The fraction of a blood sample, following CENTRIFUGATION, that is distinguished as a thin light-colored layer between the RED BLOOD CELLS, underneath it, and the PLASMA, above it. It is composed mostly of WHITE BLOOD CELLS and PLATELETS.
An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles stephensi.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
Arsenical used in trypanosomiases. It may cause fatal encephalopathy and other undesirable side effects.
A group of lymphomas exhibiting clonal expansion of malignant T-lymphocytes arrested at varying stages of differentiation as well as malignant infiltration of the skin. MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES; SEZARY SYNDROME; LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS; and PRIMARY CUTANEOUS ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL LYMPHOMA are the best characterized of these disorders.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
A form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifested by generalized exfoliative ERYTHRODERMA; PRURITUS; peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear (cerebriform) cells in the skin, LYMPH NODES, and peripheral blood (Sezary cells).
A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Infection with nematodes of the genus DIROFILARIA, usually in animals, especially dogs, but occasionally in man.
Animals kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, as opposed to DOMESTIC ANIMALS such as livestock or farm animals, which are kept for economic reasons.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)

Transcription of Alu DNA elements in blood cells of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). (1/25)

Alu DNA elements were long considered to be of no biological significance and thus have been only poorly defined. However, in the past Alu DNA elements with well-defined nucleotide sequences have been suspected to contribute to disease, but the role of Alu DNA element transcripts has rarely been investigated. For the first time, we determined in a real-time approach Alu DNA element transcription in buffy coat cells isolated from the blood of humans suffering from sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The reverse transcribed Alu transcripts were amplified and their cDNA sequences were aligned to genomic regions best fitted to database genomic Alu DNA element sequences deposited in the UCSC and NCBI data bases. Our cloned Alu RNA/cDNA sequences were widely distributed in the human genome and preferably belonged to the "young" Alu Y family. We also observed that some RNA/cDNA clones could be aligned to several chromosomes because of the same degree of identity and score to resident genomic Alu DNA elements. These elements, called paralogues, have purportedly been recently generated by retrotransposition. Along with cases of sCJD we also included cases of dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD). Each group revealed a divergent pattern of transcribed Alu elements. Chromosome 2 was the most preferred site in sCJD cases, besides chromosome 17; in AD cases chromosome 11 was overrepresented whereas chromosomes 2, 3 and 17 were preferred active Alu loci in controls. Chromosomes 2, 12 and 17 gave rise to Alu transcripts in dementia cases. The detection of putative Alu paralogues widely differed depending on the disease. A detailed data search revealed that some cloned Alu transcripts originated from RNA polymerase III transcription since the genomic sites of their Alu elements were found between genes. Other Alu DNA elements could be located close to or within coding regions of genes. In general, our observations suggest that identification and genomic localization of active Alu DNA elements could be further developed as a surrogate marker for differential gene expression in disease. A sufficient number of cases are necessary for statistical significance before Alu DNA elements can be considered useful to differentiate neurodegenerative diseases from controls.  (+info)

Methylprednisolone prevents tumour necrosis factor-alpha-dependent multinucleated giant cell formation. (2/25)

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The Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology system and quality of platelets stored in platelet additive solution. (3/25)

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Effects of storage time and leucocyte burden of packed and buffy-coat depleted red blood cell units on red cell storage lesion. (4/25)

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Development and validation of a new, sensitive immunochemical assay for O(6)-methylguanine in DNA and its application in a population study. (5/25)

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IL-4 and IL-13 alter plasmacytoid dendritic cell responsiveness to CpG DNA and herpes simplex virus-1. (6/25)

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Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA sequences in the buffy coats of healthy blood donors. (7/25)

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The histamine H4 receptor is highly expressed on plasmacytoid dendritic cells in psoriasis and histamine regulates their cytokine production and migration. (8/25)

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The term "blood buffy coat" is not a standard medical terminology, but it is used in the field of laboratory medicine and hematology. The "buffy coat" refers to the thin layer of white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes) that can be seen when a sample of anticoagulated whole blood is centrifuged, causing the red blood cells (erythrocytes) to settle at the bottom and the plasma to form a layer on top. The buffy coat is located in between these two layers.

The term "blood buffy coat" may refer to the process of collecting this thin layer of white blood cells and platelets for further analysis, such as during a complete blood count (CBC) or other diagnostic tests. It can also refer to a sample that has been prepared in this way, where the buffy coat is concentrated and visible for examination under a microscope.

Abnormalities in the appearance or composition of the buffy coat may indicate various medical conditions, such as leukemia, infection, inflammation, or other hematological disorders.

Haemosporida is a biological order of parasitic alveolates that include several genera of intracellular parasites. These parasites infect the red blood cells of vertebrates, including mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can cause significant disease in their hosts. The most well-known Haemosporida are the genus Plasmodium, which includes the parasites that cause malaria in humans. Other genera include Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Polychromophilus, which infect various bird and reptile species.

The life cycle of Haemosporida involves both sexual and asexual reproduction and requires both an invertebrate vector (typically a mosquito or tick) and a vertebrate host. The parasites are transmitted to the vertebrate host through the bite of an infected vector, where they infect red blood cells and undergo asexual replication. This can lead to the destruction of large numbers of red blood cells, causing anemia, fever, and other symptoms in the host.

Overall, Haemosporida are important parasites that can cause significant disease in both human and animal populations. Prevention and control efforts typically focus on reducing exposure to infected vectors through the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, and personal protective measures such as wearing long sleeves and using insect repellent.

Protozoan infections in animals refer to diseases caused by the invasion and colonization of one or more protozoan species in an animal host's body. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can exist as parasites and can be transmitted through various modes, such as direct contact with infected animals, contaminated food or water, vectors like insects, and fecal-oral route.

Examples of protozoan infections in animals include:

1. Coccidiosis: It is a common intestinal disease caused by several species of the genus Eimeria that affects various animals, including poultry, cattle, sheep, goats, and pets like cats and dogs. The parasites infect the epithelial cells lining the intestines, causing diarrhea, weight loss, dehydration, and sometimes death in severe cases.
2. Toxoplasmosis: It is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that can infect various warm-blooded animals, including humans, livestock, and pets like cats. The parasite forms cysts in various tissues, such as muscles, brain, and eyes, causing mild to severe symptoms depending on the host's immune status.
3. Babesiosis: It is a tick-borne disease caused by several species of Babesia protozoa that affect various animals, including cattle, horses, dogs, and humans. The parasites infect red blood cells, causing anemia, fever, weakness, and sometimes death in severe cases.
4. Leishmaniasis: It is a vector-borne disease caused by several species of Leishmania protozoa that affect various animals, including dogs, cats, and humans. The parasites are transmitted through the bite of infected sandflies and can cause skin lesions, anemia, fever, weight loss, and sometimes death in severe cases.
5. Cryptosporidiosis: It is a waterborne disease caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum that affects various animals, including humans, livestock, and pets like dogs and cats. The parasites infect the epithelial cells lining the intestines, causing diarrhea, abdominal pain, and dehydration.

Prevention and control of these diseases rely on various measures, such as vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, and environmental management. Public awareness and education are also essential to prevent the transmission and spread of these diseases.

'Bird diseases' is a broad term that refers to the various medical conditions and infections that can affect avian species. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxic substances and can affect pet birds, wild birds, and poultry. Some common bird diseases include:

1. Avian influenza (bird flu) - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, decreased appetite, and sudden death in birds.
2. Psittacosis (parrot fever) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, fever, and lethargy in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
3. Aspergillosis - a fungal infection that can cause respiratory symptoms and weight loss in birds.
4. Candidiasis (thrush) - a fungal infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and other parts of the digestive system in birds.
5. Newcastle disease - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, neurological signs, and decreased egg production in birds.
6. Salmonellosis - a bacterial infection that can cause diarrhea, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
7. Trichomoniasis - a parasitic infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and digestive system in birds.
8. Chlamydiosis (psittacosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
9. Coccidiosis - a parasitic infection that can affect the digestive system in birds.
10. Mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause chronic weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and skin lesions in birds.

It is important to note that some bird diseases can be transmitted to humans and other animals, so it is essential to practice good hygiene when handling birds or their droppings. If you suspect your bird may be sick, it is best to consult with a veterinarian who specializes in avian medicine.

Apicomplexa is a phylum of single-celled, parasitic organisms that includes several medically important genera, such as Plasmodium (which causes malaria), Toxoplasma (which causes toxoplasmosis), and Cryptosporidium (which causes cryptosporidiosis). These organisms are characterized by the presence of a unique apical complex, which is a group of specialized structures at one end of the cell that are used during invasion and infection of host cells. They have a complex life cycle involving multiple stages, including sexual and asexual reproduction, often in different hosts. Many Apicomplexa are intracellular parasites, meaning they live and multiply inside the cells of their hosts.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Filarioidea is a superfamily of parasitic nematode (roundworm) worms, many of which are important pathogens in humans and animals. They are transmitted to their hosts through the bite of insect vectors, such as mosquitoes or flies. The filarioid worms can cause a range of diseases known as filariases. Some examples include Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Onchocerca volvulus, which cause lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) and river blindness, respectively. The adult worms live in the lymphatic system or subcutaneous tissues of their hosts, where they produce microfilariae, the infective stage for the insect vector.

The medical definition of Filarioidea is: A superfamily of parasitic nematode worms that includes several important human pathogens and causes various filariases. The adult worms live in the lymphatic system or subcutaneous tissues, while the microfilariae are taken up by insect vectors during a blood meal and develop into infective larvae inside the vector. These larvae are then transmitted to a new host through the bite of the infected vector.

'Plasmodium falciparum' is a specific species of protozoan parasite that causes malaria in humans. It is transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes and has a complex life cycle involving both human and mosquito hosts.

In the human host, the parasites infect red blood cells, where they multiply and cause damage, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, anemia, and in severe cases, organ failure and death. 'Plasmodium falciparum' malaria is often more severe and life-threatening than other forms of malaria caused by different Plasmodium species. It is a major public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where access to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment remains limited.

Malaria is not a medical definition itself, but it is a disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Here's a simple definition:

Malaria: A mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, characterized by cycles of fever, chills, and anemia. It can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. The five Plasmodium species known to cause malaria in humans are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi.

Malaria, Falciparum is defined as a severe and often fatal form of malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. It is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. This type of malaria is characterized by high fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and vomiting. If left untreated, it can cause severe anemia, kidney failure, seizures, coma, and even death. It is a major public health problem in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in Africa.

Parasitemia is a medical term that refers to the presence of parasites, particularly malaria-causing Plasmodium species, in the bloodstream. It is the condition where red blood cells are infected by these parasites, which can lead to various symptoms such as fever, chills, anemia, and organ damage in severe cases. The level of parasitemia is often used to assess the severity of malaria infection and to guide treatment decisions.

"Plasmodium chabaudi" is a species of parasitic protozoa belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which includes the causative agents of malaria in various animals and humans. "P. chabaudi" primarily infects rodents, particularly mice, and serves as a model organism for studying the fundamental biology and pathogenesis of malaria.

The life cycle of "P. chabaudi" involves both sexual and asexual reproduction, similar to other Plasmodium species. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito, which injects sporozoites into the host's bloodstream. These sporozoites then infect liver cells, where they undergo schizogony (asexual reproduction) and produce merozoites.

Merozoites released from the liver invade red blood cells, initiating the erythrocytic stage of the life cycle. Within the red blood cells, the parasites multiply by schizogony, forming new merozoites that are eventually released to infect other red blood cells. Some of these parasites differentiate into male and female gametocytes, which can be taken up by a mosquito during a blood meal, completing the life cycle.

"P. chabaudi" infections in mice can lead to various pathological changes, including anemia, splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), and immune responses that contribute to disease progression. Researchers use this model organism to investigate aspects of malaria biology, such as host-parasite interactions, immunity, drug development, and vaccine design.

A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its sustenance at the expense of the host. Parasites are typically much smaller than their hosts, and they may be classified as either ectoparasites (which live on the outside of the host's body) or endoparasites (which live inside the host's body).

Parasites can cause a range of health problems in humans, depending on the type of parasite and the extent of the infection. Some parasites may cause only mild symptoms or none at all, while others can lead to serious illness or even death. Common symptoms of parasitic infections include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue.

There are many different types of parasites that can infect humans, including protozoa (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), and ectoparasites (such as lice and ticks). Parasitic infections are more common in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene, but they can also occur in industrialized nations.

Preventing parasitic infections typically involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding contaminated water. Treatment for parasitic infections usually involves medication to kill the parasites and relieve symptoms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The disease has two stages: an early hemolymphatic stage characterized by fever, swollen lymph nodes, and skin rashes; and a late neurological stage characterized by sleep disturbances, personality changes, and motor abnormalities. If left untreated, it can be fatal. The disease is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where an estimated 65 million people are at risk of infection.

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is a species of protozoan parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, in humans. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly and is endemic to certain regions of East and Southern Africa.

The life cycle of T. b. rhodesiense involves two hosts: the tsetse fly and a mammalian host (such as a human). In the tsetse fly, the parasite undergoes development and multiplication in the midgut, then migrates to the salivary glands where it transforms into the metacyclic trypomastigote stage. When the infected tsetse fly bites a mammalian host, the metacyclic trypomastigotes are injected into the skin and enter the lymphatic system and bloodstream, where they multiply by binary fission as bloodstream trypomastigotes.

The symptoms of African trypanosomiasis caused by T. b. rhodesiense include fever, headache, joint pain, and itching, which may progress to more severe symptoms such as sleep disturbances, confusion, and neurological disorders if left untreated. The disease can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

It is important to note that T. b. rhodesiense is distinct from another subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei called T. b. gambiense, which causes a different form of African trypanosomiasis that is endemic to West and Central Africa.

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is a species of protozoan flagellate parasite that causes Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The parasite multiplies in various body fluids, including blood and cerebrospinal fluid, leading to a range of symptoms such as fever, headache, joint pain, and eventually severe neurological disorders if left untreated. T. b. gambiense is responsible for the majority of reported cases in West and Central Africa and is considered to be an anthroponosis, meaning it primarily infects humans.

Trypanosoma brucei brucei is a species of protozoan flagellate parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in animals. This parasite is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The life cycle of T. b. brucei involves two main stages: the insect-dwelling procyclic trypomastigote stage and the mammalian-dwelling bloodstream trypomastigote stage.

The distinguishing feature of T. b. brucei is its ability to change its surface coat, which helps it evade the host's immune system. This allows the parasite to establish a long-term infection in the mammalian host. However, T. b. brucei is not infectious to humans; instead, two other subspecies, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, are responsible for human African trypanosomiasis.

In summary, Trypanosoma brucei brucei is a non-human-infective subspecies of the parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis in animals and serves as an essential model organism for understanding the biology and pathogenesis of related human-infective trypanosomes.

Tsetse flies are not a medical condition but rather insects that can transmit diseases. Here is their medical relevance:

Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are large, biting flies found primarily in tropical Africa. They are vectors for African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in animals. The fly ingests the parasite when it takes a blood meal from an infected host, then transmits the disease to another host through its saliva during subsequent feedings. This makes tsetse flies medically relevant due to their role in spreading these diseases.

Trypanocidal agents are a type of medication specifically used for the treatment and prevention of trypanosomiasis, which is a group of diseases caused by various species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. These agents work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the parasites in the human body.

There are two main types of human trypanosomiasis: African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, which is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; and American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.

Trypanocidal agents can be divided into two categories:

1. Drugs used to treat African trypanosomiasis: These include pentamidine, suramin, melarsoprol, and eflornithine. Pentamidine and suramin are used for the early stages of the disease, while melarsoprol and eflornithine are used for the later stages.
2. Drugs used to treat American trypanosomiasis: The main drug used for Chagas disease is benznidazole, which is effective in killing the parasites during the acute phase of the infection. Another drug, nifurtimox, can also be used, although it has more side effects than benznidazole.

It's important to note that trypanocidal agents have limited availability and are often associated with significant toxicity, making their use challenging in some settings. Therefore, prevention measures such as avoiding insect vectors and using vector control methods remain crucial in controlling the spread of these diseases.

Melarsoprol is an arsenic-based medication that is primarily used to treat the later stages of African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness. It works by inhibiting the enzyme involved in energy metabolism of the parasite causing the disease, leading to its death. However, melarsoprol has a significant risk of serious side effects, including encephalopathy, which can be fatal. Therefore, it is typically used as a last resort when other treatments have failed or are not available. It is administered by intravenous injection in a hospital setting under close medical supervision.

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a type of cancer that affects T-cells, a specific group of white blood cells called lymphocytes. These cells play a crucial role in the body's immune system and help protect against infection and disease. In CTCL, the T-cells become malignant and accumulate in the skin, leading to various skin symptoms and lesions.

CTCL is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which refers to a group of cancers that originate from lymphocytes. Within NHL, CTCL is categorized as a type of extranodal lymphoma since it primarily involves organs or tissues outside the lymphatic system, in this case, the skin.

The two most common subtypes of CTCL are mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome:

1. Mycosis fungoides (MF): This is the more prevalent form of CTCL, characterized by patches, plaques, or tumors on the skin. The lesions may be scaly, itchy, or change in size, shape, and color over time. MF usually progresses slowly, with early-stage disease often confined to the skin for several years before spreading to lymph nodes or other organs.
2. Sézary syndrome (SS): This is a more aggressive form of CTCL that involves not only the skin but also the blood and lymph nodes. SS is characterized by the presence of malignant T-cells, known as Sézary cells, in the peripheral blood. Patients with SS typically have generalized erythroderma (reddening and scaling of the entire body), pruritus (severe itching), lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), and alopecia (hair loss).

The diagnosis of CTCL usually involves a combination of clinical examination, skin biopsy, and immunophenotyping to identify the malignant T-cells. Treatment options depend on the stage and subtype of the disease and may include topical therapies, phototherapy, systemic medications, or targeted therapies.

T-cell lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the T-cells, which are a specific type of white blood cell responsible for immune function. These lymphomas develop from mature T-cells and can be classified into various subtypes based on their clinical and pathological features.

T-cell lymphomas can arise in many different organs, including the lymph nodes, skin, and other soft tissues. They often present with symptoms such as enlarged lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. The diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma typically involves a biopsy of the affected tissue, followed by immunophenotyping and genetic analysis to determine the specific subtype.

Treatment for T-cell lymphomas may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation, depending on the stage and aggressiveness of the disease. The prognosis for T-cell lymphoma varies widely depending on the subtype and individual patient factors.

Sezary Syndrome is a rare and aggressive form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), a type of cancer that involves the skin's immune system. It is characterized by the presence of malignant T-lymphocytes, known as Sezary cells, in the blood, skin, and lymph nodes.

Sezary cells are typically found in large numbers in the peripheral blood, and they have a distinctive appearance with convoluted or "cerebriform" nuclei. These cells can infiltrate the skin, leading to erythroderma (a widespread redness and scaling of the skin), pruritus (severe itching), alopecia (hair loss), and lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph nodes).

Sezary Syndrome is often treatment-resistant, and its prognosis is generally poor. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, photopheresis, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Mycosis fungoides is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), a rare cancer that affects the skin's immune system. It is characterized by the infiltration of malignant CD4+ T-lymphocytes into the skin, leading to the formation of patches, plaques, and tumors. The disease typically progresses slowly over many years, often starting with scaly, itchy rashes that can be mistaken for eczema or psoriasis. As the disease advances, tumors may form, and the lymphoma may spread to other organs, such as the lymph nodes, lungs, or spleen. Mycosis fungoides is not contagious and cannot be spread from person to person. The exact cause of mycosis fungoides is unknown, but it is thought to result from a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. These cells are found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. Lymphoma can be classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

HL is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal lymphocyte called Reed-Sternberg cells, while NHL includes a diverse group of lymphomas that lack these cells. The symptoms of lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known, but it is believed to result from genetic mutations in the lymphocytes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, and radiation may increase the risk of developing lymphoma. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on various factors such as the type and stage of the disease, age, and overall health of the patient. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a group of diseases characterized by the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells, which are crucial components of the immune system. These disorders can arise from both B-cells and T-cells, leading to various clinical manifestations ranging from benign to malignant conditions.

LPDs can be broadly classified into reactive and neoplastic categories:

1. Reactive Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency states. They involve an exaggerated response of the immune system leading to the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells. Examples include:
* Infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
* Lymph node enlargement due to various infections or autoimmune disorders
* Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), which occurs in the context of immunosuppression following organ transplantation
2. Neoplastic Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are malignant conditions characterized by uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal lymphoid cells, leading to the formation of tumors. They can be further classified into Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Examples include:
* Hodgkin lymphoma (HL): Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL
* Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): Various subtypes, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma

It is important to note that the distinction between reactive and neoplastic LPDs can sometimes be challenging, requiring careful clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular evaluations. Proper diagnosis and classification of LPDs are crucial for determining appropriate treatment strategies and predicting patient outcomes.

"Dirofilaria immitis" is a species of parasitic roundworm that can infect dogs, cats, and other animals, including humans. It is the causative agent of heartworm disease in these animals. The adult worms typically reside in the pulmonary arteries and hearts of infected animals, where they can cause serious damage to the cardiovascular system.

The life cycle of Dirofilaria immitis involves mosquitoes as intermediate hosts. Infected animals produce microfilariae, which are taken up by mosquitoes during blood meals. These larvae then develop into infective stages within the mosquito and can be transmitted to other animals through the mosquito's bite.

In dogs, heartworm disease is often asymptomatic in the early stages but can progress to cause coughing, exercise intolerance, heart failure, and even death if left untreated. In cats, heartworm disease is more difficult to diagnose and often causes respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing.

Preventive measures, such as regular administration of heartworm preventatives, are essential for protecting animals from this parasitic infection.

There are many diseases that can affect cats, and the specific medical definitions for these conditions can be quite detailed and complex. However, here are some common categories of feline diseases and examples of each:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include:
* Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline parvovirus, which can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms and death in kittens.
* Feline calicivirus (FCV), which can cause upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing and nasal discharge.
* Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which can suppress the immune system and lead to a variety of secondary infections and diseases.
* Bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pasteurella multocida or Bartonella henselae, which can cause abscesses or other symptoms.
2. Neoplastic diseases: These are cancerous conditions that can affect various organs and tissues in cats. Examples include:
* Lymphoma, which is a common type of cancer in cats that can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs.
* Fibrosarcoma, which is a type of soft tissue cancer that can arise from fibrous connective tissue.
* Squamous cell carcinoma, which is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by exposure to sunlight or tobacco smoke.
3. Degenerative diseases: These are conditions that result from the normal wear and tear of aging or other factors. Examples include:
* Osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease that can cause pain and stiffness in older cats.
* Dental disease, which is a common condition in cats that can lead to tooth loss, gum inflammation, and other problems.
* Heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a thickening of the heart muscle that can lead to congestive heart failure.
4. Hereditary diseases: These are conditions that are inherited from a cat's parents and are present at birth or develop early in life. Examples include:
* Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure.
* Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in some cats.
* Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), which is a group of genetic disorders that cause degeneration of the retina and can lead to blindness.

Dirofilariasis is a parasitic disease caused by infection with nematode (roundworm) species of the genus Dirofilaria. The most common species to infect humans are Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens, which are carried by mosquitoes and can be transmitted to humans through their bite.

In humans, dirofilariasis often affects the eyes or the skin. When it involves the eye, it is called ocular dirofilariasis, and the worm typically localizes in the conjunctiva, eyelid, or subconjunctival tissues, causing symptoms such as pain, redness, swelling, and discharge. In some cases, the worm may migrate to other parts of the eye, leading to more serious complications.

Cutaneous dirofilariasis, on the other hand, involves the skin and is usually characterized by the presence of a subcutaneous nodule or a slowly growing, painless mass, often found on the trunk, arms, or legs. The worm can sometimes be seen moving under the skin.

Treatment for dirofilariasis typically involves surgical removal of the worm, followed by antibiotic therapy to prevent secondary bacterial infections. In some cases, anti-parasitic medications may also be prescribed. Preventive measures include avoiding mosquito bites and using insect repellents when spending time outdoors in areas where dirofilariasis is common.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pets" is not a medical term. In general, a pet is a domesticated animal, usually kept for companionship or pleasure. They are not typically associated with medical definitions or terminology. If you have any questions related to veterinary medicine or the care of pets as it relates to human health, I'd be happy to try and help answer those!

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

The pulmonary artery is a large blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. It divides into two main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, and then into a vast network of capillaries in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The thin walls of these capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out, making the blood oxygen-rich before it is pumped back to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. This process is crucial for maintaining proper oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

For blood samples, these include centrifugation followed by examination of the buffy coat; mini anion-exchange/centrifugation; ... The first uses dried blood, while the other two use whole blood samples. A 2002 study found the wb-CATT to be the most ... and the quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique. For other samples, such as spinal fluid, concentration techniques include ... Diagnosis is by finding the parasite in a blood smear or in the fluid of a lymph node. A lumbar puncture is often needed to ...
Using HCT, trypanosomes can be detected in the blood even in field conditions. Buffy coat can be used to increase detection. ... such as wet blood film, and stained blood smears are used because so far, the best identifier is looking at the blood of the ... These blood sucking insects are Stomoxys, Haematobia (also known as Lyperosia), and Haematopota.[citation needed] Other methods ... This means a good indicator of disease would be looking at trypanosome density in capillary blood and connective tissue. After ...
... separating the plasma from the red blood cells. These layers are divided by the buffy coat. The buffy coat consists of the ... The tube is snapped at the buffy coat and added to a slide for microscopic examination. Adding methylene blue stain to the ... Microfilarial detection is accomplished by the using one of the following methods: Direct blood smear A blood sample is ... The blood flowing back to the heart is blocked due to the large mass of worms. This is life-threatening and the only treatment ...
"Platelets, Pooled, Buffy Coat Derived, in Additive Solution and Plasma, Leucocyte Depleted". www.transfusionguidelines.org. ... Blood. 119 (23): 5553-5562. doi:10.1182/blood-2011-11-393165. ISSN 1528-0020. PMC 3369689. PMID 22496156. Petraszko, Tanya; ... Some blood banks maintain records of the estimated number of platelets in each unit. Current requirements in the US stipulate ... Canadian Blood Services. Estcourt, Lise J; Malouf, Reem; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon ...
"In Vitro Evaluation of Buffy Coat Derived Platelet Concentrates in SSP+ Platelet Storage Medium". Transfusion Medicine. 16: 26 ... Blood bank#History (history of blood donation) Blood donation restrictions on men who have sex with men Blood substitute James ... Blood is something we all expect to be there for us when we need it, yet only 4% of us give blood. "Canadian Blood Services". ... "Facts About Blood". America's Blood Centers. Archived from the original on 2013-11-08. Retrieved 2013-01-04. "Give Blood". NHS ...
Diagnosis relies on recognition of the flagellate on a blood smear. Motile organisms may be visible in the buffy coat when a ... In this test, reagent is mixed with blood and shaken. Within a matter of minutes, a researcher or public health professional ... blood in urine, aching muscles and joints, headaches and irritability. In the first phase, the patient has only intermittent ... blood sample is spun down. Serological testing is also common. One common way in which trypanosomiasis can be diagnosed in ...
Quantitative buffy coat (QBC) is a laboratory test to detect infection with malaria or other blood parasites. The blood is ... In such cases the medical technologist may obtain a buffy coat, from which a blood smear is made. This smear contains a much ... The mainstay of malaria diagnosis has been the microscopic examination of blood, utilizing blood films. Although blood is the ... the fluorescing parasites can then be observed under ultraviolet light at the interface between red blood cells and buffy coat ...
... and the significance of the buffy coat in the shed blood". The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. 6 (3): 303-314. doi: ...
... infections by nested amplification of viral DNA in bovine blood buffy coat specimens". Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic ...
The layer beneath the buffy coat contains granulocytes and red blood cells.[citation needed] The buffy coat is commonly used ... "A preliminary comparative report of quantitative buffy coat and modified quantitative buffy coat with peripheral blood smear in ... The buffy coat is the fraction of an anticoagulated blood sample that contains most of the white blood cells and platelets ... the buffy coat (so-called because it is usually buff in hue), contains most of the white blood cells and platelets. The buffy ...
... or its buffy coat, for motile parasites; or by preparation of thin and thick blood smears stained with Giemsa, for direct ... or by inoculating animals with the person's blood. In the blood culture method, the person's red blood cells are separated from ... Transfusion with the blood of an infected donor infects the recipient 10-25% of the time. To prevent this, blood donations are ... T. cruzi can survive in refrigerated stored blood, and can survive freezing and thawing, allowing it to persist in whole blood ...
... buffy coat (middle, thin white layer) and erythrocyte layer (bottom, red layer) can be seen. Blood circulation: Red = ... mixed-blood and blood relative. Autotransfusion Blood as food Blood pressure Blood substitutes ("artificial blood") Blood test ... and the blood cells it carries, peripheral blood cells. Blood is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, ... of blood is blood plasma, a fluid that is the blood's liquid medium, which by itself is straw-yellow in color. The blood plasma ...
... a smear can be prepared from the buffy coat of the blood sample to concentrate the cells. Tumour cells in peripheral blood may ... The amount of tumour cells on the blood smear can range from 1 to 80 percent of the total white blood cell count, with lower ... could contribute to the presence of tumour cells in the blood. Carcinocythemia can be detected on a routine blood smear ... Tumour cells are often found at the edge of the blood smear due to their large size, so this area should be examined thoroughly ...
White cells are found in the buffy coat, a thin, typically white layer of nucleated cells between the sedimented red blood ... The complete blood cell count is a blood panel that includes the overall white blood cell count and differential count, a count ... All white blood cells have nuclei, which distinguishes them from the other blood cells, the anucleated red blood cells (RBCs) ... Histamine is responsible for widening blood vessels and increasing the flow of blood to injured tissue. It also makes blood ...
He used the concept of buffy coat as the starting point of his work on red cell sedimentation and the more general problem of ... The Fåhræus effect is the decrease in average concentration of red blood cells in human blood as the diameter of the glass tube ... Considering steady laminar fully developed blood flow in a small tube with radius of r 0 {\displaystyle r_{0}} , whole blood ... c) The migration of blood cells from the tube wall to the axis depends on the particle size and not on the particle density. (d ...
... see Blood plasma fractionation), the buffy coat, which is a thin layer of leukocytes (white blood cells) mixed with platelets ... when centrifuged the silicone gel forms a layer on top of the buffy coat, allowing the blood serum to be removed more ... Blood fractionation is the process of fractionating whole blood, or separating it into its component parts. This is typically ... Blood Plasma Pooling (from the Bloodbook.com website) Statement by Dr. Kathryn Zoon, Food and Drug Administration (before the U ...
Blood sampling follows a strict quality protocol, collecting serum, plasma, buffy coat, immortalized cells for cell line ... collecting blood and urine samples and by clinical examination. In connection with the HUNT3 survey (2006-2008), HUNT Biobank ...
A wide variety of starting biological material are available, including whole blood, blood serum, buffy coat, urine, feces, ... Various magnetic particles (magnetic carrier) coated with silica are often used as silica coated beadsMaghemite particle (γ- ... How do SPRI beads work? DNA Extraction Methods For Large Blood Volumes B Vogelstein and D Gillespie;"Preparative and analytical ... Therefore, in this article, "silica beads" are intended to mean silica coated magnetic beads unless stated otherwise. ...
... after which three major blood components can be visualized: plasma, buffy coat and erythrocytes (blood cells). These separated ... The process of blood fractionation involves separation of blood into its main components. Blood fractionation refers generally ...
The end product in most cases is the classic sedimented blood sample with the RBCs at the bottom, the buffy coat of platelets ... To stop the blood from coagulating, anticoagulant is automatically mixed with the blood as it is pumped from the body into the ... Blood does not contact the device and during the separation, blood does not exit the kit.[citation needed] Reinfusion - At the ... Blood taken from a healthy donor can be separated into its component parts during blood donation, where the needed component is ...
Prior to 1960, crude extracts of PHA were known to coat the surface of red blood cells, make them heavier, and thereby improve ... the separation of the white cell buffy coat. Peter Nowell, an immunologist and pathologist at the University of Pennsylvania in ... PHA-E cause erythrocytes (red blood cells) to clump. PHA-L causes leukocytes (white blood cells) to clump. Phytohaemagglutinin ... Stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes by phytohaemagglutinin presents a classic model of transition of cells from the ...
... a layer of mono-nuclear cells called buffy coat (PBMC/MNC), Ficoll-Paque, and erythrocytes and granulocytes, which should be ... These products allow blood to be layered on much more quickly without mixing polysaccharide and blood. An example of such a ... This allows the blood sample to be rapidly pipetted onto the insert, avoiding the need for overlaying it directly onto Ficoll- ... Major blood clotting may sometimes occur in the PBMC layer. Ethylene diamine tetra-acetate (EDTA) and heparin are commonly used ...
Buffy-coat preparations of peripheral blood or aspirates from marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, or skin lesions should be spread on ... The visceral form starts with skin ulcers and later presents with fever, low red blood cell count, and enlarged spleen and ... Additionally, visceral disease can be diagnosed by blood tests. Leishmaniasis can be partly prevented by sleeping under nets ... Amastigotes are seen within blood and spleen monocytes or, less commonly, in circulating neutrophils and in aspirated tissue ...
... which will separate the blood into a top layer of plasma, followed by a layer of PBMCs (buffy coat) and a bottom fraction of ... A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) is any peripheral blood cell having a round nucleus. These cells consist of ... These cells can be extracted from whole blood using ficoll, a hydrophilic polysaccharide that separates layers of blood, and ... The polymorphonuclear cells can be further isolated by lysing the red blood cells. Basophils are sometimes found in both the ...
The layer between the red cells and the plasma is referred to as the buffy coat and is sometimes removed to make platelets for ... A blood bank is a center where blood gathered as a result of blood donation is stored and preserved for later use in blood ... Several types of blood transfusion exist:[citation needed] Whole blood, which is blood transfused without separation. Red blood ... "Circular of Information for the use of Human Blood and Blood Components" (PDF). AABB, ARC, America's Blood Centers. p. 16. ...
... is a form of apheresis and photodynamic therapy in which blood is subject to apheresis to separate buffy coat (WBC + platelets ... Blood irradiation therapy ICD10 Procedure code: this was assigned based on cross-walking from the ICD9 code at ICD10DAta.com ... from whole blood, chemically treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (instilled into a collection bag or given per os in advance), ...
... buffy coat (used to make platelets), and red blood cells. The third method is sedimentation: the blood simply sits overnight ... Whole blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and blood plasma. It is best within a day of ... Historically, blood was transfused as whole blood without further processing. Most blood banks now split the whole blood into ... Whole blood (WB) is human blood from a standard blood donation. It is used in the treatment of massive bleeding, in exchange ...
... "buffy coat" layer, which includes the platelets and the white blood cells. The "buffy coat" is isolated in a sterile bag, ... On a stained blood smear, platelets appear as dark purple spots, about 20% the diameter of red blood cells. The smear is used ... Although thrombosis, blood coagulation in intact blood vessels, is usually viewed as a pathological immune response, leading to ... Apheresis platelets are collected using a mechanical device that draws blood from the donor and centrifuges the collected blood ...
"The efficacy of the ultraviolet C pathogen inactivation system in the reduction of Babesia divergens in pooled buffy coat ... Zintl, A; Mulcahy, G; Skerrett, HE; Taylor, SM; Gray, JS (2003). "Babesia divergens, a Bovine Blood Parasite of Veterinary and ... To Invade the Human Red Blood Cell". Infection and Immunity. 73 (1): 649-651. doi:10.1128/IAI.73.1.649-651.2005. PMC 538995. ...
Donor lymphocyte (or leukocyte) infusion (DLI) or buffy coat infusion is a form of adoptive immunotherapy used after ... These donated white blood cells contain cells of the immune system that can recognize and destroy cancer cells.[citation needed ... Luznik L, Fuchs EJ (2002). "Donor lymphocyte infusions to treat hematologic malignancies in relapse after allogeneic blood or ...
... tested and described the buffy coat method (BCM) for quick diagnostics (~ 20 min/sample) of avian blood parasites. Blood ... and each sample was examined using ME of stained blood films and the buffy coat, which was examined after centrifugation in ... BCM is a useful tool for diagnostics of blood parasite co-infections. Its application might be extended to studies of blood ... However, fixation, drying and staining of blood films as well as their ME are relatively time-consuming. This limits the ...
Buffy Coat. A buffy coat is a blood test that looks for mast cells out in the bloodstream. Normal animals rarely have mast ... Complete Blood Count (CBC). A complete blood count is drawn to help evaluate your cats overall health. ... These tumors are derived from cells that surround or support the skin such as fat, connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves. ... Photodynamic therapy is a new treatment modality that uses a dye injected into the blood stream that localizes in cancer cells ...
In the Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC®; Becton Dickinson) method, blood samples are collected in a special tube containing ... Fluorescent dyes that stain nucleic acids have been used in the detection of blood parasites. In the Kawamoto technique, blood ... Parasites/microliter blood=(parasites/WBCs) × WBC count per microliter,or 8,000,. Results in % parasitized RBCs and parasites ... Select an area that is well-stained, free of stain precipitate, and well-populated with white blood cells (WBCs) (10-20 WBCs/ ...
For blood samples, these include centrifugation followed by examination of the buffy coat; mini anion-exchange/centrifugation; ... The first uses dried blood, while the other two use whole blood samples. A 2002 study found the wb-CATT to be the most ... and the quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique. For other samples, such as spinal fluid, concentration techniques include ... Diagnosis is by finding the parasite in a blood smear or in the fluid of a lymph node. A lumbar puncture is often needed to ...
Mic DNA was isolated from either complete blood or buffy coats 4-Methoxychalcone Description working with the QIAamp genomic ... Mic DNA was isolated from either complete blood or buffy coats 4′-Methoxychalcone Description working with the QIAamp genomic ... uncategorized , Mic DNA was isolated from either complete blood or buffy coats 4-Methoxychalcone Description working with ... Mic DNA was isolated from either complete blood or buffy coats 4-Methoxychalcone Description working with ...
Isolation of Human Neutrophils from Whole Blood and Buffy Coats ... Isolation of Human Neutrophils from Whole Blood and Buffy Coats ... Role of Blood Oxygenation Saturation in Ovarian Cancer Diagnosis Using Multi-spectral Photoacoustic Tomography Journal of ...
Extracts DNA from buffy coat from blood. Maxwell® RSC Genomic DNA Kit ». Extracts high-quality DNA from whole blood, buffy coat ... Extracts high-quality DNA from whole blood, buffy coat, bone marrow, buccal swabs, cells and tissue ... Extracts high-quality DNA from whole blood, buffy coat, bone marrow, buccal swabs, cells and tissue ... Extracts high-quality DNA from whole blood, buffy coat, bone marrow, buccal swabs, cells and tissue ...
Complete blood count with differential; review the buffy coat smear for Sézary cells ... Prognostic significance of tumor burden in the blood of patients with erythrodermic primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Blood. ... circulating in the peripheral blood or other evidence of a significant malignant T-cell clone in the blood, such as clonal T- ... Blood eosinophilia at baseline may also serve as a prognostic factor in patients with primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. [48] ...
Extract DNA from 50-250µl of buffy coat samples.. Maxwell® RSC Genomic DNA Kit ». Extracts high-quality DNA from whole blood, ... Extracts high-quality DNA from whole blood, buffy coat, bone marrow, buccal swabs, cells and tissue ... Extracts high-quality DNA from whole blood, buffy coat, bone marrow, buccal swabs, cells and tissue ... Extracts high-quality DNA from whole blood, buffy coat, bone marrow, buccal swabs, cells and tissue ...
Leukocytes were extracted from the buffy coat of 10 mL blood collected from EAC patients. DNA clean-up was with the Gentra ... The cells were moved to fresh complete DMEM containing 10 μM Y-27632 (Sigma), and seeded onto plates coated with 0.01 μg/mL ...
... microscopy of blood smear/buffy coat, PCR of blood and serology (Sanchez). However, in the acute phase of the disease, ... Four studies compared PCR to blood smear and two studies compared PCR to blood smear and serology or conventional PCR. Most of ... buffy coat) (66).. Neoehrlichiosis. One high quality study with low risk of bias compared two different laboratory methods: a ... molecular detection by PCR in blood seems to have a higher sensitivity than microscopy of blood smear, and in later phase (,4 ...
Lymph nodes, liver, and buffy coat (white cells) from a blood specimen may also be used. The latter may be helpful in immune- ... Blood Transfusion. During a blood transfusion, blood or blood products are transferred from one person to another. There are ... two types of transfusions, autologous (your own blood), and donor blood (someone elses blood). There are four blood types: A; ... Blood transfusions and IV drug users sharing contaminated needles transmit parasites. A pregnant mother may transmit Leishmania ...
In centrifuged blood, the parasite sediments just above the white blood cells, and examination of buffy coat will increase ... centrifugation followed by buffy coat examination, mini-anion exchange centrifugation technique, or microhematocrit ... The yield in lymph node examination varies from about 40% to 80%. Trypanosomes can also be found in blood, however, the yield ... and trypanosomes can be found in blood. ...
direct examination of fresh blood or blood treated with an anticoagulant *examination of liquid-cell interface (buffy coat) in ... direct examination of fresh blood or blood treated with an anticoagulant *examination of liquid-cell interface (buffy coat) in ... Rare instances of transmission of microfilariae from infected bitches to fetuses via the placenta and from dog to dog via blood ... Rare instances of transmission of microfilariae from infected bitches to fetuses via the placenta and from dog to dog via blood ...
Bone Marrow, Buffy Coat, Cord Blood, Leukapheresis, Other, PBMC, Peripheral Blood. Selection Method ... How to Isolate PBMCs from Whole Blood Using Density Gradient Centrifugation (Ficoll™ or Lymphoprep... ...
Blood Donors and Cell Lines. Buffy coats from healthy volunteer donors were obtained from the New York Blood Center. The U373 ...
For automated purification of DNA from blood and buffy coat using EZ2 Connect instruments ...
Whole blood collections are manufactured into various blood components, and each component type is intended to meet a ... The buffy coat contains the platelets, white blood cells, and some red blood cells and plasma. Buffy coats from four donations ... Canadian Blood Services began using a manufacturing method called buffy coat production method in 2005*. Buffy coat production ... With the buffy coat production method, whole blood donations are rapidly cooled to room temperature on cooling trays at the ...
White Blood Cells) for research, life science and manufacturing uses - Inquire for more details. ... Buffy Coats. Product Note. Product contains red blood cells (RBCs). If looking for white blood cells (WBCs) only, reference ... The buffy coat is used, for example, to extract DNA from the blood of mammals (since mammalian red blood cells are anucleate ... The buffy coat is usually whitish in color, but is sometimes green if the blood sample contains large amounts of neutrophils ( ...
The layers include: the red blood cells (heaviest layer); the Buffy Coat containing the plasma rich protein; and a plasma- ... This separates the blood into layers based on the density of elements in the blood. ... Plasma Rich Protein is generated by taking a vial of a patients blood and spinning it in a centrifuge. ... The layers include: the red blood cells (heaviest layer); the "Buffy Coat" containing the plasma rich protein; and a plasma- ...
Complete blood count with differential; review the buffy coat smear for Sézary cells ... Prognostic significance of tumor burden in the blood of patients with erythrodermic primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Blood. ... circulating in the peripheral blood or other evidence of a significant malignant T-cell clone in the blood, such as clonal T- ... Blood eosinophilia at baseline may also serve as a prognostic factor in patients with primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. [48] ...
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were independently separated from the buffy coat of healthy donors. Monocytes were purified ... human serum derived from the corresponding blood donors. Cells were incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2.. ...
Blood samples (buffy coat) were available for 175 (80%) of the 219 eligible CCA cases; specimens were retrieved from the KKCS ... Genomic DNA was extracted from buffy coat fractions using standard protocols of the Genomic DNA Mini Kit with Proteinase K ( ... DNA repair gene polymorphisms, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and bladder cancer in a case-control study. Int J Cancer ... Lipid peroxidation and etheno DNA adducts in white blood cells of liver fluke-infected patients: protection by plasma alpha- ...
AutoGens FlexSTAR FlexiGene DNA Whole Blood Kits are used for isolation of genomic DNA from blood and buffy coats, and are ... FlexSTAR Platform Flexigene DNA Whole Blood Kit. Used for isolation of large volumes of genomic DNA from blood and buffy coats ... FlexSTAR Platform Flexigene DNA Whole Blood Kit. FlexiGene DNA Whole Blood Kits. Our FlexiGene DNA Whole Blood Kits, which are ... optimized for the automated isolation of genomic DNA from human whole blood or buffy coat samples, are a key component to the ...
Goat, buffy coat smear. Several neutrophils contain E. ruminantium morulae.. Credit: PIADC. Photo ID: HW_018. ... Goat, peripheral blood smear. A neutrophil contains a few Ehrlichia ruminantium.. Credit: PIADC. Photo ID: HW_017. ...
The blood sample from each participant was drawn after overnight fasting; separated into buffy coat, erythrocytes and (heparin ... Moreover, several LPCs that were associated with risk of prostate cancer were negatively correlated with blood glucose ... Bogmuil R, Koal T, Weinberger KM, Dammeier S. Targeted metabolomics: fast, standardized mass spectrometric analysis of blood ... In the assessment, each participant underwent a health examination, including measurement of height, weight and blood pressure ...
... by microscopic evaluation of the buffy coat.. Specimen: 1 mL EDTA whole blood ... Buffy Coat Examination. Detection of infectious agents (i.e. Hepatozoon spp., bacteria, spirochetes) and neoplastic cells (i.e ... References are available for 2-hours post-prandial blood samples or fasted blood samples. ... Measurement of blood urea nitrogen by automated analyzer.. Specimen: 0.5 mL serum, lithium heparin plasma, urine, or body fluid ...
  • Diagnosis is by finding the parasite in a blood smear or in the fluid of a lymph node. (wikipedia.org)
  • in a thin blood smear stained with Giemsa. (cdc.gov)
  • Goat, peripheral blood smear. (iastate.edu)
  • Goat, buffy coat smear. (iastate.edu)
  • Monocytes were purified by adherence and were allowed to differentiate for 14 days in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 5 ng/ml of recombinant human GM-CSF and 10% human serum derived from the corresponding blood donors. (nih.gov)
  • Traditional biospecimens are bulk tissues and blood derivatives-such as serum, plasma, and buffy coat-that are snap frozen or formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). (genengnews.com)
  • The Genomic DNA Mini Kits for Blood and Cultured Cells provide a fast and economical method for the purification of total DNA (including genomic, mitochondrial, and viral DNA) from fresh whole blood, plasma, serum, buffy coat, other bodily fluids, lymphocytes bacteria, and cultured cells. (primelabmed.com)
  • Making up less than 1% of the total volume of the blood sample, the buffy coat (so-called because it is usually buff in hue), contains most of the white blood cells and platelets. (leebio.com)
  • These include red blood cells to improve oxygen delivery to tissues, platelets to treat bleeding, or plasma to replace proteins. (blood.ca)
  • Platelets from the whole blood must be manufactured within 24 hours of collection. (blood.ca)
  • The buffy coat contains the platelets, white blood cells, and some red blood cells and plasma. (blood.ca)
  • The estimated residual risk of contamination of blood products with bacterial agents is 1 in 5,000 for platelets and 1 in 30,000 for red blood cells. (medscape.com)
  • DNA from 17 chimpanzees (lung, spleen, or liver), form a separate novel genus, with the proposed name of 30 red colobus monkeys (buffy coat, blood, bone marrow, Partetravirus, within the subfamily Parvovirinae . (cdc.gov)
  • This pooled buffy coat is then centrifuged a second time, and the platelet rich plasma is extracted through a leukoreduction filter to produce a pooled platelet concentrate. (blood.ca)
  • A meta-analysis of 22 studies of bacterial contamination rate estimates for apheresis (AP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and buffy coat (BC) collection methods found an overall mean contamination rate of 0.51 per 1000 components (95% confidence index [CI], 0.38-0.67). (medscape.com)
  • In the Kawamoto technique, blood smears on a slide are stained with acridine orange and examined with either a fluorescence microscope or a light microscope adapted with an interference filter system. (cdc.gov)
  • These organisms can be identified by microscopic examination of wet mounts, buffy coat, or blood smears or by appropriate culturing and molecular techniques. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Thin blood smears should be made with blood directly from the bird, if possible. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Stained buffy coat smears are recommended to detect bacteria, spirochetes, and Leucocytozoon , Trypanosoma , or Isospora infections. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The buffy coat is usually whitish in color, but is sometimes green if the blood sample contains large amounts of neutrophils (which are high in green myeloperoxidase). (leebio.com)
  • A myriad of agents can potentially be transmitted through blood transfusions, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. (medscape.com)
  • L4s migrate through tissues and the blood vascular system for several weeks. (capcvet.org)
  • most are found in tissues but are present in blood during part of their life cycle. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In 1985, when tests for HIV antibody became available, screening prospective donors of blood, organs, and other tissues also began (2,3). (cdc.gov)
  • Fluorescent dyes that stain nucleic acids have been used in the detection of blood parasites. (cdc.gov)
  • These tumors are derived from cells that surround or support the skin such as fat, connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves. (petplace.com)
  • Photodynamic therapy is a new treatment modality that uses a dye injected into the blood stream that localizes in cancer cells. (petplace.com)
  • Select an area that is well-stained, free of stain precipitate, and well-populated with white blood cells (WBCs) (10-20 WBCs/field). (cdc.gov)
  • In centrifuged blood, the parasite sediments just above the white blood cells, and examination of buffy coat will increase sensitivity. (cdc.gov)
  • Product contains red blood cells (RBCs). (leebio.com)
  • If looking for white blood cells (WBCs) only, reference item 341-10 or 342-10. (leebio.com)
  • After centrifugation, one can distinguish a layer of clear fluid (the plasma), a layer of red fluid containing most of the red blood cells, and a thin layer in between. (leebio.com)
  • The buffy coat is used, for example, to extract DNA from the blood of mammals (since mammalian red blood cells are anucleate and do not contain DNA). (leebio.com)
  • The layer next to buffy coat contains granulocytes and red blood cells. (leebio.com)
  • In June 1999, Canadian Blood Services introduced leukodepletion filtration as part of the manufacturing process to reduce the number of white blood cells. (blood.ca)
  • The red blood cells and plasma are both extracted, leaving the buffy coat layer in the original collection container. (blood.ca)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were independently separated from the buffy coat of healthy donors. (nih.gov)
  • CTCs are extremely rare, and only recently have technologies been developed that are capable of isolating these cells from patient blood," Dr. Sandlin explains, adding that traditional methods of preparing cells for biobanking have proved hard to apply. (genengnews.com)
  • White blood cells or the parts of the blood that are primarily protecting you and killing off foreign invaders. (educator.com)
  • More often than not white blood cells or leukocytes are going to be much larger than red blood cells but we do have a heck of a lot more red blood cells. (educator.com)
  • The ratio of red blood cells to white blood cells in the blood is approximately 1,000 to 1. (educator.com)
  • That is why your blood is usually red because of the red blood cells. (educator.com)
  • The quality of the Genomic DNA Mini Kits for Blood and Cultured Cells is tested on a lot-to-lot basis by isolating genomic DNA from 200 µl of whole human blood. (primelabmed.com)
  • Buffy coats from four donations are then sterile-docked together along with plasma (male donor) from one of the same four donors, and pooled together. (blood.ca)
  • Careful donor selection, vigilant screening, lookback programs, inactivation of pathogens, and continuous efforts to develop new techniques for screening and inactivation will be required to make blood products, and thus blood transfusions, continually safe. (medscape.com)
  • Probable contamination - The blood culture from the recipient is negative or could not be done, but there is definite bacterial growth in the donor blood product. (medscape.com)
  • If this information is needed by the physician, malaria parasites can be quantified against blood elements such as RBCs or WBCs. (cdc.gov)
  • express the results as parasites per microliter of blood, using the WBC count if known, or otherwise assuming 8,000 WBCs per microliter blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Results in % parasitized RBCs and parasites per microliter blood can be interconverted if the WBC and RBC counts are known, or otherwise (less desirably) by assuming 8,000 WBCs and 4,000,000 RBCs per microliter blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Bloodborne organisms in plasma or WBCs are concentrated in the buffy coat. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Exclusion of prospective blood donors based on their acknowledged risk behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection began in 1983 (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Carri- blood bank donors. (who.int)
  • Microfilariae reside in the blood of most, but not all, infected canids. (capcvet.org)
  • Direct examination of the buffy coat by darkfield or phase contrast microscopy is an excellent technique to identify low numbers of motile organisms such as spirochetes and microfilariae. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Microscopical examination (ME) of stained blood films remains the gold standard method for the detection of these infections in birds, particularly because co-infections predominate in wildlife. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Trypanosomes can also be found in blood, however, the yield is low, and concentration techniques (e.g., centrifugation followed by buffy coat examination, mini-anion exchange centrifugation technique, or microhematocrit centrifugation technique) are helpful. (cdc.gov)
  • Lyme Borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi) DNA is not typically detected in peripheral blood, even when Lyme disease is the cause of clinical signs. (tamu.edu)
  • Blood parasites belonging to the Apicomplexa, Trypanosomatidae and Filarioidea are widespread in birds and have been studied extensively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study modified, tested and described the buffy coat method (BCM) for quick diagnostics (~ 20 min/sample) of avian blood parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Its application might be extended to studies of blood parasites in other vertebrates during field studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Assuming an average WBC count of 8,000 per microliter of blood, this gives a threshold of sensitivity of 4 parasites per microliter of blood. (cdc.gov)
  • count asexual blood stage parasites and gametocytes separately. (cdc.gov)
  • 3 genotypes of PARV4 have been found to infect humans and-white colobus monkeys (buffy coat, liver, intestine, ( 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Plasma can be extracted from a patient's blood and injected into an area of tendonitis, muscle injury, or ligament strain. (footeducation.com)
  • Plasma Rich Protein is generated by taking a vial of a patient's blood and spinning it in a centrifuge. (footeducation.com)
  • L'agrégation plaquettaire induite par le collagène dans des échantillons de plasma riche en plaquettes de 14 lapins sains a été mesurée par turbidimétrie en utilisant un agrégomètre, avant et une heure après une injection intra- veineuse d'alun. (who.int)
  • The buffy coat and all of the plasma should be expressed onto a glass slide and covered with a coverglass, which is depressed slightly to spread the buffy coat. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The buffy coat/plasma interface should be examined with darkfield or reduced light microscopy to detect motile organisms. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Adequate federal regulations, recommendations, and guidelines for blood and plasma are already established and are not addressed in this document. (cdc.gov)
  • Among acts in concert with other plasma factors in these patients, 102 had suffered venous regulating blood coagulation [ 2 ]. (who.int)
  • The level of parasitemia is relatively high, particularly in the first stage of disease, and trypanosomes can be found in blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacteria or, for that matter, any infective agent that potentially evades the sterility of the transfusion loop can come from the donor's blood or skin or from a contaminated environment. (medscape.com)
  • BCM is a useful tool for diagnostics of blood parasite co-infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From this point of view, ME of stained blood films can still be considered as the gold standard method for blood parasite biodiversity research in wildlife. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular parasite that causes a zoonotic disease capable of infecting nearly all warm-blooded hosts, including humans. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recently, PARV4-like viruses have also been or muscle) and 700 humans (blood), was prepared by described in chimpanzees and gorillas ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Diagnosis is by identification of the organism in blood, lymph node aspirate, or cerebrospinal fluid or sometimes by serologic tests. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Blood of 345 birds belonging to 42 species was collected, and each sample was examined using ME of stained blood films and the buffy coat, which was examined after centrifugation in capillary tubes and after being transferred to objective glass slides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods: A total of 182 blood samples from C. dromedarius from nomadic and dairy farms were evaluated using STDM, serological (CATT/T. evansi) and molecular (ITS1-PCR) methods. (researchgate.net)
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: First-trimester blood samples were collected in gestational week 11+0 to 13+6 from 150 pregnant women at Uppsala University Hospital during November 2018 until November 2020. (bvsalud.org)
  • Compared to the molecular protocols, blood film ME is cheaper, often faster and can be used even during fieldwork if access to relatively simple microscopic facilities is available. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparison of different clinical samples from infected animals showed that conjunctiva swabs and blood were the samples of choice for epidemiological surveillance, while lymph nodes performed the best as postmortem specimens. (usda.gov)
  • The comparison of clincal samples with putative diagnostic value from live animals showed that conjunctival swabs and blood buffy coat were the samples of choice for epidemiological surveillance, while lymph nodes performed the best as postmortem specimens. (usda.gov)
  • Blood samples were screened using enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), while buffy coat samples were analyzed using PCR analyses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Whole blood collections are manufactured into various blood components, and each component type is intended to meet a particular patient's clinical need. (blood.ca)
  • Buffy coat production refers to a method for preparing components from whole blood donation that was developed in Europe more than 25 years ago, and is in widespread use around the world. (blood.ca)
  • With the buffy coat production method, whole blood donations are rapidly cooled to room temperature on cooling trays at the collection clinic. (blood.ca)
  • The whole blood is centrifuged, to create three distinct layers. (blood.ca)
  • Our FlexiGene DNA Whole Blood Kits, which are optimized for the automated isolation of genomic DNA from human whole blood or buffy coat samples, are a key component to the FlexSTAR workflow. (autogen.com)
  • Blood and urine samples were collected during both studies and vascular tone was measured using laser Doppler imaging. (cambridge.org)
  • they cannot be destroyed using current techniques for inactivating pathogens in the blood supply. (medscape.com)
  • Anticoagulants, storage, and cooling of the blood can distort protozoal morphology and introduce artifacts. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • EDTA-anticoagulant blood (5 mL sample) tween poor obstetric outcome, including was obtained from each participant and pregnancy loss, and FVL has been estab- processed shortly afterwards. (who.int)
  • Mic DNA was isolated from either complete blood or buffy coats 4′-Methoxychalcone Description working with the QIAamp genomic DNA isolation kit (Westburg BV, Leusden, the Netherlands) in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer. (amparinhibitor.com)
  • Equipped with these powerful tools, life sciences OEMs can run highly reliable inspections of biological samples, like blood and tissue, that generate precise data for further analysis. (cognex.com)
  • To make a diagnosis of infection with an intracellular blood protozoan on a thin blood film, it first should be determined that the organisms in question are neither normal structures nor artifacts. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In addition, the data presented demonstrates the plant extract had the potential to improve the red and white blood cell indices reducing parasitaemia following T. b. brucei infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Becton Dickinson) method, blood samples are collected in a special tube containing acridine orange, an anticoagulant, and a float, and then are centrifuged in a microhematocrit centrifuge. (cdc.gov)
  • If you take a blood sample from a person and centrifuge it, spin around really fast, you will get a separation of all the blood parts by density. (educator.com)
  • In 2009, the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) published a detailed description of 68 infectious agents capable of being transmitted by blood transfusion and prioritizing emerging infectious diseases for which there was not yet an implemented intervention. (medscape.com)
  • however, many of the species or genera can be distinguished using morphological characters of the blood stages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A 15 ml sample of autologous blood was collected from each animal through cannulation of the ear vein into a syringe containing 1.48 ml of 10% sodium citrate. (bvsalud.org)
  • This separates the blood into layers based on the density of elements in the blood. (footeducation.com)
  • Prevention of severe disease involves screening the at-risk population with blood tests for TbG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood transfusion has been and continues to be a possible source of disease transmission. (medscape.com)
  • Despite the potential for disease transmission through transfused blood, the safety of the blood supply in the United States continues to improve and, in fact, is the greatest that it has ever been. (medscape.com)
  • Platelet aggregation study on the blood. (who.int)
  • This study included six hundred blood samples from the Interdisciplinary Center for Medical Research (CIRMF) bank, including 300 women and 300 men living in 111 villages. (bvsalud.org)
  • Reaction to the blood products has not been a problem because the patients own blood products are used so no cross-reaction would be expected. (footeducation.com)
  • The vascular reactivity of pulmonary microvessels, especially acinar microvessels, in response to acidosis induced by either alveolar hypercapnia (hypercapnic acidosis (HA)) or metabolic disturbance (isocapnic acidosis (IA)) is one of the major modulators regulating the distribution of pulmonary blood flow 1 - 4 . (ersjournals.com)