Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Erythrocyte Deformability: Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Erythrocyte Aggregation: The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Blood Preservation: The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Erythrocyte Volume: Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Anemia, Hemolytic: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Blood Component Transfusion: The transfer of blood components such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma from a donor to a recipient or back to the donor. This process differs from the procedures undertaken in PLASMAPHERESIS and types of CYTAPHERESIS; (PLATELETPHERESIS and LEUKAPHERESIS) where, following the removal of plasma or the specific cell components, the remainder is transfused back to the donor.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Rh-Hr Blood-Group System: Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Spherocytosis, Hereditary: A group of familial congenital hemolytic anemias characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Glycophorin: The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Blood Substitutes: Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Cell SeparationSheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Heinz Bodies: Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.Hematology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.MethemoglobinNeutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Erythroblasts: Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Blood Transfusion, Autologous: Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tin Polyphosphates: Poly or pyrophosphates of tin. In conjunction with radioactive technetium these compounds are used as bone-scanning agents and in scintigraphy to diagnose myocardial and cerebral infarction.Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Leukocyte Reduction Procedures: The removal of LEUKOCYTES from BLOOD to reduce BLOOD TRANSFUSION reactions and lower the chance of transmitting VIRUSES. This may be performed by FILTRATION or by CYTAPHERESIS.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Hematopoietic System: The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Hematologic Diseases: Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Platelet Transfusion: The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Chromium Isotopes: Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.LeukopeniaHorses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Blood Banks: Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Erythroblastosis, Fetal: A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Elliptocytosis, Hereditary: An intrinsic defect of erythrocytes inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The erythrocytes assume an oval or elliptical shape.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Blood Group Incompatibility: An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).Leukapheresis: The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Blood DonorsMicroscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Schizonts: Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.Lutheran Blood-Group System: A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Merozoites: Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lab-On-A-Chip Devices: Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Oxyquinoline: An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Favism: Hemolytic anemia due to the ingestion of fava beans or after inhalation of pollen from the Vicia fava plant by persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient erythrocytes.alpha-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary: The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Hemoglobin A: Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseTrout: Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.

Profound variation in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in human blood cells: major implications for the detection of partly deficient patients. (1/1434)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is responsible for the breakdown of the widely used antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU), thereby limiting the efficacy of the therapy. To identify patients suffering from a complete or partial DPD deficiency, the activity of DPD is usually determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM cells). In this study, we demonstrated that the highest activity of DPD was found in monocytes followed by that of lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets, whereas no significant activity of DPD could be detected in erythrocytes. The activity of DPD in PBM cells proved to be intermediate compared with the DPD activity observed in monocytes and lymphocytes. The mean percentage of monocytes in the PBM cells obtained from cancer patients proved to be significantly higher than that observed in PBM cells obtained from healthy volunteers. Moreover, a profound positive correlation was observed between the DPD activity of PBM cells and the percentage of monocytes, thus introducing a large inter- and intrapatient variability in the activity of DPD and hindering the detection of patients with a partial DPD deficiency.  (+info)

Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi with peripheral blood fibrocytes, antigen-presenting cells with the potential for connective tissue targeting. (2/1434)

BACKGROUND: Borrelia Burgdorferi has a predilection for collagenous tissue and can interact with fibronectin and cellular collagens. While the molecular mechanisms of how B. burgdorferi targets connective tissues and causes arthritis are not understood, the spirochetes can bind to a number of different cell types, including fibroblasts. A novel circulating fibroblast-like cell called the peripheral blood fibrocyte has recently been described. Fibrocytes express collagen types I and III as well as fibronectin. Besides playing a role in wound healing, fibrocytes have the potential to target to connective tissue and the functional capacity to recruit, activate, and present antigen to CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkey fibrocytes were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. B. burgdorferi were incubated with human or monkey fibrocyte cultures in vitro and the cellular interactions analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The two strains of B. burgdorferi studied included JD1, which is highly pathogenic for monkeys, and M297, which lacks the cell surface OspA and OspB proteins. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that B. burgdorferi binds to both human and monkey (rhesus) fibrocytes in vitro. This process does not require OspA or OspB. In addition, the spirochetes are not phagocytosed but are taken into deep recesses of the cell membrane, a process that may protect them from the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: This interaction between B. burgdorferi and peripheral blood fibrocytes provides a potential explanation for the targeting of spirochetes to joint connective tissue and may contribute to the inflammatory process in Lyme arthritis.  (+info)

Quantification of T-cell progenitors during ontogeny: thymus colonization depends on blood delivery of progenitors. (3/1434)

An in vivo thymus reconstitution assay based on intrathymic injection of hematopoietic progenitors into irradiated chicks was used to determine the number of T-cell progenitors in peripheral blood, paraaortic foci, bone marrow (BM), and spleen during ontogeny. This study allowed us to analyze the regulation of thymus colonization occurring in three waves during embryogenesis. It confirmed that progenitors of the first wave of thymus colonization originate from the paraaortic foci, whereas progenitors of the second and the third waves originate from the BM. The analysis of the number of T-cell progenitors indicates that each wave of thymus colonization is correlated with a peak number of T-cell progenitors in peripheral blood, whereas they are almost absent during the periods defined as refractory for colonization. Moreover, injection of T-cell progenitors into the blood circulation showed that they homed into the thymus without delay during the refractory periods. Thus, thymus colonization kinetics depend mainly on the blood delivery of T-cell progenitors during embryogenesis.  (+info)

Expression of IkappaBalpha in the nucleus of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. (4/1434)

According to current models the inhibitory capacity of I(kappa)B(alpha) would be mediated through the retention of Rel/NF-kappaB proteins in the cytosol. However, I(kappa)B(alpha) has also been detected in the nucleus of cell lines and when overexpressed by transient transfection. To gain better insight into the potential role of nuclear I(kappa)B(alpha) in a physiological context we have analysed its presence in the nucleus of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBL). We demonstrate the nuclear localization of I(kappa)B(alpha) in PBL by different techniques: Western blot, indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Low levels of nuclear I(kappa)B(alpha) were detected in resting cells whereas a superinduction was obtained after PMA activation. The nuclear pool of I(kappa)B(alpha) showed a higher stability than cytosolic I(kappa)B(alpha) and was partially independent of the resynthesis of the protein. Unexpectedly, the presence of nuclear I(kappa)B(alpha) did not inhibit NF-kappaB binding to DNA and this phenomenon was not due to the presence of IkappaBbeta at the nuclear level. Immunoprecipitation experiments failed to demonstrate an association between nuclear I(kappa)B(alpha) and NF-kappaB proteins. Our results demonstrate that in resting and PMA-activated human PBL, I(kappa)B(alpha) is present in the nucleus in an apparently inactive form unable to disrupt NF-kappaB binding from DNA.  (+info)

Sensitive detection of squamous cells in bone marrow and blood of head and neck cancer patients by E48 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. (5/1434)

In previous studies, we described the selective reactivity of monoclonal antibody E48 with normal squamous and transitional epithelia and their malignant counterparts and the capacity of monoclonal antibody E48 for selective tumor targeting in head and neck cancer patients. Cloning of the E48 encoding cDNA and elucidation of the gene structure enabled the selection of an intron-spanning primer set for the detection of circulating tumor cells in blood and bone marrow of head and neck cancer patients. Extensive optimizations led to a reproducible reverse transcriptase-PCR assay with an internal standard for RNA quality control and an external standard for sensitivity control. In reconstruction experiments, we were able to reach a reproducible sensitivity of one single tumor cell per 7 ml of blood (2 x 10(7) nucleated cells). When applying this method to patient material, we were able to detect positive signal in 35% of the bone marrow samples (0 of 2 stage II, 0 of 4 stage III, 4 of 11 stage IV, and 4 of 6 recurrences) and 10% of the blood samples (2 of 21) of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The specificity of the method was demonstrated on 29 blood and bone marrow samples of noncancer controls, which were all negative. Our study shows the feasibility of E48 reverse transcriptase-PCR for the detection of squamous cells in nonsquamous tissues.  (+info)

Bacterial peptidoglycan polysaccharides in sterile human spleen induce proinflammatory cytokine production by human blood cells. (6/1434)

Peptidoglycan (PG) is the major component of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. In vitro, PG isolated from conventional bacterial cultures can induce secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by human monocytes, indicating that PG may be involved in immune responses against infections by gram-positive bacteria. To investigate the biologic activity of PG in human tissues, an improved method was developed to isolate significant amounts of PG from sterile human spleen tissue. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that PG isolated from human spleen is largely intact. Human whole blood cell cultures were able to produce the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 and -6 after stimulation with PG isolated from human spleen. Cytokine induction was not sensitive to inhibition by polymyxin B, in contrast to lipopolysaccharide. Collectively, the data show that intact PG in sterile human tissue is biologically active and may induce local proinflammatory cytokine production.  (+info)

Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes (CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions. (7/1434)

The tetraspans are molecules with four transmembrane domains which are engaged in multimolecular complexes (the tetraspan web) containing a subset of beta1 integrins (in particular alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1 and alpha6beta1), MHC antigens and several unidentified molecules. The molecules associated with tetraspans are readily detected after immunoprecipitation performed in mild detergents such as Brij 97 or CHAPS. In this study we show that another classical mild detergent, digitonin, dissociated most of these associated molecules, including integrins, from the tetraspans CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD82, Co-029, Talla-1 and NAG-2. In contrast, reciprocal immunoprecipitations from various cell lines demonstrated that two other tetraspans, CD81 and CD151, formed complexes with integrins not disrupted by digitonin. These complexes were CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1 and CD151/alpha6beta1. Furthermore, a new anti-CD151 monoclonal antibody (mAb), TS151r, was shown to have a restricted pattern of expression, inversely related to the sum of the levels of expression of alpha6beta1 and alpha3beta1. This mAb was unable to co-precipitate integrins in digitonin, suggesting that its epitope is blocked by the association with integrins. Indeed, the binding of TS151r to the cell surface was quantitatively diminished following alpha3beta1 overexpression. Altogether, these data suggest that, among tetraspans, CD81 interacts directly with the integrin alpha4beta1, and CD151 interacts directly with integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1. Because all tetraspan-tetraspan associations are disrupted by digitonin, it is likely that the other tetraspans interact indirectly with integrins, through interactions with CD81 or CD151.  (+info)

Mouse NKR-P1B, a novel NK1.1 antigen with inhibitory function. (8/1434)

The mouse NK1.1 Ag originally defined as NK cell receptor (NKR)-P1C (CD161) mediates NK cell activation. Here, we show that another member of the mouse CD161 family, NKR-P1B, represents a novel NK1.1 Ag. In contrast to NKR-P1C, which functions as an activating receptor, NKR-P1B inhibits NK cell activation. Association of NKR-P1B with Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 provides a molecular mechanism for this inhibition. The existence of these two NK1.1 Ags with opposite functions suggests a potential role for NKR-P1 molecules, such as those of the Ly-49 gene family, in regulating NK cell function.  (+info)

*Hemodynamics

This in turn affects the mechanics of the whole blood.[4] Red blood cells[edit]. The red blood cell is highly flexible and ... Red cell mass.. RCMH. Cell Mass Available For Transfusion after ANH. RCMI. Red Cell Mass Saved by ANH. SBL. Surgical Blood Loss ... Blood[edit]. Main article: Blood. Blood is a complex liquid. Blood is composed of plasma and formed elements. The plasma ... Deformation in red blood cells is induced by shear stress. When a suspension is sheared, the red blood cells deform and spin ...

*Prenatal development

Red blood cells[edit]. Fetus produces megaloblastic red blood cells early in development, which become normoblastic near term. ... This process is called differentiation, which produces the varied cell types (such as blood cells, kidney cells, and nerve ... White blood cells[edit]. Fetus starts producing leukocytes at 2 months gestation mainly from thymus and spleen. Lymphocytes ... Plasma cells are derived from B lymphocytes and their life in fetal blood is 0.5 to 2 days. ...

*White blood cell

All white blood cells have nuclei, which distinguishes them from the other blood cells, the anucleated red blood cells (RBCs) ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... this is usually expressed as 4,000 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter of blood.[3] White blood cells make up ... All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells. ...

*MN1 (gene)

"Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID 17698380.. ... doi:10.1182/blood-2005-04-1674. PMC 1895241. PMID 16081688.. *. Schroeder T, Czibere A, Zohren F, et al. (2009). "Meningioma 1 ... doi:10.1182/blood-2005-04-1679. PMC 1895240. PMID 16105979.. *. Kandilci A, Grosveld GC (2009). "Reintroduction of CEBPA in MN1 ... doi:10.1182/blood-2009-02-205443. PMC 2731639. PMID 19561324.. *. Trynka G, Zhernakova A, Romanos J, et al. (2009). "Coeliac ...

*Hypoproteinemia

Abnormal clinical and laboratory findings for blood tests (R70-R79, 790). Red blood cells. ... This article about a disease of the blood or immune system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Hypoproteinemia is a condition where there is an abnormally low level of protein in the blood. There are several causes that ... Decreased serum protein reduces the osmotic pressure of the blood, leading to loss of fluid from the intravascular compartment ...

*Hyperuricemia

Abnormal clinical and laboratory findings for blood tests (R70-R79, 790). Red blood cells. ... Hyperuricemia can be detected using blood and urine tests. Treatment[edit]. Precipitation of uric acid crystals, and conversely ... Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood. In the pH conditions of body fluid, uric acid exists ... Maintaining a lower blood concentration of uric acid similarly should reduce the formation of new crystals. If the person has ...

*Fungemia

Abnormal clinical and laboratory findings for blood tests (R70-R79, 790). Red blood cells. ... Fungemia or fungaemia is the presence of fungi or yeasts in the blood. The most common type, also known as candidemia, ...

*Duodenum

2002). "Molecular and functional roles of duodenal cytochrome B (Dcytb) in iron metabolism". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 29 (3): 356- ... The duodenum wall is composed of a very thin layer of cells that form the muscularis mucosae. The duodenum is almost entirely ... About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and 70 % of these genes are expressed in the normal duodenum. ... Secretin and cholecystokinin are released from cells in the duodenal epithelium in response to acidic and fatty stimuli present ...

*List of parasites of humans

red blood cells Giemsa-stained thin blood smear New England (different species have worldwide distribution) tick bites, e.g. ... Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... red blood cells, liver blood film tropical - 250 million cases/year Anopheles mosquito ... brain and blood microscopic examination of chancre fluid, lymph node aspirates, blood, bone marrow 50,000 to 70,000 people; ...

*Elevated transaminases

Abnormal clinical and laboratory findings for blood tests (R70-R79, 790). Red blood cells. ... However, if the liver is damaged, the liver cell (hepatocyte) membrane becomes more permeable and some of the enzymes leak out ... The concentrations of these transaminases in the serum (the non-cellular portion of blood) are normally low. ... liver injury from lack of blood flow, or injury from drugs or toxins. Most disease processes cause ALT to rise higher than AST ...

*Parasitemia

Abnormal clinical and laboratory findings for blood tests (R70-R79, 790). Red blood cells. ... Parasitemia is the quantitative content of parasites in the blood.[1] It is used as a measurement of parasite load in the ... In this technique, blood samples are obtained from the patient, and specific DNA of the parasite is extracted and amplified by ... For instance, in malaria, the number of blood-stage parasites can be counted using an optical microscope, on a special thick ...

*Proteinuria

Hisham S. Ibrahim, Gabriele Ruth Anisah Froemming, Effat Omar, and Harbindar Jeet Singh " Leptin increases blood pressure and ... Pre-malignant plasma cell dyscrasias: *Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance. *Smoldering multiple myeloma ...

*Necrotaxis

An historical view". Blood Cells. 19 (1): 5-19. PMID 8400312. Ragot R. (1993). "Negative necrotaxis". Blood Cells. 19 (1): 81-8 ... Bessis, M. (1964). "Studies on cell agony and death: an attempt at classification.". In DeReuck, A.V.S.; Knight, J. Ciba ... Model experiments of necrotaxis deal with special way of killing the target cells. For this purpose laser irradiation is used ... Investigations of necrotaxis proved that ability to sense substances released from dying cells is present in unicellular level ...

*Jean Bernard (physician)

Pavlovsky, A (1977). "[Jean Bernard and Argentinian hematology]". Nouvelle revue française d'hématologie; blood cells. 18 (2): ... blood cells. 18 (2): 441-4. PMID 335357. Gaertner, H (1976). "[Professor Jean Bernard elected member of the Académie Francaise ... Golliet, P; Binet J L (1983). "[2 blood historians, or response of Lucien Lévy-Bruhl and Wifredo Lam to Jean Bernard]". ...

*Mean platelet volume

"Use of mean platelet volume improves detection of platelet disorders". Blood Cells. 11: 127-35. PMID 4074887. [7] Wisegeekcom: ... is a machine-calculated measurement of the average size of platelets found in blood and is typically included in blood tests as ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) ‹ The template below (Myeloid blood tests) is being considered for merging. See templates for ...

*Thrombin

Bode W (2007). "Structure and interaction modes of thrombin". Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases. 36 (2): 122-30. doi:10.1016/j. ... In the blood coagulation pathway, thrombin acts to convert factor XI to XIa, VIII to VIIIa, V to Va, fibrinogen to fibrin, and ... Blood from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm clots around a cerebral artery, releasing thrombin. This can induce an acute and ... In human adults, the normal blood level of antithrombin activity has been measured to be around 1.1 units/mL. Newborn levels of ...

*Tissue factor

... smooth muscle cells) and cells surrounding blood vessels (e.g. fibroblasts). This can change when the blood vessel is damaged ... Another cell type that expresses TF on the cell surface in inflammatory conditions is the monocyte (a white blood cell). ... Engelmann B (2007). "Initiation of coagulation by tissue factor carriers in blood". Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases. 36 (2): ... The inner surface of the blood vessel consists of endothelial cells. Endothelial cells do not express TF except when they are ...

*Mitochondrial ferritin

2002). "Mitochondrial ferritin: a new player in iron metabolism". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 29 (3): 376-83. doi:10.1006/bcmd. ... 2003). "Mitochondrial ferritin expression in erythroid cells from patients with sideroblastic anemia". Blood. 101 (5): 1996- ... Cell Biol. 40 (10): 2110-9. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2008.02.010. PMID 18372207. Snyder AM, Wang X, Patton SM, et al. (2009). " ... Cell. Biol. 26 (7): 2845-56. doi:10.1128/MCB.26.7.2845-2856.2006. PMC 1430308 . PMID 16537925. Hasan MR, Tosha T, Theil EC ( ...

*PIGA

The GPI anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. Paroxysmal ... 2002). "Decreased susceptibility of leukemic cells with PIG-A mutation to natural killer cells in vitro". Blood. 100 (3): 1031- ... Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 24 (3): 370-84. doi:10.1006/bcmd.1998.0203. PMID 10087994. Watanabe R, Murakami Y, Marmor MD, et al. ( ... Blood. 100 (10): 3812-8. doi:10.1182/blood.V100.10.3812. PMID 12411324. Mortazavi Y, Merk B, McIntosh J, et al. (2003). "The ...

*Hepcidin

Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 40 (1): 132-8. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.07.009. PMC 2211381 . PMID 17905609. Pandur E, Nagy J, Poór VS, ... Moura IC, Hermine O (2015). "Erythroferrone: the missing link in β-thalassemia?". Blood. 126 (17): 1974-5. doi:10.1182/blood- ... Blood. 106 (12): 3710-7. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-05-1857. PMID 16030190. hepcidin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Vitamin D has been shown to decrease hepcidin, in cell models looking at transcription and when given in big doses to human ...

*GBA3

2010). "The cytosolic beta-glucosidase GBA3 does not influence type 1 Gaucher disease manifestation". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 46 ... 2003). "Deglycosylation by small intestinal epithelial cell beta-glucosidases is a critical step in the absorption and ...

*Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase

Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 24 (1): 54-61. doi:10.1006/bcmd.1998.0170. PMID 9616041. Kugler W, Breme K, Laspe P, et al. (1998). " ... In addition, GPI is secreted exclusively by tumor cells and not normal cells. For these reasons, GPI inhibitors may be a safer ... Neuroleukin also acts as a lymphokine secreted by T cells stimulated by lectin. It induces immunoglobulin secretion in B cells ... Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 23 (3): 402-9. doi:10.1006/bcmd.1997.0157. PMID 9446754. Kanno H, Fujii H, Miwa S (1998). "Expression and ...

*Hereditary spherocytosis

... where red blood cells need to be flexible in order to pass through. In hereditary spherocytosis, red blood cells fail to pass ... the red blood cells will appear abnormally small and lack the central pale area that is present in normal red blood cells. ... and other red blood cell membrane proteins: These proteins are necessary to maintain the normal shape of a red blood cell, ... On a blood smear, Howell-Jolly bodies may be seen within red blood cells. Primary treatment for patients with symptomatic HS ...

*Neutrophil cytosolic factor 4

Matute JD, Arias AA, Dinauer MC, Patiño PJ (2006). "p40phox: the last NADPH oxidase subunit". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 35 (2): 291 ... Grandvaux N, Grizot S, Vignais PV, Dagher MC (1999). "The Ku70 autoantigen interacts with p40phox in B lymphocytes". J. Cell ... This protein is preferentially expressed in cells of myeloid lineage. It interacts primarily with neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 ... Cell Sci. 110 ( Pt 24) (24): 3071-81. PMID 9365277. Fuchs A, Bouin AP, Rabilloud T, Vignais PV (1997). "The 40-kDa component of ...

*Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency

Tightly linked polymorphisms and a common haplotype in all known families". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 22 (2): 115-25. doi:10.1006/ ...

*Chloride potassium symporter 4

Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 24 (1): 31-40. doi:10.1006/bcmd.1998.0168. PMID 9516379. Su W, Shmukler BE, Chernova MN, et al. (1999). " ... 2005). "Oxygen dependence of K+-Cl− cotransport in human red cell ghosts and sickle cells". Bioelectrochemistry (Amsterdam, ... Blood. 103 (11): 4302-9. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-01-0107. PMID 14976052. Khan AI, Drew C, Ball SE, et al. ( ... J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 285 (1): C22-30. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00289.2002. PMID 12637262. Shen MR, Chou CY, Hsu KF, et al. ( ...

*Ariosa v. Sequenom

6,258,540, which claims methods of using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) circulating in maternal plasma (cell-free blood) to ... but had traveled from the fetal blood into the maternal blood through the placenta. The paternal DNA in the mother's plasma had ... not just in the blood of the fetus, which was accessible only by invasive methods, such as amniocentesis, that created risks of ... and that paternal DNA was not native to the mother's blood. So they wanted to focus on genetic fragments containing paternally ...

*Duodenal cytochrome B

2002). "Molecular and functional roles of duodenal cytochrome B (Dcytb) in iron metabolism". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 29 (3): 356- ...
Stirm, Laura; Huypens, Peter; Sass, Steffen; Batra, Richa; Fritsche, Louise; Brucker, Sara; Abele, Harald; Hennige, Anita M.; Theis, Fabian; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Fritsche, Andreas; Haering, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of anisotropic (non spherical morphologies) gold nanoparticles coated with the amino acid Lysine (Lys) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) "in vitro". Gold (Au) nanoparticles tested in this study were synthesized by a seed-mediated growth using Lys as a structure and shape directing agent. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by cell viability (resazurin assay), reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction (2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay), DNA damage (comet assay) and apoptosis/necrosis (AnnexinV/propidium iodide assay) after PBMC were exposed to increasing concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100, and 250μM) of AuNPs coated with Lys (AuNPs-Lys) at different exposure times (3, 6, 12, and 24h ...
Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and the stem cell institute HI-STEM in Heidelberg have succeeded for the first time in directly reprogramming human blood cells into a previously unknown type of neural ...
HANOVER NH White blood cells are the principle mediators of immune s...The researchers led by Henry N. Higgs assistant professor of bioc...Higgs and his lab focused much of their work on lymphocytes a type...,Probing,the,surface,of,white,blood,cells,to,enhance,immune,system,medicine,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
XW-100 Automated Hematology Analyzer Sysmex America, Inc. INTENDED USE: For use in patients 2 years of age and older who require a whole blood cell count and white blood cell differential. Test results can be used with other clinical and laboratory findings to provide early alerts of patients with serious conditions such as severe anemia (low…
Acute rejection is a major complication of solid organ transplantation that prevents the long-term assimilation of the allograft. Various populations of lymphocytes are principal mediators of this process, infiltrating graft tissues and driving cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Understanding the lymphocyte-specific biology associated with rejection is therefore critical. Measuring genome-wide changes in transcript abundance in peripheral whole blood cells can deliver a comprehensive view of the status of the immune system. The heterogeneous nature of the tissue significantly affects the sensitivity and interpretability of traditional analyses, however. Experimental separation of cell types is an obvious solution, but is often impractical and, more worrying, may affect expression, leading to spurious results. Statistical deconvolution of the cell type-specific signal is an attractive alternative, but existing approaches still present some challenges, particularly in a clinical research setting. ...
OBJECTIVES: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and odorless gas responsible for poisoning mortality and morbidity in the United States. At this time, there is no reliable method to predict the severity of poisoning or clinical prognosis following CO exposure. Whole blood cells, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and platelets, have been explored for their potential use to act as sensitive biomarkers for mitochondrial dysfunction which may have a role in CO poisoning. DESIGN: The objective of this study was to measure mitochondrial respiration using intact cells obtained from patients exposed to CO as a potential biomarker for mitochondrial inhibition with results that can be obtained in a time frame useful for guiding clinical care ...
Blood cells. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a normal human blood cells, showing red blood cells (erythrocytes, red), a white blood cell (leucocyte, lower right) and platelets (thrombocytes, upper left). White blood cells are involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. The main function of red blood cells is to distribute oxygen to body tissues and to carry waste carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Platelets are fragments of white blood cells in involved in the clotting process. - Stock Image C025/5691
Scientists have discovered when a cancer-killing virus is injected in the bloodstream it hitches a ride on blood cells and evades attack from the immune sy
White blood cell. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through a white blood cell. White blood cells are part of the bodys immune system. There are seven common types of white blood cell, but they all form from the same type of stem cell and all have some specific function in defending the body against disease and foreign objects. Here, the nucleus (right) is bi-lobed, a characteristic of a type of white blood cell known as an eosinophil. The other white blood cell type that has a multi-lobed nucleus is the neutrophil. Magnification: x4600 when printed at 10 centimetres tall. - Stock Image C006/5936
What are white blood cell disorders? White blood cells (WBCs), also referred to as leukocytes, are the cells of the immune system that protect the body against infectious disease, allergens, and other foreign invaders. White blood cells are produced in the bone marrow or blood factory. There are several types of WBCs in the blood, each with a specific job and function. Disease states and disorders occur when either too few or too many white blood cells are present. The most common forms of this condition are:
Stem cell scientists led by Mick Bhatia from the McMaster University have successfully converted adult human blood cells into neural cells.. The team directly converted adult human blood cells to both central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) neurons as well as neurons in the peripheral nervous system (rest of the body) that are responsible for pain, temperature and itch perception.. This means that how a persons nervous system cells react and respond to stimuli can be determined from his blood.. "Now we can take blood samples and make the main cell types of neurological systems - the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system - in a dish that is specialised for each patient. Nobody has ever done this with adult blood. Ever," explained Bhatia, director of the McMaster Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute.. Bhatias team successfully tested their process using fresh blood as well as frozen blood.. Scientists can actually take a patients blood sample and with it, can ...
Learning all of these different names and the function of each cell type takes a bit of effort, but you can understand scientific articles a lot better once you get it all figured out! Heres a quick summary to help you get all of the different cell types organized in your brain.. All white blood cells are known officially as leukocytes. White blood cells are not like normal cells in the body -- they actually act like independent, living single-cell organisms able to move and capture things on their own. White blood cells behave very much like amoeba in their movements and are able to engulf other cells and bacteria. Many white blood cells cannot divide and reproduce on their own, but instead have a factory somewhere in the body that produces them. That factory is the bone marrow.. ...
The protocol for flow cytometry analysis presented here has been specifically developed for studies of human peripheral blood cells
An intracellular complement system (ICS) has recently been described in immune and nonimmune human cells. This system can be activated in a convertase-independent manner from intracellular stores of the complement component C3. The source of these stores has not been rigorously investigated. In the present study, Western blotting identified a band corresponding to C3 in freshly isolated human peripheral blood cells that was absent in corresponding cell lines. One difference between native cells and cell lines was the time absent from a fluid-phase complement source; therefore, we hypothesized that loading C3 from plasma was a route of establishing intracellular C3 stores. We found that many types of human cells specifically internalized C3(H2O), the hydrolytic product of C3, and not native C3, from the extracellular milieu. Uptake was rapid, saturable, and sensitive to competition with unlabeled C3(H2O), indicating a specific mechanism of loading. Under steady-state conditions, approximately 80% ...
An intracellular complement system (ICS) has recently been described in immune and nonimmune human cells. This system can be activated in a convertase-independent manner from intracellular stores of the complement component C3. The source of these stores has not been rigorously investigated. In the present study, Western blotting identified a band corresponding to C3 in freshly isolated human peripheral blood cells that was absent in corresponding cell lines. One difference between native cells and cell lines was the time absent from a fluid-phase complement source; therefore, we hypothesized that loading C3 from plasma was a route of establishing intracellular C3 stores. We found that many types of human cells specifically internalized C3(H2O), the hydrolytic product of C3, and not native C3, from the extracellular milieu. Uptake was rapid, saturable, and sensitive to competition with unlabeled C3(H2O), indicating a specific mechanism of loading. Under steady-state conditions, approximately 80% ...
GSK2245035 is a highly potent and selective intranasal Toll-Like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist with preferential Type-1 interferon (IFN)-stimulating properties. GSK2245035 has pEC50s of 9.3 and 6.5 for IFNα and TFNα. GSK2245035 effectively suppresses allergen-induced Th2 cytokine production in human peripheral blood cell cultures. GSK2245035 is used for the treatment of asthma. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
The researchers want to find out more about the mechanics of blood cells and gain a detailed understanding of the forces which move and shape cells. In the case of red cells in particular, it is important to know precisely about their properties and their internal forces - because they are unusually soft and elastic and change their shape in order to be able to pass through the sometimes minute blood vessels in our body. It is precisely because blood cells are normally so soft that, in previous studies, physicists measured large thermal fluctuations at the outer membrane of the cells. These natural movements of molecules are defined by the ambient temperature. In other words, the cell membrane of the blood cells moves because molecules in the vicinity jog it. Under the microscope, this makes the blood cells appear to be wriggling. Although this explains why blood cells move, it does not address the question of possible internal forces being a contributory factor. So the research team led by Timo ...
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The human blood cell production system usually remains extremely robust, in terms of cell number or function, with little signs of decline in old age. To achieve robustness, circulating blood cells rely on a formidable production machinery, the hematopoietic system, located in the bone marrow. All circulating blood cells---red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets---are renewed on a daily basis. The hematopoietic system produces an estimated 1e12 cells per day. This is a significant fraction of the 3.7e13 cells in an adult. Robustness is partly due to the short time scales at which cell populations are able to return to equilibrium, combined with large cell numbers and renewal rates. White blood cells (WBCs), among which neutrophils are most prevalent, are the bodys first line, innate immune system. Upon infection, WBCs are mobilized from the bone marrow, to increase their number in circulation and fight off pathogen within hours. The 26 billion circulating neutrophils in human have a
The white blood cells are an important part of our body's immune system. Neutrophils are a special group of white blood cells that play an extremely
To switch skin to blood, researchers took a tiny sample - less than a millimetre - of human skin and put it in a Petri dish. There, it turned into cells called fibroblasts. The scientists then added a protein that turned on or off sets of genes, bathed the mixture in more proteins necessary for human blood cells to survive and waited 30 days. By the end of the month they were then left several blood cells ...
White blood cells are essential cells of the immune system that help the body respond to infection, inflammation, and cancer. Learn more about them here!
A study published in 2010 evaluated the effect of forest bathing on immune function. For a group of Japanese adults, a three-day trip to the forest increased the number of white blood cells in their blood. These levels of white blood cells stayed elevated for more than 30 days after their adventure in the woods. White blood cells are crucial to your immune system. They help your body battle germs by recognizing pathogens and harmful intruders with the help of antibodies ...
The NIH conclusions were not correct, however. Hickey and Roberts examined their experiments and found them to be full of errors. For example, the researchers had given a dose of vitamin C, waited until it had been excreted and then measured blood levels. Using this procedure, they found that increasing the dose did not greatly increase the blood levels. Instead of realising that this was because the dose had been excreted, the NIH claimed it was because the body was saturated, so higher doses were redundant. They then used white blood cells as a model for normal cells, to see how they absorbed vitamin C from their surroundings. These white blood cells are specialised to absorb vitamin C, even when supplies are low. If other body cells were similar to white blood cells, we would normally have a reserve of 40 grams in our bodies. In this case, given the proposed RDA of 200mg, it would take 2-3 years to fill a depleted body. This is demonstrably incorrect: the classic example is that James Linds ...
If My Wbc Is Normal Could I Still Have Hiv? - The BodyTheBody.com fills you in on the topic, if my wbc is normal could i still have hiv, with a ... and the rest of the white blood cell types can remain in the normal range . ...
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) signaling is essential for the development and peripheral maintenance of several blood cell types. Deficiencies in IL-7 or either component...
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A new Blood Atlas - a resource for exploration of blood cells and proteins - has been launched, as part of the open access Human Protein Atlas, in which the proteins in human blood cell types are described together with a comprehensive analysis of all proteins predicted to be secreted from human cells ("the secretome"). The new atlas provides a unique resource for the study of human biology and diseases, in particular for immune-based research and efforts to develop new, effective treatments in oncology and autoimmune diseases.. A new Blood Atlas has been launched, as part of the open access Human Protein Atlas, in which the proteins in human blood cell types are described together with a comprehensive analysis of all proteins predicted to be secreted from human cells ("the secretome"). The new atlas provides a unique resource for the study of human biology and diseases, in particular for immune-based research and efforts to develop new, effective treatments in oncology and autoimmune diseases. ...
Research in industrial workers and professionals exposed to formaldehyde suggests that occupational exposure to this important chemical is associated with increased risk for myeloid leukemia. However, there is still uncertainty about the biologic plausibility of the association because of questions regarding the ability of formaldehyde, which is extremely reactive, to directly or indirectly cause toxicity to the bone marrow. There have been several relatively small studies of the impact of occupational formaldehyde exposure on peripheral blood cells that found some evidence that peripheral blood cells of the myeloid lineage (i.e., granulocytes, platelets) were significantly decreased in exposed workers. We propose to follow-up these findings in a relatively large study population in China. We will study hematologic parameters in 240 higher exposed workers (,1 ppm), 240 workers exposed to lower levels of formaldehyde (0.3 to 1 ppm), and a group of 240 unexposed controls frequency-matched to ...
Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, travel through circulating blood carrying oxygen to body tissues and organs while removing waste. These blood cells make up the largest part of the blood system.. As the red blood cells in blood travel through the lungs, oxygen molecules from the lungs attach to the hemoglobin, a protein in the blood cells that contains iron. The oxygen is then released to tissues and organs, and the hemoglobin bonds with carbon dioxide and other waste gases. These waste products are transported away and removed as blood continues to circulate.. Millions of red blood cells are contained in a single drop of blood. Red blood cells are constantly being produced in the bone marrow to replenish those that gradually wear out and die. The average life of a red blood cell is about 120 days.. A significant decrease in the number of red blood cells causes anemia and shortness of breath. ...
Blood cells are made in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy material in the center of the bones that produces all types of blood cells.. There are other organs and systems in our bodies that help regulate blood cells. The lymph nodes, spleen, and liver help regulate the production, destruction, and differentiation (developing a specific function) of cells. The production and development of new cells in the bone marrow is a process called hematopoiesis.. Blood cells formed in the bone marrow start out as a stem cell. A "stem cell" (or hematopoietic stem cell) is the initial phase of all blood cells. As the stem cell matures, several distinct cells evolve, such as the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Immature blood cells are also called blasts. Some blasts stay in the marrow to mature and others travel to other parts of the body to develop into mature, functioning blood cells.. ...
Blood cells are made in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy material in the center of the bones that produces all types of blood cells.. There are other organs and systems in our bodies that help regulate blood cells. The lymph nodes, spleen, and liver help regulate the production, destruction, and differentiation (developing a specific function) of cells. The production and development of new cells in the bone marrow is a process called hematopoiesis.. Blood cells formed in the bone marrow start out as a stem cell. A "stem cell" (or hematopoietic stem cell) is the initial phase of all blood cells. As the stem cell matures, several distinct cells evolve, such as the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Immature blood cells are also called blasts. Some blasts stay in the marrow to mature and others travel to other parts of the body to develop into mature, functioning blood cells.. ...
Scientists have discovered the worlds oldest blood cells in the remains of a prehistoric iceman. The ancient human is said to have lived over 5,300 years ago
Red blood cells play a very important role in carrying oxygen for the whole body and use a particular protein called hemoglobin. Anemia means that the amount of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin is lower than the normal. As the output of blood cells is either very less or there has been an increased loss of blood cells which causes the deficiency. Red blood cells are manufactured in the bone marrow with the life expectancy of four months. The concoction to produce red blood cells is iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid and the lack of participation by any of those leads to anemia.. This lack or deficiency of red blood cells makes them work harder and exert more to get the required amount of oxygen around the body. This is a chain reaction, as the blood cells are less the provision of oxygen to the body is less. This makes lungs and heart work harder to get oxygen into the blood and due to which there is difficulty in breathing. Heavy exercise, climbing stairs, which are some of the very ...
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Red blood cells are stored in blood collection centres for blood transfusion; however, some of red blood cells are discarded due to the poor quality after storage for a period of time because the poor quality of the red blood cells will cause health problems in individuals after transfusion. In this project, we are going to test new compounds derived from natural anti-freezing proteins by a Canada-based biotech company Sirona for better storage of red blood cells. Hopefully, we will find that these new compounds can improve the quality of the red blood cells after storage.. ...
Protein kinases in human leukemic cells.: Protein kinase activities and cyclic AMP binding capacity were investigated in human peripheral blood cells from leuke
Red blood cells are the most abundant anucleate cell type in the human body, Yet little is known about them apart from their vital role in transporting oxygen to organs and tissues. Almost all of us know that blood vessels signal bone marrow for red blood cell production in case of low volume of blood or decreased number of red blood cells. But a research team, led by a scientist at Weill Cornell Medical College, has discovered that red blood cells perform a second vital function: angiogenesis, the creation of new blood vessels from those that already exist. These investigators showed that red blood cells supply a lipid that is known to regulate angiogenesis, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Angiogenesis is necessary for growth, repair and regenerative processes that require increased blood flow and oxygenation of tissues. Given its role in creating new blood vessels, scientists recognize S1P as vital to human health - and a player in some diseases, such as cancer. And although S1P is known to be ...
Raised liver enzymes and low white blood cells are two separate conditions that have several mild to severe causes and indications. Both conditions can manifest from the same disease or its treatments. Your physician will typically address each issue separately while trying to determine the underlying factor.
Each element of blood performs a special function in the body. The main elements of blood include two types of cells, platelets, and plasma. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all other body tissues. In the tissues, these cells pick up carbon dioxide that is carried back to the lungs to be released from the body. White blood cells are one of the bodys defenses against disease. Some of these cells travel throughout the body and destroy bacteria, some produce antibodies against bacteria and viruses, and others help fight malignant diseases. Platelets are blood elements that lead to the formation of blood clots in response to injury. Plasma is a yellowish fluid composed of about 92 percent water and 7 percent vital proteins, such as albumin, gamma globulin, anti-hemophiliac factor, and other clotting factors. The remainder consists of mineral salts, sugars, fats, hormones, and vitamins. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets account for about 45 percent of the volume of ...
Red blood cells are vital to your health and well-being, carrying oxygen to cells throughout your body and carbon dioxide away from them so that it can be...
The circulatory system is comprised of both red blood cells and white blood cells. White blood cells are part of the immune system and continuously fi...
Well, after all my midnight rantings and loading of Family Guy DVDs into my backpack, it turns out my counts were too low to start round 3 of chemo today. Its a normal thing, to have the counts go low, so the docs said theres nothing to worry about. On the plus side, they also mentioned that the butt bump has shrunk (on CT scan) to a measly 8 mm by 3 mm. They werent even able to see the lung nodules, but this was also a low-resolution CT, so well have to wait for a better scan in the future to be sure about those. My white blood cell count was the culprit this time around - platelets and red blood cells are good. Probably this will mean more shots of neupogen after the next round (thats the injection I have to take every night after a cycle to get my counts up). The other plus is I get another week of semi-normal life before starting again (yay ...
Fasting diets have always been controversial and that IS why the reasons why people choose to fast in the first place. While some are doing it purely for religious reasons, others do it to lose weight in a short time. One thing is certain, most nutritionists do not approve of this type of diet. However, one recent study, which is published extensively in the media the past few weeks has proved that only three days of fasting can restore your immune system, which will then work even better, because it stimulates stem cells to produce more white blood cells. As you probably already know, the white blood cells are essential for the proper functioning of the immune system, given that fight infection and disease wherever they occur. The study found that those with weakened immune systems can benefit from fasting, because it will rejuvenate natural defense mechanism for a few days. This study shows that even older people can benefit from three days of fasting, when properly implemented. Renowned ...
If you have a weak immune system, you are prone to various illnesses and diseases due to damage caused by the free radicals. The good thing about HGH supplements is that they work to enhance the functioning of your immune system to combat sickness. Recent studies show that this hormone increases production of white blood cells and antibodies. The white blood cells are tasked with fighting free radicals and bacteria, which are harmful to your health.. ...
A1c whats that I hear you say well, when you have glucose or blood sugar in the blood stream it can in affect sugar coat the red blood cells see below, red blood cells are replaced every 3 months. So this number gives a more a more detailed look at what our blood sugars have been doing over time ...
In a nutshell, white blood cells are our defenders against disease. What most people dont know is that within WBC, there are three different types of WBC of which the neutrophil is the most prevalent. Think of these guys like the Marines; theyre first into battle and do most of the work when waging war against infection and disease. A normal healthy person will have an average neutrophil count (ANC) 1500 or more of these guys in a blood sample. If youre slightly ill, you might have anywhere from 1000 to 1500. If youre really feeling a bit under the weather, youve got about 500 to 1000. Less than 500 and the next strain of bacteria could kill you. Haydens current count is 120. Basically, if he were to get an infection he has no defense against it and could die in a mere matter of hours. Even the natural bacteria on his skin could cause complications ...
Blood Tissue - Anatomy & physiology revision about the structure and functions of human tissue types. Blood tissues are located inside the blood vessels and also within the chambers of the heart. Some white blood cells are also found in other types of body tissues e.g. lymphocytes are also in the lymphatic system.
The symptoms of MDS vary from person to person. Specific symptoms depend on which of your blood cell types are affected and how low your blood counts have fallen.
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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Normal Peripheral Blood Cells. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online ...
The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Normal Peripheral Blood Cells. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online ...
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Doctors have found they can accurately pinpoint the origin and type of cancerous blood cells, improving diagnosis and treatment, by using microscopic probes that delve into the genes of renegade
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human peripheral blood dendritic cells and monocyte subsets display similar chemokine receptor expression profiles with differential migratory responses. AU - Cravens, P. D.. AU - Hayashida, K.. AU - Davis, L. S.. AU - Nanki, T.. AU - Lipsky, P. E.. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - Human antigen presenting cells (APC) found in peripheral blood are considered to be precursors that have been released from the bone marrow and are in transit to the peripheral tissues. These APC populations include myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and monocytes (Mo). To assign specialized functional roles and stages of development for APCs, CD33 expressing APC subsets were examined for their capacity to respond to chemokines. Three major CD33+ subsets including CD33brightCD14 bright Mo, CD33brightCD14- CD11c+ mDC and CD33dimCD14- pDC were present. Dendritic cells subsets and Mo expressed low levels of CC and CXC receptors, but distinctive chemokine receptor expression profiles were ...
Get an answer for Explainwhat happens if type O red blood cells are mixed with anti-A antibody during blood typing and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
White blood cell count (leukocyte count): The number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the blood. The WBC is usually measured as part of the CBC (complete blood count). White blood cells are the infection-fighting cells in the blood and are distinct from the red (oxygen-carrying) blood cells known as erythrocytes. There are different types of white blood cells, including neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes; PMNs), band cells (slightly immature neutrophils), T-type lymphocytes (T cells), B-type lymphocytes (B cells), monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. All the types of white blood cells are reflected in the white blood cell count. The normal range for the white blood cell count varies between laboratories but is usually between 4,300 and 10,800 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. This can also be referred to as the leukocyte count and can be expressed in international units as 4.3 - 10.8 x 109 cells per liter." ...
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MDS (myelodysplastic syndromes) is a group of disorders in which your blood-forming stem cells are defective and fail to make healthy, mature blood cells. With MDS, patients have low blood counts for at least one blood cell type and blood cells look abnormal under a microscope. Doctors must do a bone marrow biopsy to be certain of the diagnosis. Symptoms and the course of MDS vary for each patient depending on which blood cells are affected.
Blood cell type expression overview shows RNA-seq data from three different sources: Internally generated Human Protein Atlas (HPA) data, as well as data generated by (Monaco et al) and (Schmiedel et al). Color-coding is based on blood cell type lineages, including B-cells, T-cells, NK-cells, monocytes, granulocytes and dendritic cells as well as total PBMC. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar ...
Blood cell type expression overview shows RNA-seq data from three different sources: Internally generated Human Protein Atlas (HPA) data, as well as data generated by (Monaco et al) and (Schmiedel et al). Color-coding is based on blood cell type lineages, including B-cells, T-cells, NK-cells, monocytes, granulocytes and dendritic cells as well as total PBMC. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar ...
Your blood cells are made in bone marrow, a soft spongy material that fills the inside of your bones. Most of your bodys bone marrow is found in larger bones such as your breast bone, ribs, skull, pelvis and spine.. The different blood cells made in your bone marrow are white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. These cells can only last in your blood from days to months. Your bone marrow is always working to make new blood cells to replace damaged or old cells.. Cancer and some of its treatments can make it hard for your bone marrow to do its job making new blood cells. Cancer treatments work to damage and stop fast growing cancer cells, but they also damage your normal healthy cells. This change in the balance of blood cells can cause low blood counts for a period time.. Your doctor may order a blood test to check the different cells in your blood. A small sample of your blood is taken and sent to the lab.. Note: Some health problems may require ongoing monitoring or repeat testing. It ...
Answer (1 of 2): Frogs red blood cells each contain a nucleus (unlike those of humans).In fact, there are no nuclei in the blood cells of any mammal, which is thought to be due to evolutionary mutation.Why do frogs have nuclei in their red blood cells? A better question to ask would be, why do humans NOT have nuclei in their red blood cells?. Based on human evolutionary history, it is likely that we (along with all other mammals) are derived from a species that did, at some point, have nuclei-containing red blood cells. The fact that we currently dont have nuclei in our red blood cells is probably due to genetic mutation and can, in Darwinian terms, be described as a biological improvement:Red blood cells that lack nuclei are able to bend and stretch into different shapes more easily, making them able to fit into smaller capillaries.Also, the lack of a nucleus also means that each cell has more space to carry oxygen - which is what red blood cells are designed to do within the body. What are the
red blood cells, to help maintain energy levels, health and vitality.. The GHL Advantage - Critical for Healthy Blood. Glycine: Essential for the formation of haem which carries the iron and oxygen in the red blood cell.. Histidine: Helps to manufacture red and white blood cells. Red blood cells are oxygen-carrying cells. White blood cells are part of our immune system. They protect our body from harmful microorganisms (infection).. Lysine: Essential to the formation of proteins like the globin protein found in haemoglobin. Deficiency results in tiredness, dizziness and anemia.. ...
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White blood cells are produced by your bone marrow to help your body fight infection. If you have fewer than normal white blood cells, you have a higher risk of getting an infection. When you have a low white blood cell count, your immune system isnt working as well as it should. Doctors call this "immunocompromised." If youre immunocompromised, you have a higher risk of getting sick from a bacterium or virus that doesnt affect people with a healthy immune system.. Breast cancer treatments that can lower your white blood cell count:. ...
Devices and methods for inspecting, detecting, isolating, monitoring, characterizing, or separating pathogens in blood containing blood cells are disclosed. The devices include a flow chamber having a solvent inlet, at least one host-fluid inlet, a particulate outlet, at least one residual outlet, and a reflector. The methods include trapping the pathogens in the acoustic standing wave, introducing a solvent into the flow chamber, and removing the pathogens from the device. Devices and methods for inspecting, detecting, isolating, monitoring, characterizing, or separating specialized circulating cells in blood containing blood cells are also disclosed. The devices include a flow chamber having at least one inlet and at least one outlet, and a microscope objective and a cover glass. The methods include driving the transducer to create an acoustic standing wave in the flow chamber and microbubbles in the blood.
... are the group of diseases in which too many red blood cells, platelets or white blood cells are made by the bone marrow. Usually, the bone marrow makes immature cells (blood stem cells) which become mature blood cells with time. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
With the exception of mammals, all vertebrate organisms have hemoglobin-containing cells in their blood and all of these red blood cells contain a nucleus. Mammals represent ~5,500 named species out of ~66,000 vertebrate species, and within this ~8% subgroup, red blood cells are known as erythrocytes or RBCs and lack a cell nucleus in mature organisms. In contrast, a nucleated red blood cell (NRBC), also known by several other names, is a mammalian RBC that contains a cell nucleus. NRBCs occur in normal development as progenitor cells in the erythropoietic lineage and in pathological states. Normally, nucleated RBCs are found only in the circulation of fetuses and newborn infants. After infancy, RBCs normally only contain a nucleus during the very early stages of the cells life, and the nucleus is ejected as a normal part of cellular differentiation before the cell is released into the bloodstream. Thus, if NRBCs are seen on an adults peripheral blood smear, it suggests that there is a very ...
Also, Like our facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/bholashola. Pet Care is a pet awareness initiative by Harwinder Grewal. Who is an owner of Grewal Pet Shop and Farm, Main Road, Adampur. In this video, he tells about Dog Anemia Problem ( decrease blood cell) in the Hindi Language.. Anemia is a medical term referring to a reduced number of circulating red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb), or both. It is not a specific disease, but rather the result of some other disease process or condition. Hemoglobin delivers oxygen to the cells and tissues of the body, and a patient that is anemic will suffer from symptoms related to a lack of oxygen.. Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and are released into the blood, where they circulate for approximately three months in dogs and two months in cats. As they age or become damaged, they are then removed from the bloodstream and their components are recycled to form new red blood cells. The number of red blood cells may become ...
White blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, and typically work as part of the immune system to fight off bacterial and viral infections. Whats considered a "normal" white blood cell count is usually between 4,500 to 10,000 white blood cells (WBCs) per microliter of blood. Those who have 3,500 or less may be considered to have a low WBC (also called "neutropenia"), but not always-it depends on the patient, the doctor, and the situation. A WBC of less than 1,000 is generally always considered too low and an indication of a serious infection risk ...
White blood cells in the urine may indicate a urinary tract infection, according to MedlinePlus. If white blood cells are found, a physician may request a microscope analysis to confirm the presence...
Red Blood Cells. Red blood cells (RBCs), the most abundant and usually uniform blood cells, carry and deliver oxygen throughout the body. Mature, circulating red cells are disc-like in shape, indented on each side, and lack nuclei. Theyre loaded with hemoglobin, a complex, iron-laden molecule that binds oxygen and turns blood red.. When someone receives a transfusion, thats usually a unit of packed red blood cells, concentrated red cells from which most of the donors white cells, platelets and plasma have been removed.. Platelets. Platelets are tiny, blood clotting cells. Like red cells, these cells circulate without nuclei, but theyre irregular in shape and sticky, loaded inside with plug-forming proteins and on their surfaces with adhesive receptors, ready to clump at the nick of a chin or a pinprick.. --. Both cancer and its treatments can affect the bone marrow, where blood cells are formed. Some tumors, like leukemia and lymphoma, arise from blood cells. Other medical conditions cause ...
When red blood cells are placed in distilled water, which is hypotonic compared to the solution contained within the cells membranes, the distilled water will diffuse into the red blood cells and...
One of the first tests done to determine if a person has AML (or any type of leukemia) is a complete blood count (CBC) and differential. This test tells your doctor the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the bloodstream. In a person with leukemia, the numbers of these different types of blood cells are low because of the increased number of leukemia cells (also referred to as blasts). But low blood cell counts can be caused by many conditions, so additional tests are needed. Microscopic examination of a sample of fluid or tissue from your bone marrow is done to look for leukemia cells. The specialist reviewing the sample will study various characteristics of the cells to determine the subtype of AML. APL is defined by an abundance of cells that have not matured properly and have stopped their development at the promyelocyte stage.. If your doctor suspects APL, he or she will also order tests that show how long it takes for your blood to clot. These tests are very ...
Benefits of iron include carrying life-giving oxygen to human blood cells, reduction of anemia, boosting immunity, & giving relief from insomnia & restless leg syndrome.
Old red blood cells are broken down in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Some of the iron from the Hb is stored, and used for making new Hb, some of it is turned into bile pigment and excreted ...
If you have a weak immune system, you are prone to various illnesses and diseases due to damage caused by the free radicals. The good thing about HGH supplements is that they work to enhance the functioning of your immune system to combat sickness. Recent studies show that this hormone increases production of white blood cells and antibodies. The white blood cells are tasked with fighting free radicals and bacteria, which are harmful to your health.. ...
Anemia is a condition that occurs in pets when there is a significant reduction in an animals red blood cells, hemoglobin or both. Red blood cells are produced
Regenerative anemia occurs when the body loses blood faster than it can be regenerated, despite the fact that red blood cells are being produced in the bone marrow.
The more red blood cells are available in the human blood circulation, the more powerful the whole organism works, Here Eryothropoietin comes along it ...
Blood is made up of liquid and solid cells. Blood cells are made in the bone marrow. Learn more about the anatomy and physiology of the blood.
Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is a disorder that impairs the immune system. People with CVID are highly susceptible to infection from foreign invaders such as bacteria, or more rarely, viruses and often develop recurrent infections, particularly in the lungs, sinuses, and ears. Pneumonia is common in people with CVID. Over time, recurrent infections can lead to chronic lung disease. Affected individuals may also experience infection or inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which can cause diarrhea and weight loss. Abnormal accumulation of immune cells causes enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy) or an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly) in some people with CVID. Immune cells can accumulate in other organs, forming small lumps called granulomas.Approximately 25 percent of people with CVID have an autoimmune disorder, which occurs when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the bodys tissues and organs. The blood cells are most frequently affected by autoimmune attacks in CVID; ...
This image shows the wall of a small bronchus, including a small segment of cartilage. Adjacent to the bronchus are several alveoli. Red blood cells are conspicuous in blood vessels, including alveolar capillaries. ...
The loss matters because blood cells are all in competition with each other for resources, a small mutation such as this confers a small advantage
Myeloid Lineage, 0.25 mg. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are the precursor cells found in the bone marrow which give rise to all the blood cell types of both the Myeloid and lymphoid lineages, which include monocytes and macrophages, neutrophils,
Another name for Anemia Aplastic is Aplastic Anemia. Aplastic anemia refers to a failure of the bone marrow to produce all blood cell types: red blood ...
Splenocytes can be any one of the different white blood cell types as long as it is situated in the spleen or purified from splenic tissue. Splenocytes consist of a variety of cell populations such as T and B lymphocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages, which have different immune functions. Influe
Different types of white blood cells and their functions play an important role in medical science. White blood cell, another name of which are leukocytes are
Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, are the sort of blood cells that primarily serve to deliver oxygen to the body cells.
Research published online today in Blood, the Journal of the American Society of Hematology, presents an unprecedented look at five unique blood cells in the human body, pinpointing the location of key genetic regulators in these cells and providing a new tool that may help scientists to identify how blood cells form and shed light on the etiology of blood diseases.
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வெண்குருதியணுக்கள் அல்லது வெண்குருதிச் சிறுதுணிக்கைகள் அல்லது இரத்த வெள்ளையணுக்கள் அல்லது லியூக்கோசைற் (White Blood Cells or Leucocytes) குருதியில் காணப்படும் ஒரு வகை உயிரணுக்களாகும். இவை எலும்பு மச்சைகளில் தயாரிக்கப்பட்டு குருதியினால் உடல் முழுவதும் எடுத்து செல்லப்பட்டு உடலுக்கு நோய் எதிர்ப்பு சக்தி அளிக்கிறது. தொற்றுநோய்களையும், வேறு வெளிப் பொருட்களை எதிர்ப்பதிலும் முக்கிய ...
The Patient Telomere Score is calculated based on the patients average telomere length in peripheral whole blood cells. This average is then compared to telomere lengths from a population sample in the same age range as the patient to determine the patients percentile score. What do the results mean to the patient and the doctor? Cellular attrition by analyzing the rate at which changes in average Telomere length occur over time. Cells are being lost and replaced. (Cellular attrition) What are the nutritional implications on telomere length and repair? An inflammatory diet, or one that increases oxidative stress, will shorten telomeres faster. This includes refined carbohydrates, fast foods, processed foods, sodas, artificial sweeteners, trans fats and saturated fats. A diet with a large amount and variety of antioxidants that improves oxidative defense and reduces oxidative stress will slow telomere shortening. Consumption of 10 servings of fresh and relatively uncooked fruits and vegetables, ...
Also, blood collection and storage is a well established part of the medical system.. "There are enormous resources-blood banks with samples from patients-that may hold the only viable cells from patients who may not be alive anymore or from the early stage of their diseases," says Jaenisch, who is also a professor of biology at MIT. "Using this method, we can now resurrect those cells as induced pluripotent stem cells. If the patient had a neurodegenerative disease, you can use the iPS cells to study that disease.". iPS cells are reprogrammed from an adult state to an embryonic stem-cell-like state by inserting four reprogramming genes into the adult cells DNA. These reprogramming factors convert the adult cells, with defined cell functions, into much more flexible iPS cells. iPS cells can then be nudged to divide repeatedly or turn into almost any cell type found in the body, allowing scientists to create large amounts of the specific cells needed to study a disease, such as ...
Murine antibodies - posted in Immunology Products: Im currently trying to compile a panel of antibodies that would generally identify individual blood cell types in murine peripheral blood and bone marrow. For example, Im using a Siglec F antibody to identify murine eosinophils. Does anybody else have any experience or know where I could find a good set of antibodies to label most/all murine blood cell types? Any help would be greatly appreciated.
We detected comparable levels of asynchronous replication at 22q11.2 in all tested individuals, that is, control individuals and carriers of either translocations or deletions involving the 22q11.2 region. Based on cases with distinguishable chromosomes 22 we show a non-random nature of the asynchronous replication. In all cases where the origin of the structurally abnormal chromosome 22 was known we detected an earlier replication of the paternal alleles. We hypothesise that a non-random asynchronous replication in this region represents a risk factor for the formation of the 22q11.2 deletion by increasing the probability of an initial mispairing of the parental alleles at the highly homologous low-copy repeats. These initial abnormal conformations may lead, later in meiosis, to an unequal meiotic crossover and thus to the 22q11.2 deletion.. The replication timing results presented here were performed on peripheral blood cells. Our hypothesis would imply that the non-random asynchronous ...
The indoor environment in animal husbandry is inevitably contaminated with endotoxin. Endotoxin exposure associates with various inflammatory illnesses in animals. The present cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between the degree of endotoxin exposure and the cellular and humoral immune profiles of fattening pigs. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 47 pigs from ten different pig farms in Korea. Whole blood cell counts and plasma immunoglobulin classes were measured. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with Concanavalin A for 48 hours and the cytokines released into the culture supernatants were measured. The barns in which the pigs lived were assessed for endotoxin levels in the total or respirable dust by using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic QCL method. Low and high endotoxin exposure were defined as ≤30 and ,30 EU/m3, respectively. Compared to pigs with low endotoxin exposure (n=19), highly exposed pigs (n=28) had higher ...
Taking into account that there are controversial antioxidative effects of inhalational anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane and absence of comparison of genotoxicity of both anesthetics in animal model, the aim of this study was to compare DNA damage and antioxidant status in Wistar rats exposed to a single time to isoflurane or sevoflurane. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was performed in order to evaluate DNA damage in whole blood cells of control animals (unexposed; n = 6) and those exposed to 2% isoflurane (n = 6) or 4% sevoflurane (n = 6) for 120 min. Plasma antioxidant status was determined by 3( 4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. There was no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups regarding hemodynamic and temperature variables (P > 0.05). Sevoflurane significantly increased DNA damage compared to unexposed animals (P = 0.02). In addition, Wistar rats anesthetized with ...
Background: Many efforts are going on to find new strategies to detoxify wheat flour in order to make it suitable for the diet of celiac disease (CD) patients. Fermentation of wheat flour with sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases has already been demonstrated to reduce gluten-induced inflammatory effects in celiac patients. Aim: In this study, we evaluated the effect of detoxified flour on peripheral blood immune response after a brief oral challenge in subjects with treated CD. Methods: Four CD patients on a gluten-free diet from at least 2 years were voluntarily enrolled in the study. They ate for 3 days bread made of fermented flour (12 g gluten/die). Immune reactivity to gliadin, either from detoxified or toxic wheat, was analyzed on peripheral blood cells by detecting INF-γ releasing cells before and 6 days after the challenge. Results: No INF-γ secreting CD4+ T cells reactive to hydrolyzed gliadin with sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases were detected on day 6 of the ...
Ebook How To Lower High White Blood Cell Count :: High white blood cell count can mean youtube, Low wbc causes how to increase white blood cell count, Increase white blood cell count, Section 1 chapter 14 blood, Hematology part 2 white blood cells, How to increase your white blood cell count top 10 home, Hematology part 2 white blood cells, Do you have low white blood cell count youtube, Side effects of chemotherapy, Low white blood count causes
Have you ever seen a sickle? Its a farm tool with a curved, sharp edge for cutting wheat. Sickle cell anemia (say: uh-nee-mee-uh) is a disease of the blood. It gets its name because a persons red blood cells are shaped like sickles, or crescent moons, instead of their usual round, disc shape.. Round is the healthiest shape for red blood cells (or RBCs) because they can move easily through the body. RBCs carry oxygen around your body, and every part of your body needs oxygen to work properly.. Red blood cells are made inside the bones in the soft, spongy area called the bone marrow (say: mair-oh). Every time you take a breath, you breathe in oxygen and your RBCs carry oxygen to every cell in your body. When a persons body doesnt have enough red blood cells, its called anemia. When the cause is the sickle shape of the RBCs, its called sickle cell anemia.. When RBCs are shaped like sickles or crescent moons, they can get stuck, especially inside smaller blood vessels. This keeps blood from ...

ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM LECTURE SLIDE 069: Signal was also detected with cells that exhibited B phenotype. - blood group aboABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM LECTURE SLIDE 069: Signal was also detected with cells that exhibited B phenotype. - blood group abo

From Red Blood Cell to Kidney, Hair, Seminal Fluid, From Blood Transfusion, Cell/Tissue/Organ Transplantation to Crime Scene ... The title of his talk was What You Had Better Know About ABO Blood Groups and a variety of topics relating to the ABO blood ... Fumiichiro Yamamoto made at the IMPPC in September, 2009, on the molecular genetic basis of histo-blood group ABO system. ... ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM LECTURE SLIDE 069: Signal was also detected with cells that exhibited B phenotype. ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/bloodgroupabo/abo-blood-group-system-lecture-slide-69

MP:0010068 (decreased red blood cell distribution width) | IMPC Phenotype Information | International Mouse Phenotyping...MP:0010068 (decreased red blood cell distribution width) | IMPC Phenotype Information | International Mouse Phenotyping...

Hematology , Red blood cell distribution width. WTSI , IMPC. 2.8E-5. Ufm1. Ufm1em1Marc HET. postnatal. decreased red blood cell ... decreased red blood cell distribution width Hematology , Red blood cell distribution width. MRC Harwell , IMPC. 6.62E-10. ... decreased red blood cell distribution width Hematology , Red blood cell distribution width. MRC Harwell , IMPC. 1.28E-8. ... decreased red blood cell distribution width Hematology , Red blood cell distribution width. MRC Harwell , IMPC. 3.72E-7. ...
more infohttp://www.mousephenotype.org/data/phenotypes/MP:0010068

Blood cell - WikipediaBlood cell - Wikipedia

Red blood cells are the most abundant cell in the blood, accounting for about 40-45% of its volume. Red blood cells are disk- ... "Blood Cells" redirects here. For the journal formerly known as Blood Cells, see Blood Cells, Molecules and Diseases. ... A blood cell, also called a hematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found ... White blood cells[edit]. Artificially colored electron micrograph of blood cells. From left to right: erythrocyte, thrombocyte ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_cells

White Blood Cells | Encyclopedia.comWhite Blood Cells | Encyclopedia.com

A white cell count determines the total; a differential cell count estimates the numbers of each type. ... leucocytes* White blood cells [1], normally 5000-9000/mm3; includes polymorphonuclear neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, ... white blood cells A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published by Oxford ... white blood cell A Dictionary of Nursing © A Dictionary of Nursing 2008, originally published by Oxford University Press 2008. ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/anatomy-and-physiology/anatomy-and-physiology/white-blood-cells

White blood cell - WikipediaWhite blood cell - Wikipedia

All white blood cells have nuclei, which distinguishes them from the other blood cells, the anucleated red blood cells (RBCs) ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... this is usually expressed as 4,000 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter of blood.[3] White blood cells make up ... All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_cell

Blood cells: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia ImageBlood cells: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image

Blood is comprised of red blood cells, platelets, and various white blood cells. ... Blood is comprised of red blood cells, platelets, and various white blood cells. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/9123.htm

Blood Vessels Grown From Muscle CellsBlood Vessels Grown From Muscle Cells

Engineered blood vessel grafts could be used for surgical procedures like coronary artery bypass and kidney dialysis. ... Other researchers have previously reported the ability to develop blood vessels from a patients own cells. That process was ... Cite this: Blood Vessels Grown From Muscle Cells - Medscape - Feb 04, 2011. ... When blood vessels around the heart become dangerously congested with plaques, surgeons will reroute blood flow and bypass the ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/736906

Leukemia, Immunology & Blood Cells | American Cancer SocietyLeukemia, Immunology & Blood Cells | American Cancer Society

Immunology and Blood Cell Development analyzes leukemia, lymphomas, other hematologic malignancies and immunology. ... Peer Review Committee for Leukemia, Immunology and Blood Cell Development (LIB). Areas Reviewed. Basic, preclinical, and ... molecular, structural, biochemical and biophysical aspects of the immune system including cell types, cytokines, antigen ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.org/research/we-fund-cancer-research/apply-research-grant/peer-review-committees/leukemia-immunology-development.html

Blood Cells T-Shirts - CafePressBlood Cells T-Shirts - CafePress

Find high quality printed Blood Cells T-Shirts at CafePress. See great designs on styles for Men, Women, Kids, Babies, and even ... Make a bold statement with our Blood Cells T-Shirts, or choose from our wide variety of expressive graphic tees for any season ...
more infohttps://www.cafepress.com/+blood-cells+t-shirts

Red Blood Cells News, ResearchRed Blood Cells News, Research

Study provides new insight into blood cell and immune cell production A healthy adult makes about 2 million blood cells every ... Research findings change misconception on white blood cell trafficking to spleen Contrary to prior belief, the white blood ... sickle cell disease and beta thalassemia -- applying CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to patients own blood stem cells. ... and 99 percent of them are oxygen-carrying red blood cells. The other one percent are platelets and the various white blood ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/?tag=/Red+Blood+Cells

Blood Cells Of Mammoth Found Frozen - The Washington PostBlood Cells Of Mammoth Found Frozen - The Washington Post

Barnhart said the intact red and white blood cells were circulating blood cells that came from blood vessels taken from the ... "These are the oldest intact animal blood cells ever identified.". Though long dead, the intact red and white blood cells ... She said the red and white cells looked "physiologically normal" and similar to the blood cells of elephants to which the long- ... The red and white blood cells of a woolly mammoth that died in eastern Siberia 44.000 years ago have been found to be intact, ...
more infohttps://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1980/05/06/blood-cells-of-mammoth-found-frozen/68ac22dd-deb4-4347-b49e-aa8dfb092299/

Stem Cells From Human Blood Can Be Reprogrammed | WIREDStem Cells From Human Blood Can Be Reprogrammed | WIRED

... three independent papers report in the July 2 Cell Stem Cell. The new technique will allow scientists to tap a large, readily ... Blood drawn with a simple needle stick can be coaxed into producing stem cells that may have the ability to form any type of ... Stem Cells From Human Blood Can Be Reprogrammed. Blood drawn with a simple needle stick can be coaxed into producing stem cells ... The concern is that if these cells retain traces of memory from their previous lives as blood cells, they may not be good at ...
more infohttps://www.wired.com/2010/07/stem-cells-from-human-blood-can-be-reprogrammed/

White Blood Cell Chases Bacteria - YouTubeWhite Blood Cell Chases Bacteria - YouTube

White Blood Cell Chases Bacteria in real life Edit: axxsmith informed me that it is from quote It is a neutrophil chasing ... White Blood Cell Chases Bacteria in real life. Edit: axxsmith informed me that it is from quote " It is a neutrophil chasing ...
more infohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnlULOjUhSQ

Immune cells can affect blood pressure - UPI.comImmune cells can affect blood pressure - UPI.com

Introducing T cells into mice that lacked them made their blood pressure sensitive to stress again. ... Marvar and colleagues had previously shown T cells are needed for the increase in blood pressure coming from high dietary salt ... Two hours of stress per day, for a week, results in a short-term rise in systolic blood pressure in normal mice, Marvar said. ... However, mice that were genetically engineered to lack T cells -- helpful for fighting infections -- did not display an ...
more infohttps://www.upi.com/Health_News/2012/03/06/Immune-cells-can-affect-blood-pressure/UPI-65861331082128/

too many red blood cells Archives - familydoctor.orgtoo many red blood cells Archives - familydoctor.org

Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of polycythemia vera (PV), a blood problem that causes your body to… ...
more infohttps://familydoctor.org/tag/too-many-red-blood-cells/

Basophil | blood cell | Britannica.comBasophil | blood cell | Britannica.com

... type of white blood cell (leukocyte) that is characterized histologically by its ability to be stained by basic dyes and ... white blood cells that stain readily with basic dyes), which circulate in the blood. The cells release various substances such ... tissue mast cells and blood basophils when the body is subjected to trauma, infection, or some drugs. It assists the body in ... white blood cell. eosinophils, and basophils. The most numerous of the granulocytes-making up 50 to 80 percent of all white ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/basophil

Limbs saved by menstrual blood stem cells - UPI.comLimbs saved by menstrual blood stem cells - UPI.com

... led study shows endometrial regenerative cells from menstrual blood can restore blood flow in animal models of peripheral ... Endometrial regenerative cells are stem cells taken from menstrual blood that are capable of forming into at least nine ... 18 (UPI) -- A U.S.-led study shows endometrial regenerative cells from menstrual blood can restore blood flow in animal models ... demonstrated that when circulation-blocked mice were treated with injections of the cells, circulation and functionality were ...
more infohttps://www.upi.com/Science_News/2008/08/18/Limbs-saved-by-menstrual-blood-stem-cells/58051219100700/

Blood Vessels Grown From Donated Cells Closer to RealityBlood Vessels Grown From Donated Cells Closer to Reality

... blood vessels grown from donor cells have been successfully implanted in human patients, an early report of new research shows. ... Blood Vessels Grown From Donated Cells Closer to Reality. 3 Patients Have Received Engineered Vessels; No Signs of Rejection ... June 27, 2011 -- For the first time, blood vessels grown from donor cells have been successfully implanted in human patients, ... researchers have used cells taken from individual patients to grow tubes of tissue that can be grafted onto natural blood ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/news/20110627/blood-vessels-from-donor-cells-are-implanted-in-patients

How do white blood cells recognize invaders? - Scientific AmericanHow do white blood cells recognize invaders? - Scientific American

The ab T cells are also good at reacting with other cells of the immune system, such as B cells. And the gd T cells react with ... KILLER T CELL binds to a receptor on the surface of a cell that is infected with a virus, causing the cell to be destroyed. ... These mechanisms use antibody molecules on blood cells called B cells and ab (alpha beta) or gd (gamma delta) receptors on ... blood cells called T cells. These receptors are created by a rearrangement of genes during the development of T and B cells. ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-do-white-blood-cells/

Immune cells cross blood-brain barrier in multiple sclerosisImmune cells cross blood-brain barrier in multiple sclerosis

A new study in a mouse model of MS reveals two ways in which Th1 and Th17 immune cells cross the blood-barrier to attack the ... They concluded that the Th1 immune cells need the caveolae of the endothelial cells in the blood vessels that serve the CNS in ... How do white blood cells penetrate the blood-brain barrier in MS? A new study investigates. ... One feature that can help the blood-brain barrier to restrict the movement of blood-borne cells, molecules, and ions into and ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/320148.php

Red blood cells - sickle cells: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia ImageRed blood cells - sickle cells: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image

... are present with Sickle cell anemia, and stand out clearly against the normal round RBCs. These abnormally shaped cells may ... These crescent or sickle-shaped red blood cells (RBCs) ... These crescent or sickle-shaped red blood cells (RBCs) are ... These abnormally shaped cells may become entangled and block blood flow in the small blood vessels (capillaries). ... present with Sickle cell anemia, and stand out clearly against the normal round RBCs. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/1494.htm

Finding Cancer Cells in the Blood - MIT Technology ReviewFinding Cancer Cells in the Blood - MIT Technology Review

... blood are giving researchers an unprecedented look at cancer. ... Technologies that can pull tumor cells from patients ... The MGH device and some others in development isolate rare cancer cells by discarding all red blood cells and white blood cells ... Finding Cancer Cells in the Blood. Technologies that can pull tumor cells from patients blood are giving researchers an ... there has been no way to capture the circulating tumor cells. "These are rare cells in the midst of 100 billion other cells," ...
more infohttps://www.technologyreview.com/s/515891/finding-cancer-cells-in-the-blood/

Immune system kills spontaneous blood cancer cells every dayImmune system kills spontaneous blood cancer cells every day

... the immune system kills the early stage cancer cells. ... New research offers an explanation as to why B cell lymphoma, ... A new study from Australia suggests B cells, a type of white blood cell, undergo spontaneous changes that could lead to cancer ... "Immune system kills spontaneous blood cancer cells every day." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 3 Feb. 2014. Web.. 21 ... Paddock, C. (2014, February 3). "Immune system kills spontaneous blood cancer cells every day." Medical News Today. Retrieved ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/272092.php

Blood Cells Converted Into Chemical Sensors - SlashdotBlood Cells Converted Into Chemical Sensors - Slashdot

... blood in real time. Many patients require monitoring of their blood, such as diabetics. But extracting blood is both invasive ... Chemists have turned red blood cells into long lived sensors that could be put back into circulation to monitor the make up of ... from the its-in-the-blood dept. ananyo writes "Chemists have turned red blood cells into long lived sensors that could be put ... Also, if the blood cells live for 90 days with the dye in them, you just need one injection of the dye-filled cells instead of ...
more infohttps://science.slashdot.org/story/12/08/20/1323250/blood-cells-converted-into-chemical-sensors?sdsrc=prevbtmprev

Tracking Ovarian Cancer Through Blood Cells | KPBSTracking Ovarian Cancer Through Blood Cells | KPBS

Research underway in San Diego analyzes blood from women with ovarian cancer to track tumor cells and better understand the ... The suspected circulating ovarian cancer cell (in red with a blue nucleus) is surrounded by normal blood cells (in green with ... By analyzing circulating tumor cells in the blood stream they hope to get a better understanding of the spread of cancer. ... Research underway in San Diego analyzes blood from women with ovarian cancer to track tumor cells and better understand the ...
more infohttps://www.kpbs.org/news/2013/sep/02/tracking-tumor-cells-blood-identify-spread-ovarian/
  • Haemoglobin is an iron -containing protein that gives red blood cells their color and facilitates transportation of oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues to the lungs to be exhaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • In embryos, these progenitor cells give rise to different tissues. (wired.com)
  • My bet is that the breaking down of the cells would be over a long stretch of time, thus the benefit of having a bunch of the dye while there is only a small amount of it accumulating in the tissues at any point in time. (slashdot.org)
  • The association is the first to join together public and private banks toward a common mission to advocate for cord blood use in order to expand its potentials in cell therapies and regenerative medicine, and to also jointly advocate for global regulations that will allow use of cord blood and cord tissues in medical applications. (prweb.com)
  • Any of various white or colorless cells in the blood of vertebrate animals, many of which participate in the inflammatory and immune responses to protect the body against infection and to repair injuries to tissues. (dictionary.com)
  • What's more, all the groups showed that a batch of the stem cells implanted into mice developed into the three main types of progenitor cells found in human embryos. (wired.com)
  • Two hours of stress per day, for a week, results in a short-term rise in systolic blood pressure in normal mice, Marvar said. (upi.com)
  • However, mice that were genetically engineered to lack T cells -- helpful for fighting infections -- did not display an increase in blood pressure under the same regimen. (upi.com)
  • Introducing T cells into mice that lacked them made their blood pressure sensitive to stress again. (upi.com)
  • In their study, the team showed how disabling T cells in mice led to lymphomas growing within weeks, instead of the years that they normally take to develop. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Immune cells in fetal blood are better at destroying leukaemia cells than adult cells, tests in mice suggest. (newscientist.com)
  • Veys and his colleagues compared the impact of injecting immune cells from adult or cord blood into mice with a form of human blood cancer called B-cell lymphoma. (newscientist.com)
  • Tumours rapidly disappeared in the mice that received the fetal immune cells, but kept growing in those that got the adult cells. (newscientist.com)
  • Many hematological cancers are based on the inappropriate production of white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with blood cancers like leukaemia have to undergo chemotherapy to eradicate the blood cells that are causing their cancer. (newscientist.com)
  • Now that we know B cell lymphoma is suppressed by the immune system, we could use this information to develop a diagnostic test that identifies people in early stages of this disease, before tumors develop and they progress to cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to estimates from the National Cancer Institute, nearly 70,000 Americans were diagnosed with B cell or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 2013, and just over 19,000 died of the disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Similar processes lead to the rearranged genes which code for T cell receptor "b" chain genes, and also to T cell receptor g and d genes and antibody genes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Incompatible red blood cells are sometimes given to recipients who will never become pregnant, such as males or postmenopausal women, as long as they do not have an antibody, since the greatest risk of Rh incompatible blood is to current or future pregnancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • By bridging stem cell research and helping speed translations of emerging lab discoveries into clinical trials, SCTM will help move applications of these critical investigations closer to accepted best practices and ultimately improve outcomes. (prweb.com)
  • By bridging stem cell research and clinical trials, SCTM will help move applications of these critical investigations closer to accepted best practices. (prweb.com)
  • The dominant thinking is that regime change, whether Republican or Democratic, will move the ball forward in terms of the federal funds embargo on human embryonic stem cell research," says Geoffrey Crouse, vice president of a life science unit. (medindia.net)
  • Some experts opine Washington brings about bad science when it limits federal funds to non-embryonic stem cell research. (medindia.net)
  • Packed red blood cells, also known as red cell concentrate and packed cells, are red blood cells that have been separated for blood transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood transfusion is typically recommended when hemoglobin levels reach 70 g/L (7 g/dL) in those who have stable vital signs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of identifying a compatible blood product for transfusion is complicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many other human blood group systems and most of them are only rarely associated with transfusion problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are used in people with IgA deficiency who need a blood transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • They circulate in the blood of mammals and are involved in hemostasis, leading to the formation of blood clots. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of white blood cells in circulation is commonly increased in the incidence of infection . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemists have turned red blood cells into long lived sensors that could be put back into circulation to monitor the make up of patients' blood in real time. (slashdot.org)
  • What's more, inducing fibroblasts to form stem cells can take about a month in the lab, during which mutations can accumulate. (wired.com)
  • Each and every one of us has spontaneous mutations in our immune B cells that occur as a result of their normal function," Dr. Kallies says. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • White blood cells make up approximately 1% of the total blood volume in a healthy adult, making them substantially less numerous than the red blood cells at 40% to 45% . (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common source has been adult skin cells called fibroblasts, which have been manipulated into stem cells and then neurons ( SN: 2/27/10, p. 5 ). (wired.com)
  • The results are a surprise because fetal immune cells haven't had the lifelong "training" that adult immune cells have had, yet they still seem to recognise and destroy abnormal cells. (newscientist.com)
  • But even if the cells won't be put directly into patients, Jaenisch says that the new method "opens up access to enormous resources of collected cells from patients" that can be used to study diseases. (wired.com)
  • According to them, this breakthrough could be a lifesaver as well help fight AIDS and other blood-borne diseases. (medindia.net)
  • The new studies accomplished the reprogramming feat by using viruses to deliver a four-gene cocktail that reverts the cells to a naive state in which any developmental path is open. (wired.com)
  • The viruses used to deliver genes into the cells may have unintended consequences, and the cells' long-term behavior is still unknown. (wired.com)
  • For example, viruses must invade host cells to increase in number. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The new technique will allow scientists to tap a large, readily available source of personalized stem cells. (wired.com)
  • Scientists from Monash University's Australian Stem Cell Center have announced the creation of a genetic tool that may open the way for production of unlimited amounts of a safe transfusable blood product in unlimited quantities. (medindia.net)
  • Scientists might know the approved stem cells for which they can get funding won't work. (medindia.net)
  • a 'differential cell count' estimates the numbers of each type. (encyclopedia.com)
  • But with improving technology, this cell type could very well replace the skin fibroblasts currently mostly used to generate induced pluripotent stem cells from patients," Wernig says. (wired.com)
  • One type of effector T cell, called a cytotoxic T cell, kills virus infected cells and thus prevents its spread. (scientificamerican.com)
  • There are two important antigens in the system: A and B. Red cells without A or B are called type O, and red cells with both are called AB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, if the blood cells live for 90 days with the dye in them, you just need one injection of the dye-filled cells instead of injections of the dye every few days or so. (slashdot.org)
  • Now that I have had some other blood tests come back abnormal lately they are starting to look at it, but before the other tests came back abnormal they were not concerned about it. (medhelp.org)
  • In a paper published in the journal Cell Reports , first study author Sarah Lutz, assistant professor of anatomy and cell biology at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and colleagues describe how they studied mechanisms of immune attack on the central nervous system (CNS) in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Prof. Lutz explains that in MS, immune cells are able cause damage because they can gain entry to the brain and spinal cord from the bloodstream. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Several studies in animals have suggested medications now used to control blood pressure, such as angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors, might also be helpful in the reduction of stress and anxiety, Marvar said. (upi.com)
  • KILLER T CELL binds to a receptor on the surface of a cell that is infected with a virus, causing the cell to be destroyed. (scientificamerican.com)
  • For example, the a chain of the ab T cell receptor is a single polypeptide made up of three different segments: Va, Ja and Ca. There is only one Ca gene, but there are about 50 Va and 50 Ja genes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Because of these rearrangements, each of the approximately 10 12 B cells and 10 12 T cells in a human being has a different receptor on its surface. (scientificamerican.com)
  • However, when a B or T cell encounters an invader that can bind to its receptor, the cell divides many times and so creates lots of daughter cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The ab receptor-bearing T cells do not bind the invader directly. (scientificamerican.com)