Diseases of plants.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Techniques used in microbiology.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is pathogenic for plants.
The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A species of Ralstonia previously classed in the genera PSEUDOMONAS and BURKHOLDERIA. It is an important plant pathogen.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.

Frequency of vaccine-related and therapeutic injections--Romania, 1998. (1/280)

In Romania and other countries, therapeutic injections have been associated with transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and other bloodborne pathogens. During 1997-1998, acute hepatitis B was associated with recent injections in Romanian children aged <5 years. Injection-associated bloodborne pathogen transmission occurs when infection-control practices are inadequate, and overuse of injections to administer medications might increase opportunities for transmission. To estimate the frequency of therapeutic injections and to describe the attitudes and practices of adults about injections to administer medications, local health departments in Romania surveyed the general population of four districts (Hunedoara, Iasi, Mures, and Prahova [1997 combined population: 2.8 million]) in June 1998. This report summarizes results from these surveys, which indicate that injections are used frequently to administer medications in Romania.  (+info)

Audit on the degree of application of universal precautions in a haemodialysis unit. (2/280)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to investigate the degree of compliance with standard precautions (hand washing and wearing of gloves) by health workers in one haemodialysis unit. METHODS: During 4 months, two observers monitored the activities of the health care staff in the dialysis unit. Thirty five randomly distributed observation periods of 60 min duration covered one haemodialysis session. The observers evaluated (i) the total number of potential opportunities to implement standard precautions and (ii) the number of occasions when these were actually put into practice. RESULTS: A total of 364 opportunities to wear gloves and to wash hands thereafter and 273 opportunities to wash hands before a patient-oriented activity were observed. The proportion of occasions when gloves were actually used was 18.7%. Hand washing after a patient-oriented activity was performed only on 32.4% of occasions. Finally, only on 3% of such occasions was hand washing before the activity. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of compliance with standard precautions by health care personnel is unsatisfactory and this favours nosocomial transmission in haemodialysis units.  (+info)

A novel serpin expressed by blood-borne microfilariae of the parasitic nematode Brugia malayi inhibits human neutrophil serine proteinases. (3/280)

Serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) play a vital regulatory role in a wide range of biological processes, and serpins from viruses have been implicated in pathogen evasion of the host defence system. For the first time, we report a functional serpin gene from nematodes that may function in this manner. This gene, named Bm-spn-2, has been isolated from the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, a causative agent of human lymphatic filariasis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot experiments indicate that Bm-spn-2 is expressed only by microfilariae (Mf), which are the long-lived blood-dwelling larval stage. A survey of the greater than 14,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from B malayi deposited in dbEST shows that greater than 2% of the ESTs sequenced from Mf cDNA libraries correspond to Bm-spn-2. Despite its abundance in the microfilarial stage, Bm-spn-2 has not been found in any other point in the life cycle. The predicted protein encoded by Bm-spn-2 contains 428 amino acids with a putative signal peptide. Antibodies to recombinant Bm-SPN-2 protein react specifically with a 47.5-kD native protein in Mf extract. Bm-SPN-2 is one of the largest of the 93 known serpins, due to a 22 amino acid carboxy-terminal extension, and contains the conserved serpin signature sequence. Outside these regions, levels of homology are low, and only a distant relationship can been seen to a Caenorhabditis elegans serpin. The Bm-spn-2 gene contains 6 introns, 2 of which appear to be shared by both nematode species. The B malayi introns have an extended and conserved 3' splice site and are relatively large compared with C elegans. A panel of mammalian serine proteinases were screened and Bm-SPN-2 protein was found to specifically inhibit enzymatic activity of human neutrophil cathepsin G and human neutrophil elastase, but not a range of other serine proteinases. It is possible that Bm-SPN-2 could function as a stage-specific serpin in the blood environment of the microfilarial parasite in protection from human immunity and thus may be a good candidate for protective vaccine.  (+info)

Needlestick injury in clothing industry workers and the risks of blood-borne infection. (4/280)

This paper identifies the hazard of a hollow needle device used extensively in the clothing industry and assesses the risk of transmission for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. A substantial risk of transmission is suggested and measures have been advised for its control. Occupational Health Physicians are advised to be aware of hollow needles in other industrial processes and where risks of cross-infection exist, the same safety considerations should be applied as in clinical medicine and veterinary work to avoid needlestick injuries. Needle sharing must be avoided.  (+info)

A likelihood-based method of identifying contaminated lots of blood product. (5/280)

BACKGROUND: In 1994 a small cluster of hepatitis-C cases in Rhesus-negative women in Ireland prompted a nationwide screening programme for hepatitis-C antibodies in all anti-D recipients. A total of 55 386 women presented for screening and a history of exposure to anti-D was sought from all those testing positive and a sample of those testing negative. The resulting data comprised 620 antibody-positive and 1708 antibody-negative women with known exposure history, and interest was focused on using these data to estimate the infectivity of anti-D in the period 1970-1993. METHODS: Any exposure to anti-D provides an opportunity for infection, but the infection status at each exposure time is not observed. Instead, the available data from antibody testing only indicate whether at least one of the exposures resulted in infection. Using a simple Bernoulli model to describe the risk of infection in each year, the absence of information regarding which exposure(s) led to infection fits neatly into the framework of 'incomplete data'. Hence the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm provides estimates of the infectiousness of anti-D in each of the 24 years studied. RESULTS: The analysis highlighted the 1977 anti-D as a source of infection, a fact which was confirmed by laboratory investigation. Other suspect batches were also identified, helping to direct the efforts of laboratory investigators. CONCLUSIONS: We have presented a method to estimate the risk of infection at each exposure time from multiple exposure data. The method can also be used to estimate transmission rates and the risk associated with different sources of infection in a range of infectious disease applications.  (+info)

Unsafe injections in the developing world and transmission of bloodborne pathogens: a review. (6/280)

Unsafe injections are suspected to occur routinely in developing countries. We carried out a literature review to quantify the prevalence of unsafe injections and to assess the disease burden of bloodborne infections attributable to this practice. Quantitative information on injection use and unsafe injections (defined as the reuse of syringe or needle between patients without sterilization) was obtained by reviewing the published literature and unpublished WHO reports. The transmissibility of hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was estimated using data from studies of needle-stick injuries. Finally, all epidemiological studies that linked unsafe injections and bloodborne infections were evaluated to assess the attributable burden of bloodborne infections. It was estimated that each person in the developing world receives 1.5 injections per year on average. However, institutionalized children, and children and adults who are ill or hospitalized, including those infected with HIV, are often exposed to 10-100 times as many injections. An average of 95% of all injections are therapeutic, the majority of which were judged to be unnecessary. At least 50% of injections were unsafe in 14 of 19 countries (representing five developing world regions) for which data were available. Eighteen studies reported a convincing link between unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C, HIV, Ebola and Lassa virus infections and malaria. Five studies attributed 20-80% of all new hepatitis B infections to unsafe injections, while three implicated unsafe injections as a major mode of transmission of hepatitis C. In conclusion, unsafe injections occur routinely in most developing world regions, implying a significant potential for the transmission of any bloodborne pathogen. Unsafe injections currently account for a significant proportion of all new hepatitis B and C infections. This situation needs to be addressed immediately, as a political and policy issue, with responsibilities clearly defined at the global, country and community levels.  (+info)

Reported needlestick and sharp injuries among health care workers in a Greek general hospital. (7/280)

Between July 1990 and June 1996, 284 exposures to infectious material were reported by 247 health care workers (HCWs) at AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece, representing an overall rate of 2.4% reported injuries per 100 HCWs/year. Nurses reported the highest rates of incidents (3.0%) and in all but one working group women exhibited higher injury rates per year than male HCWs. Young workers (21-30 years old) were primarily affected in incidents (P < 0.001). Needles were the most common implement causing injury (60.6%) and resheathing of used needles as well as garbage collection were common causes of injury. None of the HCWs seroconverted in exposures where immune status to blood-borne pathogens was estimated. Efforts by the infection control committee need to be more intense, in order to increase the rate of reported staff injuries. This will facilitate identification of unsafe practices and provide more adequate preventive measures.  (+info)

Prospective investigation of transfusion transmitted infection in recipients of over 20 000 units of blood. TTI Study Group. (8/280)

OBJECTIVES: To follow up recipients of 20 000 units of blood to identify any transmissions of infections through blood transfusion. DESIGN: Follow up study of recipients of transfusion. SETTING: 22 hospitals in north London. PARTICIPANT: Adult patients who had recently been transfused. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients had further blood samples taken at 9 months that were tested for markers of hepatitis B and C and HIV and human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus type I or II (HTLV) infections. Recent infections were distinguished from pre-existing infections by comparison with blood samples taken before transfusion. RESULTS: 9220 patients were recruited, and 5579 recipients of 21 923 units of blood were followed up. No transfusion transmitted infections were identified. The incidence of transfusion transmitted infections was 0 in 21 043 units (95% confidence interval for risk 0 to 1 in 5706 recipients) for hepatitis B; 0 in 21 800 units (0 to 1 in 5911 recipients) for hepatitis C; 0 in 21 923 units (0 to 1 in 5944 recipients) for HIV; and 0 in 21 902 units (0 to 1 in 5939 recipients) for human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus. Three patients acquired hepatitis B during or after hospital admission but not through transfusion; 176 (3%) had pre-existing hepatitis B infection. Sixteen (0.29%) patients had hepatitis C, and five (0.09%) had human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus. CONCLUSIONS: The current risk of transfusion transmitted infections in the United Kingdom is very small, though hospital acquired infections may arise from sources other than transfusion. A considerable proportion of patients have pre-existing infections.  (+info)

Confidentiality about an athletes infection with a blood-borne pathogen is necessary to prevent exclusion of the athlete from sports because of inappropriate fear among others in the program. Except for the reporting required by law, the patient (and parent or guardian if the patient is a minor) must give informed consent for clinicians to share information about these medical conditions with a school or sports organization. Testing of athletes for these viral infections is not indicated. Infected athletes should be told that they have a very small risk of infecting other competitors. This risk, although unknown for any sport, is probably greatest in wrestling and boxing. Infected athletes can be encouraged not to participate in these activities or in others in which contamination of skin or mucous membranes with blood is relatively likely. This may also be protective for infected athletes themselves, reducing their possible exposure to blood-borne pathogens other than the one(s) with which ...
A hospitalized quiet with AIDS ended up noticeably upset and endeavored to expel the intravenous (IV) catheters in his arm. Amid the battle, an IV mixture line was pulled. An attendant at the scene recuperated the connector needle toward the finish of the IV line and was endeavoring to reinsert it when the patient kicked her arm, pushing the needle into her hand. The medical attendant who supported the needle stick damage tried negative for HIV that day, however she tried HIV positive a while later. This is by all account not the only case. Ordinary social insurance specialists are presented to unsafe and destructive blood-borne pathogens and are in danger of word related acquisitions of blood-borne ailments. Word related introduction to blood-borne pathogens among human services specialists incorporate percutaneous presentation i.e. presentation to needles and other sharp protests, and mucocutaneous introduction i.e. contact with in place or nonintact skin, the contact with mucous films. In the ...
Bloodborne Pathogen & Chemical Splash Protection Apparel, Large, Front Zipper, Elastic Ankles and Wrists, Hood, Denim Blue, 16 x 12 x 17.125 Three-layer fabric construction features a middle layer of microporus film that allows heat and sweat vapor to escape while protecting against dry particulates and liquid. Passes ASTM F1670/1671 testing for penetration of blood, body fluids and blood-borne pathogens. Denim Blue. |ul| |li| KLEENGUARD* A60 Bloodborne Pathogen & Chemical Splash Protection Apparel |li| Large |li| Zipper Front; Storm Flap; Elastic Back, Wrists & Ankles; Hood |li| 24 Coveralls per Case |/ul|
Bloodborne Pathogen & Chemical Splash Protection Apparel, Large, Front Zip, Storm Flap, Elastic Back, Wrists and Ankles, Denim Blue, 16 x 12 x 12.875 Three-layer fabric construction features a middle layer of microporus film that allows heat and sweat vapor to escape while protecting against dry particulates and liquid. Passes ASTM F1670/1671 testing for penetration of blood, body fluids and blood-borne pathogens. Denim Blue. |ul| |li| KLEENGUARD* A60 Bloodborne Pathogen & Chemical Splash Protection Apparel |li| Large |li| Zipper Front; Storm Flap; Elastic Back, Wrists & Ankles |li| 24 Coveralls per Case |/ul|
Compare and contrast HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in terms of infectivity, risk to healthcare workers, and disease prevention ...
Scientific Reports, Oct 31, 2017 Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a blood-borne pathogen responsible for chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The mechanism of HBV entry ...
In their timely article, Mast and colleagues [1] stated that the only outbreak of hepatitis B in sports reported in the medical literature was that seen among sumo wrestlers in Japan in 1980. However, a much larger epidemic occurred among Swedish orienteers (track-finders) in the early 1960s [2]. In that epidemic, more than 600 infected competitors had clinical symptoms, and at least as many subclinical cases occurred. Some cases were also found among orienteers in Norway and Finland. Because no serologic test for hepatitis was available at that time, the orienteers hepatitis was initially considered a distinct entity and was even given a diagnosis number (070,01 hepatitis silvatica) in the official disease classification used in Scandinavia from 1969 to 1986. Serum samples were stored, and subsequent testing showed the pathogen to be the hepatitis B virus [3] ...
Objectives Not to bore you - avoid La-La Land Not to bore you - avoid La-La Land Fulfill OSHA requirements Fulfill OSHA requirements
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process ...
June McCreight began her career in the hospitality industry as a housekeeper in 1996. In the years since, she has risen through the ranks, learning maintenance, front office, sales and revenue management, property management and district management, bench management and opening team management. She has trained hundreds of hoteliers and won many awards for her management successes. In 2011, June wrote and published, The Strangers in My Beds, a fictional novel based strictly on the strange events of her career in hotels. In 2014, June partnered with her father, a very accomplished software architect, and opened the business, Coba Enterprise Management, LLC with a very unique and specialized CMMS (Computer Maintenance Management System) software for hotels. ...
Course For Bloodborne Pathogens provides access to the Bloodborne Pathogens Training Class, which may be recommended or required in the state of Pennsylvania for employees who are occupationally exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM). Many employers make certain that their workers receive regular training that covers all elements of the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. This training is generally made available on initial assignment, at least annually thereafter, and when new or modified tasks or procedures affect a workers occupational exposure. This online Bloodborne Pathogens Training Class provides meaningful content intended to educate students on bloodborne pathogens and diseases, methods used to control occupational exposure, hepatitis B vaccine, and medical evaluation and post-exposure follow-up procedures. This course has been designed to present topics relevant to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) training requirement as stated in OSHAs ...
The Bloodborne Pathogen (BBP) Exposure Program Plan: Each department, program, and research facility must have an complete program plan in both electronic and hard copy available in their facility that includes a template of the Hepatitis B form, the Blood Contaminated Material Clean-up Standard Operating Procedure, and a current training record. This file is customizable for your facility.. UWM Bloodborne Pathogens Program. Blood Contaminated Material Clean-Up Standard Operating Procedure. Hepatitis B Vaccine Form and Guidance Document: This is to be maintained in the personnel file for the employee in their respective departmental HR office.. Supplements: Recombivax Vaccine Insert, Engerix B Vaccine Insert. UWM Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control Plan: This must be completed and kept on file for each department with personnel that have reasonable risk of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bloodborne pathogen exposures. T2 - Difference in reporting rates and individual predictors among health care personnel. AU - Bush, Cynthia. AU - Schmid, Kendra K. AU - Rupp, Mark Edmund. AU - Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu. AU - Wolford, Barbara. AU - Sandkovsky, Uriel. PY - 2017/4/1. Y1 - 2017/4/1. N2 - Background Employees in health care settings are at varying risk for bloodborne pathogen (BBP) exposures. We compared differences in reporting rates of BBP exposures among health care personnel during 2 different time periods, assessing job category, years of experience, and sex as potential predictors for exposure. Methods A retrospective review of the employee health department BBP database at 2 time periods (September 1, 2012-April 30, 2013, and September 1, 2013-April 30, 2014) in which 2 different reporting protocols (call center vs pager) was used. A survey was administered to assess reported and unreported exposures within a 12-month period. Results BBP exposures were highest ...
Concern about transmission of AIDS and other blood-borne diseases during medical and dental treatment was heightened recently when a study found that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can survive
Posted 17 March 2010 Ireland-Vietnam Blood-borne Virus Initiative The untiring efforts of Professor Bill Hall to extend medical research to countries outside the normal circle of science has brought considerable benefits to people and governments far from the Centre for Research of Infectious Diseases at UCD. This St Patricks Day, Minister of State with special responsibility for Science, Technology, Innovation and Natural Resources, Mr Conor Lenihan, TD formally opened a custom-built diagnostic facility developed by the Ireland-Vietnam Blood-borne Virus Initiative (IVVI) at he national Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE) in Hanoi. The facility is part of a wider initiative designed to diagnose viral infections in Vietnam and to conduct an epidemiological study of the prevalence and characteristics of blood-borne viruses circulating in that country.. The study, which received funding of €5 million from Irish Aid (a division of the Department of Foreign Affairs) and Atlantic ...
Bloodborne Pathogen Kit Carton Container Type Container Size 2-1/4 In. x 1-3/8 In. x 4 In Orange Includes (2) Benzalkonium Antiseptic Wipes (2) Bio-Hazard Bags (2) 3-Fold White Towels (2) 4 In. Red Twist Ties Features Color Orange Depth 2-1/4 Height 2-1/4 Item Bloodborne Pathogen Kit Length 1-3/8 Quantity of Bandages 0 Quantity of Eye Treatment 0 Quantity of Medicinal 0 Size Universal Type Bloodborne Pathogen Width 4 Color Code No Kit Description Disposable 1X use Kit Type Bulk People Served 1 Portable No Waterproof No Provides Personal Protection against Bloodborne Pathogens Case Material Carton Number of Components 4 Quantity of Burn Treatments 0 Read more ...
Exposure to blood-borne pathogens in the workplace is a serious threat to worker safety. To combat this threat, federal regulations require the preparation of an exposure control plan (ECP). This chapter constitutes the ECP for SLAC. It demonstrates our commitment to providing a safe and healthful work environment for our entire staff and is a key document for implementing and ensuring compliance with standards.. Full chapter [pdf]. ...
This safety poster is designed to offer a concise and easy-to-understand explanation of key safety topics related to blood-borne pathogens. It features laminate coating on both sides for durability in work environments. It can also be used with clear acrylic poster holder No. This listing is for each.. Read more ...
Infection Control, Bloodborne Pathogens and Hazardous Materials Self-study Slides for College of Nursing Majors Infection Control and Bloodborne Pathogens Bloodborne Pathogens are microorganisms in the
If several different hazardous substances of harmful physical agents are used in a similar fashion and have a similar content or hazard, it is acceptable to group these substances or agents together in the training. For instance several brands of motor oil and other lubricating oils can be grouped together for training purposes if the usage and hazard is essentially the same. However, each product should have its own SDS on file and be made available to the employees who use these products.. In some cases, products that are used for similar tasks may have different hazardous ingredients that present different levels and types of hazard to the employee. This is often true for cleaners, strippers, and other chemical products. In these instances each should be covered separately in the training session.. Infectious agents (where applicable) training requirements should follow those outlined in the St Cloud School Districts Blood-borne Pathogens Exposure Control Plan.. To provide a training ...
INSPECTION GUIDELINES. The Compliance Officer should determine through interviews or observation of work involving exposure to blood or OPIM whether sufficient engineering controls and work practices are used. While it is generally accepted that an exposure incident can occur at any time or place, a review of the facility records can better direct the Compliance Officer to areas that are more likely to be sites of exposure incidents. Data from The Uniform Needlestick and Sharp Object Injury Report, 77 Hospitals, 1993-1995 (Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet) at http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/epinet/) show that injuries occurred, in order of frequency, in patient rooms, operating rooms, emergency departments, and intensive/critical care units. The report indicates that nurses (RNs and LPNs) were injured more often than any other type of healthcare worker. Furthermore, the report finds that an overwhelming majority (93%) of the injuries were caused by items that were ...
These pages give employees and employers guidance on how to manage incidences of blood-borne viruses at work. The site includes some basic guidelines and resources, as well as some more detailed information on the subject.
April 26, 2007 - Iapyx Medical introduced its Stable-Line family of catheter stabilization products designed to minimize the risk of catheter-related bloodstream and urinary tract infections, two of the three most common hospital-acquired infections. With the launch of Stable-Line Arterial and Stable-Line Foley catheter stabilization devices, Iapyx Medical aims to combat the epidemic of hospital-acquired infections and improve patient care and clinician safety.. The Stable-Line Arterial catheter stabilization device is designed to prevent inadvertent movement and dislodgment of arterial lines. Suture securement, the traditional means of arterial line securement, increases patients risks of developing catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), which pose a significant mortality risk. Suture securement also puts healthcare workers at risk for needlestick injuries, which expose them to blood-borne pathogens including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV. The Stable-Line Arterial device mitigates ...
Do not place dressing directly in contact with exposed blood vessels, anastomotic sites, organs, or nerves.. Precautions should be taken for patients who are or may be receiving anticoagulant therapy, suffering from difficult hemostasis, untreated for malnutrition and non-compliant or combative. To reduce the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens, apply standard precautions for infection control with all patients, per institutional protocol, regardless of their diagnosis or presumed infection status. In addition to gloves, use gown and goggles if exposure to body fluid is likely.. Continuous, rather than intermittent, Genadyne XLR8 Therapy is recommended over unstable structures, such as an unstable chest wall or non-intact fascia, in order to help minimize movement and stabilize the wound bed. Continuous therapy is also generally recommended for patients at increased risk of bleeding, highly exudating wounds, fresh flaps and grafts, and wounds with acute enteric fistulae. The size and ...
Originally published in September 2003). Question: What are the correct procedures following an exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials?. Answer: Answer: An exposure can be defined as a percutaneous injury (e.g., needlestick or cut with a sharp object) or contact of mucous membrane or non-intact skin (e.g., exposed skin that is chapped, abraded, or afflicted with dermatitis) with blood, saliva, tissue, or other body fluids that are potentially infectious. Exposure incidents might place dental health-care personnel at risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and therefore should be evaluated immediately following treatment of the exposure site by a qualified health-care professional. The following steps are recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The CDC provides an HIV PEP treatment hot line if questions about treatment or advice are needed. Call ...
The Blood Donor Testing Laboratory section is made up of the Blood Group Serology Laboratory and Infectious Diseases Testing Laboratories.. The core function of this section is to screen every unit of blood collected from a donor for blood group type and infectious disease markers to ensure safety of our blood supply prior to transfusion. Using highly sensitive testing procedures and a sophisticated automated system, all blood donations are screened for the following blood-borne pathogens:. ...
A bloodborne disease is a disease that can be spread through contamination by blood and other body fluids. Bloodborne pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria. The most common examples are HIV, hepatitis B and viral hemorrhagic fevers. Diseases that are not usually transmitted directly by blood contact, but rather by insect or other vector, are more usefully classified as vector-borne disease, even though the causative agent can be found in blood. Vector-borne diseases include West Nile virus and malaria. Many bloodborne diseases can also be contracted by other means, including high-risk sexual behavior or intravenous drug use. These diseases have also been identified in sports medicine. Since it is difficult to determine what pathogens any given sample of blood contains, and some bloodborne diseases are lethal, standard medical practice regards all blood (and any body fluid) as potentially infectious. Blood and Body Fluid precautions are a type of infection control practice that ...
Providing fast, large-scale inoculationswithout spreading blood-borne pathogens is alongstanding veterinary and human healthcarechallenge. Needle-free systems offer importantadvantages over traditional syringe and needlesystems-reduced pain, improved workersafety, safer disposal of potentially dangerousneedles and related waste, and lower costs.The Needle-Free High Speed Vaccine InjectorSystem, developed by a team at the NNSAKansas City Plant, solves this problem. Theinjector pushes into the patient a very smallstream of vaccine under high pressure througha nozzle covered with a disposable protectivecap and. Up to 600 injections per hour arepossible with this technology.The technology was developed through apartnership between the operator of the KansasCity Plant, Honeywell Federal Manufacturingand Technologies; Felton International; andthree Russian companies. Plans for 34different injectors are in the process ofcompletion, at which time the Russiancompanies will manufacture the parts, ...
The risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens is directly related to the prevalence of the infectious disease in the physician s patient population, the infectivity after a single exposure, and the frequency and nature of exposure. After reading this material the reader should understand the guidelines for risk prevention of human...
OSH Act, Safety, Health, Workplace, Hazards, OSHA standards, Responsibilities, Training, Medical examinations, Recordkeeping, Personal protective equipment, Influenza, Pandemic, Health risks, Deaths, H1N1, Vaccine, Respirators, Airborne-disease, Infection, Contagion, Symptoms, Risk assessment, Hospitalizations, CDC, Immunization, Risk of exposure, Virus, Laboratory procedures, Emergency services, Critical infrastructure, Emergency response, Key resources, Hygiene, Engineering controls, Blood-borne pathogens, Aerosol Transmission Disease Standard, ATD ...
S. aureus and group A strep infections also can be associated with severe invasive diseases such as pneumonia, bacteremia and myositis. Contaminated food and water also pose a risk for spread of certain pathogens (e.g., shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli, Shigella species, Giardia species, Cryptosporium species and norovirus). Other means of transmission include respiratory droplet (influenza, pertussis, Neisseria meningitides, group A streptococcal pharyngitis, mumps), airborne particles (varicella, measles) and vectors (ticks, mosquitoes). Transmission of blood-borne pathogens, while feasible, has not been validated as resulting from sports-related contact. However, decontamination is recommended for management of environmental contamination when there is a spill of blood or body fluids. Guidance on when to return to play. Management of sports-related infections depends on the suspected etiology, which is primarily based on clinical appearance, with laboratory testing primarily used for ...
Patients and visitors deserve a clean, comfortable and safe healthcare environment. Vonachen Group understands the challenges of cleaning healthcare facilities and we are dedicated to ensuring a clean and disinfected environment. Our approach is designed to: protect patients, caregivers, visitors and improve outcomes by reducing the number of Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI). Our employees are trained on the proper use and handling of cleaning chemicals, safe usage of equipment, SDS, blood-borne pathogens and Red Bag Waste (RBW). Specific services include but are not limited to:. ...
OSHA/MOSHA training will be conducted on Thur., Oct. 14 and Fri., Oct. 15 from 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. in the auditorium of Heritage High School and the REACH Middle School/High School (2801 St. Lo Drive, Baltimore, MD 21213). Topics covered will include: slips, trips and falls; fire safety and utility-related emergencies; blood-borne pathogens; hazard communication; asbestos awareness (cafeteria managers need not attend); and indoor air quality, including the identification of conditions that can promote mold growth (cafeteria managers need not attend). Training is mandatory for custodial staff, repair and maintenance staff, grounds staff and cafeteria managers. Each training day will cover all of the material, and staff should attend either the Thursday or Friday session (not both sessions). Principals and administrators are asked to assist in ensuring the presence of effected staff. It is also recommended that any employee who may have suffered a work-related injury (related to the course content ...
It has been a practice of this office to Autoclave (steam sterilize) all Instruments and Dental Hand pieces as well as disinfect every treatment room between each patient. If you have any questions or would like to see our sterilization area, just ask. We will be happy to show you and will not be offended in any way. You are entitled to know that you are safe. The safety of our patients, employees and staff is very important to us. We take our responsibility to protect everyone very seriously. All instruments, rotary instruments (dental handpieces, drills and burrs) and equipment used in your care are sterilized between patients with heat, steam and pressure to ensure all possible microbes are not viable. Every treatment room is disinfected between patients and wrapped in plastic so that your care is rendered in a safe environment. Uniforms worn by staff involved with direct patient care are laundered on site to ensure they are free from blood-borne pathogens. If you have any questions about our office
How do we proceed in the face of daily news briefs intended to improve the safety of opioid-based pain care, when we see a patient today who has been taking over 300 oral morphine equivalents daily for the past three years?. From 2000-2014, the number of deaths related to opioids in the United States consistently increased, and its toll now exceeds that of deaths from automobile accidents. These numbers dont reflect additional opioid-induced side effects and morbidity - increased sensitivity to pain (hyperalgesia), depression, anxiety, hormone imbalance, and the acquisition of blood-borne pathogens from intravenous use. We suspect that millions are struggling with these issues. Where do patients obtain the majority of opioid analgesics that are thought to drive these catastrophic figures? They are overwhelmingly prescription pain-killers, often shared by a friend or relative for free, and often prescribed originally for postoperative pain. Of the opioid-related deaths in 2014, 63 percent were ...
Meningitis occurs when blood-borne pathogens cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in a complex interplay between endothelial cells and microbial gene products. We sought to understand the initial response of the BBB to the human meningeal pathogen group B Streptococcus (GBS) and the organisms major virulence factors, the exopolysaccharide capsule and the β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin (β-h/c). Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we found that GBS infection of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) induced a highly specific and coordinate set of genes including IL-8, Groα, Groβ, IL-6, GM-CSF, myeloid cell leukemia sequence-1 (Mcl-1), and ICAM-1, which act to orchestrate neutrophil recruitment, activation, and enhanced survival. Most strikingly, infection with a GBS strain lacking β-h/c resulted in a marked reduction in expression of genes involved in the immune response, while the unencapsulated strain generally induced similar or greater expression levels for the same subset of ...
Halyards AERO CHROME Surgical Gown is FDA approved for AAMI Level 4, the highest level of fluid and microbial protection in the critical zones as defined by the AAMI PB70:2012 standard for liquid barrier performance of protective apparel, Hodges added. This protection level provides additional protection from blood-borne pathogens in the critical zones,5 which are defined as those areas where direct contact with fluid is most likely to occur during surgical procedures.. The gowns are a smart investment as well, according to Hodges, who says an analysis of internal sales data shows facilities that stock the gowns can achieve up to a 40 percent SKU reduction.. Halyard arrived at 40 percent by calculating how many different but overlapping types of surgical gowns most facilities stock, which could be replaced with Halyards two-gown system of AERO BLUE and AERO CHROME gowns, he said. In most accounts this would reduce the number of SKUs in inventory by 40 percent or more while providing ...
DAYTONA BEACH SHORES - The topic - exposure to blood-borne pathogens - was like something out a first-year medical school lecture. These students, however, didnt look the role with their tattoos,
Robyn has been in the beauty industry for 14+ years. She studied at South Hills Beauty Academy, The Graham Webb Academy, Pittsburgh Permanent Makeup and The Collette Academy of Permanent Makeup. Robyn has also participated in numerous educational classes and has years of experience in all areas of the beauty field. She is certified/licensed in Permanent Makeup, Microblading, and Blood-Borne Pathogens. She is trained with Digital machine work for brows, eyeliner, lip procedures, Manual Method for brows (microblading) and eyeliner, Color Theory & Skin Analysis, and Sterilization & Sanitation. She is fully insured as well. Robyn has worked with some of the top Permanent Makeup Artists in Pittsburgh and Arizona and has established life long friends with them. She is very compassionate and caring and truly enjoys helping people of all ages and ethnicities to feel and look their best through her talent and artistic abilities! Please dont hesitate to contact her directly for any questions or to ...
TENDERSORB Waterproof ABD Pad. TENDERSORB Waterproof ABD Pad consists of three key layers: soft outer nonwoven layer, fluff filler to absorb and disperse fluid and wet-proof moisture barrier to retard fluid strikethrough. Unique wet-proof moisture barrier helps minimize exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Absorbs more fluid than ordinary ABD pads for fewer dressing changes.
Hepatitis is a virus that infects the liver and can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer. There are multiple types of hepatitis. The most common types are hepatitis A, B and C.. Hepatitis A - not caused by bloodborne pathogens. Hepatitis A is usually transmitted due to lack of hand washing which results in the contamination of food. There is a vaccine to prevent the disease.. Hepatitis B - caused by contact with contaminated blood or sexual contact. Most adults who get Hepatitis B are ill for a short time and then get better, however some become chronically infected. Hepatitis B can live in dried blood on surfaces for up to one week. All children in Texas schools are required to receive the Hepatitis B vaccine series. It is recommended by the CDC that you get vaccinated if your job puts you at risk of coming into contact with blood or bodily fluids. Staff that should get vaccinated include: coaches, persons working with severe/profound and/or medically fragile students, custodians, ...
We are the leader in providing comprehensive and user friendly OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen training, certification, and compliance solutions for over 8+ years.
Handling bloodborne pathogens requires proper training. During bloodborne pathogens training, discover examples of BBP & learn how to safely handle them.
If you believe you have been exposed to potentially infectious blood or bodily fluids, contact campus EHOS at 415.339.1449 or COSE Health and Safety Office at 415.338.6892 to report the incident. You have the right to be medically evaluated by the University physician and to be offered the Hepatitis B vaccine series (HBV shot). The HBV vaccine can still be effective in preventing infection up to 24 hours following the exposure incident.. Although your employer must offer the vaccine to you, you do not have to accept that offer. You may opt to decline the vaccination series, in which case you will be asked to sign a declination form. This does not impact any future decisions following another exposure incident. For more details about the vaccine, please contact Campus EHOS at x8-1449. ...
Food Not Bombs (FNB) is a grassroots movement that believes we could end hunger throughout the world by putting all the resources spent on the war machine into the mouths of the hungry instead. If we spent the same amount of money our government spends on war, on food instead, we could feed every person in the world three meals a day. In addition to opposing war, we are also against the enormous amount of waste Americans create. To fight the vast waste of perfectly good food, we salvage food that would otherwise be tossed. If you are interested in preparing food with us, please give us a holler! We encourage anyone to be our friend on here who supports the FNB movement and is interested in cooking and serving with us ...
Blood and any body fluid visibly contaminated with blood should be considered capable of transmitting hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Semen and vaginal secretions should also be considered potentially able to transmit these viruses.
Blood and any body fluid visibly contaminated with blood should be considered capable of transmitting hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Semen and vaginal secretions should also be considered potentially able to transmit these viruses.
The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of a peer-volunteer intervention to reduce high-risk transmission behaviors among hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected young adult injection drug users (IDUs), and to identify the proportion of these individuals who would be eligible and willing to undergo treatment to eradicate HCV infection. HCV is one of the most frequently occurring human viral infections, having an estimated worldwide prevalence of 3%. In many regions of the United States, between 65% and 95% of IDUs are HCV-seropositive and capable of transmitting the infection. To date, research studies targeting infected individuals to prevent secondary transmission of chronic blood-borne viral infection have generally been limited to post-test counseling and case management. In addition, recent data suggest that medical treatment of HCV infection may be most effective when offered soon after HCV seroconversion. However, the proportion of HCV-infected IDUs who meet strict national ...
The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of a peer-volunteer intervention to reduce high-risk transmission behaviors among hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected young adult injection drug users (IDUs), and to identify the proportion of these individuals who would be eligible and willing to undergo treatment to eradicate HCV infection. HCV is one of the most frequently occurring human viral infections, having an estimated worldwide prevalence of 3%. In many regions of the United States, between 65% and 95% of IDUs are HCV-seropositive and capable of transmitting the infection. To date, research studies targeting infected individuals to prevent secondary transmission of chronic blood-borne viral infection have generally been limited to post-test counseling and case management. In addition, recent data suggest that medical treatment of HCV infection may be most effective when offered soon after HCV seroconversion. However, the proportion of HCV-infected IDUs who meet strict national ...
A needlestick injury, percutaneous injury, or percutaneous exposure incident is the penetration of skin by a needle or other sharp object, which was in contact with blood, tissue, or other body fluid before the exposure. Occupational needlestick injuries primarily affect healthcare workers, who make up 80% of needlestick injuries in the United States. Various other occupations are also at increased risk of needlestick injury, including law enforcement, laborers, tattoo artists, food preparers, and agricultural workers. Though the acute physiological effects of a needlestick injury are generally negligible, these devices can transmit blood-borne diseases, placing those exposed at increased risk of contracting infectious diseases, such as hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among healthcare workers and laboratory personnel worldwide, more than 25 blood-borne viruses have been reported to be caused by needlestick injuries. It is estimated that half of ...
|p|​Data show that 45% of blood and body fluid exposures among healthcare workers made contact with unprotected skin, and although 67% of exposures involved the eyes, fewer than one-third of healthcare workers were wearing facial protective equipment, according to the International Safety Centers (ISC) 2015 Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet) report for blood and body fluid exposures. |/p|
College of Charleston Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan June 13, 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. POLICY 1 II. SCOPE AND APPLICATION... 1 III. RESPONSIBILITIES... 2 IV. DEFINITIONS 4 V. METHODS OF COMPLIANCE...
How do you think you did? Lets find out!. 1. Bloodborne pathogens may enter your system through:. d) All of the above -- skin abrasions, open cuts, mucous membranes. 2. If you are exposed to potentially infectious materials (PIM) while working, you may request a vaccine for which bloodborne disease?. b) Hepatitis B. 3. When discussing the Bloodborne Pathogen Standard, what are the main diseases of concern?. a) HIV, HBV, HCV. 4. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is:. d) both A and C -- a virus that does not currently have a cure, but can be controlled with medication, and the virus that causes AIDS. 5. The term universal precautions refers to…. c) Treating all body fluids as if they are infectious. 6. If you wear gloves while handling PIM, it is not necessary to wash your hands afterwards.. b) False. 7. Which of the following may contain bloodborne pathogens?. d) All of the above -- vaginal secretions, semen, saliva with traces of blood.. ...
We advocate the use of broad universal precautions for all patients: hand washing before and after all patient contact; use of gloves for all contact with body fluids and secretions, mucous membranes, and nonintact skin; use of gowns if soiling is likely to occur; and use of masks and protective eye wear if splashing of body fluids is likely [2]. Use of broad universal precautions has many advantages, including 1) ease of implementation, 2) application of a single standard of care, 3) no reliance on identification of colonized or infected patients, 4) no reliance on routine culturing, 5) no need to flag charts for readmission, and 6) no need to isolate patients or staff. The use of broad universal precautions also protects workers from exposure to blood-borne pathogens ...
In early 2001 Australia experienced a sudden and unexpected disruption to heroin availability, know as the heroin shortage. This shortage has been linked to a decrease in needle and syringe output and therefore possibly a reduction in injecting drug use. We aimed to examine changes, if any, in blood-borne viral infections and presentations for injecting related problems related to injecting drug use following the reduction heroin availability in Australia, in the context of widespread harm reduction measures. Time series analysis of State level databases on HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C notifications and hospital and emergency department data. Examination of changes in HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C notifications and hospital and emergency department admissions for injection-related problems following the onset of the heroin shortage; non-parametric curve-fitting of number of hepatitis C notifications among those aged 15-19 years. There were no changes observed in hospital visits for injection-related
The high prevalence of infection with HIV and other blood-borne pathogens in injection drug users (IDUs) is directly related to the lack of syringe access.
The CDC may be a legitimate site, but know this: long, and I mean looonnnggg, before the general public ever heard the terms aids/HIV, the CDC and (underline and) the Red Cross knew this killer virus was a blood-borne pathogen (infectious microorganisms present in blood and body fluids that can cause disease), yet made the decision to delay testing donor blood due to concerns of limiting blood supply and, what else?, oh, yeah, money $$!! (Related to the expense of the test). This is not BS, hype, or something I read somewhere. I know this because I was there, I witnessed numerous patients with hemophilia and/or other conditions requiring transfusion of blood/blood products die of aids, contracted from said transfusion. We peon healthcare givers didnt know this until it was too late. I also know 3 lovely young (not really so young anymore) ladies (whose father died from aids when they were so young they remember little or nothing about him) who were able to afford to go to college because ...