this finding does not hold for other amino acid properties, ignores plausible restrictions on possible code structure, and does not address the naturally occurring nonstandard genetic codes. Finally, other analyses have shown that significantly better code structures are possible. Here, we show that if theoretically possible code structures are limited to reflect plausible biological constraints, and amino acid similarity is quantified using empirical data of substitution frequencies, the canonical code is at or very close to a global optimum for error minimization ...
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a widely used and highly toxic wood preservative. It was first introduced as a pesticide in 1936 (7) and is not known to be a natural product. Despite its recent introduction into the environment and its high toxicity, several strains of Sphingobium chlorophenolicum (previously Sphingomonas chlorophenolica) (24) that can mineralize PCP have been identified. The best studied of these are strains ATCC 39723 (19), RA-2 (23), and UG30 (6). It appears that S. chlorophenolicum has assembled a new metabolic pathway capable of converting this anthropogenic compound into a recognizable metabolite. Our previous studies suggest that this pathway has been assembled by patching together enzymes from at least two different metabolic pathways (8). PCP hydroxylase (PCP monooxygenase; EC 1.14.13.50) and 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone dioxygenase may have originated from enzymes that hydroxylated a naturally occurring chlorinated phenol and then cleaved the resulting hydroquinone. ...
OBJECTIVES: Exercise induces changes in haemostatic parameters and core body temperature (CBT). We aimed to assess whether exercise-induced elevations in CBT induce pro-thrombotic changes in a dose-dependent manner. DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: CBT and haemostatic responses were measured in 62 participants of a 15-km road race at baseline and immediately after finishing. As haemostasis assays are routinely performed at 37 degrees C, we corrected the assay temperature for the individuals actual CBT at baseline and finish in a subgroup of n=25. RESULTS: All subjects (44+/-11 years, 69% male) completed the race at a speed of 12.1+/-1.8km/h. CBT increased significantly from 37.6+/-0.4 degrees C to 39.4+/-0.8 degrees C (p,0.001). Post-exercise, haemostatic activity was increased, as expressed by accelerated thrombin generation and an attenuated plasmin response. Synchronizing assay temperature to the subjects actual CBT resulted in additional differences and stronger acceleration of ...
2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Transfusion medicine physicians and laboratory scientists are confronted daily with hemostasis and thrombosis-related concerns as they select and administer blood components, coagulation factor concentrates, anticoagulants, and agents to manage anticoagulant therapy. This chapter provides an introduction and overview of hemostasis. Primary hemostasis focuses on platelet function and interactions with the vasculature, endothelium, and the coagulation mechanism. Secondary hemostasis focuses on the coagulation cascade and is subdivided into the extrinsic, intrinsic, and common enzymatic pathways. Coagulation also includes control systems such as protein C, protein S, and antithrombin, and fibrinolysis. Depending on the defect, hemostasis disorders may be congenital or acquired, resulting in hemorrhage or thrombosis. The questions in this chapter will explore normal hemostasis, disorders of hemostasis, and the laboratory assays that predict, identify, and ...
Principal Investigator:MATSUI Yoshihiko, Project Period (FY):2002 - 2004, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Civil and environmental engineering
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure of Ca+2 -free Gla diomain shed light on membrane binding of blood coagulation proteins. AU - Sunnerhagen, Maria. AU - Forsen, Sture. AU - Hoffren, Anna-Marja. AU - Drakenberg, Torbjörn. AU - Teleman, Olle. AU - Stenflo, Johan. N1 - Project code: B5SU00139. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Reversible membrane binding of γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-containing coagulation factors requires Ca2+-binding to 10-12 Gla residues. Here we describe the solution structure of the Ca2+-free Gla-EGF domain pair of factor X which reveals a striking difference between the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-loaded forms. In the Ca2+-free form Gla residues are exposed to solvent and Phe 4, Leu 5 and Val 8 form a hydrophobic cluster in the interior of the domain. In the Ca2+-loaded form Gla residues ligate Ca22+ in the core of the domain pushing the side-chains of the three hydrophobic residues into the solvent. We propose that the Ca2+-induced exposure of hydrophobic side chains is crucial for membrane ...
A prothrombotic state is one of the hallmarks of advanced cancer, and thromboembolic disease contributes significantly to the mortality of cancer patients (reviewed in1). Tissue factor (TF), the cellular activator of the coagulation cascade, is central to the hypercoagulable state of cancer patients and responsible for local thrombin generation and fibrin deposition in the tumor stroma. TF also triggers remote thrombotic complications involving procoagulant TF+ microparticles2 with potential contribution from other cancer procoagulants (reviewed in3). TF-dependent coagulation generates thrombin and induces pleiotrophic cellular effects of thrombin on platelets through G protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PARs)4 as well as thrombin-initiated vascular-protective signaling of the endogenous activated protein C-EPCR-PAR1 pathway.5 Direct signaling by TF-associated proteases are mediated by the binary TF-VIIa enzyme complex that activates PAR2 or the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa coagulation ...
...ATLANTA Oct. 25 /- CryoLife Inc. (NYSE: a href ... PerClot is an exciting technology platform that has seen success in E...The European hemostatic market is estimated to be $279 million in 2010...On September 28 2010 CryoLife entered into a worldwide distribution ...,CryoLife,Begins,Distribution,of,Blood-Clotting,Agent,PerClot®,in,Europe,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
1] A new two-dimensional aerosol bin scheme, which resolves both aerosol size and black carbon (BC) mixing state for BC aging processes (e.g., condensation and coagulation) with 12 size × 10 mixing state bins, has been developed and implemented into the WRF-chem model (MS-resolved WRF-chem). The mixing state of BC simulated by this model is compared with direct measurements over the East Asian region in spring 2009. Model simulations generally reproduce the observed features of the BC mixing state, such as the size-dependent number fractions of BC-containing and BC-free particles and the coating thickness of BC-containing particles. This result shows that the model can simulate realistic BC mixing states in the atmosphere if condensation and coagulation processes are calculated explicitly with the detailed treatment of BC mixing state. Sensitivity simulations show that the condensation process is dominant for the growth of thinly coated BC particles, while the coagulation process is necessary ...
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Oxidized cholesterol compounds or oxysterols are thought to be potent membrane-destabilizing agents. Anionic phospholipids, chiefly phosphatidylserine, have a procoagulant potential due to their ability to favour the membrane assembly of the characteristic clotting enzyme complexes including the tissue factor-dependent initiating complex. However, in resting cells, phosphatidylserine is sequestered in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. When THP-1 monocytic cells were cultured in the presence of 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OH) or 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH), prothrombinase, which reflects anionic phospholipid exposure and tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activities, increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. 7β-OH appeared 1.5- to 2-fold more potent than 25-OH. Interestingly, no effect of cholesterol itself could be detected on procoagulant activities. Nevertheless, no difference in TF activity could be detected between oxysterol-treated and control cells after disruption. TF ...
The SCOP classification for the Blood coagulation inhibitor (disintegrin) family. Additional information, provided for both this family and the superfamily it belongs to, includes SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
Besides the plasma coagulation factors, undisturbed hemostasis is dependent on thrombocytes and their normal functions. Dienstbier et al. observed a primary thrombocyte function disability after whole-body irradiation, and Hohage et al. described a reduced platelet aggregation with collagen after whole-body irradiation of rats with 7.0 gray. Platelet number is diminished by radiation, a further reduction of the thrombocyte adhesion and aggregation would increase significantly the risk of acute bleeding. Correspondingly, we analyzed changes in thrombocyte functions after sublethal radiation or surgical trauma alone and their combination as a model of combined injuries. A prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time was found after radiation alone, although the fibrinogen concentration, the substrate of the coagulation cascade, was increased as well. We were able to demonstrate a significant decrease in the lag time 24 hours after irradiation, showing the activation of platelets that may lead
endoplasmic reticulum sites of Gla protein synthesis. In the case of the blood coagulation proteins, the sole site of synthesis is the liver. Each carboxylated protein has a C-terminal propeptide sequence that binds the carboxylase enzyme, and directs a coordinated series of carboxylations of the recipient gluta-myl residues, before the propeptide is removed and the fully carboxylated protein is then secreted into the extracellular space for transport into the plasma.. Vitamin K acts as the essential recycling cofactor (or cosubstrate) for all protein carboxylation, Gla-forming reactions (Figure 3). In its dihydro or quinol form, the vitamin reacts with molecular oxygen, thereby creating a highly reactive, high-energy carba-nion at the Glu site for insertion of carbon dioxide, creating a new Gla residue. This vitamin K quinol oxidation step provides the essential energy for the endothermic carboxylation step. The other product of the reaction is the epoxide of vitamin K, comprising a ...
Blood clots are formed as a normal function of blood cells to repair injured blood vessels. The problem arises when these blood clots in an artery or vein act as an obstacle to prevent the blood flow through blood vessels. One should always make it a point to run a few diagnostic tests as a preventative health check measure, to detect blood clots.. Blood clots that warrant and medical intervention. Blood clots are formed inside the little veins close to the exterior of the skin (also known as superficial phlebitis). This results in localized pain, swelling and redness in the area. The condition can be addressed with minimal treatment. The issue crops up when blood clots form inside the bigger, deeper veins, causing a condition known as deep vein thrombosis. Such a condition can manifest in the form of serious problems, especially in the affected area, like the leg.. Blood clots can also cause damage to other parts of the body, by breaking away from the original source, for instance, there is a ...
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A surgical device integrating a suction mechanism with a coagulation mechanism is provided for improving lesion creation capabilities. The device comprises an elongate member having an insulative covering attached about means for coagulating soft tissue. Openings through the covering expose regions of the coagulation-causing elements and are coupled to lumens in the elongate member which are routed to a vacuum source. A fluid source to passively transport fluid along the contacted soft tissue surface may be provided in order to push the maximum temperature deeper into tissue.
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What is blood really good at? Clotting. Most of the time this is a good thing. However, for the millions of men and women who rely on coronary artery stents or vascular grafts to treat their cardiovascular disease, blood clotting can be deadly.. When these life-saving devices are deployed, blood will clot on the surface of the device and re-clog the artery. Additionally, a piece of this clot can break off and cause problems down-stream, including stroke.. Often individuals who have received these devices require anticoagulant therapies, treatments that are both expensive and are associated with complications. Developing materials with improved blood compatibility would be a major step forward in medical science.. So why doesnt blood clot within our veins and arteries? All our blood vessels are lined with a layer of specialized cells called endothelial cells. This monolayer of cells is called endothelium, and one of its jobs is to prevent unwanted blood coagulation.. Therefore, designing devices ...
Acute exercise causes a temporary short lasting activation of blood coagulation, platelet function and the prostaglandin system, the extent of these alterations being significantly less pronounced in...
Purpose: The purpose was to investigate the presence of hypercoagulability in the very early phase of the host response to an infection in the clinical course of sepsis and septic shock. Material and Methods: Twenty-four patients with chemotherapy-associated febrile neutropenia were evaluated at baseline, at the time of fever onset, and 48 hours thereafter using the thrombin generation test, a more physiological and global assay of hemostasis. Results: The rate of thrombin generation was decreased and no signals of systemic hypercoagulability could be observed during the first 48 hours of sepsis. Moreover, patients that evolved to septic shock presented a more significant impairment in thrombin generation than those with noncomplicated sepsis. Conclusions: Patients with sepsis and febrile neutropenia present an impairment in thrombin generation from very early stages of their disease course. These results suggest that the procoagulant in vitro alterations described during sepsis do not ...
This mono-centric, open-label study is undertaken to validate the effects of Dabigatran on coagulation parameters in plasma samples of 70 patients after hip or knee replacement surgery treated with Dabigatran 150-220 mg/d. Plasma samples are obtained by blood collection before, after 2 hours and after 12-14 hours after Dabigatran dosing in steady state (on 3rd - 5th day ...
blood clot - MedHelps blood clot Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for blood clot. Find blood clot information, treatments for blood clot and blood clot symptoms.
Blood clots: Symptom - Overview covers definition, possible causes of this symptom.This is why many women worry that blood clots during period.Although neither antiplatelet nor anticoagulant drugs can break up a clot.A recommended prescription of blood thinners prevents blood clots, reducing the risk of hypertension and heart attacks.A safe and effective enzymatic treatment for blood clots in cats.. Complete analysis from patient reviews and trusted online health resources, including first-hand experiences.Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide to. explains how these pills can help prevent dangerous blood clots from.Metformin and Blood Clot Prevention. a medication used to treat diabetes, has been demonstrated to reduce diabetes-related cardiovascular changes and disease ...
Wang, C., Moss, J., & Yuan, C. (2015). Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery. Medicines, 2(3), 157-185 ...
C., Moss, J., & Yuan, C. (2015). Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery. Medicines, 2(3), 157-185 ...
Looking for coagulation is? Find out information about coagulation is. A substance bonded, taped, or dip-dried onto a solid propellant to restrict the burning surface and to give direction to the burning process. Explanation of coagulation is
Platelets and Coagulation Tests - Pathophysiology VideoPerhaps as a little kid you saw the animated movie Anastasia. It was a ... And with that lowdown on the coagulation cascade out of the way, its time we look at ... ...
Abcams Thrombin-Antithrombin Complex ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Milk, Serum, Plasma in human. Reliably quantify 1 ng/ml of…
Complete report $6,100. DataPack (test volumes, sales forecasts, supplier shares) $3,950.. Summary. This comprehensive report contains 405 pages, 35 tables, and is designed to help current suppliers and potential market entrants identify and evaluate business opportunities emerging in the French coagulation testing market during the next five years. The report explores business and technological trends in the French coagulation testing market; provides estimates of the test volume, as well as sales and market shares of leading competitors; compares features of major analyzers; profiles leading market players; and identifies specific product and business opportunities facing instrument and consumable suppliers during the next five years.. Coagulation Tests. Activated Clotting Time (ACT) (1), Activated Protein C Resistance ...
Understanding the dynamics of biochemical networks is important for understanding life at the systems level and has practical implications for Medicine, Engineering, Biology, and Chemistry. The complex network of hemostasis consists of over 100 coupled reactions and has the death-defying function of regulating blood coagulation. Research in my laboratory focuses on three problems related to blood coagulation: i) understanding the biophysical mechanisms by which blood clots form and degrade, ii) controlling these processes to eliminate unwanted coagulation, and iii) using coagulation as a scaffold for delivering therapeutics to diseased vasculature. This research lies at the interface of Chemical Biology, Bioengineering and Medicine. The techniques we use include microfluidics, reconstituted protein systems, biomaterial synthesis, numerical simulations, and disease models of coagulation and atherosclerosis. For more information, please visit the Kastrup Lab website: http://kastruplab.msl.ubc.ca/ ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma protease inhibitor and a member of the serpin superfamily. This protein inhibits thrombin as well as other activated serine proteases of the coagulation system, and it regulates the blood coagulation cascade. The protein includes two functional domains: the heparin binding-domain at the N-terminus of the mature protein, and the reactive site domain at the C-terminus. The inhibitory activity is enhanced by the presence of heparin. More than 120 mutations have been identified for this gene, many of which are known to cause antithrombin-III deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009 ...
... is a condition in which blood clots are formed throughout the small blood vessels of the body. These blood clots can block or reduce the flow of blood through the blood vessels, which can damage the organs of the body. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
Draw blood in a light-blue top (sodium citrate) tube. Spin down and send 1 mL citrated plasma frozen in plastic vial.   Note: Separate specimens must be submitted when multiple tests are ordered.
Treatment of high coagulation, hyperlipemia. High coagulation state may not be easy to understand, it refers to the patients blood coagulation factor is changed, thus in high blood coagulation state, especially when the plasma albumin is le
Assay designed for the specific measurement of combined Factors VII+X in human citrated plasma. The assay measures Factors VII+X in human citrated plasma using a clotting method, triggered with calcium thromboplastin. Highly stable and fully reproducible assay from lot to lot.
We investigated clot lysis time, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor antigen (TAFI) levels and TAFI gene polymorphisms in pregnant patients with severe preeclampsia, with or without associated antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The study groups
BACKGROUND: Several hemostatic abnormalities have been described in hypothyroidism, such as modification of coagulation proteins and bleeding tendency. Although thyroid hormone deficiency is considered to be responsible for these changes, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respective influence of peripheral thyroid hormones (free thyroxine) and TSH on blood clotting by assessing coagulation parameters in patients with a history of total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer, under three different conditions: induced hypothyroidism, euthyroid state, and following recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) administration. METHODS: Coagulation parameters (platelet count, fibrinogen, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time, thrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), factor VIII activity ((FVIII:C), as well as von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) and VWF activity using collagen binding assay (VWF:CBA)) were measured in patients with severe ...
Research Corridor has published a new research study titled "Human Coagulation Factor VII Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis and Forecast, 2017 - 2025". The Human Coagulation Factor VII market report studies current as well as future aspects of the Human Coagulation Factor VII Market based upon factors such as market dynamics, key ongoing trends and segmentation analysis. Apart from the above elements, the Human Coagulation Factor VII Market research report provides a 360-degree view of the Human Coagulation Factor VII industry with geographic segmentation, statistical forecast and the competitive landscape.. Browse the complete report at http://www.researchcorridor.com/human-coagulation-factor-vii-market/. Geographically, the Human Coagulation Factor VII Market report comprises dedicated sections centering on the regional market revenue and trends. The Human Coagulation Factor VII market has been segmented on the basis of geographic regions into North America, Europe, ...
Title: Thrombin-Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 17. Author(s):Pauline F. Marx. Affiliation:Dept. Vascular Medicine, G1-114, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands.. Keywords:tafi, cpu, cpr, cpb, carboxypeptidase, coagulation, fibrinolysis. Abstract: The coagulation system is a potent mechanism that prevents blood loss after vascular injury. It consists of a number of linked enzymatic reactions resulting in thrombin generation. Thrombin converts soluble fibrinogen into a fibrin clot. The clot is subsequently removed by the fibrinolytic system upon wound healing. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), which is identical to the previously identified proteins procarboxypeptidase B, R, and U, forms a link between blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. TAFI circulates as an inactive proenzyme in the bloodstream, and becomes activated during blood clotting. The active form, TAFIa, inhibits fibrinolysis by cleaving off C-terminal ...
Looking for online definition of factor VIII activity in the Medical Dictionary? factor VIII activity explanation free. What is factor VIII activity? Meaning of factor VIII activity medical term. What does factor VIII activity mean?
Objective The study aimed to evaluate if the rate of tissue factor pathway inhibitor during pregnancy and following delivery could be a predictive factor for placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcomes in high-risk women. Methods This was a prospective multicentre cohort study of 200 patients at a high risk of occurrence or recurrence of placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcomes conducted between June 2008 and October 2010. Measurements of tissue factor pathway inhibitor resistance (normalized ratio) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor activity were performed for the last 72 patients at 20, 24, 28, 32, and 36 weeks of gestation and during the postpartum period. Results Overall, 15 patients presented a placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcome. There was no difference in normalized tissue factor pathway inhibitor ratios between patients with and without placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcomes during pregnancy and in the post-partum period. Patients with placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy
Benign Intracranial Hypertension (BIH) may be caused, at least in part, by intracranial sinus thrombosis. Thrombosis is normally due to derangements in blood coagulation cascade which may predispose to abnormal clotting activation or deficiency in natural inhibitors control. The aim of the study is to examine the strength of the association between risk factors for thrombosis and BIH. The incidence of prothrombotic abnormalities among a randomly investigated cohort of 17 patients with BIH, was compared with 51 healthy subjects matched for sex, age, body mass index, height and social background. The number of subjects with protein C deficiency was significantly higher in patients than in controls (3 vs 1, p | .001; Fisher Exact Test). Moderate to high titers of anticardiolipin antibodies (β2-Glycoprotein type I) were found in 8 out of 17 patients. Increased plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2, fibrinopeptide A (FPA), and PAI-1 were demonstrated in patients group (5.7 ± 1.15 nM vs 0.45 ± 0.35 nM
INTRODUCTION:. Apixaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor developed for the prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Laboratory monitoring is not necessary, but the effects on common coagulation reagents and assays constitute clinically valuable information.. OBJECTIVES:. To investigate the effects of apixaban on commonly used coagulation methods, and to evaluate anti-FXa assays for specific determination of the drug concentration.. MATERIALS AND METHODS:. Apixaban was added to plasma from healthy subjects in the concentration range 0-1000 μg L(-1) , and analyses were performed with different reagents for activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), antithrombin, protein C, and protein S. A lupus anticoagulant assay and an APTT assay with varying phospholipid concentrations were used to study the phospholipid dependence.. RESULTS:. In general, apixaban showed fewer effects in vitro than have been shown for rivaroxaban, another direct FXa inhibitor. The ...

Controlled assembly of peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles for label-free detection of blood coagulation Factor XIII...Controlled assembly of peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles for label-free detection of blood coagulation Factor XIII...

A highly sensitive label-free assay for the determination of blood coagulation Factor XIII activity is demonstrated through the ... A highly sensitive label-free assay for the determination of blood coagulation Factor XIII activity is demonstrated through the ... Controlled assembly of peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles for label-free detection of blood coagulation Factor XIII ... Controlled assembly of peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles for label-free detection of blood coagulation Factor XIII ...
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Factor VII deficiency | Lima Memorial Health SystemFactor VII deficiency | Lima Memorial Health System

Hemostasis and blood coagulation. In Hall JE, ed. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Blood clot formation - illustration Blood clotting normally occurs when there is damage to a blood vessel. Platelets ... Blood clot formation - illustration Blood clotting normally occurs when there is damage to a blood vessel. Platelets ... Blood clots - illustration Blood clots (fibrin clots) are the clumps that result when blood coagulates. ...
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Prognostic value of plasma von Willebrand factor levels in major adverse cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta...Prognostic value of plasma von Willebrand factor levels in major adverse cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta...

... is stored in endothelial cells and released into blood plasma upon vascular dysfunction. This meta-analysis was performed to ... Eikelboom J. Clopidogrel does not suppress blood markers of coagulation activation in aspirin-treated patients with non-ST- ... In blood plasma, vWF binds to platelet receptors GPIb-IX-V, GPIIb/IIIa and GPIb to promote thrombosis [27, 28]. The combination ... Jia XQ, Dong CM, Qin J, Zhang L. Changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis in the patients with coronary heart disease in acute ...
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Natural cure for Factor VII Deficiency and alternative treatmentsNatural cure for Factor VII Deficiency and alternative treatments

... called coagulation cascade. If there is a deficiency in Factor VII the final result if this coagulation cascade become blood ... The deficiency leads to coagulation or abnormal clotting of the blood. Clinical bleeding may vary widely and doesnt always ... When one bleeds, the human body initiates a sequence of activities aiding in blood clot, ...
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Blood Coagulation & FibrinolysisBlood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis

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Nagashima2002 - Simulating blood coagulation inhibitory effectsNagashima2002 - Simulating blood coagulation inhibitory effects

Mathematical model of blood coagulation and the effects of inhibitors of Xa, Va:Xa and IIa. ... SBML L2V4 representation of Nagashima2002 - Simulating blood coagulation inhibitory effects. 58.52 KB. Preview , Download. ... and thrombin affect extrinsic pathway-triggered blood coagulation. Numerical simulation demonstrated a stronger inhibition of ... thrombin generation by fXa and thrombin inhibitors and has implications for the pharmacological regulation of blood coagulation ...
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Mathematical Models of Blood Coagulation Kinetics | SpringerLinkMathematical Models of Blood Coagulation Kinetics | SpringerLink

... it immediately contracts to limit the flow of blood. Within a few seconds cell-like blood platelets (about 1/8 the diameter of ... E. W. Davie, K. Fujikawa, M. E. Legaz and H. Kato, "Role of Proteases in Blood Coagulation," in Proteases and Biological ... Elliott D.L. (1978) Mathematical Models of Blood Coagulation Kinetics. In: Mohler R.R., Ruberti A. (eds) Recent Developments in ... If a mammalian blood vessel is severed, it immediately contracts to limit the flow of blood. Within a few seconds cell-like ...
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Coagulation and Blood Transfusion | SpringerLinkCoagulation and Blood Transfusion | SpringerLink

Today marks the third lustrum of the annual international sympo- sium on blood transfus ... Coagulation and Blood Transfusion. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Symposium on Blood Transfusion, Groningen 1990, ... Structural and Functional Properties of Recombinant Coagulation Factors A. Pavirani, S. Krishnan, S. Jallat, F. Perraud, A. ... Today marks the third lustrum of the annual international sympo- sium on blood transfusion, organized by the Rode Kruis ...
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Subscription Services : Blood Coagulation & FibrinolysisSubscription Services : Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis

New subscriptions to Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis are managed through Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) online store. If ... Subscription renewals for Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis are managed through Lippincott Williams & Wilkins online store. If ...
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A Laboratory Manual of Blood Coagulation | The BMJA Laboratory Manual of Blood Coagulation | The BMJ

A Laboratory Manual of Blood Coagulation Br Med J 1977; 1 :392 ... A Laboratory Manual of Blood Coagulation. Br Med J 1977; 1 doi ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/content/1/6057/392.3/submit-a-rapid-response

A Laboratory Manual of Blood Coagulation | The BMJA Laboratory Manual of Blood Coagulation | The BMJ

A Laboratory Manual of Blood Coagulation Br Med J 1977; 1 :392 ... A Laboratory Manual of Blood Coagulation. Br Med J 1977; 1 doi ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/content/1/6057/392.3/rapid-responses

Blood Specimens: Coagulation | LabCorpBlood Specimens: Coagulation | LabCorp

Coagulation Sample Collection for Coagulation Testing 1. Collection Tube. Blood should be collected in a blue-top tube ... Blood Specimens: Coagulation Blood Specimens: Coagulation. Sample Collection for Coagulation Testing. 1. Collection Tube. Blood ... Collection of blood for coagulation testing through intravenous lines that have been previously flushed with heparin should be ... Collection, Transport, and Processing of Blood Specimens for Testing Plasma-Based Coagulation Assays; Approved Guideline-Fifth ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/resource/blood-specimens-coagulation

Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: Ingenta Connect Table Of ContentsBlood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: Ingenta Connect Table Of Contents

Does fist pumping/clenching during venipuncture activate blood coagulation? pp. 357-358(2) Authors: Lippi, Giuseppe; Lima- ... Haemostasis monitored in stored red blood cells, plasma and platelet concentrates in the proportion of 4 : 4 : 1 diluted with ...
more infohttps://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/wk/blcof/2016/00000027/00000003

Patent US3814585 - Method and apparatus for testing blood coagulation - Google PatentsPatent US3814585 - Method and apparatus for testing blood coagulation - Google Patents

6. Apparatus for testing blood coagulation comprising in combination: (a) a container for holding a blood sample; (b) an ... Method for measuring blood coagulation and device therefor. US4398894 *. Jun 8, 1981. Aug 16, 1983. Kabushiki Kaisha Kyoto ... A source of EMF 28 is connected between the two electrodes and the circuit is completed when a wet mass of blood coagulation ... The thread is of a material to which blood coagulation substances adhere, preferably a water wettable material such as glass, ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US3814585?dq=7,177,838

blood coagulationblood coagulation

... pathway of blood coagulation is associated with increased blood thrombogenicity and increases in markers of blood coagulation ... blood coagulation. Summary. Summary: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble ... blood coagulation tests*hemostasis*hemorrhage*blood coagulation factors*anticoagulants*thrombin*thromboplastin* ... the blood-clotting assay is prudent to ensure dengue protease inhibitors do not interfere with the blood coagulation cascade ( ...
more infohttps://www.labome.org/topics/physical/natural/biological/circulatory/blood/blood/hemostasis/blood-coagulation-19993.html

DailyMed - Search Results for Blood Coagulation FactorDailyMed - Search Results for Blood Coagulation Factor

SEARCH RESULTS for: Blood Coagulation Factor [Drug Class] (630 results) *Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark ... ALPHANINE SD (coagulation factor ix (human)) kit. NDC Code(s): 63323-185-10, 68516-1002-2, 68516-3601-2, 68516-3602-2, view ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/search.cfm?query=Blood%20Coagulation%20Factor&searchdb=class

Current aspects of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelets (Book, 1993) [WorldCat.org]Current aspects of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelets (Book, 1993) [WorldCat.org]

Current aspects of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelets. [M -C Shen; C -M Teng; Akikazu Takada;] ... coagulation_disorders> # Blood Coagulation Disorders. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Blood Coagulation Disorders"@en ;. . ... coagulation_congresses> # Blood--Coagulation--Congresses. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Blood--Coagulation--Congresses"@ ... schema:name "Blood Coagulation"@en ;. schema:name "Blood--Coagulation"@en ;. .. more infohttp://www.worldcat.org/title/current-aspects-of-blood-coagulation-fibrinolysis-and-platelets/oclc/28224618

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Blood Coagulation | BIDMCBiochemistry and Molecular Biology of Blood Coagulation | BIDMC

Blood Coagulation and it Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Our laboratory has focused on understanding the metal- and ... Airway, Breathing & Lung Allergies & Immune System Bone, Joint & Muscle Brain, Spine & Nervous System Cancers, Tumors & Blood ... remain major areas of interest to understand protein complex formation on membrane surfaces during blood coagulation. ... Center Balloon Weight Loss Program Benign Hematology Program Beth Israel Deaconess HealthCare Biologic Therapy Program Blood ...
more infohttps://www.bidmc.org/research/research-by-department/medicine/hemostasis-and-thrombosis/biochemistry-and-molecular-biology-of-blood-coagulation

Blood Coagulation Disorders | GreenMedInfo | Disease | NaturalBlood Coagulation Disorders | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural

Diseases : Blood Coagulation Disorders, Drug-Induced Toxicity , Fibrinogen: Elevated, Hypothyroidism. Problem Substances : ... Diseases : Blood Coagulation Disorders, Clotting, Hypertension. Therapeutic Actions : Dietary Modification: Mediterranean Diet ... 8 Abstracts with Blood Coagulation Disorders Research. Filter by Study Type. Human Study. ... 2 Problem Substances Researched for Blood Coagulation Disorders Name. AC. CK. Focus. ...
more infohttps://www.greenmedinfo.com/disease/blood-coagulation-disorders

Search of: Blood Coagulation Disorders: Clinical Trials - List Results - ClinicalTrials.govSearch of: Blood Coagulation Disorders: Clinical Trials - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

1634 Studies found for: Blood Coagulation Disorders: Clinical Trials. Also searched for Hemostatic disorder, Diseases, Trials ... Units of blood products used (red blood cells, plasma, platelets, prothrombin complex concentrate, fibrinogen, Factor VIIa, ... Blood product transfusion. 100. All. 18 Years and older (Adult, Senior). NCT02557672. 14-009579. August 2016. July 2018. July ... Number of blood products transfused. 82. All. 12 Years and older (Child, Adult, Senior). NCT02132208. CHRcitadelle-trauma-01. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=Blood+Coagulation+Disorders%3A+Clinical+Trials

Blood Coagulation Factors - DrugBankBlood Coagulation Factors - DrugBank

Coagulation Factor IX Human. Coagulation factor X. target. DB13152. Coagulation Factor IX Human. Coagulation factor XI. target ... Coagulation factor VII human. Coagulation factor X. target. DB13150. Coagulation factor VII human. Coagulation factor IX. ... Coagulation Factor IX Human. Coagulation factor VII. target. DB13152. Coagulation Factor IX Human. Coagulation factor VIII. ... Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant). Coagulation factor X. target. DB00100. Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant). Coagulation ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/categories/DBCAT000075

Phys.org - blood coagulationPhys.org - blood coagulation

Phys.org) -Stanching the free flow of blood from an injury remains a holy grail of clinical medicine. Controlling blood flow is ... As serine proteases play pivotal roles in blood coagulation, the innate immune system ... ... PhysOrg.com) -- Some things are more fun to learn than others, and the coagulation cascade has traditionally been ranked among ... Bio-inspired bleeding control: Researchers synthesize platelet-like nanoparticles that can do more than clot blood. ( ...
more infohttps://phys.org/tags/blood+coagulation/

A mathematical model of blood coagulation induced by activation sourcesA mathematical model of blood coagulation induced by activation sources

Blood coagulation is viewed as a process resulting in fibrin polymerization, which is considered as the first step towards ... In this work a mathematical model for blood coagulation induced by an activator source is presented. ... In this work a mathematical model for blood coagulation induced by an activator source is presented. Blood coagulation is ... A mathematical model of blood coagulation induced by activation sources. Georgy Th. Guria 1, , Miguel A. Herrero 2, and Ksenia ...
more infohttp://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=4275

Essential Guide to Blood Coagulation, 2nd Edition | Thrombosis & Hemostasis | Hematology | Medicine, Nursing & Dentistry |...Essential Guide to Blood Coagulation, 2nd Edition | Thrombosis & Hemostasis | Hematology | Medicine, Nursing & Dentistry |...

Essential Guide to Blood Coagulation has been updated to include the new anticoagulants and now has a dedicated chapter on ... Essential Guide to Blood Coagulation covers both the stable and the acute stages of hereditary and acquired bleeding and ... Essential Guide to Blood Coagulation, 2nd Edition. Jovan P. Antovic (Editor) , Margareta Blombäck (Editor) ... 16 Emergency conditions associated with coagulation: DIC, HIT and TTP/HUS, 182. Jovan P. Antovic and Margareta Holmström ...
more infohttps://www.wiley.com/en-us/Essential+Guide+to+Blood+Coagulation%2C+2nd+Edition-p-9781118327517

Blood coagulation in anhepatic pigs: effects of treatment with the AMC-bioartificial liver.  - PubMed - NCBIBlood coagulation in anhepatic pigs: effects of treatment with the AMC-bioartificial liver. - PubMed - NCBI

Blood coagulation in anhepatic pigs: effects of treatment with the AMC-bioartificial liver.. Sosef MN1, Van De Kerkhove MP, ... The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of BAL treatment on blood coagulation parameters. Pigs were anesthetized ... Coagulation parameters studied concerned prothrombin time (PT), platelet count, the procoagulant system (factors (F)II, FV, ... This demonstrates that this bioartificial liver is capable of synthesizing coagulation factors. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12871459
  • Within a few seconds cell-like blood platelets (about 1/8 the diameter of a red cell) touch the cut edges, break down, and aggregate into a plug-like mass. (springer.com)
  • Fibrin sticks at the site of cut with platelets to make stable blood clot. (ukessays.com)
  • Although it behaves like a homogeneous fluid in large vessels such as arteries, human blood is really a suspension of solids (blood cells, platelets) that can alter their characteristics in response to chemical and physical provocation. (bcr.org)
  • The process begins when blood-clotting proteins bind to the membranes of activated platelets. (bcr.org)
  • There is ongoing debate whether an increase in the number of blood cells (especially platelets) is solely responsible for thrombotic complications observed in the course of this disease [ 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The values for coagulation indices, clotting time, and Russel viper venom time were consistent with decreased thrombotic tendency of platelets from animals on the SSO diet relative to the low fat, REF diet animals, while an increased tendency to thrombosis was observed with SF-fed marmosets. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this paper, we describe how the circulating blood cells - monocytes, platelets, neutrophils and their microparticles - co-operate in regulating the expression, availability and activity of monocyte-derived TF. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The reason why this is so hinges on the several thrombin-dependent positive feedback reactions of the coagulation cascade, including the activation of FVIII and FV in addition to the potent activation of platelets. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Independent of adding exogenous tissue factor (TF), human blood treated in vitro with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI, to block Factor XIIa) will generate thrombin after an initiation time ( T i ) of 1 to 2 hours (depending on donor), while activation of platelets with the GPVI-activator convulxin reduces T i to ~20 minutes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Next, we showed that "contact activation," despite use of the best available inhibitor (CTI) to prevent it, builds up enough autocatalytic strength to trigger coagulation without exogenous TF, particularly upon activated platelets. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2016 -06-09 Hysteresis-like binding of coagulation factors x/xa to procoagulant activated platelets and phospholipids results from multistep association and membrane-dependent multimerization (Podoplelova et al. (vcell.org)
  • In contrast, regular exercise causes decreased activity of platelets and the coagulation system resulting in an improvement in haemostatic balance. (springer.com)
  • Incubation of blood in the chamber, for 60 min at 37°C resulted in the rapid binding of complement and coagulation proteins and of leukocytes and platelets to polyvinylchloride (PVC) slides. (diva-portal.org)
  • Taken together, the coagulation activation in the chamber was dependent on the presence of blood cells which suggests that bound/aggregated platelets initiate a sequence of events involving leukocytes that results in coagulation activation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Under-filling of citrate collection tubes results in an increased anticoagulant-to-blood ratio and can extend clot-based coagulation assays. (labcorp.com)
  • Lupus anticoagulants (LA) are are nonspecific antibodies that extend clot-based coagulation assays as the result of their interaction with phospholipid in the reaction mixture. (labcorp.com)
  • Since the time a vessel is allowed to leak or the ease with which it may be pathogenically blocked have a great bearing on the survival of the human organism, coagulation assays, particularly those which deal with the rate of clot formation, are useful in many respects. (google.com)
  • A concise full-color overview of the mechanisms of blood ailments and issues - in accordance with a Harvard clinical university hematology course2015 Doody's center name! (bitmicro.com)
  • Deerfield Beach, FL -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 01/01/2018 -- The report that is written on the titled Blood Coagulation Analyzer Market 2017 covers all the aspects of the global market study. (sbwire.com)
  • In this report, the global Blood Conservation System market is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2025. (reportsnreports.com)
  • this polymerizes into fibrin strands which reinforce the platelet plug and form a blood clot. (springer.com)
  • 23230 B Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A freshly drawn sample of venous blood is placed in a container, such as a hypodermic syringe, and a thread is moved lengthwise through the sample until a substantially continuous mass of fibrin and/or red blood cells form thereon, marking the endpoint of the test. (google.com)
  • The coagulation factor VIII is a robust initiator of thrombin which is later required for the generation of fibrin to form a platelet plug and its gene is expressed in the X chromosome. (drugbank.ca)
  • Blood coagulation is viewed as a process resulting in fibrin polymerization, which is considered as the first step towards thrombi formation. (aimsciences.org)
  • High-quality serum thus is obtained by Iater centrifugation, free from the cracking of blood corpuscle, hemolysis, separation of fibrin protein, etc. (alibaba.com)
  • Evacuated collection tubes must be filled to completion to ensure that a 9:1 blood-to-anticoagulant ratio is achieved. (labcorp.com)
  • The sample should be mixed immediately by three to six complete gentle end-over-end inversions to ensure adequate mixing of the anticoagulant with the blood. (labcorp.com)
  • An onion-olive-oil combination reduces arterial blood pressure, plasma viscosity and hematocrit, indicating the cardiovascular benefits of a Mediterranean diet. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Objectives Changes in air temperature are associated with an increase in cardiovascular events, but the role of procoagulant and proinflammatory blood markers is still poorly understood. (bmj.com)
  • TRANFUSION of packed red blood cells (PRBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), cryoprecipitate, and platelet concentrates is strongly associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular surgery, patients with myocardial infarction, and critically ill patients. (asahq.org)
  • Surface-energy dependent contact activation of blood factor XII. (nextbio.com)
  • The simultaneous increase of TF concentration and activity, VEGF-A in the blood of patients with ET, as well as a positive correlation between the concentration of TF and VEGF-A demonstrates the coexistence of TF-dependent coagulation and activation of angiogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Acute exercise causes a temporary short lasting activation of blood coagulation, platelet function and the prostaglandin system, the extent of these alterations being significantly less pronounced in well trained athletes than in untrained persons. (springer.com)
  • When the inflammation-coagulation interactions overwhelm the natural defence systems, catastrophic events occur, such as manifested in severe sepsis or inflammatory bowel disease. (labome.org)
  • Combination treatment with Gua Sha and Blood-letting causes attenuation of systemic inflammation, activated coagulation, tissue ischemia and injury during heatstroke in rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The report provides the information about the Blood Coagulation Analyzer Market and also forecasts its position in the coming years. (sbwire.com)
  • This report provides detailed analysis of worldwide markets for Blood Coagulation Analyzer from 2011-2016, and provides extensive market forecasts (2016-2021) by region/country and subsectors. (sbwire.com)
  • This report offers key statistics on the market status of the Blood Coagulation Analyzer Manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Blood Coagulation Analyzer Industry. (sbwire.com)
  • To provide information on competitive landscape, this report includes detailed profiles of Blood Coagulation Analyzer key players. (sbwire.com)
  • The report studies the industry for (Blood Coagulation Analyzer Market) mainly covers 13 Topics acutely display the global Blood Coagulation Analyzer Market. (sbwire.com)
  • Lastly, Blood Coagulation Analyzer Market report includes Upstream raw materials, equipment and downstream consumer's analysis. (sbwire.com)
  • Additionally, the Blood Coagulation Analyzer industry development trends and marketing channels are analysed. (sbwire.com)
  • In 2006, Sysmex introduced the CS-2000 i /2100 i automated coagulation blood analyzer, the first in the world to employ a multi-wavelength transmitted light detection system. (sysmex.co.jp)
  • In 2011, we launched a high-end automated blood coagulation analyzer, the CS-5100. (sysmex.co.jp)
  • 14 - 18 However, these studies vary widely with respect to the scope of POC measurements performed, availability and use of coagulation factor concentrates, and by consideration of either the intraoperative or postoperative period. (asahq.org)
  • Although not yet proven, the normally occurring trace amounts of FVIIa in the circulating plasma might provide for the enzymatic potential of the very first FVIIa-TF complexes, formed on injury-related exposure to the blood of extravascular TF sites, thus initiating the cascading process. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • This lets him cover a larger territory in the circulatory system at a longer timescale, modeling changes in blood viscosity and simulating the kinds of abnormal red blood cell aggregation that occurs in diseases such as atherosclerosis, AIDS, myeloma, and diabetes mellitus. (bcr.org)
  • The disease in infected animals was also characterized by the development of hypotension and coagulation abnormalities as indicated by severe thrombocytopenia and prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time. (ajtmh.org)
  • Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not "blood-borne TF" alone) was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the testing of blood coagulation or clotting time and, more particularly, to novel and improved methods and apparatus for invitro testing of coagulation of fresh samples of venous blood. (google.com)
  • A further major object is to provide blood coagulation test methods and apparatus which generally operate 3,814,585 Patented June 4, 1974 to provide a test endpoint in less time than conventional tests providing the same information. (google.com)
  • We keep the following points in mind for the procedure of partial hepatectomy using a monopolar soft-coagulation device for hepatocellular carcinoma. (sages.org)
  • In smaller vessels such as capillaries and arterioles, those particles cause blood to act like a non-Newtonian fluid , similar to ketchup, whose viscosity is subject to change. (bcr.org)
  • Influence of dietary fats on blood coagulation and prostaglandin production in the common marmoset. (ahajournals.org)
  • The overall response of the coagulation system, platelet function and prostaglandin system is significantly impaired. (springer.com)
  • E. W. Davie, K. Fujikawa, M. E. Legaz and H. Kato, "Role of Proteases in Blood Coagulation," in Proteases and Biological Control , ed. by E. Reich et al, Vol. 2 of Cold Spring Harbor Conference on Cell Proliferation, 1975. (springer.com)
  • Coagulation, meanwhile, involves a complicated dance between cell membranes and biological molecules. (bcr.org)
  • Conclusions The authors observed different temperature effects on blood markers in two potentially susceptible groups probably indicating varying underlying biological mechanisms. (bmj.com)
  • Refinement of this model by Xray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy coupled to biochemical studies of protein-membrane interaction remain major areas of interest to understand protein complex formation on membrane surfaces during blood coagulation. (bidmc.org)
  • One is trying to describe the molecular mechanisms that drive coagulation, while the other is trying to predict changes in blood viscosity by modeling individual red blood cells and their interactions. (bcr.org)
  • Their utility as molecular wires has also led to their incorporation into redox reactions in higher‐order organisms, where they participate in numerous physiological processes, including blood coagulation. (intechopen.com)
  • To consider the effect of blood flow, in the present study, d 1/e versus time from the coagulating porcine blood circulated in a mock flow loop with various steady laminar flows at mean flow speed in the range from 5 to 25 mm/s . (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The results showed that there were positive correlations between coagulation time (t c ) and HCT, velocity, and tubing size, respectively. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Elasticity varied with time from 50 Pa at coagulation to 1300 Pa at 120 minutes. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • A system and method for determining a coagulation time, e.g. (google.com)
  • Resistance to agitator movement due to coagulation is detected, and the coagulation time is measured. (google.com)
  • Ongoing patent expirations and failed life cycle management efforts leave the established companies vulnerable regarding the future growth perspective of their recombinant coagulation factor business, but at the same time opens the door to potential new market entrants. (pipelinereview.com)
  • We demonstrated that affinity based poly ethylene NPs absorbed to polymer films on the QCM constitute a powerful tool with no need for pretreatment for measuring PT in whole blood samples in real time, while these coatings are reusable up to 10 times. (omicsonline.org)
  • Blood coagulation dynamics: mathematical modeling and stability results. (aimsciences.org)
  • Results] The blood loss was 62.0 (0-500) ml. (sages.org)
  • Conclusion and discussion] The use of a monopolar soft-coagulation device (HeCM) improves surgical results with minimal blood loss and low rate morbidity. (sages.org)
  • Accordingly, it is a principal object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus for in vitro testing of blood coagulation which has a much higher degree of repeatability and accuracy than prior techniques while remaining fast and simple in implementation. (google.com)
  • Kappelmeyer et al 8 found that monocytes expressed TF and procoagulant activity between 2 and 4 hours of blood recirculation in an in vitro pump-oxygenator perfusion circuit. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have developed a versatile in vitro chamber model with a double purpose: first, to be able to study mechanisms of bio- incompatibility, and, second, to test biomaterials at all levels of interactions, in whole blood. (diva-portal.org)