The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.
The transfer of blood components such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma from a donor to a recipient or back to the donor. This process differs from the procedures undertaken in PLASMAPHERESIS and types of CYTAPHERESIS; (PLATELETPHERESIS and LEUKAPHERESIS) where, following the removal of plasma or the specific cell components, the remainder is transfused back to the donor.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A group of familial congenital hemolytic anemias characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Poly or pyrophosphates of tin. In conjunction with radioactive technetium these compounds are used as bone-scanning agents and in scintigraphy to diagnose myocardial and cerebral infarction.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.
Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The removal of LEUKOCYTES from BLOOD to reduce BLOOD TRANSFUSION reactions and lower the chance of transmitting VIRUSES. This may be performed by FILTRATION or by CYTAPHERESIS.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An infant during the first month after birth.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An intrinsic defect of erythrocytes inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The erythrocytes assume an oval or elliptical shape.
A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.
A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Hemolytic anemia due to the ingestion of fava beans or after inhalation of pollen from the Vicia fava plant by persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient erythrocytes.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.

Profound variation in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in human blood cells: major implications for the detection of partly deficient patients. (1/1434)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is responsible for the breakdown of the widely used antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU), thereby limiting the efficacy of the therapy. To identify patients suffering from a complete or partial DPD deficiency, the activity of DPD is usually determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM cells). In this study, we demonstrated that the highest activity of DPD was found in monocytes followed by that of lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets, whereas no significant activity of DPD could be detected in erythrocytes. The activity of DPD in PBM cells proved to be intermediate compared with the DPD activity observed in monocytes and lymphocytes. The mean percentage of monocytes in the PBM cells obtained from cancer patients proved to be significantly higher than that observed in PBM cells obtained from healthy volunteers. Moreover, a profound positive correlation was observed between the DPD activity of PBM cells and the percentage of monocytes, thus introducing a large inter- and intrapatient variability in the activity of DPD and hindering the detection of patients with a partial DPD deficiency.  (+info)

Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi with peripheral blood fibrocytes, antigen-presenting cells with the potential for connective tissue targeting. (2/1434)

BACKGROUND: Borrelia Burgdorferi has a predilection for collagenous tissue and can interact with fibronectin and cellular collagens. While the molecular mechanisms of how B. burgdorferi targets connective tissues and causes arthritis are not understood, the spirochetes can bind to a number of different cell types, including fibroblasts. A novel circulating fibroblast-like cell called the peripheral blood fibrocyte has recently been described. Fibrocytes express collagen types I and III as well as fibronectin. Besides playing a role in wound healing, fibrocytes have the potential to target to connective tissue and the functional capacity to recruit, activate, and present antigen to CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkey fibrocytes were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. B. burgdorferi were incubated with human or monkey fibrocyte cultures in vitro and the cellular interactions analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The two strains of B. burgdorferi studied included JD1, which is highly pathogenic for monkeys, and M297, which lacks the cell surface OspA and OspB proteins. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that B. burgdorferi binds to both human and monkey (rhesus) fibrocytes in vitro. This process does not require OspA or OspB. In addition, the spirochetes are not phagocytosed but are taken into deep recesses of the cell membrane, a process that may protect them from the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: This interaction between B. burgdorferi and peripheral blood fibrocytes provides a potential explanation for the targeting of spirochetes to joint connective tissue and may contribute to the inflammatory process in Lyme arthritis.  (+info)

Quantification of T-cell progenitors during ontogeny: thymus colonization depends on blood delivery of progenitors. (3/1434)

An in vivo thymus reconstitution assay based on intrathymic injection of hematopoietic progenitors into irradiated chicks was used to determine the number of T-cell progenitors in peripheral blood, paraaortic foci, bone marrow (BM), and spleen during ontogeny. This study allowed us to analyze the regulation of thymus colonization occurring in three waves during embryogenesis. It confirmed that progenitors of the first wave of thymus colonization originate from the paraaortic foci, whereas progenitors of the second and the third waves originate from the BM. The analysis of the number of T-cell progenitors indicates that each wave of thymus colonization is correlated with a peak number of T-cell progenitors in peripheral blood, whereas they are almost absent during the periods defined as refractory for colonization. Moreover, injection of T-cell progenitors into the blood circulation showed that they homed into the thymus without delay during the refractory periods. Thus, thymus colonization kinetics depend mainly on the blood delivery of T-cell progenitors during embryogenesis.  (+info)

Expression of IkappaBalpha in the nucleus of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. (4/1434)

According to current models the inhibitory capacity of I(kappa)B(alpha) would be mediated through the retention of Rel/NF-kappaB proteins in the cytosol. However, I(kappa)B(alpha) has also been detected in the nucleus of cell lines and when overexpressed by transient transfection. To gain better insight into the potential role of nuclear I(kappa)B(alpha) in a physiological context we have analysed its presence in the nucleus of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBL). We demonstrate the nuclear localization of I(kappa)B(alpha) in PBL by different techniques: Western blot, indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Low levels of nuclear I(kappa)B(alpha) were detected in resting cells whereas a superinduction was obtained after PMA activation. The nuclear pool of I(kappa)B(alpha) showed a higher stability than cytosolic I(kappa)B(alpha) and was partially independent of the resynthesis of the protein. Unexpectedly, the presence of nuclear I(kappa)B(alpha) did not inhibit NF-kappaB binding to DNA and this phenomenon was not due to the presence of IkappaBbeta at the nuclear level. Immunoprecipitation experiments failed to demonstrate an association between nuclear I(kappa)B(alpha) and NF-kappaB proteins. Our results demonstrate that in resting and PMA-activated human PBL, I(kappa)B(alpha) is present in the nucleus in an apparently inactive form unable to disrupt NF-kappaB binding from DNA.  (+info)

Sensitive detection of squamous cells in bone marrow and blood of head and neck cancer patients by E48 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. (5/1434)

In previous studies, we described the selective reactivity of monoclonal antibody E48 with normal squamous and transitional epithelia and their malignant counterparts and the capacity of monoclonal antibody E48 for selective tumor targeting in head and neck cancer patients. Cloning of the E48 encoding cDNA and elucidation of the gene structure enabled the selection of an intron-spanning primer set for the detection of circulating tumor cells in blood and bone marrow of head and neck cancer patients. Extensive optimizations led to a reproducible reverse transcriptase-PCR assay with an internal standard for RNA quality control and an external standard for sensitivity control. In reconstruction experiments, we were able to reach a reproducible sensitivity of one single tumor cell per 7 ml of blood (2 x 10(7) nucleated cells). When applying this method to patient material, we were able to detect positive signal in 35% of the bone marrow samples (0 of 2 stage II, 0 of 4 stage III, 4 of 11 stage IV, and 4 of 6 recurrences) and 10% of the blood samples (2 of 21) of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The specificity of the method was demonstrated on 29 blood and bone marrow samples of noncancer controls, which were all negative. Our study shows the feasibility of E48 reverse transcriptase-PCR for the detection of squamous cells in nonsquamous tissues.  (+info)

Bacterial peptidoglycan polysaccharides in sterile human spleen induce proinflammatory cytokine production by human blood cells. (6/1434)

Peptidoglycan (PG) is the major component of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. In vitro, PG isolated from conventional bacterial cultures can induce secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by human monocytes, indicating that PG may be involved in immune responses against infections by gram-positive bacteria. To investigate the biologic activity of PG in human tissues, an improved method was developed to isolate significant amounts of PG from sterile human spleen tissue. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that PG isolated from human spleen is largely intact. Human whole blood cell cultures were able to produce the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 and -6 after stimulation with PG isolated from human spleen. Cytokine induction was not sensitive to inhibition by polymyxin B, in contrast to lipopolysaccharide. Collectively, the data show that intact PG in sterile human tissue is biologically active and may induce local proinflammatory cytokine production.  (+info)

Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes (CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions. (7/1434)

The tetraspans are molecules with four transmembrane domains which are engaged in multimolecular complexes (the tetraspan web) containing a subset of beta1 integrins (in particular alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1 and alpha6beta1), MHC antigens and several unidentified molecules. The molecules associated with tetraspans are readily detected after immunoprecipitation performed in mild detergents such as Brij 97 or CHAPS. In this study we show that another classical mild detergent, digitonin, dissociated most of these associated molecules, including integrins, from the tetraspans CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD82, Co-029, Talla-1 and NAG-2. In contrast, reciprocal immunoprecipitations from various cell lines demonstrated that two other tetraspans, CD81 and CD151, formed complexes with integrins not disrupted by digitonin. These complexes were CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1 and CD151/alpha6beta1. Furthermore, a new anti-CD151 monoclonal antibody (mAb), TS151r, was shown to have a restricted pattern of expression, inversely related to the sum of the levels of expression of alpha6beta1 and alpha3beta1. This mAb was unable to co-precipitate integrins in digitonin, suggesting that its epitope is blocked by the association with integrins. Indeed, the binding of TS151r to the cell surface was quantitatively diminished following alpha3beta1 overexpression. Altogether, these data suggest that, among tetraspans, CD81 interacts directly with the integrin alpha4beta1, and CD151 interacts directly with integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1. Because all tetraspan-tetraspan associations are disrupted by digitonin, it is likely that the other tetraspans interact indirectly with integrins, through interactions with CD81 or CD151.  (+info)

Mouse NKR-P1B, a novel NK1.1 antigen with inhibitory function. (8/1434)

The mouse NK1.1 Ag originally defined as NK cell receptor (NKR)-P1C (CD161) mediates NK cell activation. Here, we show that another member of the mouse CD161 family, NKR-P1B, represents a novel NK1.1 Ag. In contrast to NKR-P1C, which functions as an activating receptor, NKR-P1B inhibits NK cell activation. Association of NKR-P1B with Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 provides a molecular mechanism for this inhibition. The existence of these two NK1.1 Ags with opposite functions suggests a potential role for NKR-P1 molecules, such as those of the Ly-49 gene family, in regulating NK cell function.  (+info)

The health benefits of natural products have long been recognized. Consumption of dietary compounds such as supplements provides an alternative source of natural products to those obtained from the diet. There is a growing concern regarding the possible side effects of using different food supplements simultaneously, since their possible interactions are less known. For the first time, we have tested genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Biochaga, in combination with dihydroquercetin. No genotoxic effect on whole blood cells was observed within individual treatment of Biochaga (250 μ g/mL, 500 μ g/mL and 1000 μ g/mL) and dihydroquercetin (100 μ g/mL, 250 μ g/mL and 500 μ g/mL), nor in combination. Afterwards, antigenotoxic potency of both supplements against hydrogen peroxide- (H 2 O 2 -) induced DNA damage to whole blood cells (WBC) was assessed, using the comet assay. Biochaga and dihydroquercetin displayed a strong potential to attenuate H 2 O 2 -induced damage on DNA in cells at ...
Stirm, Laura; Huypens, Peter; Sass, Steffen; Batra, Richa; Fritsche, Louise; Brucker, Sara; Abele, Harald; Hennige, Anita M.; Theis, Fabian; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Fritsche, Andreas; Haering, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of anisotropic (non spherical morphologies) gold nanoparticles coated with the amino acid Lysine (Lys) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Gold (Au) nanoparticles tested in this study were synthesized by a seed-mediated growth using Lys as a structure and shape directing agent. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by cell viability (resazurin assay), reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction (2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay), DNA damage (comet assay) and apoptosis/necrosis (AnnexinV/propidium iodide assay) after PBMC were exposed to increasing concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100, and 250μM) of AuNPs coated with Lys (AuNPs-Lys) at different exposure times (3, 6, 12, and 24h ...
Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and the stem cell institute HI-STEM in Heidelberg have succeeded for the first time in directly reprogramming human blood cells into a previously unknown type of neural ...
The protective potential of dry olive leaf extract could arise from the synergistic effect of its scavenging activity and enhancement of the cells antioxidant capacity
HANOVER NH White blood cells are the principle mediators of immune s...The researchers led by Henry N. Higgs assistant professor of bioc...Higgs and his lab focused much of their work on lymphocytes a type...,Probing,the,surface,of,white,blood,cells,to,enhance,immune,system,medicine,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
XW-100 Automated Hematology Analyzer Sysmex America, Inc. INTENDED USE: For use in patients 2 years of age and older who require a whole blood cell count and white blood cell differential. Test results can be used with other clinical and laboratory findings to provide early alerts of patients with serious conditions such as severe anemia (low…
Acute rejection is a major complication of solid organ transplantation that prevents the long-term assimilation of the allograft. Various populations of lymphocytes are principal mediators of this process, infiltrating graft tissues and driving cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Understanding the lymphocyte-specific biology associated with rejection is therefore critical. Measuring genome-wide changes in transcript abundance in peripheral whole blood cells can deliver a comprehensive view of the status of the immune system. The heterogeneous nature of the tissue significantly affects the sensitivity and interpretability of traditional analyses, however. Experimental separation of cell types is an obvious solution, but is often impractical and, more worrying, may affect expression, leading to spurious results. Statistical deconvolution of the cell type-specific signal is an attractive alternative, but existing approaches still present some challenges, particularly in a clinical research setting. ...
OBJECTIVES: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and odorless gas responsible for poisoning mortality and morbidity in the United States. At this time, there is no reliable method to predict the severity of poisoning or clinical prognosis following CO exposure. Whole blood cells, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and platelets, have been explored for their potential use to act as sensitive biomarkers for mitochondrial dysfunction which may have a role in CO poisoning. DESIGN: The objective of this study was to measure mitochondrial respiration using intact cells obtained from patients exposed to CO as a potential biomarker for mitochondrial inhibition with results that can be obtained in a time frame useful for guiding clinical care ...
Blood cells. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a normal human blood cells, showing red blood cells (erythrocytes, red), a white blood cell (leucocyte, lower right) and platelets (thrombocytes, upper left). White blood cells are involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. The main function of red blood cells is to distribute oxygen to body tissues and to carry waste carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Platelets are fragments of white blood cells in involved in the clotting process. - Stock Image C025/5691
Scientists have discovered when a cancer-killing virus is injected in the bloodstream it hitches a ride on blood cells and evades attack from the immune sy
White blood cell. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through a white blood cell. White blood cells are part of the bodys immune system. There are seven common types of white blood cell, but they all form from the same type of stem cell and all have some specific function in defending the body against disease and foreign objects. Here, the nucleus (right) is bi-lobed, a characteristic of a type of white blood cell known as an eosinophil. The other white blood cell type that has a multi-lobed nucleus is the neutrophil. Magnification: x4600 when printed at 10 centimetres tall. - Stock Image C006/5936
What are white blood cell disorders? White blood cells (WBCs), also referred to as leukocytes, are the cells of the immune system that protect the body against infectious disease, allergens, and other foreign invaders. White blood cells are produced in the bone marrow or blood factory. There are several types of WBCs in the blood, each with a specific job and function. Disease states and disorders occur when either too few or too many white blood cells are present. The most common forms of this condition are:
Stem cell scientists led by Mick Bhatia from the McMaster University have successfully converted adult human blood cells into neural cells.. The team directly converted adult human blood cells to both central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) neurons as well as neurons in the peripheral nervous system (rest of the body) that are responsible for pain, temperature and itch perception.. This means that how a persons nervous system cells react and respond to stimuli can be determined from his blood.. Now we can take blood samples and make the main cell types of neurological systems - the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system - in a dish that is specialised for each patient. Nobody has ever done this with adult blood. Ever, explained Bhatia, director of the McMaster Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute.. Bhatias team successfully tested their process using fresh blood as well as frozen blood.. Scientists can actually take a patients blood sample and with it, can ...
Learning all of these different names and the function of each cell type takes a bit of effort, but you can understand scientific articles a lot better once you get it all figured out! Heres a quick summary to help you get all of the different cell types organized in your brain.. All white blood cells are known officially as leukocytes. White blood cells are not like normal cells in the body -- they actually act like independent, living single-cell organisms able to move and capture things on their own. White blood cells behave very much like amoeba in their movements and are able to engulf other cells and bacteria. Many white blood cells cannot divide and reproduce on their own, but instead have a factory somewhere in the body that produces them. That factory is the bone marrow.. ...
The protocol for flow cytometry analysis presented here has been specifically developed for studies of human peripheral blood cells
An intracellular complement system (ICS) has recently been described in immune and nonimmune human cells. This system can be activated in a convertase-independent manner from intracellular stores of the complement component C3. The source of these stores has not been rigorously investigated. In the present study, Western blotting identified a band corresponding to C3 in freshly isolated human peripheral blood cells that was absent in corresponding cell lines. One difference between native cells and cell lines was the time absent from a fluid-phase complement source; therefore, we hypothesized that loading C3 from plasma was a route of establishing intracellular C3 stores. We found that many types of human cells specifically internalized C3(H2O), the hydrolytic product of C3, and not native C3, from the extracellular milieu. Uptake was rapid, saturable, and sensitive to competition with unlabeled C3(H2O), indicating a specific mechanism of loading. Under steady-state conditions, approximately 80% ...
An intracellular complement system (ICS) has recently been described in immune and nonimmune human cells. This system can be activated in a convertase-independent manner from intracellular stores of the complement component C3. The source of these stores has not been rigorously investigated. In the present study, Western blotting identified a band corresponding to C3 in freshly isolated human peripheral blood cells that was absent in corresponding cell lines. One difference between native cells and cell lines was the time absent from a fluid-phase complement source; therefore, we hypothesized that loading C3 from plasma was a route of establishing intracellular C3 stores. We found that many types of human cells specifically internalized C3(H2O), the hydrolytic product of C3, and not native C3, from the extracellular milieu. Uptake was rapid, saturable, and sensitive to competition with unlabeled C3(H2O), indicating a specific mechanism of loading. Under steady-state conditions, approximately 80% ...
GSK2245035 is a highly potent and selective intranasal Toll-Like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist with preferential Type-1 interferon (IFN)-stimulating properties. GSK2245035 has pEC50s of 9.3 and 6.5 for IFNα and TFNα. GSK2245035 effectively suppresses allergen-induced Th2 cytokine production in human peripheral blood cell cultures. GSK2245035 is used for the treatment of asthma. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
The researchers want to find out more about the mechanics of blood cells and gain a detailed understanding of the forces which move and shape cells. In the case of red cells in particular, it is important to know precisely about their properties and their internal forces - because they are unusually soft and elastic and change their shape in order to be able to pass through the sometimes minute blood vessels in our body. It is precisely because blood cells are normally so soft that, in previous studies, physicists measured large thermal fluctuations at the outer membrane of the cells. These natural movements of molecules are defined by the ambient temperature. In other words, the cell membrane of the blood cells moves because molecules in the vicinity jog it. Under the microscope, this makes the blood cells appear to be wriggling. Although this explains why blood cells move, it does not address the question of possible internal forces being a contributory factor. So the research team led by Timo ...
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The human blood cell production system usually remains extremely robust, in terms of cell number or function, with little signs of decline in old age. To achieve robustness, circulating blood cells rely on a formidable production machinery, the hematopoietic system, located in the bone marrow. All circulating blood cells---red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets---are renewed on a daily basis. The hematopoietic system produces an estimated 1e12 cells per day. This is a significant fraction of the 3.7e13 cells in an adult. Robustness is partly due to the short time scales at which cell populations are able to return to equilibrium, combined with large cell numbers and renewal rates. White blood cells (WBCs), among which neutrophils are most prevalent, are the bodys first line, innate immune system. Upon infection, WBCs are mobilized from the bone marrow, to increase their number in circulation and fight off pathogen within hours. The 26 billion circulating neutrophils in human have a
The white blood cells are an important part of our body's immune system. Neutrophils are a special group of white blood cells that play an extremely
The process of producing and developing new cells is called hematopoiesis. Blood cells made ​​in the bone marrow or stem cells take the form of hematopoietic cells - primary form page of all blood cells. As they mature, the stem cells develops in several distinct types of blood cells, such as ceulele red, white and platelet cells. Immature blood cells are called blasts. Some cells of this type remain in the bone marrow to mature and others travel to other parts of the body to mature and function as blood cells.. What are the functions of blood cells? ...
To switch skin to blood, researchers took a tiny sample - less than a millimetre - of human skin and put it in a Petri dish. There, it turned into cells called fibroblasts. The scientists then added a protein that turned on or off sets of genes, bathed the mixture in more proteins necessary for human blood cells to survive and waited 30 days. By the end of the month they were then left several blood cells ...
CCR5 is the center of the research because this gene encodes a protein that HIV uses to enter human blood cells. Other studies have revealed that people who have a mutation in the CCR5 gene are protected against that virus.. The scientist Jiankui altered the genes of seven embryos in an in vitro fertilization clinic (IVF), causing a mutation called Δ32, where carriers have two copies of the CCR5 gene instead of one.. The goal was to make the children that emerged from these embryos resistant to HIV, and this is how the Nana and Lulu twins were born from this experiment.. You may be wondering: if this seems so beneficial, what is the problem? Although the alteration of genes may have advantages, the consequences are not yet fully known, and these could be very serious. Among them, there could be unwanted and unknown mutations in people with modified DNA.. An article published by the journal Nature explains that people who have the Δ32 mutation are 20% less likely to live up to 76 years, ...
White blood cells are essential cells of the immune system that help the body respond to infection, inflammation, and cancer. Learn more about them here!
A study published in 2010 evaluated the effect of forest bathing on immune function. For a group of Japanese adults, a three-day trip to the forest increased the number of white blood cells in their blood. These levels of white blood cells stayed elevated for more than 30 days after their adventure in the woods. White blood cells are crucial to your immune system. They help your body battle germs by recognizing pathogens and harmful intruders with the help of antibodies ...
The NIH conclusions were not correct, however. Hickey and Roberts examined their experiments and found them to be full of errors. For example, the researchers had given a dose of vitamin C, waited until it had been excreted and then measured blood levels. Using this procedure, they found that increasing the dose did not greatly increase the blood levels. Instead of realising that this was because the dose had been excreted, the NIH claimed it was because the body was saturated, so higher doses were redundant. They then used white blood cells as a model for normal cells, to see how they absorbed vitamin C from their surroundings. These white blood cells are specialised to absorb vitamin C, even when supplies are low. If other body cells were similar to white blood cells, we would normally have a reserve of 40 grams in our bodies. In this case, given the proposed RDA of 200mg, it would take 2-3 years to fill a depleted body. This is demonstrably incorrect: the classic example is that James Linds ...
If My Wbc Is Normal Could I Still Have Hiv? - The BodyTheBody.com fills you in on the topic, if my wbc is normal could i still have hiv, with a ... and the rest of the white blood cell types can remain in the normal range . ...
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) signaling is essential for the development and peripheral maintenance of several blood cell types. Deficiencies in IL-7 or either component...
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A new Blood Atlas - a resource for exploration of blood cells and proteins - has been launched, as part of the open access Human Protein Atlas, in which the proteins in human blood cell types are described together with a comprehensive analysis of all proteins predicted to be secreted from human cells (the secretome). The new atlas provides a unique resource for the study of human biology and diseases, in particular for immune-based research and efforts to develop new, effective treatments in oncology and autoimmune diseases.. A new Blood Atlas has been launched, as part of the open access Human Protein Atlas, in which the proteins in human blood cell types are described together with a comprehensive analysis of all proteins predicted to be secreted from human cells (the secretome). The new atlas provides a unique resource for the study of human biology and diseases, in particular for immune-based research and efforts to develop new, effective treatments in oncology and autoimmune diseases. ...
Prediction of left ventricular (LV) remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (MI) is clinically important and would benefit from the discovery of new biomarkers. Blood samples were obtained upon admission in patients with acute ST-elevation MI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Messenger RNA was extracted from whole blood cells. LV function was evaluated by echocardiography at 4-months. In a test cohort of 32 MI patients, integrated analysis of microarrays with a network of protein-protein interactions identified subgroups of genes which predicted LV dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤ 40%) with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) above 0.80. Candidate genes included transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1). In a validation cohort of 115 MI patients, TGBFR1 was up-regulated in patients with LV dysfunction (P | 0.001) and was associated with LV function at 4-months (P = 0.003). TGFBR1 predicted LV function with an AUC of 0.72, while peak
Research in industrial workers and professionals exposed to formaldehyde suggests that occupational exposure to this important chemical is associated with increased risk for myeloid leukemia. However, there is still uncertainty about the biologic plausibility of the association because of questions regarding the ability of formaldehyde, which is extremely reactive, to directly or indirectly cause toxicity to the bone marrow. There have been several relatively small studies of the impact of occupational formaldehyde exposure on peripheral blood cells that found some evidence that peripheral blood cells of the myeloid lineage (i.e., granulocytes, platelets) were significantly decreased in exposed workers. We propose to follow-up these findings in a relatively large study population in China. We will study hematologic parameters in 240 higher exposed workers (,1 ppm), 240 workers exposed to lower levels of formaldehyde (0.3 to 1 ppm), and a group of 240 unexposed controls frequency-matched to ...
Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, travel through circulating blood carrying oxygen to body tissues and organs while removing waste. These blood cells make up the largest part of the blood system.. As the red blood cells in blood travel through the lungs, oxygen molecules from the lungs attach to the hemoglobin, a protein in the blood cells that contains iron. The oxygen is then released to tissues and organs, and the hemoglobin bonds with carbon dioxide and other waste gases. These waste products are transported away and removed as blood continues to circulate.. Millions of red blood cells are contained in a single drop of blood. Red blood cells are constantly being produced in the bone marrow to replenish those that gradually wear out and die. The average life of a red blood cell is about 120 days.. A significant decrease in the number of red blood cells causes anemia and shortness of breath. ...
Blood cells are made in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy material in the center of the bones that produces all types of blood cells.. There are other organs and systems in our bodies that help regulate blood cells. The lymph nodes, spleen, and liver help regulate the production, destruction, and differentiation (developing a specific function) of cells. The production and development of new cells in the bone marrow is a process called hematopoiesis.. Blood cells formed in the bone marrow start out as a stem cell. A stem cell (or hematopoietic stem cell) is the initial phase of all blood cells. As the stem cell matures, several distinct cells evolve, such as the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Immature blood cells are also called blasts. Some blasts stay in the marrow to mature and others travel to other parts of the body to develop into mature, functioning blood cells.. ...
Blood cells are made in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy material in the center of the bones that makes all types of blood cells. There are other organs and systems in our bodies that help regulate blood cells. The lymph nodes, spleen, and liver help regulate the production, destruction, and function of cells. The production and development of new cells in the bone marrow is a process called hematopoiesis. Blood cells formed in the bone marrow start out as stem cells. A stem cell (or hematopoietic stem cell) is the first phase of all blood cells. As the stem cell matures, several distinct cells evolve. These include red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Immature blood cells are also called blasts. Some blasts stay in the marrow to mature. Others travel to other parts of the body to develop into mature, functioning blood cells. ...
Blood cells are made in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy material in the center of the bones that produces all types of blood cells.. There are other organs and systems in our bodies that help regulate blood cells. The lymph nodes, spleen, and liver help regulate the production, destruction, and differentiation (developing a specific function) of cells. The production and development of new cells in the bone marrow is a process called hematopoiesis.. Blood cells formed in the bone marrow start out as a stem cell. A stem cell (or hematopoietic stem cell) is the initial phase of all blood cells. As the stem cell matures, several distinct cells evolve, such as the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Immature blood cells are also called blasts. Some blasts stay in the marrow to mature and others travel to other parts of the body to develop into mature, functioning blood cells.. ...
Scientists have discovered the worlds oldest blood cells in the remains of a prehistoric iceman. The ancient human is said to have lived over 5,300 years ago
Another goal of BLUEPRINT will be to investigate epigenetic variation between individuals by studying two cell types from at least 200 healthy donors, while a third cell type from the same donors will be analyzed by a Canadian IHEC project (http://ihec-epigenomes.org/research/projects/epigenomic-platform-program/). These donors will be subjected to complete genome sequencing by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, as well as part of the UK10K project (http://www.uk10k.org/) allowing epigenetic and genetic variation to be correlated. As the epigenome is expected to be more plastic and influenced by many environmental factors, including diet, age and environmental exposure,14 a likely finding will be that the epigenomes are more variable between individuals then their genomes. Moreover, it will reveal the natural epigenetic variation between cell types from different individuals and to what extent this variation is influenced by variations in the genome sequence. In addition, it will be extremely ...
Red blood cells play a very important role in carrying oxygen for the whole body and use a particular protein called hemoglobin. Anemia means that the amount of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin is lower than the normal. As the output of blood cells is either very less or there has been an increased loss of blood cells which causes the deficiency. Red blood cells are manufactured in the bone marrow with the life expectancy of four months. The concoction to produce red blood cells is iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid and the lack of participation by any of those leads to anemia.. This lack or deficiency of red blood cells makes them work harder and exert more to get the required amount of oxygen around the body. This is a chain reaction, as the blood cells are less the provision of oxygen to the body is less. This makes lungs and heart work harder to get oxygen into the blood and due to which there is difficulty in breathing. Heavy exercise, climbing stairs, which are some of the very ...
Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. There are many different types of leukemia, depending upon which specific blood cells are affected. Each leukemia has different disease characteristics and therefore different treatment options. Several clinical diagnostic tests are utilized in order to determine the type and extent of leukemia. In order to better understand leukemia and its treatment, a basic understanding of normal blood cell production is useful.. Normal blood is made up of fluid called plasma and three main types of blood cells. Plasma is mainly water, but contains minerals, proteins and antibodies. The three major blood cell types are white cells, red cells and platelets. Each type of blood cell has a specific function. White blood cells, also called leukocytes, help the body fight infections and other diseases. Red blood cells, also called erythrocytes, make up half the bloods total volume. They contain hemoglobin, which picks up oxygen from the lungs and carries it to the bodys ...
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Red blood cells are stored in blood collection centres for blood transfusion; however, some of red blood cells are discarded due to the poor quality after storage for a period of time because the poor quality of the red blood cells will cause health problems in individuals after transfusion. In this project, we are going to test new compounds derived from natural anti-freezing proteins by a Canada-based biotech company Sirona for better storage of red blood cells. Hopefully, we will find that these new compounds can improve the quality of the red blood cells after storage.. ...
Protein kinases in human leukemic cells.: Protein kinase activities and cyclic AMP binding capacity were investigated in human peripheral blood cells from leuke
Red blood cells are the most abundant anucleate cell type in the human body, Yet little is known about them apart from their vital role in transporting oxygen to organs and tissues. Almost all of us know that blood vessels signal bone marrow for red blood cell production in case of low volume of blood or decreased number of red blood cells. But a research team, led by a scientist at Weill Cornell Medical College, has discovered that red blood cells perform a second vital function: angiogenesis, the creation of new blood vessels from those that already exist. These investigators showed that red blood cells supply a lipid that is known to regulate angiogenesis, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Angiogenesis is necessary for growth, repair and regenerative processes that require increased blood flow and oxygenation of tissues. Given its role in creating new blood vessels, scientists recognize S1P as vital to human health - and a player in some diseases, such as cancer. And although S1P is known to be ...
Raised liver enzymes and low white blood cells are two separate conditions that have several mild to severe causes and indications. Both conditions can manifest from the same disease or its treatments. Your physician will typically address each issue separately while trying to determine the underlying factor.
Each element of blood performs a special function in the body. The main elements of blood include two types of cells, platelets, and plasma. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all other body tissues. In the tissues, these cells pick up carbon dioxide that is carried back to the lungs to be released from the body. White blood cells are one of the bodys defenses against disease. Some of these cells travel throughout the body and destroy bacteria, some produce antibodies against bacteria and viruses, and others help fight malignant diseases. Platelets are blood elements that lead to the formation of blood clots in response to injury. Plasma is a yellowish fluid composed of about 92 percent water and 7 percent vital proteins, such as albumin, gamma globulin, anti-hemophiliac factor, and other clotting factors. The remainder consists of mineral salts, sugars, fats, hormones, and vitamins. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets account for about 45 percent of the volume of ...
Red blood cells are vital to your health and well-being, carrying oxygen to cells throughout your body and carbon dioxide away from them so that it can be...
The circulatory system is comprised of both red blood cells and white blood cells. White blood cells are part of the immune system and continuously fi...
Well, after all my midnight rantings and loading of Family Guy DVDs into my backpack, it turns out my counts were too low to start round 3 of chemo today. Its a normal thing, to have the counts go low, so the docs said theres nothing to worry about. On the plus side, they also mentioned that the butt bump has shrunk (on CT scan) to a measly 8 mm by 3 mm. They werent even able to see the lung nodules, but this was also a low-resolution CT, so well have to wait for a better scan in the future to be sure about those. My white blood cell count was the culprit this time around - platelets and red blood cells are good. Probably this will mean more shots of neupogen after the next round (thats the injection I have to take every night after a cycle to get my counts up). The other plus is I get another week of semi-normal life before starting again (yay ...
Fasting diets have always been controversial and that IS why the reasons why people choose to fast in the first place. While some are doing it purely for religious reasons, others do it to lose weight in a short time. One thing is certain, most nutritionists do not approve of this type of diet. However, one recent study, which is published extensively in the media the past few weeks has proved that only three days of fasting can restore your immune system, which will then work even better, because it stimulates stem cells to produce more white blood cells. As you probably already know, the white blood cells are essential for the proper functioning of the immune system, given that fight infection and disease wherever they occur. The study found that those with weakened immune systems can benefit from fasting, because it will rejuvenate natural defense mechanism for a few days. This study shows that even older people can benefit from three days of fasting, when properly implemented. Renowned ...
If you have a weak immune system, you are prone to various illnesses and diseases due to damage caused by the free radicals. The good thing about HGH supplements is that they work to enhance the functioning of your immune system to combat sickness. Recent studies show that this hormone increases production of white blood cells and antibodies. The white blood cells are tasked with fighting free radicals and bacteria, which are harmful to your health.. ...
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that can cause joint pain including feet, hand, etc. No antigen is discovered for this disease yet. White blood cells of our body attacks on healthy cells that cause joint pain. The white blood cells are responsible for bodys ability. But CBD is the best suitable option for the pain management. Lets discuss on what is Rheumatoid Arthritis what are causes of it and how CBD is useful for it.. #cbdforpainmanagement ...
A1c whats that I hear you say well, when you have glucose or blood sugar in the blood stream it can in affect sugar coat the red blood cells see below, red blood cells are replaced every 3 months. So this number gives a more a more detailed look at what our blood sugars have been doing over time ...
In a nutshell, white blood cells are our defenders against disease. What most people dont know is that within WBC, there are three different types of WBC of which the neutrophil is the most prevalent. Think of these guys like the Marines; theyre first into battle and do most of the work when waging war against infection and disease. A normal healthy person will have an average neutrophil count (ANC) 1500 or more of these guys in a blood sample. If youre slightly ill, you might have anywhere from 1000 to 1500. If youre really feeling a bit under the weather, youve got about 500 to 1000. Less than 500 and the next strain of bacteria could kill you. Haydens current count is 120. Basically, if he were to get an infection he has no defense against it and could die in a mere matter of hours. Even the natural bacteria on his skin could cause complications ...
Blood Tissue - Anatomy & physiology revision about the structure and functions of human tissue types. Blood tissues are located inside the blood vessels and also within the chambers of the heart. Some white blood cells are also found in other types of body tissues e.g. lymphocytes are also in the lymphatic system.
Anisopoikilocytosis is when the red blood cells are of different shape and size. Ask a doctor about conditions that can cause this
The symptoms of MDS vary from person to person. Specific symptoms depend on which of your blood cell types are affected and how low your blood counts have fallen.
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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Normal Peripheral Blood Cells. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online ...
The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Normal Peripheral Blood Cells. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online ...
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Doctors have found they can accurately pinpoint the origin and type of cancerous blood cells, improving diagnosis and treatment, by using microscopic probes that delve into the genes of renegade
At admission: Age > 55 years WBC count > 16000 cells/mm3 Blood glucose > 11.11 mmol/L (> 200 mg/dL) Serum AST > 250 IU/100 ml ... 18000 cells/mm3 Within 48 hours: Serum calcium < 8 mg/dL Hematocrit decreased by > 10% Base deficit > 4 mEq/L BUN increased by ...
"Diagnostic tool for red blood cell membrane disorders: Assessment of a new generation ektacytometer". Blood Cells, Molecules ... red blood cell, RBC) rotates relative to the shear force and the cell's cytoplasm causing RBCs to orient themselves. Oriented ... doi:10.1016/S0016-7061(98)00133-5. "Viallat, A.; Abkarian, M. (2014-04-18). "Red blood cell: from its mechanics to its motion ... and stretched red blood cells have a diffraction pattern representing the apparent particle size in each direction, making it ...
Blood contains fluid and blood cells. The fluid, which may contain suspended foreign material such as bacteria and viruses, ... seeps through blood vessel walls into the tissues, where it bathes the body cells and exchanges substances with them. Some of ... this lymph fluid is then taken up by lymphatic vessels and passed back to the heart, where it is again mixed with the blood. On ...
... robots that would attack pathogens in the manner of white blood cells. Artificial cell Blood substitute Oxycyte Synthetic ... 1998). "Exploratory Design in Medical Nanotechnology: A Mechanical Artificial Red Cell". Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, ... Respirocytes were proposed by Robert A. Freitas Jr in his 1998 paper "A Mechanical Artificial Red Blood Cell: Exploratory ... Respirocytes are hypothetical, microscopic, artificial red blood cells that are intended to emulate the function of their ...
Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology. 33 (1): 37-46. doi:10.1081/BIO-200046654. PMID 15768564. S2CID 39902507 ... It is an ingredient of Perftoran, a blood substitute that also contains perfluoro-N-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-piperidine along with ... Due to its gas-carrying capacity, perfluorodecalin has been used to enhance oxygen delivery during cell culture. ... King, A. T.; Mulligan, B. J.; Lowe, K. C. (1989). "Perfluorochemicals and Cell Culture". Nature Biotechnology. 7 (10): 1037- ...
Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology. 32 (1): 67-75. doi:10.1081/BIO-120028669. PMID 15027802. S2CID 21897676 ... To deliver the molecules to a site of action, the lipid bilayer can fuse with other bilayers such as the cell membrane, thus ... This insight, they felt, was to cell function what the discovery of the double helix had been to genetics. Bangham had called ... In this case the vesicles act as sinks to scavenge the drug in the blood circulation and prevent its toxic effect. Another ...
The highest concentration of vanadium found so far, 350 mM, was found in the blood cells of Ascidia gemmata belonging to the ... Vanabins accumulate vanadium in the blood cells and produce V(III) species and vandanyl ions (V(IV)) from orthovanadate ions (V ... Vanabins are found almost exclusively in the blood cells, or vanadocytes, of some tunicates (sea squirts), including the ... The vanadium compound of the blood cells]. Biological Chemistry (in German). 72 (5-6): 494-501. doi:10.1515/bchm2.1911.72.5- ...
Oxygen is also carried dissolved in the blood's plasma, but to a much lesser degree. Hemoglobin is contained in red blood cells ... An increased concentration of BPG in red blood cells favours formation of the T (taut or tense), low-affinity state of ... The effects appear to last roughly as long as the affected red blood cells remain in circulation. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is ... and the binding site remains blocked for the remainder of the life cycle of that affected red blood cell. With an increased ...
... bind to I antigen on red blood cells, and unlike IgG, are able to cause agglutination of red blood cells and activate ... The I antigen is normally present on the cell membrane of red blood cells in all adults, while the i antigen is present in ... Like ABH antigens, which make up the ABO blood group, I and i antigens are not restricted to the red blood cell membrane, but ... Reid ME, Lomas-Francis C, Olsson ML (2012). "Ii Blood Group Collection". The Blood Group Antigen Facts Book. The Blood Group ...
One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... Mast cells[edit]. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in ... Natural killer cells[edit]. Main article: Natural killer cell. Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a component of the innate ...
This in turn affects the mechanics of the whole blood.[4] Red blood cells[edit]. The red blood cell is highly flexible and ... Red cell mass.. RCMH. Cell Mass Available For Transfusion after ANH. RCMI. Red Cell Mass Saved by ANH. SBL. Surgical Blood Loss ... Blood[edit]. Main article: Blood. Blood is a complex liquid. Blood is composed of plasma and formed elements. The plasma ... Deformation in red blood cells is induced by shear stress. When a suspension is sheared, the red blood cells deform and spin ...
Red blood cells[edit]. Fetus produces megaloblastic red blood cells early in development, which become normoblastic near term. ... This process is called differentiation, which produces the varied cell types (such as blood cells, kidney cells, and nerve ... White blood cells[edit]. Fetus starts producing leukocytes at 2 months gestation mainly from thymus and spleen. Lymphocytes ... Plasma cells are derived from B lymphocytes and their life in fetal blood is 0.5 to 2 days. ...
All white blood cells have nuclei, which distinguishes them from the other blood cells, the anucleated red blood cells (RBCs) ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... this is usually expressed as 4,000 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter of blood.[3] White blood cells make up ... All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells. ...
Form gamonts in white blood cells and/or erythrocytes. Gametocytes cause marked enlargement and distortion of the infected cell ... The sporozoites invade host cells in the liver where they undergo asexual replication, forming numerous daughter cells called ... The large gametocytes tend to grossly distort the infected cells and make cell identification difficult. A pseudopigment known ... spleen and liver due to occlusion of blood vessels by megaloschizonts in endothelial cells. Ruptured schizonts may induce ...
A small drop of blood is collected and a smear made. Once stained, the parasites can be seen in the red blood cells under ... This parasite then enters and destroys red blood cells. Biliary in dogs has a lot in common with malaria in man, except that in ... Treatment should only be given after a positive diagnosis has been made by means of a blood test. Usually treatment is ... In early cases simple injections are usually sufficient, but in others blood transfusions, electrolyte infusions per vein, ...
All blood cells are divided into three lineages. Red blood cells, also called erythrocytes, are the oxygen-carrying cells. ... blood formation occurs in aggregates of blood cells in the yolk sac, called blood islands. As development progresses, blood ... the Nomenclature of Cells and Diseases of the Blood and Blood-forming Organs issued reports on the nomenclature of blood cells ... The lymphoid lineage is composed of T-cells, B-cells and natural killer cells. This is lymphopoiesis. Cells of the myeloid ...
Generation of blood vessel organoids from human pluripotent stem cells. 2017. Development of SLAM-Seq for the high-resolution ... Bon-Kyoung Koo: Homeostatic regulation of adult stem cells. Pioneer in adult stem cell organoids. Sasha Mendjan: Molecular ... IMBA and the IMP co-organize the yearly SY-Stem symposium focusing on the next generation of stem cell researchers. The Vienna ... Core scientific facilities within the IMBA provide services to facilitate research making use of stem cells, flies/worms, ...
If ingested, it can damage your dog's red blood cells. Griffies, J. D.; Mendelsohn, C. L.; Rosenkrantz, W. S.; Muse, R.; Boord ... Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is an uncommon autoimmune disease of the basal cell layer of the skin. It occurs in humans ... DLE in dogs differs from SLE in humans in that plasma cells predominate histologically instead of T lymphocytes. Because ... Histopathologically, there is inflammation at the dermoepidermal junction and degeneration of the basal cell layer. Unlike in ...
As a large, deformed white blood cell goes through a capillary, a space opens up in front of it and red blood cells pile up ... Some may be individual red blood cells swollen due to osmotic pressure. Others may be chains of red blood cells stuck together ... White cells are larger than red blood cells and can be larger than the diameter of a capillary, so must deform to fit. ... It is much more noticeable when viewed against a field of pure blue light and is caused by white blood cells moving in the ...
The Changes of Blood-Cells in the Spleen, thesis, 1858. A Text-Book on Chemistry, 1866 revision of his father's 1846 text. Are ...
"Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID 17698380.. ... doi:10.1182/blood-2005-04-1674. PMC 1895241. PMID 16081688.. *. Schroeder T, Czibere A, Zohren F, et al. (2009). "Meningioma 1 ... doi:10.1182/blood-2005-04-1679. PMC 1895240. PMID 16105979.. *. Kandilci A, Grosveld GC (2009). "Reintroduction of CEBPA in MN1 ... doi:10.1182/blood-2009-02-205443. PMC 2731639. PMID 19561324.. *. Trynka G, Zhernakova A, Romanos J, et al. (2009). "Coeliac ...
Abnormal clinical and laboratory findings for blood tests (R70-R79, 790). Red blood cells. ... This article about a disease of the blood or immune system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Hypoproteinemia is a condition where there is an abnormally low level of protein in the blood. There are several causes that ... Decreased serum protein reduces the osmotic pressure of the blood, leading to loss of fluid from the intravascular compartment ...
Abnormal clinical and laboratory findings for blood tests (R70-R79, 790). Red blood cells. ... Hyperuricemia can be detected using blood and urine tests. Treatment[edit]. Precipitation of uric acid crystals, and conversely ... Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood. In the pH conditions of body fluid, uric acid exists ... Maintaining a lower blood concentration of uric acid similarly should reduce the formation of new crystals. If the person has ...
Abnormal clinical and laboratory findings for blood tests (R70-R79, 790). Red blood cells. ... Fungemia or fungaemia is the presence of fungi or yeasts in the blood. The most common type, also known as candidemia, ...
2002). "Molecular and functional roles of duodenal cytochrome B (Dcytb) in iron metabolism". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 29 (3): 356- ... The duodenum wall is composed of a very thin layer of cells that form the muscularis mucosae. The duodenum is almost entirely ... About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and 70 % of these genes are expressed in the normal duodenum. ... Secretin and cholecystokinin are released from cells in the duodenal epithelium in response to acidic and fatty stimuli present ...
red blood cells Giemsa-stained thin blood smear New England (different species have worldwide distribution) tick bites, e.g. ... Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... red blood cells, liver blood film tropical - 250 million cases/year Anopheles mosquito ... brain and blood microscopic examination of chancre fluid, lymph node aspirates, blood, bone marrow 50,000 to 70,000 people; ...
White blood cells. *Eosinophiluria. Proteinuria. *Albuminuria/Microalbuminuria *Albumin/creatinine ratio. *Urine protein/ ...
Abnormal clinical and laboratory findings for blood tests (R70-R79, 790). Red blood cells. ... However, if the liver is damaged, the liver cell (hepatocyte) membrane becomes more permeable and some of the enzymes leak out ... The concentrations of these transaminases in the serum (the non-cellular portion of blood) are normally low. ... liver injury from lack of blood flow, or injury from drugs or toxins. Most disease processes cause ALT to rise higher than AST ...
Abnormal clinical and laboratory findings for blood tests (R70-R79, 790). Red blood cells. ... Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood.[1] It is used as a measurement of parasite load in the ... In this technique, blood samples are obtained from the patient, and specific DNA of the parasite is extracted and amplified by ... For instance, in malaria, the number of blood-stage parasites can be counted using an optical microscope, on a special thick ...
Hisham S. Ibrahim, Gabriele Ruth Anisah Froemming, Effat Omar, and Harbindar Jeet Singh " Leptin increases blood pressure and ... Pre-malignant plasma cell dyscrasias: *Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance. *Smoldering multiple myeloma ...
6,258,540, which claims methods of using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) circulating in maternal plasma (cell-free blood) to ... but had traveled from the fetal blood into the maternal blood through the placenta. The paternal DNA in the mother's plasma had ... not just in the blood of the fetus, which was accessible only by invasive methods, such as amniocentesis, that created risks of ... and that paternal DNA was not native to the mother's blood. So they wanted to focus on genetic fragments containing paternally ...
Tinius, T. (2004). New Developments in Blood Flow Hemoencephalography. Hawthorne Press. *^ Toomim, H. (2000). A report of ... Photoelectric cells in a spectrophotometer device worn on the forehead measure the amount of each wavelength of light reflected ... While the skull is largely translucent to these wavelengths of light, blood is not. The red light is used as a probe, while the ... PIR has a poorer resolution than NIR and this treatment typically focuses on more global increases in cerebral blood flow.[3] ...
Certain cells in the brain respond specifically to an increase of CO2 in the blood.[4][24] The response involves vasodilatation ... Impaired venous outflow is often caused by a hypoplastic jugular foramen.[23] This causes an increase in the intracranial blood ... Most surgeons will not intervene until after the age of six months due to the heightened risk which blood loss poses before ... White N, Bayliss S, Moore D (January 2015). "Systematic review of interventions for minimizing perioperative blood transfusion ...
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... Immature plasma cells[edit]. The most immature blood cell that is considered of plasma cell lineage is the plasmablast.[3] ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
doi:10.1182/blood-2010-05-283770.. *^ Belikov AV, Schraven B, Simeoni L. T cells and reactive oxygen species. Journal of ... T cells associate with and predict leukemia relapse in AML patients post allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Blood Cancer ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞,在对器官移植的免疫
... due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[12][13] Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood ... Intensive blood sugar lowering (HbA1c,6%) as opposed to standard blood sugar lowering (HbA1c of 7-7.9%) does not appear to ... Blood pressure lowering. Many international guidelines recommend blood pressure treatment targets that are lower than 140/90 ... increased breakdown of lipids within fat cells, resistance to and lack of incretin, high glucagon levels in the blood, ...
The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... The brain checks for glucoprivation on its side of the blood-brain barrier (since glucose is its fuel), while the liver ... When the glucose levels of cells drop (glucoprivation), the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also ...
1156 patients with a mean of 87 CD4 cell counts and mean viral load of 100,000 copies/ml were randomized to one of the two ... Capaldini L (August 1997). "Protease inhibitors' metabolic side effects: cholesterol, triglycerides, blood sugar, and "Crix ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... There were higher CD4 cell counts and less viral load in patients assigned to the three-drug group, proving that a three-drug ...
Cells are homogenised in a blender and filtered to remove debris. *The homogenised sample is placed in an ultracentrifuge and ... Separation of urine components and blood components in forensic and research laboratories ... General method of fractionation: Cell sample is stored in a suspension which is: *Buffered - neutral pH, preventing damage to ... This method is commonly used to separate organelles and membranes found in cells. Organelles generally differ from each other ...
In vitro modulation of oxidative burst via release of reactive oxygen species from immune cells by extracts of selected ... Herbs and Food Plants Have the Potential to Inhibit Key Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes In Vitro and Reduce Postprandial Blood ...
... blood, and white blood cells to fill the alveoli. This condition is called pneumonia.[20] It is susceptible to clindamycin.[21] ... Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ...
blood vessel remodeling. •skeletal muscle tissue development. •respiratory gaseous exchange. •blood circulation. •cell ... Bax DV, Rodgers UR, Bilek MM, Weiss AS (2009). «Cell adhesion to tropoelastin is mediated via the C-terminal GRKRK motif and ... Bertram C, Hass R (2009). «Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB- ...
"J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 30 (5): 985-93. doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2009.269. PMC 2949183. PMID 20029452.. ... This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... Changing of regional blood flow in various anatomic structures (as a measure of the injected positron emitter) can be ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ...
... cells lining the inside of blood vessels), liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and ... an initially decreased white blood cell count followed by an increased white blood cell count; elevated levels of the liver ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... Blood products such as packed red blood cells, platelets, or fresh frozen plasma may also be used.[135] Other regulators of ...
... excess secretion from the acidophil cells) caused acromegaly, then an excess of basophil cells must be involved in another ... After the completion of collecting urine and blood samples, patients are asked to switch to glucocorticoid such as prednisone ... During post surgical recovery, patients collect 24-hour urine sample and blood sample for detecting the level of cortisol with ... Given this conviction, and his knowledge of the three anterior pituitary cell types, Cushing hypothesized that if acidophil ...
Primitive ova are seen in their cell-nests. The Genital cord or genital ridge is still discernible in this young child. A blood ... Included in the follicles are the cumulus oophorus, membrana granulosa (and the granulosa cells inside it), corona radiata, ...
Cell Press. doi:10.1016/j.isci.2020.101234. Retrieved July 7, 2020.. Cite journal requires ,journal=. (help). ... These include blood worms and earthworms. They can eat small fish such as goldfish, fathead minnows and guppies. Salamanders ... They are four-legged vertebrates which are cold blooded. Amphibians lay their eggs in water, usually in a foam nest. After ... Their bodies are thin and have a lot of blood vessels, this helps them to be able to take water through their skin. The ...
... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... ductus arteriosus blood vessel.[47][150] Prolonged use of salicylic acid over significant areas of the skin or under occlusive ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together.[10] The accumulation of dead skin cell ...
doi:10.1182/blood-2013-02-482570. PMID 23613524.. *^ T Shaw, J Quan, and M Totoritis, "B cell therapy for rheumatoid arthritis ... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... It induces apoptosis of CD20+ cells.. The combined effect results in the elimination of B cells (including the cancerous ones) ...
With the resultant oxygen tension and diminished blood supply reaching the outer hair cells, their response to sound levels is ... Outer hair cells serve as acoustic amplifiers for stimulation of the inner hair cells. Outer hair cells respond primarily to ... which will reduce the amount of blood reaching the hair cells of the organ of Corti in the cochlea. ... eds.). Cochlear Blood Flow Changes With Short Sound Stimulation. Scientific basis of noise-induced hearing loss. New York ...
The blood vascular system is minimal. Similarly, they have no gills, absorbing oxygen from the water through their limbs and ... Such barnacles feed by extending thread-like rhizomes of living cells into their hosts' bodies from their points of attachment. ... Barnacles have no true heart, although a sinus close to the esophagus performs a similar function, with blood being pumped ... degrading to the condition of nothing more than sperm-producing cells.[15] ...
Sometimes an underlying medical condition is sought, and this may include blood tests for full blood count and hematinics. If a ... Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ... Apart from true hyphae, Candida can also form pseudohyphae - elongated filamentous cells, lined end to end. As a general rule, ...
... growth of new blood vessels .,[39] and "leg-like pods" on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and ... stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16] ... "Effect of substance P on cytokine production by human astrocytic cells and blood mononuclear cells: characterization of novel ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ...
Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... The donor's blood is withdrawn through a sterile needle in one arm and passed through a machine that removes white blood cells ... The red blood cells are returned to the donor. The peripheral stem cell yield is boosted with daily subcutaneous injections of ... Cutler C, Antin JH (2001). "Peripheral blood stem cells for allogeneic transplantation: a review". Stem Cells. 19 (2): 108-17. ...
ଅଧିକ ଅନ‌କଞ୍ଜୁଗେଟେଡ ବିଲିରୁବିନ ହେବାର କାରଣ: ହେମୋଲାଇଟିକ ଆନିମିଆ (excess red blood cell breakdown), ବିରାଟ ଅଧଃକ୍ଷତ (large bruise), ... ଲୋହିତ ରକ୍ତ କଣିକା ନିଜର ଜୀବନ‌କାଳ(୧୨୦ ଦିନ) ସମାପ୍ତ କରିସାରିଲେ ବା କୌଣସି କାରଣରୁ ନଷ୍ଟ ହେଲେ ତାହାର କୋଷ ପରଦା(cell membrane) ଭଙ୍ଗୁର ହୋଇ ...
"Integrated associations of genotypes with multiple blood biomarkers linked to coronary heart disease risk". Hum. Mol. Genet ... "Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides ...
... or dysfunctional B cells. Blood cancersEdit. Rituximab is used to treat cancers of the white blood system such as leukemias and ... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... doi:10.1182/blood-2013-02-482570. PMID 23613524.. *^ Shaw, T. (2003). "B cell therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: The rituximab ( ...
The haemocyanin is dissolved in the plasma instead of being carried within blood cells, and gives the blood a bluish colour.[33 ... where the blood remains inside blood vessels. Octopuses have three hearts; a systemic heart that circulates blood round the ... This makes the blood very viscous and it requires considerable pressure to pump it round the body; octopuses' blood pressures ... The blood circulates through the aorta and capillary system, to the vena cavae, after which the blood is pumped through the ...
It is recommended that dosing be based on regular measurements of TSH and T4 levels in the blood.[1] Much of the effect of ... T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ...
"So we started with the following question: As blood cells are living cells, why shouldnt internal forces inside the cell also ... the researchers stretched blood cells in a petri dish and analysed the behaviour of the cell. The result was that if the blood ... the cell membrane of the blood cells moves because molecules in the vicinity jog it. Under the microscope, this makes the blood ... they recognized that fast molecules in the vicinity make the cell membrane of the blood cells wriggle - but that the cells ...
Peripheral Blood Cells By culturing peripheral blood cells in the presence of mitogens, cytogeneticists obtain cultures that ...
White blood cells are produced in the bone marrow or blood factory. There are several types of WBCs in the blood, each with a ... White blood cells (WBCs), also referred to as leukocytes, are the cells of the immune system that protect the body against ... Disease states and disorders occur when either too few or too many white blood cells are present. The most common forms of this ... What are white blood cell disorders?. White blood cells (WBCs), also referred to as leukocytes, are the cells of the immune ...
CML cell line K562 cells were treated with BHX. The effects of BHX on cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle were ... of-allogeneic-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells-and-unstimulated-immune-cells-in-vitro-the-impact-of-cell-to-cell-contact- ... METHODS AND RESULTS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), separated from the whole blood of healthy donors, were ... Interaction of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stromal cells and unstimulated immune cells in vitro: the impact of cell-to- ...
Red blood cells are the most abundant cell in the blood, accounting for about 40-45% of its volume. Red blood cells are disk- ... "Blood Cells" redirects here. For the journal formerly known as Blood Cells, see Blood Cells, Molecules and Diseases. ... A blood cell, also called a hematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found ... White blood cells[edit]. Artificially colored electron micrograph of blood cells. From left to right: erythrocyte, thrombocyte ...
A white cell count determines the total; a differential cell count estimates the numbers of each type. ... leucocytes* White blood cells [1], normally 5000-9000/mm3; includes polymorphonuclear neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, ... white blood cells A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published by Oxford ... white blood cell A Dictionary of Nursing © A Dictionary of Nursing 2008, originally published by Oxford University Press 2008. ...
Media in category "Blood cells". The following 76 files are in this category, out of 76 total. ... blood cell (en); خلية دم (ar); Κύτταρα του αίματος (el); клітини крові (uk) tipo de célula (es); zellulärer Bestandteil des ... Blood corpuscles depicted by Leeuwenhoek. Wellcome M0010779.jpg 2,917 × 3,618; 1.82 MB. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Blood_cells&oldid=360665016" ...
This weeks patent applications include flexible polymer blood cells, a microwave to soften rocks for tunnelling, and a vaccine ... Plastic red blood cells. Red blood cells travel through the bloodstream delivering vital oxygen to body tissues and taking away ... red blood cells lose this ability to deform.. Because of the small size of red blood cells and the demanding work they do, ... He has created tiny sacks of the polymer polyethylene glycol just 8 micrometres across - in the range of human red blood cells ...
All white blood cells have nuclei, which distinguishes them from the other blood cells, the anucleated red blood cells (RBCs) ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... this is usually expressed as 4,000 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter of blood.[3] White blood cells make up ... All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells. ...
Engineered blood vessel grafts could be used for surgical procedures like coronary artery bypass and kidney dialysis. ... Other researchers have previously reported the ability to develop blood vessels from a patients own cells. That process was ... Cite this: Blood Vessels Grown From Muscle Cells - Medscape - Feb 04, 2011. ... When blood vessels around the heart become dangerously congested with plaques, surgeons will reroute blood flow and bypass the ...
... is any peripheral blood cell having a round nucleus. These cells consist of lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, NK cells) and ... The polymorphonuclear cells can be further isolated by lysing the red blood cells. Basophils are sometimes found in both the ... These cells can be extracted from whole blood using ficoll, a hydrophilic polysaccharide that separates layers of blood, and ... Peripheral blood cell Delves, Peter, et al. Roitts Essential Immunology, 11th Ed. ISBN 978-1-4051-3603-7 The impact of food ...
Immunology and Blood Cell Development analyzes leukemia, lymphomas, other hematologic malignancies and immunology. ... Peer Review Committee for Leukemia, Immunology and Blood Cell Development (LIB). Areas Reviewed. Basic, preclinical, and ... molecular, structural, biochemical and biophysical aspects of the immune system including cell types, cytokines, antigen ...
Out of eight dinosaur bones the researchers examined, they found some kind of soft tissue structure - be it blood cells, ... Scanning electron micrographs and 3D reconstructions from serial sections of blood cell-like structures. Credit: Bertazzo et al ... But dinosaur blood is another matter. In 2005 Mary Schweitzer and colleagues announced that they had found remnants of blood ... A 75 million year old dinosaur claw that possibly preserved blood cells. Image by Sergio Bertazzo. ...
Its main role is to produce stem cells that will go on to become various cells of the blood, including white blood cells that ... The hemoglobin in the red blood cells ensures that our body cells receive sufficient oxygen. When the blood pigment is broken ... SMART researchers discover a new way to manufacture human red blood cells Researchers from Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research ... Researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center have conducted a study suggesting that having a low white blood cell ...
Find high quality printed Blood Cells T-Shirts at CafePress. See great designs on styles for Men, Women, Kids, Babies, and even ... Make a bold statement with our Blood Cells T-Shirts, or choose from our wide variety of expressive graphic tees for any season ...
Blood-forming and esophageal stem cells: find, see, manipulate. Posted by Monya Baker , Categories: Blood stem cells, Tissue- ... Beating heart triggers blood stem cells in the embryo. Posted by Monya Baker , Categories: Blood stem cells ... Posted by Monya Baker , Categories: Blood stem cells. While covering a couple papers just out in Cell Stem Cell, reporter ... Research highlight: Blood stem cells move with daylight. Posted by Monya Baker , Categories: Blood stem cells ...
... three independent papers report in the July 2 Cell Stem Cell. The new technique will allow scientists to tap a large, readily ... Blood drawn with a simple needle stick can be coaxed into producing stem cells that may have the ability to form any type of ... Stem Cells From Human Blood Can Be Reprogrammed. Blood drawn with a simple needle stick can be coaxed into producing stem cells ... The concern is that if these cells retain traces of memory from their previous lives as blood cells, they may not be good at ...
White Blood Cell Chases Bacteria in real life Edit: axxsmith informed me that it is from quote It is a neutrophil chasing ... White Blood Cell Chases Bacteria in real life. Edit: axxsmith informed me that it is from quote " It is a neutrophil chasing ...
The coronavirus may damage blood marrow cells in patients with severe COVID-19, according to a new study published in the ... The coronavirus may damage blood marrow cells in patients with severe COVID-19, according to a new study published in the ... COVID-19 May Damage Blood Marrow Immune Cells - Medscape - Sep 22, 2020. ... The findings "lend support to the idea that therapeutic strategies targeting release of … cells from bone marrow should be ...
Introducing T cells into mice that lacked them made their blood pressure sensitive to stress again. ... Marvar and colleagues had previously shown T cells are needed for the increase in blood pressure coming from high dietary salt ... Two hours of stress per day, for a week, results in a short-term rise in systolic blood pressure in normal mice, Marvar said. ... However, mice that were genetically engineered to lack T cells -- helpful for fighting infections -- did not display an ...
... type of white blood cell (leukocyte) that is characterized histologically by its ability to be stained by basic dyes and ... white blood cells that stain readily with basic dyes), which circulate in the blood. The cells release various substances such ... tissue mast cells and blood basophils when the body is subjected to trauma, infection, or some drugs. It assists the body in ... white blood cell. eosinophils, and basophils. The most numerous of the granulocytes-making up 50 to 80 percent of all white ...
... led study shows endometrial regenerative cells from menstrual blood can restore blood flow in animal models of peripheral ... Endometrial regenerative cells are stem cells taken from menstrual blood that are capable of forming into at least nine ... 18 (UPI) -- A U.S.-led study shows endometrial regenerative cells from menstrual blood can restore blood flow in animal models ... demonstrated that when circulation-blocked mice were treated with injections of the cells, circulation and functionality were ...
... blood vessels grown from donor cells have been successfully implanted in human patients, an early report of new research shows. ... Blood Vessels Grown From Donated Cells Closer to Reality. 3 Patients Have Received Engineered Vessels; No Signs of Rejection ... June 27, 2011 -- For the first time, blood vessels grown from donor cells have been successfully implanted in human patients, ... researchers have used cells taken from individual patients to grow tubes of tissue that can be grafted onto natural blood ...
The ab T cells are also good at reacting with other cells of the immune system, such as B cells. And the gd T cells react with ... KILLER T CELL binds to a receptor on the surface of a cell that is infected with a virus, causing the cell to be destroyed. ... These mechanisms use antibody molecules on blood cells called B cells and ab (alpha beta) or gd (gamma delta) receptors on ... blood cells called T cells. These receptors are created by a rearrangement of genes during the development of T and B cells. ...
A new study in a mouse model of MS reveals two ways in which Th1 and Th17 immune cells cross the blood-barrier to attack the ... They concluded that the Th1 immune cells need the caveolae of the endothelial cells in the blood vessels that serve the CNS in ... How do white blood cells penetrate the blood-brain barrier in MS? A new study investigates. ... One feature that can help the blood-brain barrier to restrict the movement of blood-borne cells, molecules, and ions into and ...
... blood are giving researchers an unprecedented look at cancer. ... Technologies that can pull tumor cells from patients ... The MGH device and some others in development isolate rare cancer cells by discarding all red blood cells and white blood cells ... Finding Cancer Cells in the Blood. Technologies that can pull tumor cells from patients blood are giving researchers an ... there has been no way to capture the circulating tumor cells. "These are rare cells in the midst of 100 billion other cells," ...
... the immune system kills the early stage cancer cells. ... New research offers an explanation as to why B cell lymphoma, ... A new study from Australia suggests B cells, a type of white blood cell, undergo spontaneous changes that could lead to cancer ... "Immune system kills spontaneous blood cancer cells every day." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 3 Feb. 2014. Web.. 21 ... Paddock, C. (2014, February 3). "Immune system kills spontaneous blood cancer cells every day." Medical News Today. Retrieved ...
... blood in real time. Many patients require monitoring of their blood, such as diabetics. But extracting blood is both invasive ... Chemists have turned red blood cells into long lived sensors that could be put back into circulation to monitor the make up of ... from the its-in-the-blood dept. ananyo writes "Chemists have turned red blood cells into long lived sensors that could be put ... Also, if the blood cells live for 90 days with the dye in them, you just need one injection of the dye-filled cells instead of ...
In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood ... in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). Truly endothelial, ... BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. Our subsequent ...
There are many ways to increase your red blood cell count, from dietary changes to supplements. Eating foods rich in iron, ... Blood cell disorders impair the formation and function of red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. ... Red blood cells are important to your body. If your doctor suspects your red blood cell count is off, they will order a ... Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs to your entire body. Theyre produced in your bone marrow. When dying red blood ...
Research underway in San Diego analyzes blood from women with ovarian cancer to track tumor cells and better understand the ... The suspected circulating ovarian cancer cell (in red with a blue nucleus) is surrounded by normal blood cells (in green with ... By analyzing circulating tumor cells in the blood stream they hope to get a better understanding of the spread of cancer. ... Research underway in San Diego analyzes blood from women with ovarian cancer to track tumor cells and better understand the ...
Im a 51 year old female in very good health however my red blood cells have been termed enlarged by my doctor since 1999. My ... Enlarged Red Blood Cells. Im a 51 year old female in very good health however my red blood cells have been termed enlarged ... My blood cells are also enlarged at 105, and my doctor said to me the alcohol was the cause. I only drink a couple apple ciders ... My blood cells are also enlarged at 105, and my doctor said to me the alcohol was the cause. I only drink a couple apple ciders ...
The lymphoid stem cell has two arrows pointing to the blood cells it makes. These are a B-cell lymphocyte and a T-cell ... The myeloid stem cell has three arrows pointing to the blood cells it makes. These are a red blood cell, a platelet and a ... This diagram shows how all blood cells are made from stem cells. At the top of the diagram, is a stem cell. It has two arrows ... These lymphocytes are both types of white blood cells. ... Blood cells - image description Need to talk? 0808 808 00 00 7 ...
Blood cells from donated umbilical cords fight leukaemia far better than adult blood, suggesting weve underestimated the power ... Immune cells in fetal blood are better at destroying leukaemia cells than adult cells, tests in mice suggest. ... they found that the fetal cells triggered rapid production of CD4 cells, the white blood cells that orchestrate the immune ... People with blood cancers like leukaemia have to undergo chemotherapy to eradicate the blood cells that are causing their ...
  • The treatment also induced morphological changes, phosphatidylserine exposure, cell cycle arrest in G2/M-phase, DNA condensation and fragmentation in HL60 cells, but did not showed cytotoxic effects on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In the case of red cells in particular, it is important to know precisely about their properties and their internal forces - because they are unusually soft and elastic and change their shape in order to be able to pass through the sometimes minute blood vessels in our body. (healthcanal.com)
  • Stem cell scientists led by Mick Bhatia from the McMaster University have successfully converted adult human blood cells into neural cells. (asianlite.com)
  • Ever," explained Bhatia, director of the McMaster Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute. (asianlite.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with B-cell malignancies in patients though HIV-1 is not able to infect B-cells. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The team directly converted adult human blood cells to both central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) neurons as well as neurons in the peripheral nervous system (rest of the body) that are responsible for pain, temperature and itch perception. (asianlite.com)
  • Nobody has ever done this with adult blood. (asianlite.com)
  • The researchers even have a suspicion already as to which forces inside the cell cause the cell membrane to change shape. (healthcanal.com)
  • The researchers want to find out more about the mechanics of blood cells and gain a detailed understanding of the forces which move and shape cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Using so-called optical tweezers - a concentrated laser beam - the researchers stretched blood cells in a petri dish and analysed the behaviour of the cell. (healthcanal.com)
  • On the other hand, biological considerations suggest that internal forces caused by proteins are also responsible for the cell membrane in blood cells changing its shape. (healthcanal.com)
  • The goal of this study was to explore the effects of BHX on human chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cells and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Antigenotoxic potential of DOLE was investigated on the human whole blood in vitro, using comet assay. (desdaughter.com)
  • The main goal of this study was to investigate antigenotoxic potential of a standardized dry olive leaf extract on DNA damage induced by 17β-estradiol and diethylstilbestrol in human whole blood cells in vitro, using comet assay. (desdaughter.com)
  • Now we can take blood samples and make the main cell types of neurological systems - the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system - in a dish that is specialised for each patient. (asianlite.com)
  • Platelets , or thrombocytes , are very small, irregularly shaped clear cell fragments, 2-3 µm in diameter, which derive from fragmentation of megakaryocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the number of platelets is too high, blood clots can form thrombosis, which may obstruct blood vessels and result in such events as a stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism-or blockage of blood vessels to other parts of the body, such as the extremities of the arms or legs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the irregularly shaped leukocytes, both red blood cells and many small disc-shaped platelets are visible. (wikipedia.org)
  • All white blood cells have nuclei , which distinguishes them from the other blood cells , the anucleated red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets . (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells consist of lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, NK cells) and monocytes, whereas erythrocytes and platelets have no nuclei, and granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils) have multi-lobed nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its main role is to produce stem cells that will go on to become various cells of the blood, including white blood cells that fight infections, red blood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body, and platelets that control bleeding. (news-medical.net)
  • The other one percent are platelets and the various white blood cells of the immune system. (news-medical.net)
  • Blood comprises three main types of cells, erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and thrombocytes (platelets), all of which arise from blood stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • blood platelets. (thebody.com)
  • Blood stem cells (also called hematopoietic stem cells) have the potential to self-renew into two identical daughter stem cells or give rise (mature) to specialized cell types: red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the lack of red blood cells, the late-stage mouse fetus contained fewer white blood cells and platelets-an indication that the blood stem cells were unable to mature into other critical blood cells. (nih.gov)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) develop into all types of blood cells-red blood cells, platelets and immune cells. (medindia.net)
  • Patients face very serious consequences when the bone marrow doesn't make enough platelets and other blood cells, and few options are currently available to aid the recovery. (rochester.edu)
  • Blood consists of 45% red blood cells, less than 1% white blood cells and platelets, and 55% plasma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is where red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets are made. (cancer.ca)
  • The hematopoietic progenitor cells go to the bone marrow where they become red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. (drugs.com)
  • In the new procedure, reported in the Feb. 2 issue of Science Translational Medicine, researchers took smooth muscle cells from cadaver donors and seeded them onto mesh tubes made from the same strong, flexible material used to make dissolvable stitches. (medscape.com)
  • In a final step, researchers washed the collagen-based tubes to get rid of any remaining cells, which could trigger immune reactions in a recipient. (medscape.com)
  • Out of eight dinosaur bones the researchers examined, they found some kind of soft tissue structure - be it blood cells, collagen fibers, or unknown carbon-rich structures - in six of them. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder and the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have developed a new way to diagnose diseases of the blood like sickle cell disease with sensitivity and precision and in only one minute. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers have charted the activity of tens of thousands of genes in mouse immune cells over the course of an infection. (news-medical.net)
  • With a nearly $2.6 million grant from the National Institutes of Health, Michigan State University researchers are using nanoscopic particles to turn the body's own cells into weapons that cancer won't see coming. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center have conducted a study suggesting that having a low white blood cell count (lymphocytopenia) prior to exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be associated with an increased risk of dying from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers from Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, MIT's research enterprise in Singapore, have discovered a new way to manufacture human red blood cells (RBCs) that cuts the culture time by half compared to existing methods and uses novel sorting and purification methods that are faster, more precise and less costly. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers at Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center and the University of Massachusetts Medical School have developed a strategy to treat two of the most common inherited blood diseases -- sickle cell disease and beta thalassemia -- applying CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to patients' own blood stem cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Because taking blood is safe, fast and efficient compared to current stem cell harvesting methods, some of which include biopsies and pretreatments with drugs, researchers hope that blood-derived stem cells could one day be used to study and treat diseases - though major safety hurdles remain. (wired.com)
  • And as techniques for manipulating induced pluripotent cells improve, some researchers think they may be just as useful. (wired.com)
  • Researchers are still a long way off from transplanting such stem cells or their mature offspring into people safely. (wired.com)
  • Previous studies have found that COVID-19 creates an "exaggerated" response from the immune system, and for some patients, this could occur in immune cells found in bone marrow, the researchers write. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers weren't sure whether the monocytes were altered before they were released from the bone marrow or whether they were changed after they entered the blood, according to Reuters . (medscape.com)
  • Researchers led by Dr. Michael Murphy , a vascular surgeon at Indiana University, demonstrated that when circulation-blocked mice were treated with injections of the cells, circulation and functionality were restored. (upi.com)
  • Researchers probing the mechanisms of nerve tissue damage in multiple sclerosis have identified two ways in which white blood cells overcome the blood-brain barrier to wreak havoc in the highly protected environment of the brain and spinal cord. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Technologies that can pull tumor cells from patients' blood are giving researchers an unprecedented look at cancer. (technologyreview.com)
  • The researchers found T cells of the immune system carry out regular checks to find cancerous and pre-cancerous B cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To avoid the problem, the researchers encapsulated the sensors in red blood cells. (slashdot.org)
  • Scripps researchers are now seeking local ovarian cancer patients and survivors to donate blood for the study. (kpbs.org)
  • When the researchers examined tumour samples from the animals before they were destroyed, they found that the fetal cells triggered rapid production of CD4 cells, the white blood cells that orchestrate the immune system response to tumours and viruses. (newscientist.com)
  • At the same time, the researchers believe they could be courting contro