Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.
'Blood donors' are individuals who voluntarily and safely donate a specific amount of their own blood, which can be further separated into components, to be used for transfusion purposes or for manufacturing medical products, without receiving remuneration that is intended to reward them financially.
The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.
The transfer of blood components such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma from a donor to a recipient or back to the donor. This process differs from the procedures undertaken in PLASMAPHERESIS and types of CYTAPHERESIS; (PLATELETPHERESIS and LEUKAPHERESIS) where, following the removal of plasma or the specific cell components, the remainder is transfused back to the donor.
Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.

Storage of cord blood attracts private-sector interest. (1/275)

Storage of cord blood from their babies can cost parents several hundred dollars, and some private companies are already offering the service. Janis Hass reports that some Canadian specialists question the value of the banks.  (+info)

Cord blood banking: volume reduction of cord blood units using a semi-automated closed system. (2/275)

Clinical evidence indicates that placental/umbilical cord blood (CB) is an alternative source of haematopoietic stem cells for bone marrow reconstitution. To establish a CB bank large panels of frozen, HLA-typed CB units need to be stored. Cryopreserved, unprocessed CB units require vast storage space. This study describes a method, using the Optipress II Automated Blood Component Extractor (Opti II) from Baxter Healthcare Corporation, to reduce the volume of the CB collection, preserving the quantity and quality of the progenitor cells, in a closed system. The CB collection was transferred to a triple bag system, centrifuged to produce a buffy coat layer and processed using a standard Opti II protocol to separate the whole blood into three components: plasma, buffy coat and buffy coat-depleted red cell concentrate. The buffy coat volume was standardised to 25 ml; mean reduced volume of 24.5 ml (s.d. 1.5 ml) with 53% red cell depletion. Good recovery of cells was observed: 92%, 98%, 96% and 106% recovery of nucleated, mononuclear, CD34+ and total colony-forming cells, respectively. Using this method for processing CB units reduces storage requirement by two-thirds but preserves the quantity and quality of the progenitor cells.  (+info)

Clinicians' satisfaction with a hospital blood transfusion service: a marketing analysis of a monopoly supplier. (3/275)

One of the objectives of the NHS reforms is to improve customer focus within the health service. In a study to assess the quality of customer service provided by the Edinburgh and South East Scotland Blood Transfusion Service a 19 item questionnaire survey of the main clinical users of the service was performed to ascertain their satisfaction, measured on a 5 point anchored scale, with important aspects of the service, including medical consultation, diagnostic services, blood and blood components or products and their delivery, and general satisfaction with the service. Of 122 clinicians in medical and surgical disciplines in five hospitals in Edinburgh, 72 (59%) replied. Fourteen (22%) indicated dissatisfaction with any aspect of the medical consultation service, owing to inadequate follow up of clinical contacts and unsatisfactory routing of incoming calls. Diagnostic services were criticised for the presentation, communication, and interpretation of results. The restricted availability of whole blood, the necessity to order platelets and plasma through the duty blood transfusion service doctor, and the use of a group and screen policy, attracted criticism from a small number of clinicians. Ten of 68 respondents expressed dissatisfaction with delivery of blood and components to the wards and theatres. The findings indicate that the clinicians served by this blood transfusion service are largely satisfied with the service. Changes are being implemented to improve reporting of laboratory results and measures taken to improve liaison with clinicians.  (+info)

Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and the subsequent development of breast cancer. (4/275)

A nested case-control study was conducted to examine the association between serum concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), the primary metabolite of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the development of breast cancer up to 20 years later. Cases (n = 346) and controls (n = 346) were selected from cohorts of women who donated blood in 1974, 1989, or both, and were matched on age, race, menopausal status, and month and year of blood donation. Analyses were stratified by cohort participation because median DDE and PCB concentrations among the controls were 59 and 147% higher in 1974 than 1989, respectively. Median concentrations of DDE were lower among cases than controls in both time periods [11.7% lower in 1974 (P = 0.06) and 8.6% lower in 1989 (P = 0.41)]. Median concentrations of PCBs were similar among cases and controls [P = 0.21 for 1974 and P = 0.37 for 1989 (Wilcoxon signed rank test)]. The risk of developing breast cancer among women with the highest concentrations of DDE was roughly half that among women with the lowest concentrations, whether based on concentrations in 1974 [odds ratio (OR), 0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-0.89; P(trend) = 0.02] or in 1989 (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.24-1.17; P(trend) = 0.08). The associations between circulating concentrations of PCBs and breast cancer were less pronounced but still in the same direction (1974: OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.36-12.9; P(trend) = 0.2; and 1989: OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.37-1.46; P(trend) = 0.6). Adjustment for family history of breast cancer, body mass index, age at menarche or first birth, and months of lactation did not materially alter these associations. These associations remained consistent regardless of lactation history and length of the follow-up interval, with the strongest inverse association observed among women diagnosed 16-20 years after blood drawing. Results from this prospective, community-based nested case-control study are reassuring. Even after 20 years of follow-up, exposure to relatively high concentrations of DDE or PCBs showed no evidence of contributing to an increased risk of breast cancer.  (+info)

Detection of specific antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum in blood bank donors from malaria-endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela. (5/275)

Malaria antibody detection is valuable in providing retrospective confirmation of an attack of malaria. Blood bank screening is another area were malaria serology is potentially useful. In the present study, we tested the presence of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum in sera from blood bank donors of non-endemic and malaria-endemic areas of Venezuela. Sera from 1,000 blood donors were tested by an indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) assay and an IgG-ELISA for the presence of malaria antibodies using a synchronized in vitro-cultured Venezuelan isolate of P. falciparum as the antigen source. A selected group of positive and negative sera (n = 100) was also tested by a dot-IgG-ELISA. Positive results (reciprocal titer > or = 40) were found in 0.8% and 3.8% of blood donors when tested by the IFA assay and in 0.8% and 2% (optical density > or = 0.2) when tested by the IgG-ELISA in Caracas (non-endemic area) and Bolivar City (endemic area), respectively. The presence of anti-malarial antibodies in some sera from non-endemic areas such as Caracas reflects the increased potential risk of post-transfusional malaria in those areas due to the mobility of the blood donors. The data obtained indicate the need to implement new blood donor policy in blood banks in developing areas. Our results also indicate that the IFA assay is the most reliable test to use in malaria serodiagnosis.  (+info)

Cord blood banking in London: the first 1000 collections. (6/275)

The London Cord Blood Bank was established with the aim of collecting, processing and storing 10000 unrelated stem cell donations for the significant number of children in the UK requiring transplantation, for whom a matched unrelated bone marrow donor cannot be found. Collection is performed at two hospitals by dedicated cord blood bank staff after delivery of the placenta. Mothers are interviewed regarding medical, ethnic and behavioural history by nurse counsellors and sign a detailed consent form. Donations are returned to the bank for processing. Volume reduction is undertaken by a simple, closed, semi-automated blood processing system, with excellent recovery of progenitor cells. Units are cryopreserved and stored in the vapour phase of liquid nitrogen. Blood samples from mothers and cord blood donations are tested for the UK mandatory red cell and microbiology markers for blood donors. Donations are typed for HLA-A, B and DR at medium resolution (antigen split) level using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing and sequence-specific priming techniques. The selection of collection hospitals on the basis of ethnic mix has proven effective, with 41.5% of donations derived from non-European caucasoid donors. Bacterial contamination of collections has been dramatically reduced by implementation of improved umbilical cord decontamination protocols.  (+info)

HLA-A, -B and -DR antigen frequencies of the London Cord Blood Bank units differ from those found in established bone marrow donor registries. (7/275)

Patients requiring allogeneic stem cell transplantation who do not have an HLA-matched related donor can sometimes obtain an unrelated donor by searching volunteer registries. The majority of donors in the registries are Caucasoid, which results in a lower probability of a non-Caucasoid patient finding a suitable donor. Cord blood is increasingly used as a source of haematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic bone marrow reconstitution and so far the London Cord Blood Bank has banked almost 3000 cord blood units. An analysis of the first 1500 units banked showed that more than 30% of the London Cord Blood Bank units are derived from UK ethnic minorities compared with only 2% of individuals recruited locally for the British Bone Marrow Registry (BBMR). The HLA types found in these cord blood units reflect their ethnic diversity and include: HLA-A34, A36, A80, B75, B61, B53, B78, B81 and B82. The units stored by the London Cord Blood Bank show an HLA profile which differs considerably from that of locally typed adult volunteers for the BBMR panel and this should help to increase the chances of obtaining acceptably HLA-matched donors for patients from ethnic minorities. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 475-481.  (+info)

South East Asia faces severe shortage of safe blood.(8/275)

 (+info)

A blood bank is a facility that collects, tests, stores, and distributes blood and blood components for transfusion purposes. It is a crucial part of the healthcare system, as it ensures a safe and adequate supply of blood products to meet the needs of patients undergoing various medical procedures or treatments. The term "blood bank" comes from the idea that collected blood is "stored" or "banked" until it is needed for transfusion.

The primary function of a blood bank is to ensure the safety and quality of the blood supply. This involves rigorous screening and testing of donated blood to detect any infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and West Nile virus. Blood banks also perform compatibility tests between donor and recipient blood types to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

Blood banks offer various blood products, including whole blood, red blood cells, platelets, plasma, and cryoprecipitate. These products can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, such as anemia, bleeding disorders, cancer, and trauma. In addition, some blood banks may also provide specialized services, such as apheresis (a procedure that separates specific blood components) and therapeutic phlebotomy (the removal of excess blood).

Blood banks operate under strict regulations and guidelines to ensure the safety and quality of their products and services. These regulations are established by national and international organizations, such as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

A blood donor is a person who voluntarily gives their own blood or blood components to be used for the benefit of another person in need. The blood donation process involves collecting the donor's blood, testing it for infectious diseases, and then storing it until it is needed by a patient. There are several types of blood donations, including:

1. Whole blood donation: This is the most common type of blood donation, where a donor gives one unit (about 450-500 milliliters) of whole blood. The blood is then separated into its components (red cells, plasma, and platelets) for transfusion to patients with different needs.
2. Double red cell donation: In this type of donation, the donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates two units of red cells from the whole blood. The remaining plasma and platelets are returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 112 days.
3. Platelet donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates platelets from the whole blood. The red cells and plasma are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every seven days, up to 24 times a year.
4. Plasma donation: A donor's blood is collected using a special machine that separates plasma from the whole blood. The red cells and platelets are then returned to the donor during the donation process. This type of donation can be done every 28 days, up to 13 times a year.

Blood donors must meet certain eligibility criteria, such as being in good health, aged between 18 and 65 (in some countries, the upper age limit may vary), and weighing over 50 kg (110 lbs). Donors are also required to answer medical questionnaires and undergo a mini-physical examination before each donation. The frequency of blood donations varies depending on the type of donation and the donor's health status.

Blood preservation refers to the process of keeping blood viable and functional outside of the body for transfusion purposes. This is typically achieved through the addition of various chemical additives, such as anticoagulants and nutrients, to a storage solution in which the blood is contained. The preserved blood is then refrigerated or frozen until it is needed for transfusion.

The goal of blood preservation is to maintain the structural integrity and functional capacity of the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, as well as the coagulation factors, in order to ensure that the transfused blood is safe and effective. Different storage conditions and additives are used for the preservation of different components of blood, depending on their specific requirements.

It's important to note that while blood preservation extends the shelf life of donated blood, it does not last indefinitely. The length of time that blood can be stored depends on several factors, including the type of blood component and the storage conditions. Regular testing is performed to ensure that the preserved blood remains safe and effective for transfusion.

Blood grouping, also known as blood typing, is the process of determining a person's ABO and Rh (Rhesus) blood type. The ABO blood group system includes four main blood types: A, B, AB, and O, based on the presence or absence of antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells. The Rh blood group system is another important classification system that determines whether the Rh factor (a protein also found on the surface of red blood cells) is present or absent.

Knowing a person's blood type is crucial in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood. If a patient receives an incompatible blood type, it can trigger an immune response leading to serious complications such as hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells), kidney failure, or even death.

Crossmatching is a laboratory test performed before a blood transfusion to determine the compatibility between the donor's and recipient's blood. It involves mixing a small sample of the donor's red blood cells with the recipient's serum (the liquid portion of the blood containing antibodies) and observing for any agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis. If there is no reaction, the blood is considered compatible, and the transfusion can proceed.

In summary, blood grouping and crossmatching are essential tests in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood and prevent adverse reactions that could harm the patient's health.

A blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which blood or its components are transferred from one individual (donor) to another (recipient) through a vein. The donated blood can be fresh whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, plasma, or cryoprecipitate, depending on the recipient's needs. Blood transfusions are performed to replace lost blood due to severe bleeding, treat anemia, support patients undergoing major surgeries, or manage various medical conditions such as hemophilia, thalassemia, and leukemia. The donated blood must be carefully cross-matched with the recipient's blood type to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

Facility regulation and control in a medical context refers to the laws, rules, and guidelines established by regulatory bodies to ensure that healthcare facilities are operating safely, effectively, and in compliance with standards set forth to protect patients and healthcare providers. This can include regulations related to building design and construction, infection control, staffing ratios, medication management, quality improvement, and patient rights.

Regulatory bodies such as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in the United States or the Care Quality Commission (CQC) in the United Kingdom establish these regulations and conduct regular inspections to ensure compliance. Non-compliance with facility regulations can result in fines, sanctions, or loss of licensure for the facility.

Facility control, on the other hand, refers to the internal processes and procedures that a healthcare facility implements to ensure ongoing compliance with regulatory requirements. This may include policies and procedures related to staff training, quality improvement, infection control, medication management, and patient safety. Effective facility regulation and control are critical for ensuring high-quality care and maintaining the trust of patients and the wider community.

A blood component transfusion is the process of transferring a specific component of donated blood into a recipient's bloodstream. Blood components include red blood cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate (a fraction of plasma that contains clotting factors). These components can be separated from whole blood and stored separately to allow for targeted transfusions based on the individual needs of the patient.

For example, a patient who is anemic may only require a red blood cell transfusion, while a patient with severe bleeding may need both red blood cells and plasma to replace lost volume and clotting factors. Platelet transfusions are often used for patients with low platelet counts or platelet dysfunction, and cryoprecipitate is used for patients with factor VIII or fibrinogen deficiencies.

Blood component transfusions must be performed under strict medical supervision to ensure compatibility between the donor and recipient blood types and to monitor for any adverse reactions. Proper handling, storage, and administration of blood components are also critical to ensure their safety and efficacy.

An Eye Bank is an organization that collects, stores, and distributes donated human eyes for corneal transplantation and other ocular medical research purposes. The eye bank's primary function is to ensure the quality of the donated tissue and make it available for those in need of sight-restoring procedures.

The cornea, the clear front part of the eye, can be surgically transplanted from a deceased donor to a recipient with corneal damage or disease, thereby improving or restoring their vision. The eye bank's role includes obtaining consent for donation, retrieving the eyes from the donor, evaluating the tissue for suitability, preserving it properly, and then allocating it to surgeons for transplantation.

Eye banks follow strict medical guidelines and adhere to ethical standards to ensure the safety and quality of the donated tissues. The process involves screening potential donors for infectious diseases and other conditions that may affect the quality or safety of the cornea. Once deemed suitable, the corneas are carefully removed, preserved in specific solutions, and stored until they are needed for transplantation.

In addition to corneal transplants, eye banks also support research and education in ophthalmology by providing human eye tissues for various studies aimed at advancing our understanding of eye diseases and developing new treatments.

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan *Trypanosoma cruzi*. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the feces of triatomine bugs (also called "kissing bugs"), which defecate on the skin of people while they are sleeping. The disease can also be spread through contaminated food or drink, during blood transfusions, from mother to baby during pregnancy or childbirth, and through organ transplantation.

The acute phase of Chagas disease can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, body aches, headache, rash, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting. However, many people do not experience any symptoms during the acute phase. After several weeks or months, most people enter the chronic phase of the disease, which can last for decades or even a lifetime. During this phase, many people do not have any symptoms, but about 20-30% of infected individuals will develop serious cardiac or digestive complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or difficulty swallowing.

Chagas disease is primarily found in Latin America, where it is estimated that around 6-7 million people are infected with the parasite. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas disease have been reported in other parts of the world, including North America, Europe, and Asia. There is no vaccine for Chagas disease, but medications are available to treat the infection during the acute phase and to manage symptoms during the chronic phase.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Fetal blood refers to the blood circulating in a fetus during pregnancy. It is essential for the growth and development of the fetus, as it carries oxygen and nutrients from the placenta to the developing tissues and organs. Fetal blood also removes waste products, such as carbon dioxide, from the fetal tissues and transports them to the placenta for elimination.

Fetal blood has several unique characteristics that distinguish it from adult blood. For example, fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is the primary type of hemoglobin found in fetal blood, whereas adults primarily have adult hemoglobin (HbA). Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin, which allows it to more efficiently extract oxygen from the maternal blood in the placenta.

Additionally, fetal blood contains a higher proportion of reticulocytes (immature red blood cells) and nucleated red blood cells compared to adult blood. These differences reflect the high turnover rate of red blood cells in the developing fetus and the need for rapid growth and development.

Examination of fetal blood can provide important information about the health and well-being of the fetus during pregnancy. For example, fetal blood sampling (also known as cordocentesis or percutaneous umbilical blood sampling) can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, infections, and other conditions that may affect fetal development. However, this procedure carries risks, including preterm labor, infection, and fetal loss, and is typically only performed when there is a significant risk of fetal compromise or when other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive.

The ABO blood-group system is a classification system used in blood transfusion medicine to determine the compatibility of donated blood with a recipient's blood. It is based on the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), as well as the corresponding antibodies present in the plasma.

There are four main blood types in the ABO system:

1. Type A: These individuals have A antigens on their RBCs and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.
2. Type B: They have B antigens on their RBCs and anti-A antibodies in their plasma.
3. Type AB: They have both A and B antigens on their RBCs but no natural antibodies against either A or B antigens.
4. Type O: They do not have any A or B antigens on their RBCs, but they have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.

Transfusing blood from a donor with incompatible ABO antigens can lead to an immune response, causing the destruction of donated RBCs and potentially life-threatening complications such as acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. Therefore, it is crucial to match the ABO blood type between donors and recipients before performing a blood transfusion.

Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis. It's transmitted to humans and other mammals through the feces of triatomine bugs, often called "kissing bugs." The parasite can also be spread through contaminated food, drink, or from mother to baby during pregnancy or birth.

The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi involves two main forms: the infective metacyclic trypomastigote that is found in the bug's feces and the replicative intracellular amastigote that resides within host cells. The metacyclic trypomastigotes enter the host through mucous membranes or skin lesions, where they invade various types of cells and differentiate into amastigotes. These amastigotes multiply by binary fission and then differentiate back into trypomastigotes, which are released into the bloodstream when the host cell ruptures. The circulating trypomastigotes can then infect other cells or be taken up by another triatomine bug during a blood meal, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical manifestations of Chagas disease range from an acute phase with non-specific symptoms like fever, swelling, and fatigue to a chronic phase characterized by cardiac and gastrointestinal complications, which can develop decades after the initial infection. Early detection and treatment of Chagas disease are crucial for preventing long-term health consequences.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Cord blood stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure that involves the infusion of stem cells derived from the umbilical cord blood into a patient. These stem cells, specifically hematopoietic stem cells, have the ability to differentiate into various types of blood cells, including red and white blood cells and platelets.

Cord blood stem cell transplantation is often used as a treatment for patients with various malignant and non-malignant disorders, such as leukemia, lymphoma, sickle cell disease, and metabolic disorders. The procedure involves collecting cord blood from the umbilical cord and placenta after the birth of a baby, processing and testing it for compatibility with the recipient's immune system, and then infusing it into the patient through a vein in a process similar to a blood transfusion.

The advantages of using cord blood stem cells include their availability, low risk of transmission of infectious diseases, and reduced risk of graft-versus-host disease compared to other sources of hematopoietic stem cells, such as bone marrow or peripheral blood. However, the number of stem cells in a cord blood unit is generally lower than that found in bone marrow or peripheral blood, which can limit its use in some patients, particularly adults.

Overall, cord blood stem cell transplantation is an important and promising area of regenerative medicine, offering hope for patients with a wide range of disorders.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Hepatitis C antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Detection of these antibodies in the blood indicates a past or present HCV infection. However, it does not necessarily mean that the person is currently infected, as antibodies can persist for years even after the virus has been cleared from the body. Additional tests are usually needed to confirm whether the infection is still active and to guide treatment decisions.

An erythrocyte transfusion, also known as a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, is the process of transferring compatible red blood cells from a donor to a recipient. This procedure is typically performed to increase the recipient's oxygen-carrying capacity, usually in situations where there is significant blood loss, anemia, or impaired red blood cell production.

During the transfusion, the donor's red blood cells are collected, typed, and tested for compatibility with the recipient's blood to minimize the risk of a transfusion reaction. Once compatible units are identified, they are infused into the recipient's circulation through a sterile intravenous (IV) line. The recipient's body will eventually eliminate the donated red blood cells within 100-120 days as part of its normal turnover process.

Erythrocyte transfusions can be lifesaving in various clinical scenarios, such as trauma, surgery, severe anemia due to chronic diseases, and hematologic disorders. However, they should only be used when necessary, as there are potential risks associated with the procedure, including allergic reactions, transmission of infectious diseases, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), and iron overload in cases of multiple transfusions.

A platelet transfusion is the process of medically administering platelets, which are small blood cells that help your body form clots to stop bleeding. Platelet transfusions are often given to patients with low platelet counts or dysfunctional platelets due to various reasons such as chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and other medical conditions leading to increased consumption or destruction of platelets. This procedure helps to prevent or treat bleeding complications in these patients. It's important to note that platelet transfusions should be given under the supervision of a healthcare professional, taking into account the patient's clinical condition, platelet count, and potential risks associated with transfusion reactions.

A "false positive reaction" in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the presence of a specific condition or disease in an individual who does not actually have it. This occurs when the test results give a positive outcome, while the true health status of the person is negative or free from the condition being tested for.

False positive reactions can be caused by various factors including:

1. Presence of unrelated substances that interfere with the test result (e.g., cross-reactivity between similar molecules).
2. Low specificity of the test, which means it may detect other conditions or irrelevant factors as positive.
3. Contamination during sample collection, storage, or analysis.
4. Human errors in performing or interpreting the test results.

False positive reactions can have significant consequences, such as unnecessary treatments, anxiety, and increased healthcare costs. Therefore, it is essential to confirm any positive test result with additional tests or clinical evaluations before making a definitive diagnosis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

In the context of medicine, plasma refers to the clear, yellowish fluid that is the liquid component of blood. It's composed of water, enzymes, hormones, antibodies, clotting factors, and other proteins. Plasma serves as a transport medium for cells, nutrients, waste products, gases, and other substances throughout the body. Additionally, it plays a crucial role in the immune response and helps regulate various bodily functions.

Plasma can be collected from blood donors and processed into various therapeutic products, such as clotting factors for people with hemophilia or immunoglobulins for patients with immune deficiencies. This process is called plasma fractionation.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It's primarily spread through contact with contaminated blood, often through sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for most — about 75-85% — it becomes a long-term, chronic infection that can lead to serious health problems like liver damage, liver failure, and even liver cancer. The virus can infect and inflame the liver, causing symptoms like jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, fatigue, and dark urine. Many people with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms, so they might not know they have the infection until they experience complications. There are effective treatments available for hepatitis C, including antiviral medications that can cure the infection in most people. Regular testing is important to diagnose and treat hepatitis C early, before it causes serious health problems.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

Histocompatibility testing, also known as tissue typing, is a medical procedure that determines the compatibility of tissues between two individuals, usually a potential donor and a recipient for organ or bone marrow transplantation. The test identifies specific antigens, called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), found on the surface of most cells in the body. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" cells.

The goal of histocompatibility testing is to find a donor whose HLA markers closely match those of the recipient, reducing the risk of rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue. The test involves taking blood samples from both the donor and the recipient and analyzing them for the presence of specific HLA antigens using various laboratory techniques such as molecular typing or serological testing.

A high degree of histocompatibility between the donor and recipient is crucial to ensure the success of the transplantation procedure, minimize complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Blood is the fluid that circulates in the body of living organisms, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. The main function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. It also transports nutrients, hormones, and other substances to the cells and removes waste products from them. Additionally, blood plays a crucial role in the body's immune system by helping to fight infection and disease.

Antibodies, protozoan, refer to the immune system's response to an infection caused by a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

When the body is infected with a protozoan, the immune system responds by producing specific proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a B-cell, and they recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the protozoan organism.

There are five main types of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each type of antibody has a different role in the immune response. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered pathogens. IgM is the first antibody produced in response to an infection and is important for activating the complement system, which helps to destroy the protozoan organism.

Overall, the production of antibodies against protozoan organisms is a critical part of the immune response and helps to protect the body from further infection.

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Modern Blood Banking and Transfusion Practices (4th ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis. ISBN 978-0-8036-0419-3. "Blood safety and ... In blood typing, reagents containing blood group antibodies, called antisera,: 586 are added to suspensions of blood cells. If ... Blood compatibility testing includes blood typing, which detects the antigens on red blood cells that determine a person's ... ISBN 978-0-7020-6925-3. Westhoff, Connie M. (2019). "Blood group genotyping". Blood. 133 (17): 1814-1820. doi:10.1182/blood- ...
American Association of Blood Banks. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2020. Lewandrowski, K ... Blood is composed of a fluid portion, called plasma, and a cellular portion that contains red blood cells, white blood cells ... which interferes with red blood cell measurements by causing white blood cells to be counted as red cells). Red and white blood ... American Association of Blood Banks (24 April 2014). "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question". Choosing Wisely: an ...
News, Local (21 June 2008). "Pims blood banks refused registration". Dawn News. p. 1. Retrieved 21 June 2008. {{cite news}}: , ...
American Association of Blood Banks. Retrieved 5 October 2016. (Medicine awards, Awards established in 1954, Blood donation). ... The Karl Landsteiner Memorial Award is a scientific award given by the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) to scientists ... The prize was initiated in 1954 to honor Karl Landsteiner, whose research laid the foundation for modern blood transfusion ...
American Association of Blood Banks. 1981:199-208. 45. Stossel TP. Actin filaments and secretion -the macrophage model. Meth ... Washington D.C.: American Association of Blood Banks, 1979:49-61. 38. Stossel TP. The motor of ameboid leukocytes. Biochem Soc ... Molecular basis of white blood cell motility. In: The Molecular Basis Of Blood Disorders, G Stamatoyannopoulos, AW Nienhuis, PW ... Blood. 2015;125:1116-25 155. Kumar, AA, Chunda-Liyoka, C, Hennek, JW, Mantina, H, Ryan Lee, SY, Patton, MR, Sambo, P, Sinyangwe ...
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South Central Association of Blood Banks". Retrieved 2020-07-28. "AABB Accredited Blood Banks, Transfusion Services, and Blood ... It is the sixth largest blood collector in the United States and is the primary provider of blood products to over 160 ... "Membership Directory". America's Blood Centers. Retrieved 2020-07-28. "BCA member list , Blood Centers of America". bca.coop. ... "Oklahoma Blood Institute". "Oklahoma Blood Institute - GuideStar Profile". www.guidestar.org. Retrieved 2020-07-28. "FACT ...
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... there were 2.2 blood banks per million population in the country. As per a 2016 study, around 51% of the 2493 blood banks ... National Blood Transfusion Council Standards for Blood Banks and Blood Transfusion Services Portals: India Medicine (Use Indian ... Blood donors and their family members are often given priority in case of emergency or accidents. 32 mobile blood banks were ... Donors can also visit blood banks in hospitals to donate blood. Efforts by the government and advocacy groups over the years ...
NIH blood bank. "Hemochromatosis Donor Program". Moretti, Diego; Van Doorn, Gerrigje M.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Melse-Boonstra, ... Multiple frequent blood transfusions (either whole blood or just red blood cells), which are usually needed either by ... consisting of regularly scheduled blood draws to remove red blood cells (and iron) from the body. Upon initial diagnosis of ... Blood. 111 (7): 3373-3376. doi:10.1182/blood-2007-07-102673. PMC 2275006. PMID 18025154. Koperdanova, Marianna; Cullis, ...
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"Glossary: Thermal Range". Blood Bank Guy. 2019-02-06. Retrieved 2019-02-15. Hopkins, C; Walters, TK (2013). "Thermal amplitude ... Gupta, V (2014). "Assessment of Red Blood Cell Parameters and Peripheral Smear at Different Temperatures in Case of Cold ...
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Murray, Andrew (April 11, 2016). "Vampire's Blood Bank". Morning Star. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016. Retrieved ... The City is an insider's account of how the City, as London's financial centre is known, dominates international banking and ...
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Find information about Hi-tech Blood Bank on medindia. Search for Blood Bank Services in Mumbai ... Hi-tech Blood Bank - Blood Bank Services. Find information about Hi-tech Blood Bank in Mumbai, Maharashtra . Get contact ... Medindia » Healthcare Directory » Blood Bank Services » Maharashtra » Mumbai » Hi-tech Blood Bank ...
Disclaimer. We do not guarantee that the information is completely accurate and will not be responsible for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies published. ...
Disclaimer. We do not guarantee that the information is completely accurate and will not be responsible for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies published. ...
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This type of cord blood storage is of course only possible in a private cord blood bank.. Selecting a private cord blood bank ... Therefore, you will need to be able to compare cord blood banks. Here are some suggestions to help you compare cord blood banks ... Umbilical cord blood banks in your area. *cord blood solutions in Plain City OH ... There are some very successful public cord blood banks as well. They accept donations of cord blood from any mother and offer ...
Cord blood banking saves the blood for treating certain disorders. Learn more. ... Cord blood testing checks blood from a newborns umbilical cord for health problems. ... You can donate the blood to a public cord blood bank. Cord blood in public banks may be used by anyone who needs a cord blood ... What is cord blood banking used for?. Cord blood banking is used to save cord blood so that the stem cells can be used to treat ...
Raised blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 OR DBP ≥ 90), age-standardized (%). Estimates by World Bank income group Also available:. * ... By category , Noncommunicable diseases , Risk factors , Blood pressure. ...
To assess patterns of Chagas disease, we reviewed results of screening umbilical cord blood from a US public cord blood bank ... First, Chagas disease screening was limited to maternal donors of cord blood units donated to a public cord blood bank. ... cord blood to public cord blood banks. Therefore, we reviewed identified cases of Chagas disease in maternal donors to a public ... Chagas Disease Screening in Maternal Donors of Publicly Banked Umbilical Cord Blood, United States On This Page ...
... to commemorate the world blood donor day with a series of activities including laying the foundation stones for 2 blood banks, ... On world blood donor day 2019, Ministry of Public Health lays the foundation stones for 2 blood banks ... Afghanistan , News , On world blood donor day 2019, Ministry of Public Health lays the foundation stones for 2 blood banks ... Additionally, MoPH and WHO organized two blood donation drives, each in Central Blood Bank and in United Nations (UN) Compound ...
Cord blood transplantation, a cost-effective alternative : a health-economic analysis of the National Swedish Cord Blood Bank. ... Cord blood transplantation, a cost-effective alternative : a health-economic analysis of the National Swedish Cord Blood Bank ...
The Directorate of Pathology at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, a provider of high quality laboratory medicine and pathology based services for acute hospitals and community health care providers and general practitioners.
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was the developer for the Houchin Blood Bank Group. This project was completed in April 1988. ...
Read why to choose cord blood banking and how Cells4Life the UKs largest cord blood bank can help you. While it is costly ... What is cord blood banking?. Cord blood is the blood that remains in the umbilical cord following the birth of your baby. Cord ... What are the pros and cons of private cord blood banking?. Now we know what cord blood banking is and what stem cells do - its ... However, the good news is that some of the leading cord blood banks in the UK offer a range of affordable cord blood pricing ...
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Track List:01 - Blood Bank 02 - Beach Baby 03 - Babys04 - Woods ... Blood Bank: follow-up EP to For Emma, Forever Ago, released ... Blood Bank EP CD. Blood Bank: follow-up EP to For Emma, Forever Ago, released January 20th, 2009 on Jagjaguwar. Includes ...
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Blood is collected among the population by a team from the blood bank at the ICRC hospital for war wounded in Kabul. ... Keyword : ICRC SIGN; BEDDING; POSTER ; MEDICAL ASSISTANCE; MEDICAL SUPPLIES; WOMAN; MEDICAL PERSONNEL; BLOOD COLLECTION; FIELD ...
Blood bank - Organize paperwork and help with snacks.. *Canteen - Work in the retail store and cafeteria, washing dishes, ...
Are you sure you want to exit?. Any unsave changes will be lost.. ...
Heres What You Need to Know About Cord Blood Banking. We are celebrating National Cord Blood Awareness Month by partnering ... Read More about Heres What You Need to Know About Cord Blood Banking ... with the worlds first cord blood bank, Cryo-Cell International, to share a little more about what it is and its benefits. Keep ...
American Association of Blood Banks. by Taswell, Howard F , Saeed, Sheikh M , American Association of Blood Banks. Committee on ... Future developments in blood banking / edited by C. T. Smit Sibinga and P. C. Das, T. J. Greenwalt. by Symposium on Blood ... American Association of Blood Banks, 1982Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ (1)Call number: WH 18 82ST. ... Quality control in blood banking / Byron A. Myhre, with the assistance of Eleanor I. Goldstein. by Myhre, Byron A , Goldstein, ...
"The development of a regional blood bank program." 93, no. 1 (1978). Pecarchik, R et al. "The development of a regional blood ... Blood Banks Community Participation Costs And Cost Analysis Delivery Of Health Care Humans Regional Health Planning Research ... Title : The development of a regional blood bank program. Personal Author(s) : Pecarchik, R;Balis, E;Brandon, J; Published Date ... 1978). The development of a regional blood bank program.. 93(1). Pecarchik, R and Balis, E and Brandon, J " ...
Urgent need: Blood bank is desperately seeking donors for O-, O+ and AB types after Orlando shooting ... Blood donors needed after mass shooting in Orlando +. Discussion: Slate, 105.9 FM and AM 630, ThinkProgress, Vox, Washington ... Orlando needs blood donations, but the FDA still bans many gay, bi, and trans people from giving ... UPDATED: Florida Terror Attack Mass Shooting - Heres What You Can Do: Donate, Give Blood, Attend A Vigil ...
Other: Blood bank, collection or storage centers; public and private elementary and secondary schools; public and private ... Other: Medical examiners or coroners; pharmacists; emergency medical service providers; local health officers; blood banks; ... Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) - Blood Tests for TB Infection. Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) are whole-blood ... the tuberculin skin test and TB blood tests. ...
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Patients who have this condition are required to make necessary changes in their eating habits to manage their blood ... World Bank Aiming To Connect 250 Mn Africans To Energy Grid By 2030. ... 2 Breakfast Foods That Could Prevent Blood Sugar Spikes. By Snow Digon 11/20/19 AT 6:54 AM EST. ... This means that if you dont take precautions as to the kind of food you eat for breakfast, there is a tendency for blood sugar ...
Call for Blood Bank Lab Tech Retirees. If you are a retired Blood Bank Lab Technologist, there is an opportunity to work at ...
6.2.2. Blood Banks. 6.2.3. Pharmaceuticals. 6.3. Market Attractiveness Analysis By End-user ... As per Canadian Blood Services, nearly 400,000 people in the country donate blood regularly. This necessitates the demand for ... Medical specialty bags are containers designed specifically to store, transport, and administer fluids such as blood, urine, ... blood bags. According to the National Kidney Foundation, more than one million patients are estimated to suffer from kidney ...
  • A blood bank is a center where blood gathered as a result of blood donation is stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "blood bank" typically refers to a department of a hospital usually within a Clinical Pathology laboratory where the storage of blood product occurs and where pre-transfusion and Blood compatibility testing is performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several types of blood transfusion exist:[citation needed] Whole blood, which is blood transfused without separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The first non-direct transfusion was performed on March 27, 1914, by the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin, though this was a diluted solution of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The First World War acted as a catalyst for the rapid development of blood banks and transfusion techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inspired by the need to give blood to wounded soldiers in the absence of a donor, Francis Peyton Rous at the Rockefeller University (then The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research) wanted to solve the problems of blood transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • They developed a rapid and simple method for testing blood compatibility in which coagulation and the suitability of the blood for transfusion could be easily determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guidelines for the organization of a blood transfusion service. (who.int)
  • Blood transfusion has been and continues to be a possible source of disease transmission. (medscape.com)
  • In 2009, the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) published a detailed description of 68 infectious agents capable of being transmitted by blood transfusion and prioritizing emerging infectious diseases for which there was not yet an implemented intervention. (medscape.com)
  • Bacteria or, for that matter, any infective agent that potentially evades the sterility of the transfusion loop can come from the donor's blood or skin or from a contaminated environment. (medscape.com)
  • The safety of blood transfusion as it relates to frequency of blood donation and malaria occurrence on the part of donors is an aspect that has not been properly investigated hence this study. (who.int)
  • The separation of plasma from a donor's blood is called plasmapheresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They used sodium citrate to dilute the blood samples, and after mixing the recipient's and donor's blood in 9:1 and 1:1 parts, blood would either clump or remain watery after 15 minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Samples of the donor's blood, which were collected when the organs were removed, were sent with each organ. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, we reviewed identified cases of Chagas disease in maternal donors to a public umbilical cord blood bank to estimate disease prevalence and population characteristics in a non-disease-endemic area of the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Maternal blood samples from cord blood donors were routinely screened for infectious agents at the American Red Cross National Donor Testing Laboratory (Charlotte, NC, USA). (cdc.gov)
  • Your baby's cord blood is also their perfect biological match - without the risk of rejection that would come with transplants from donors. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • This study was conducted to assess the frequency of blood donation and occurrence of malaria among blood donors at OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. (who.int)
  • One hundred and thirty-three consenting blood donors aged between 18-50 years were recruited for the study. (who.int)
  • Malaria is highly prevalent among blood donors and occurs more in recurring blood donors than first time donors. (who.int)
  • The commercial blood donors have malaria burden in Africa, while 97 % of the total continued to increase in Nigeria due to the financial population (approximately 173 million) is at risk of 8 gratification and the deficit in blood supply. (who.int)
  • While the first blood transfusions were made directly from donor to receiver before coagulation, it was discovered that by adding anticoagulant and refrigerating the blood it was possible to store it for some days, thus opening the way for the development of blood banks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infectious disease testing for blood transfusions. (who.int)
  • A blood sample, which was taken after the donor had received a large number of blood transfusions, had been negative for HIV antibody. (cdc.gov)
  • On admission, a blood sample was collected for type- and cross-matching, and blood transfusions were started within 1 hour. (cdc.gov)
  • When testing was repeated, the serum collected after the blood transfusions was again seronegative by EIA at the hospital and by both EIA and Western blot methods at the state laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • A myriad of agents can potentially be transmitted through blood transfusions, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. (medscape.com)
  • Careful donor selection, vigilant screening, lookback programs, inactivation of pathogens, and continuous efforts to develop new techniques for screening and inactivation will be required to make blood products, and thus blood transfusions, continually safe. (medscape.com)
  • In June 1915, they made the first important report in the Journal of the American Medical Association that agglutination could be avoided if the blood samples of the donor and recipient were tested before. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their result with a medical advice was clear: [If] clumping is present in the 9: 1 mixture and to a less degree or not at all in the 1 : 1 mixture, it is certain that the blood of the patient agglu¬ tinates that of the donor and may perhaps hemolyze it. (wikipedia.org)
  • After CCBB received general written informed consent for cord blood donation at the time of delivery, we assessed blood samples from mothers whose cord blood donations met specifications of initial donor screening, volume, and cell count. (cdc.gov)
  • Kabul, 14 June 2019 - World Health Organization (WHO) supported the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) of Afghanistan to commemorate the world blood donor day with a series of activities including laying the foundation stones for 2 blood banks, each in Jamhuriate Hospital and Wazir Akbar Khan Hospital in Kabul. (who.int)
  • At any given time, 6,000 patients are searching for a matched marrow donor or cord blood unit. (hrsa.gov)
  • Probable contamination - The blood culture from the recipient is negative or could not be done, but there is definite bacterial growth in the donor blood product. (medscape.com)
  • Umbilical cord blood banking is an amazing frontier of medical science that is being explored rapidly and new concepts and process are emerging daily. (cordblood-banking.org)
  • Finally, educate yourself about the umbilical cord blood registry of your choice. (cordblood-banking.org)
  • Cord blood is the blood left in the umbilical cord after a baby is born. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This means saving blood from the baby's umbilical cord in a special facility called a cord blood bank. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Umbilical cord blood is full of special cells called stem cells . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Umbilical cord blood testing can find many drugs, including sedatives, cocaine , and opioids such as heroin and fentanyl. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To assess patterns of Chagas disease, we reviewed results of screening umbilical cord blood from a US public cord blood bank during 2007-2014. (cdc.gov)
  • After the study received exempt status from the Duke University Institutional Review Board (Pro00064159), we performed a retrospective cohort study and collected demographic data from mothers whose umbilical cord blood donations were positive for T. cruzi . (cdc.gov)
  • More and more parents are considering the option of storing their baby's umbilical cord blood, but some parents-to-be may still be wondering: "is cord blood banking is worth it? (letstalkmommy.com)
  • Why is the umbilical cord blood and tissue so important? (letstalkmommy.com)
  • After birth, umbilical cord blood and tissue still contains billions of potent stem cells, which have almost limitless regenerative potential that could be used to treat various different conditions. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • Umbilical cord blood and tissue are two of the most powerful sources of stem cells a person will ever have. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • Cord blood is the blood that remains in the umbilical cord following the birth of your baby. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • There are numerous benefits that come with saving your baby's umbilical cord blood. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • And ultimately, banking your baby's umbilical cord blood could one day save their life. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • The commercialization of stem cells found in umbilical cord blood is one of the facets of biopolitics in which life is marketed, managed and governed by a variety of Regenerative Medicine companies. (bvsalud.org)
  • Supported by theoretical and methodological Foucaultian and actor-network-theory contributions, this paper aims to discuss contemporary biopolitical strategies, which drive a capitalization market of life in the public and private banks of umbilical cord stem cells focused on Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
  • The National Cord Blood Inventory (NCBI) is responsible for building a genetically and ethnically diverse inventory of 150,000 new units of high-quality umbilical cord blood for transplantation. (hrsa.gov)
  • This means doing a variety of tests on cord blood to check the baby's health. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some hospitals may routinely collect cord blood samples to do tests to check a baby's general health. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you donate your baby's cord blood, there's no cost to you. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This helps to see if a baby's blood has a healthy level of oxygen and acid-base (pH) balance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Whilst it can initially seem expensive to store your baby's cord blood, cord blood banks, such as Cells4Life, have made it an affordable option for every family. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • That's why millions of parents choose to save their baby's cord blood as a kind of health insurance, which could protect them throughout their entire lifetime. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • prepared by the Committee on Quality Control, American Association of Blood Banks. (who.int)
  • American Association of Blood Banks. (who.int)
  • Stem cells can develop into many different types of cells found in the body, such as blood, brain, muscle, and organ cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stem cells from cord blood can be used to treat certain blood disorders , including leukemia , Hodgkin disease , and some types of anemia . (medlineplus.gov)
  • You may be interested in this option if you have a family history of health conditions that can be treated with stem cells from cord blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cord blood banking is used to save cord blood so that the stem cells can be used to treat certain blood disorders and cancers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A public blood cord bank provides lifesaving stem cells to people who need treatment now. (medlineplus.gov)
  • At birth, these stem cells can be extracted and stored for future use in potentially life-saving therapies through cord blood banking. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • Cord blood banking is the process of collecting this residual cord blood and extracting the powerful stem cells within it to then freeze and store for future use. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • Now we know what cord blood banking is and what stem cells do - it's time to get down to the nitty gritty. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • Cord blood banking allows you and your family to store these precious stem cells for your loved ones, so they will always be accessible if and when you need them. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • These cord blood units, as well as other units in the inventories of participating cord blood banks, are made available to physicians and patients for blood stem cell transplants through the C.W. Bill Young Cell Transplantation Program. (hrsa.gov)
  • A blood specimen collected 10 weeks after transplantation was positive for HIV antibody by EIA, and a specimen collected 1 week later was positive by both EIA and Western blot assay. (cdc.gov)
  • The C.W. Bill Young Cell Transplantation Program provides support to patients who need a potentially life-saving bone marrow transplant or cord blood transplant. (hrsa.gov)
  • citation needed] For blood donation agencies in various countries, see list of blood donation agencies and list of blood donation agencies in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, MoPH and WHO organized two blood donation drives, each in Central Blood Bank and in United Nations (UN) Compound in Kabul. (who.int)
  • Blood donation is a good thing, if you can do it", Robert Maroni, International Civil Servant at the UN Compound. (who.int)
  • Frequency of Blood Donation and Malaria Occurrence. (who.int)
  • Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles moucheti are especially as it relates to frequency of blood the major vectors that result in all year donation and malaria occurrence on the part of 6 transmission. (who.int)
  • They enrich the blood with selected biomarkers. (cdc.gov)
  • However, screening of blood for malaria is cases in 2021 in 84 malaria endemic countries with not routinely carried out in most blood banks in SSA most of this increase coming from countries in the 8 despite the recommendation by WHO. (who.int)
  • We performed a retrospective cohort study of the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites in all cord blood samples donated to the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank (CCBB) during July 1, 2007-December 31, 2014. (cdc.gov)
  • The proposed test will pair Anagnostics' cylindrical Hybcell array platform with Molzym's SepsiTest sample prepartion kit, which is used to extract pathogens from blood samples. (genomeweb.com)
  • The firm's assay tests whole blood without the need for a positive culture result, and relies on a combination of PCR and on-array compact sequencing to detect and quantify pathogens in the sample, he said. (genomeweb.com)
  • This test method is used to measure the resistance of materials used in protective clothing to penetration by blood-borne pathogens using a surrogate microbe under conditions of continuous liquid contact. (cdc.gov)
  • they cannot be destroyed using current techniques for inactivating pathogens in the blood supply. (medscape.com)
  • Trypanosoma cruzi infection was studied in 1,298 sera samples of blood banks from 7 capital departments of Bolivia, using the immunofluorescence test (IFI) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa). (scielo.br)
  • Tests may also be done on cord blood if a health care provider is concerned that the baby may have a health condition, such as an infection or an acid-base (pH) imbalance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) are whole-blood tests that can aid in diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. (cdc.gov)
  • With a colleague, Joseph R. Turner, he made two critical discoveries: blood typing was necessary to avoid blood clumping (coagulation) and blood samples could be preserved using chemical treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two days later, when the organs were removed, more blood samples were collected. (cdc.gov)
  • Today, they are used for neurological disorders, heart disease, blood disorders and bone injuries. (letstalkmommy.com)
  • For some patients who have leukemia, lymphoma, sickle cell anemia, or other inherited metabolic or immune system disorders, a marrow or cord blood transplant may be their best chance to live longer, healthier lives. (hrsa.gov)
  • Platelets are small anucleated blood cell fragments (2-4 µm), produced from polyploid cells, called megakaryocytes, which reside in the bone marrow [ 1 ]. (karger.com)
  • The primary role of platelets is maintaining the hemostasis in order to stop blood loss [ 4 ]. (karger.com)
  • In fact, under physiological conditions, platelets remain in a quiescent status, while after vessel damage cell activation is triggered by several blood and vessel components. (karger.com)
  • Approximately 11 hours after admission, he had received a total of 56 units of blood and blood components (1 unit of whole blood, 28 units of packed red blood cells, 7 units of fresh frozen plasma, and 20 units of platelets). (cdc.gov)
  • The estimated residual risk of contamination of blood products with bacterial agents is 1 in 5,000 for platelets and 1 in 30,000 for red blood cells. (medscape.com)
  • Blood is collected among the population by a team from the blood bank at the ICRC hospital for war wounded in Kabul. (icrc.org)
  • Two millilitres of blood were collected from each study participant and immediately transported to the laboratory for processing. (who.int)
  • This screening also applied to mothers donating their newborn infants' cord blood to public cord blood banks. (cdc.gov)
  • But only certain hospitals can collect cord blood for storage in public cord blood banks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The experiments with gelatine, agar, blood serum extracts, starch and beef albumin proved useless. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 1916, they reported in the Journal of Experimental Medicine the key method for blood preservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agreed, cord blood storage is a relatively new service, but the bank you select should have been active in the field of medical sample preservation for some time. (cordblood-banking.org)
  • The company has been working with the Central Blood Bank of Linz in Austria to develop enrichment assays ( BAN 4/19/2011 ). (genomeweb.com)
  • We isolated lymphocytes from human blood obtained from the Central Blood Bank. (cdc.gov)
  • John Braxton Hicks was the first to experiment with chemical methods to prevent the coagulation of blood at St Mary's Hospital, London, in the late 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rous was well aware that Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner had discovered blood types a decade earlier, but the practical usage was not yet developed, as he described: "The fate of Landsteiner's effort to call attention to the practical bearing of the group differences in human bloods provides an exquisite instance of knowledge marking time on technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Red blood cells or packed cells is transfused to patients with anemia/iron deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fact sheet provides information about the two kinds of tests that are used to determine if a person has been infected with TB bacteria: the tuberculin skin test and TB blood tests. (cdc.gov)
  • The blood is saved so it can be used to treat certain diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This type of cord blood storage is of course only possible in a private cord blood bank. (cordblood-banking.org)
  • Selecting a private cord blood bank is not something to be done casually. (cordblood-banking.org)
  • You can save the blood in a family (private) cord blood bank. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You will usually have to pay a fee for the blood collection and storage at a private cord blood bank. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the pros and cons of private cord blood banking? (letstalkmommy.com)
  • So, is private cord blood banking worth it? (letstalkmommy.com)
  • Gregory D. Bynum & Associates, Inc. was the developer for the Houchin Blood Bank Group. (bynuminc.com)
  • There are some very successful public cord blood banks as well. (cordblood-banking.org)
  • In this manner, thepublic cord blood bank offers a valuable service to the public. (cordblood-banking.org)
  • You can donate the blood to a public cord blood bank. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cord blood in public banks may be used by anyone who needs a cord blood transplant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The CCBB is a public cord blood bank (licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration) that collects donations from multiple sites across the state of North Carolina as well as from Boston, Massachusetts, and Atlanta, Georgia. (cdc.gov)
  • It also helps to improve the oxygen saturation in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many people have now begun to anticipate scientific discovery and plan to store the cord blood of their baby so that the basic material is available in the future. (cordblood-banking.org)
  • However, many people feel that they could preserve the cord blood of their baby for his own use in the future. (cordblood-banking.org)
  • It contains blood vessels that bring nourishment to the baby and remove waste products. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But it can sometimes be a sign of liver disease , a blood disorder, or another type of condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A study revealed that for those suffering from type 2 diabetes, breakfast plays a considerable role when it comes to blood sugar spikes. (ibtimes.com)
  • In certain cases, donated cord blood may be used for research. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The incidence of bacterial transmission depends on the blood product and also on the definition of the cases. (medscape.com)
  • Medical specialty bags are containers designed specifically to store, transport, and administer fluids such as blood, urine, and intravenous solutions. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • But if you or a close family member already has a disease that needs treatment with cord blood, you may qualify for free or low-cost cord blood banking. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a consequence, blood sugar levels may continuously rise, posing serious health risks like stroke and heart disease. (ibtimes.com)
  • Despite the potential for disease transmission through transfused blood, the safety of the blood supply in the United States continues to improve and, in fact, is the greatest that it has ever been. (medscape.com)
  • They replaced the additive, gelatine, with a mixture sodium citrate and glucose (dextrose) solution and found: "in a mixture of 3 parts of human blood, 2 parts of isotonic citrate solution (3.8 per cent sodium citrate in water), and 5 parts of isotonic dextrose solution (5.4 per cent dextrose in water), the cells remain intact for about 4 weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of other UN National and International civil servants donated blood during the blood drive. (who.int)
  • We are celebrating National Cord Blood Awareness Month by partnering with the world's first cord blood bank, Cryo-Cell International, to share a little more about what it is and its benefits. (projectnursery.com)
  • Blood : gift or merchandise, towards an international blood policy / Piet J. Hagen. (who.int)

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