Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Serum Bactericidal Test: Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Daptomycin: A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Aza CompoundsPseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.alpha-Defensins: DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Diarylquinolines: A class of quinoline compounds defined by the presence of two aromatic ring structures which are attached via a side chain to carbon 3 of the qunolinyl structure. The two aromatic moieties are typically NAPTHALENE and BENZENE. Several compounds in this class are used as ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.QuinolinesOxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Ceftizoxime: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Cefoperazone: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.NaphthyridinesCefonicid: A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.Teicoplanin: Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Virginiamycin: A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Capnocytophaga: A gram-negative gliding bacterium isolated from the oral cavity. It is a pathogen often causing PERIODONTITIS.Pefloxacin: A synthetic broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent active against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Cefamandole: Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Ticarcillin: An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Serum Bactericidal Antibody Assay: Procedures for identification and measurement of IMMUNOGLOBULINS in the blood that initiate lysis of bacteria.Cefixime: A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.4-Quinolones: QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Silver Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.Phagocyte Bactericidal Dysfunction: Disorders in which phagocytic cells cannot kill ingested bacteria; characterized by frequent recurring infection with formulation of granulomas.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Meningitis, Pneumococcal: An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Rifamycins: A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)HexosephosphatesMoraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis: Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.Paneth Cells: Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Mice, Inbred ICRTobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Dicloxacillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Sulbactam: A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Miocamycin: A macrolide antibiotic that has a wide antimicrobial spectrum and is particularly effective in respiratory and genital infections.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nitroblue Tetrazolium: Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Polymyxin B: A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.NitroimidazolesStreptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Norfloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.Erythromycin Estolate: A macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. It is the lauryl sulfate salt of the propionic ester of erythromycin. This erythromycin salt acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate: A macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. This compound is an ester of erythromycin base and succinic acid. It acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Penicillanic Acid: A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Aztreonam: A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.Proteus mirabilis: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Zeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Group II Phospholipases A2: A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.Ornidazole: A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Dibekacin: Analog of KANAMYCIN with antitubercular as well as broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Colistin: Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Cathepsin G: A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Polyanetholesulfonate: A compound originally developed as an anticoagulant, but possessing anticomplement action and lowering the bactericidal action of blood. It is used in vitro to inhibit blood coagulation and as a diagnostic reagent to encourage the growth of pathogens in the blood. It is also used to stabilize colloidal solutions such as milk and gelatin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Ketolides: Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Nafcillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic related to penicillin.Leprostatic Agents: Substances that suppress Mycobacterium leprae, ameliorate the clinical manifestations of leprosy, and/or reduce the incidence and severity of leprous reactions.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Lactoperoxidase: An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (1/1592)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascade in human neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and in migration. (2/1592)

Killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by neutrophils involves adherence of the microorganisms, phagocytosis, and a collaborative action of oxygen reactive species and components of the granules. While a number of intracellular signalling pathways have been proposed to regulate neutrophil responses, the extent to which each pathway contributes to the killing of S. aureus and C. albicans has not been clearly defined. We have therefore examined the effect of blocking one such pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, using the specific inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, PD98059, on the ability of human neutrophils to kill S. aureus and C. albicans. Our data demonstrate the presence of ERK2 and a 43-kDa form of ERK but not ERK1 in human neutrophils. Upon stimulation with formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), the activities of both ERK2 and the 43-kDa form were stimulated. Despite abrogating the activity of both ERK forms, PD98059 only slightly reduced the ability of neutrophils to kill S. aureus or C. albicans. This is consistent with our finding that PD98059 had no effect on neutrophil adherence or degranulation, although pretreatment of neutrophils with PD98059 inhibited fMLP-stimulated superoxide production by 50%, suggesting that a change in superoxide production per se is not strictly correlated with microbicidal activity. However, fMLP-stimulated chemokinesis was markedly inhibited, while random migration and fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis were partially inhibited, by PD98059. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the ERK cascade plays only a minor role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils and that the ERK cascade is involved primarily in regulating neutrophil migration in response to fMLP.  (+info)

The levels and bactericidal capacity of antibodies directed against the UspA1 and UspA2 outer membrane proteins of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis in adults and children. (3/1592)

The UspA1 and UspA2 proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis share antigenic epitopes and are promising vaccine candidates. In this study, the levels and bactericidal activities of antibodies in sera from healthy adults and children toward UspA1 and UspA2 from the O35E strain were measured. Human sera contained antibodies to both proteins, and the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were age dependent. Adult sera had significantly higher titers of IgG than child sera (P < 0.01). The IgG3 titers to the UspA proteins were higher than the IgG1 titers in the adults' sera, while the IgG1 titers were higher than the IgG3 titers in the children's sera (P < 0.05). The IgG antibodies in the sera from 2-month-old children appeared to be maternally derived, since the mean titer was significantly higher than that in sera from 6- to 7-month-old children (P < 0.05). Serum IgA antibodies to both UspA1 and UspA2 were low during the first 7 months of age but thereafter gradually increased along with the IgG titers. Analysis of sera absorbed with UspA1 or UspA2 showed that the antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were cross-reactive with each other and associated with serum bactericidal activity. Examination of affinity-purified human antibodies confirmed that naturally acquired antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were bactericidal and cross-reactive. These results support using UspA1 and UspA2 in a vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections.  (+info)

Characterization of human bactericidal antibodies to Bordetella pertussis. (4/1592)

The Bordetella pertussis BrkA protein protects against the bactericidal activity of complement and antibody; however, some individuals mount an immune response that overcomes this bacterial defense. To further characterize this process, the bactericidal activities of sera from 13 adults with different modes of exposure to B. pertussis (infected as adults, occupational exposure, immunized with an acellular vaccine, or no identified exposure) against a wild-type strain and a BrkA complement-sensitive mutant were evaluated. All of the sera killed the BrkA mutant, suggesting past exposure to B. pertussis or cross-reactive organisms. Several samples had no or minimal activity against the wild type. All of the sera collected from the infected and occupationally exposed individuals but not all of the sera from vaccinated individuals had bactericidal activity against the wild-type strain, suggesting that some types of exposure can induce an immune response that can overcome the BrkA resistance mechanism. Adsorbing serum with the wild-type strain removed the bactericidal antibodies; however, adsorbing the serum with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant or an avirulent (bvg mutant) strain did not always result in loss of bactericidal activity, suggesting that antibodies to either LPS or bvg-regulated proteins could be bactericidal. All the samples, including those that lacked bactericidal activity, contained antibodies that recognized the LPS of B. pertussis. Bactericidal activity correlated best with the presence of the immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) antibodies to LPS, the IgG subtype that is most effective at fixing complement.  (+info)

Isolation of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E from aquatic habitats in Taiwan. (5/1592)

The existence of strains of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E that are avirulent for eels is reported in this work. These isolates were recovered from water and oysters and differed from eel virulent strains in (i) fermentation and utilization of mannitol, (ii) ribotyping after HindIII digestion, and (iii) susceptibility to eel serum. Lipopolysaccharide of these strains lacked the highest molecular weight immunoreactive bands, which are probably involved in serum resistance.  (+info)

Role of nonagglutinating antibody in the protracted immunity of vaccinated mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. (6/1592)

Effective immunization against infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is difficult to evaluate because agglutinin levels decline rapidly. Because fractionation of hyperimmune sera often yields more specific antibody than can be accounted for by direct agglutination tests, an immunoglobulin-specific assay based on antiglobulin augmentation was used to characterize antibody responses of C3H/HeJ mice vaccinated with P. aeruginosa type 2 lipopolysaccharide. Nonagglutinating antibodies, initially detected at 2 weeks post-primary vaccination, were predominantly immunoglobulin G after 5 weeks, and they remained elevated at levels usually 32-fold higher than the direct titer throughout the 4-month study period. The sequential production of immunoglobulin M, then immunoglobulin G, followed that found in orthodox immunological responses. Sera that contained nonagglutinating antibodies but not direct agglutinins (14 to 16 weeks) enhanced phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa type 2 by macrophages from unimmunized mice and passively immunized mice against lethal challenge doses; bactericidal activity of these sera was not demonstrated in the presence or absence of complement. When challenged with 1, 10, and 100 50% lethal doses at 16 weeks, survival rates of actively immunized mice were significantly higher than those of unvaccinated mice (P < 0.001). Thus, at a time when no direct agglutinins were detectable, the augmented system detected nonagglutinating antibodies that could confer protracted resistance in vaccinated mice to pseudomonas infection.  (+info)

Effects of iron and culture filtrates on killing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by normal human serum. (7/1592)

Neisseria gonorrhoeae GC9, both colony types T2 and T4, were killed by normal human serum, although populations of colony type T4 were more susceptible. Ferric ammonium citrate prevented the killing of populations of both T2 and T4 colony types. Other iron compounds tested showed no protective effect, nor did ammonium citrate or the divalent cations magnesium or calcium. A filtrate from cultures of an N. gonorrhoeae strain grown in a liquid defined medium showed a similar protective effect in the serum assay. The filtrate appeared to chelate iron, as measured by decreased ability of iron-free transferin to bind iron in the presence of the filtrate. However, the two effects did not appear to be related. Neither ferric ammonium citrate nor the culture filtrate sufficiently inactivated complement to account for protection.  (+info)

Type-specific opsonophagocytosis of group A Streptococcus by use of a rapid chemiluminescence assay. (8/1592)

A whole-blood chemiluminescence (CL) assay was developed to determine the presence of type-specific opsonic antibodies against group A streptococcus (GAS). Convalescent sera with high bactericidal activities against an M-1 serotype were used to opsonize different M-types of GAS. CL responses were monitored for 20 min, and results were expressed as integral counts/minute per phagocyte. CL responses of phagocytes incubated with M-1 GAS opsonized with homologous (M-1) serum were significantly higher than responses of phagocytes incubated with heterologous (M-3) GAS. Adsorption of convalescent serum against the homologous, but not the heterologous, strain markedly reduced the CL response, demonstrating type specificity. The CL assay showed a high correlation with the indirect bactericidal test (r=0.90). In conclusion, this CL assay is a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible method for quantifying type-specific opsonic antibodies against GAS and will be a useful tool for future clinical, basic science, and epidemiological studies.  (+info)

*George Heist

... whose blood had no bactericidal activity, acquired an N. meningitidis infection, the link between serum bactericidal activity ... concerned bactericidal properties of whole blood against strains of meningococcus. Control blood without bactericidal activity ... Heist's seminal study of the properties of a person's blood serum that protect against this bacterium, he died of meningitis. ... In 1919, Dr Heist and co-workers [Heist et al., 1922] established that clotted blood from different persons varied in its ...

*List of MeSH codes (G09)

... blood bactericidal activity MeSH G09.188.250.161 --- blood cell count MeSH G09.188.250.161.330 --- erythrocyte count MeSH ... whole blood coagulation time MeSH G09.188.261.145 --- blood bactericidal activity MeSH G09.188.261.420 --- erythrocyte ... blood flow velocity MeSH G09.330.553.400.114 --- blood pressure MeSH G09.330.553.400.114.695 --- pulmonary wedge pressure MeSH ... regional blood flow MeSH G09.330.582.163.812 --- renal circulation MeSH G09.330.582.163.812.700 --- renal blood flow, effective ...

*List of MeSH codes (G04)

... blood bactericidal activity MeSH G04.610.575.809 --- phagocytosis MeSH G04.610.619.500 --- radiation chimera MeSH G04.610. ... blood cell count MeSH G04.335.130.107.330 --- erythrocyte count MeSH G04.335.130.107.330.725 --- reticulocyte count MeSH ...

*Natasha Anwar

... bactericidal activity was detected in whole blood assay against the opposite strain, while serum blood assay failed to. This ... but on whole blood instead. Serum blood assay will not be able to detect phagocytic activity, but whole blood assay on the ... In addition, she has studied different ways by which the bactericidal activity of the blood against the pathogen can be ... The traditional method to determine activity is through the use of serum blood assay; serum blood assay involves purifying the ...

*Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

... intrahepatic shunting of colonized blood, and defective bactericidal activity within the ascitic fluid. Suppression of the ... If the fluid contains bacteria or large numbers of neutrophil granulocytes (>250 cells/µL) (a type of white blood cells), ... It is thought that the antibacterial, or opsonic, activity of ascitic fluid is closely correlated with the protein ... a type of white blood cell) at greater than 250 cells per mm3 (equals a cell count of 250 x106/L) fluid in the absence of ...

*Ernst Moro

... sterility of the normal small intestine Discovered that breast-fed children have stronger bactericidal activity in their blood ...

*Galectin-4

... of lipid raft Gal-4 participates in apical trafficking Gal-4 has bactericidal activity against bacteria expressing blood group ... Blood. 109 (1): 219-27. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-03-007153. PMC 1785076 . PMID 16940423. Ideo H, Seko A, Yamashita K (2007). " ...

*Timeline of immunology

Bactericidal action of blood (George Nuttall) 1890 - Demonstration of antibody activity against diphtheria and tetanus toxins. ... Blood groups (Karl Landsteiner) 1902 - Immediate hypersensitivity anaphylaxis (Paul Portier) and (Charles Richet) 1903 - ... Discovery of lymphocyte mitogenic activity, "blastogenic factor" (Shinpei Kamakura) and (Louis Lowenstein) (J. Gordon) and (L.D ...

*NOS1

NO is also responsible for endothelium-derived relaxing factor activity regulating blood pressure. In macrophages, NO mediates ... tumoricidal and bactericidal actions, as indicated by the fact that inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS) block these effects. ...

*Taurolidine

... blood, serum, pus). Gram positive bacteria minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC 1 - 2 ... Although the mechanism underlying its antineoplastic activity has not been fully elucidated, it may be related to this agent's ... More recently, it has been found to exert antineoplastic activity. Taurolidine induces cancer cell death through a variety of ... Taurolidine has been shown to block Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in human peripheral blood mononuclear ...

*Hypochlorous acid

However it should be noted that the concentration required for bactericidal activity is also highly dependent on bacterial ... The addition of preformed chlorhydrins to red blood cells can affect permeability as well. Cholesterol chlorhydrins have also ... Possible role in the bactericidal activity of phagocytes". The Biochemical Journal. 254 (3): 685-92. doi:10.1042/bj2540685. PMC ... proposed the idea that inhibition of glucose oxidation is a major factor in the bacteriocidal nature of chlorine solutions. He ...

*Gerald Domingue

Domingue GJ, Neter E (1 January 1966). "Opsonizing and Bactericidal Activity of Antibodies Against Common Antigen of ... Domingue GJ, Schlegel JU (December 1978). "Novel bacterial structures in human blood. II. Bacterial variants as etiologic ...

*Hepcidin

Moura IC, Hermine O (2015). "Erythroferrone: the missing link in β-thalassemia?". Blood. 126 (17): 1974-5. doi:10.1182/blood- ... Hepcidin has strong antimicrobial activity against E.coli ML35P N.cinerea and weaker antimicrobial activity against S. ... and appeared to have bactericidal properties ("-cide" for "killing"). Although it is primarily synthesized in the liver, ... Blood. 106 (12): 3710-7. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-05-1857. PMID 16030190. hepcidin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...

*Colostrum

1975). "Bactericidal and hemolytic activity of complement in bovine colostrum and serum: effect of proteolytic enzymes and ... This clears excess bilirubin, a waste-product of dead red blood cells, which is produced in large quantities at birth due to ... McConnell, M. A.; Buchan, G.; Borissenko, M. V.; Brooks, H. J. L. (2001). "A comparison of IgG and IgG1 activity in an early ... In preterm infants some IgA may be absorbed through the intestinal epithelium and enter the blood stream though there is very ...

*Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis

"Early Bactericidal Activity of Amoxicillin in Combination with Clavulanic Acid in Patients with Sputum Smear-positive Pulmonary ... "Lack of Activity of Orally Administered Clofazimine against Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Whole-Blood Culture". ... Jagannath, C; Reddy, M V; Kailasam, S; O'Sullivan, J F; Gangadharam, P R (1995). "Chemotherapeutic activity of clofazimine and ... Wayne, L G; Sramek, H A (1994). "Metronidazole is bactericidal to dormant cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Antimicrobial ...

*Gentamicin

... A, B, X, and a few others make up the remaining 20% of gentamicin and have lower antibiotic activity than the ... The dose required should be monitored by blood testing. Gentamicin can cause inner ear problems and kidney problems. The inner ... Gentamicin is a bactericidal antibiotic that works by "irreversibly" binding the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, ... Factors that increase risk of inner ear damage include: High blood uric acid levels Kidney dysfunction Liver dysfunction Higher ...

*Arthropod defensin

Studies have shown that disulfide bonds are not required for antimicrobial activity. Mammalian defensins also do not require ... isolation from immune blood of the dipteran Phormia terranovae of two insect antibacterial peptides with sequence homology to ... rabbit lung macrophage bactericidal peptides". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 (1): 262-266. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.1.262. PMC ... Yamada K, Natori S (1993). "Purification, sequence and antibacterial activity of two novel sapecin homologues from Sarcophaga ...

*Difloxacin

... is a bactericidal, broad-spectrum antibiotic that has activity against Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive ... This allows reentry into the blood stream and recirculation, a mechanism that can extend the half-life. The longer half-life ... It has broad-spectrum, concentration dependent, bactericidal activity; however, its efficacy is not as good as enrofloxacin or ... Azlocillin, cimetidine and probenecid increase blood levels of difloxacin. Compounds (i.e. sucralfate, antacids, multivitamins ...

*Prulifloxacin

The fluoroquinolones rapidly cross the blood-placenta and blood-milk barrier, and are extensively distributed into the fetal ... Quinolones are synthetic agents that have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity as well as a unique mechanism of action, ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are bactericidal drugs, eradicating bacteria by interfering with DNA replication. ... Fritsche TR, Biedenbach DJ, Jones RN (2008). "Antimicrobial Activity of Prulifloxacin Tested against a Worldwide Collection of ...

*Umbellulone

4) of the cerebral blood vessels. Vasodilation of the cerebral blood vessels will increase the blood flow to the brain's outer ... The essential oil was used for its mosquito biting deterrent and larvicidal activity. This encourages further investigation of ... 3. Drake, M.; Stuhr, E.; (1934) "Some pharmacological and bactericidal properties of umbellulone" [1]. Retrieved 2016-03-10. 4 ... Red blood cells will be less able to nurture organs with oxygen. Therefore, the probability for a hypoxia increases. ...

*Primary immunodeficiency

... bactericidal activity. Due to the rarity of many primary immunodeficiencies, many of the above tests are highly specialised and ... The basic tests performed when an immunodeficiency is suspected should include a full blood count (including accurate ... Quantification of the different types of mononuclear cells in the blood (i.e. lymphocytes and monocytes): different groups of T ... such as otherwise healthy blood donors) having a rate of 1:600. Other disorders are distinctly more uncommon, with incidences ...

*Lactoperoxidase

The oxidized products produced through the action of this enzyme have potent bactericidal activities. Lactoperoxidase together ... whereas they grow readily on blood agar under anaerobic conditions." In its antimicrobial capacity, lactoperoxidase appears to ... The antibacterial activity of lactoperoxidase plays an important role in the immune defense system. Hypothiocyanite is one of ... It has been shown that lactoperoxidase in the presence of thiocyanate can trigger the bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of ...

*List of Russian scientists

... pioneer researcher of blood-brain barrier and first female full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Armen Takhtajan, ... founder of activity theory in psychology Peter Lesgaft, founder of the modern system of physical education in Russia Alexander ... the inventor of intravenous intermittent bactericidal tuberculosis therapy Alexander Varshavsky, researched ubiquitination, ... pioneer researcher of blood-brain barrier Fyodor Uglov, the oldest practicing surgeon in history Igor Ursov phthisiatrist, ...

*List of Russian physicians and psychologists

... founder of activity theory in psychology Peter Lesgaft, founder of the modern system of physical education in Russia Andrey ... pioneer researcher of blood-brain barrier Fyodor Uglov, oldest practicing surgeon in history Igor Ursov, phthisiatrist, the ... inventor of intravenous intermittent bactericidal tuberculosis therapy Alexander Varshavsky, researched ubiquitination, Wolf ... invented auscultatory blood pressure measurement, pioneer of vascular surgery Sergey Korsakov, studied the effects of ...

*Chronic wound

Newman, GR; Walker, M.; Hobot, JA; Bowler, PG (March 2006). "Visualisation of bacterial sequestration and bactericidal activity ... Blood vessels constrict in tissue that becomes cold and dilate in warm tissue, altering blood flow to the area. Thus keeping ... The activity of elastase is increased by human serum albumin, which is the most abundant protein found in chronic wounds. ... Another way is to spread onto the wound a gel of the patient's own blood platelets, which then secrete growth factors such as ...

*Aflatoxin B1

B1 to have significant immunosuppressive effects including reduced serum total globulin and reduced bactericidal activities. ... Sur, E; Celik, İ (2003). "Effects of aflatoxin B1on the development of the bursa of Fabricius and blood lymphocyte acid ...
When an antibody-sensitized Escherichia coli B (parent strain) is treated with complement in the absence of lysozyme, free fatty acids (FFA) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) are liberated into the lipid fraction of the surrounding medium in addition to a little amount of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). However, when a phospholipase A-deficient mutant isolated from the parent strain is similarly treated, PE appears in the lipid fraction, but only traces of its degradation products are found. Therefore, most of the degradation of bacterial PE to FFA and LPE observed in the usual immune bactericidal reaction must be the result of the action of bacterial phospholipase A.. When liposomes which were made from a mixture of lipid fractions of sheep erythrocytes and of 14C-labeled E. coli are treated with complement, 14C-phospholipids are also liberated into the surrounding medium, but the degradation products (FFA and LPE) are not observed. Some of the liberated lipids seem to bind with some ...
Inspired by nature, CiMaas will bring two arms of the immune system together to enhance the killing capacity of the system as a whole.
Do you know that smoking is killing you both mentally and physically? Here are the reasons why you should quit smoking as early possible.
Definition of intracellular killing assay in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is intracellular killing assay? Meaning of intracellular killing assay as a finance term. What does intracellular killing assay mean in finance?
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about The Journal of Immunology.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Disclosed are novel bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein products wherein cysteine residue number 132 or 135 is replaced by another amino acid residue, preferably an alanine or serine residue and/or wherein the leucine residue at position 193 is the carboxy terminal residue. Also disclosed are DNA sequences encoding methods for the production of the same in appropriate host cells, and stable homogeneous pharmaceutical compositions containing the analogs suitable for use treatment of gram negative bacterial infection and its sequelae.
Forty strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii recovered from invasive and non-invasive infections were tested for their susceptibility to complement-mediated lysis by 65% pooled human serum (PHS). Based upon the results of this assay, two major populations could be defined. The first group (n = 20) consisted of serogroup 0:11 strains, all of which possessed a paracrystalline surface layer (S layer); all of these strains were refractory to the bactericidal activity of 65% PHS with the exception of A. hydrophila strain AH-121, which was composed of mixed subpopulations of serum-susceptible and serum-resistant clones. A second collection of isolates (n = 20), all of which were S-layer-negative, contained a subgroup of strains (n = 7) that were highly susceptible to complement-mediated lysis, showing a greater than 100-fold reduction of viable progeny within 30 min of exposure to 65% PHS. Serum-resistant strains from both groups could not be lysed by exposure of bacterial cells to polyclonal
Like the findings from Africa (6, 8), our results indicate the widespread occurrence of complement-dependent, antibody-mediated bactericidal activity against S. Typhimurium in sera from healthy adults in the Boston area, as well as an age-dependent increase in this activity during maturation from child to adult. However, in contrast to the results from Africa, the bactericidal antibodies in our study appear to be directed against S. Typhimurium LPS rather than outer membrane proteins. Our data also indicate that the bactericidal antibodies discriminate between LPS from S. Typhimurium and E. coli, suggesting that the antibodies recognize a determinant in the outer polysaccharide of LPS (22, 23). The bactericidal activities of 2 of our samples appeared to be affected by acetylation of the abequose residue in the LPS outer polysaccharide, suggesting fine differences in antigen specificity within our collection. IgG purified from our samples was sufficient to recapitulate the bactericidal activity ...
Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), a cationic protein isolated from human neutrophils, binds lipopolysaccharide (LPS), kills gram-negative bacteria, and neutralizes many of the effects of LPS in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that a recombinant 23-kDa NH2-terminal fragment of BPI (BPI23) would reduce acute lung injury in endotoxemic pigs. At -18 h, pigs received an intravenous priming dose of LPS (20 micrograms/kg). Anesthetized ventilated swine were randomized to receive 1) no further treatment (n = 4); 2) LPS (250 micrograms/kg over 50 min) and BPI23 (3-mg/kg bolus and 3 mg/kg over 60 min) (n = 6); or 3) LPS and thaumatin, a cationic protein devoid of LPS neutralizing activity that has a molecular mass and isoelectric point that are similar to that of BPI23 (n = 7). BPI23 treatment significantly ameliorated LPS-induced hypoxemia, functional upregulation of opsonin receptors on circulating phagocytes, and alveolitis but had no effect on the elaboration of tumor necrosis ...
BioAssay record AID 367413 submitted by ChEMBL: Bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli NIHJ JC-2 preincubated for 1 min before addition of growth medium measured after 40 to 48 hrs.
Overview of antimicrobial proteins called lysozymes Lysozymes, also known as muramidase, are the most important bactericidal proteins of the mucosal immunity. T
Normal兔Serum (Sterile)试剂datasheet (ab7487).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
Opsonic activity in sera from 27 military recruits vaccinated with the Norwegian meningococcal serogroup B outer membrane vesicle vaccine was measured as respiratory burst with polymorphonuclear leukocytes as the effector cells and meningococci of the epidemic strain as the target. The results were compared with antimeningococcal IgG antibodies against an outer membrane vesicle coat in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and with serum bactericidal activity. The vaccinees were immunized twice, with a 6-week interval between the two. The serum samples studied were collected at day zero, after 6 weeks, and after 12 weeks. Both serum bactericidal activity and respiratory burst were measured by adding external serum as the complement source. The results revealed a significant increase in specific IgG response, serum bactericidal activity, and respiratory burst after vaccination. We found a highly significant correlation between the responses in all three assays (P , 0.0001). The highest correlation ...
It has been suggested that a hand rub should have at least activity against bacteria, yeasts and enveloped viruses [1]. In our study only the bactericidal activity of a hand gel based on 85% (w/w) ethanol was looked at. We were able to show for the first time that the tested gel kills the most relevant nosocomial bacterial pathogens in only 15 s. Ethanol is known to have a strong bactericidal activity with log10 reductions , 5 which has been demonstrated against some of the most common nosocomial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [7, 19-22] and which includes activity against various mycobacteria [23-25]. Nevertheless, this type of comprehensive bactericidal activity as described in our study has so far only been demonstrated with a propanol-based hand rub and an exposure time of 30 s [8].. Suspension tests, however, are not the critical part in the assessment of the efficacy assessment of alcohol-based hand antiseptics [26]. In a study with tests under practical ...
Sialic acid in the lipolysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae: Strain distribution, influence on serum resistance and structural characterization: Mol.Microbiol.
Normal Rabbit Serum, 5 ml. Serum is the clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood plasma that does not contain fibrinogen or blood cells and remains fluid after clotting.
1. Healthy adolescents and young adults treated with the Neisseria meningitidis vaccine MenB-FHbp had increased bactericidal antibody responses (hSBA titer)
Sunni Islamist Baluch militants have claimed responsibility for the November 6 killing of a prosecutor in Irans restive southeastern province of Sistan-Baluchistan.
Moreover the human α-Defensin human neutrophil peptide 1 was revealed to show anti-HIV activity. HNP-one inhibits the binding of the virus to its coreceptor , the endocytosis of the virus into the target cell as well as the release of the HIV-genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. Even so HNP-one did not inhibit the endocytosis of Influenza A virus displaying some selectivity of the AMPs in their tropism. These final results evidently demonstrate that defensins not only screen antimicrobial activity but in addition are lively from viruses as nicely.Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein belongs to the class of AMPs. In distinction to the over mentioned defensins BPI owing to the 55 kDa molecular measurement of the protein is structurally significantly a lot more intricate than the peptides, which are in the selection of 3-five kDa. The BPI protein loved ones contains of far more than ten associates but only BPI alone displays a powerful antimicrobial exercise. BPI functions ...
Amox-Tabs is a broad-spectrum antibiotic which provides bactericidal activity against a wide range of common gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. Amoxicillin has bactericidal activity against susceptible organisms similar to that of ampicillin.
Bactericidal effects of 8,9-dihydroxy-1,5,6,10b-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolin- 3(2H)-one (Trolline) on selected entero-pathogenic bacteria
TY - JOUR UR - http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:131442 ID - pug01:131442 LA - eng TI - Decreased neutrophil bactericidal activity during phagocytosis of a slime-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain PY - 2000 JO - (2000) VETERINARY RESEARCH SN - 0928-4249 PB - 2000 AU - Barrio, Belén AU - Vangroenweghe, Fr DI08 801001347145 053711611855 AU - Dosogne, Hilde AU - Burvenich, Christian DI07 801000346934 0000-0002-1156-0981 AB - Phagocytosis and intracellular killing by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are important host defence mechanisms against mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We compared the phagocytosis and overall killing of a non slime-producing (NSP) S. aureus and its slime-producing (SP) variant by blood PMN, using an in vitro bacteriological assay. Seven clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation stage were used for this purpose. The percentages of overall killing for the NSP and SP variant were 34 +/- 3% and 21 +/- 4% (P < 0.05) and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An apoptosis-differentiation program in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes facilitates resolution of inflammation. AU - Kobayashi, Scott D.. AU - Voyich, Jovanka M.. AU - Somerville, Greg A.. AU - Braughton, Kevin R.. AU - Malech, Harry L.. AU - Musser, James M.. AU - DeLeo, Frank R.. PY - 2003/2/1. Y1 - 2003/2/1. N2 - Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are an essential part of innate immunity and contribute significantly to inflammation. Although much is understood about the inflammatory response, the molecular basis for termination of inflammation in humans is largely undefined. We used human oligonucleotide microarrays to identify genes differentially regulated during the onset of apoptosis occurring after PMN phagocytosis. Genes encoding proteins that regulate cell metabolism and vesicle trafficking comprised 198 (98 genes induced, 100 genes repressed) of 867 differentially expressed genes. We discovered that complex cellular pathways involving glutathione and ...
EN] The evaluation of animal welfare through innate immunity (Serum Bactericidal Activity - SBA, Hemolytic Complement Assay - HCA, lysozyme) and the antioxidant status of the body (Reactive Oxygen Substances - ROS and Antioxidant Power of plasma, AP) offers a reliable prognostic and diagnostic tool. The aim of the present study was to investigate trends and correlations between some traits of innate immunity and the oxidative status of fattening rabbits at different ages. Blood samples from 120 New Zealand White fattening rabbits at 45, 55, 65, and 75 d of age were collected and analyzed. The results showed that SBA did not have a normal distribution because of numerous 0 values. Data distribution was normal when only SBA , 0 values were considered. Lysozyme (mean value 27.19 microg/mL) and HCA (mean value 50.84 CH50% ) had stable trends at different ages and showed a tendency that was comparable to that obtained in other animal species. On the contrary, SBA (mean value 42.15%) showed an ...
An implanted biomaterial foreign body has paradoxical effects; it induces the accumulation of phagocytes and at the same time can become the nidus of intractable bacterial infection. In fact, the greater the ability of a foreign body to induce a neutrophilic infiltrate, the greater its susceptibility to infection (12, 13, 30). Our previous work has indicated that PMN often become activated at the surfaces of biomaterials (34). The PMN can release chemoattractant substances, which would serve to attract fresh PMN to the surface (36). Such an event would be expected to potentiate host defenses but seems to have the opposite effect. We found that PMN, once in contact with biomaterials, rapidly lose their capacity to generate superoxide and are relatively impotent in their microbicidal activity (36). We subsequently showed that when fresh PMN were added to a surface upon which there had been a prior inoculum of PMN, the fresh PMN became inactive (36). These data, therefore, are consistent with the ...
I never really gave much thought to commercial cleaning products! they cleaned and thats what they were supposed to do… I knew that I was not supposed to get them in my eye or accidentally consume them of course! but other than that it had never occurred to me that they might be slowly killing…
Former motocross ace Mark Donnelly - recently acquitted of the one-punch killing of Monaghan teenager Jason McGovern - walked free from court yesterday when a judge gave him a suspended
MenBvac is an outer membrane vesicle vaccine against systemic meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. In this placebo-controlled double-blind study including 374 healthy adolescents, the safety and immunogenicity of a schedule of three primary doses 6 weeks apart followed by a fourth dose a year later were evaluated. Antibody responses to the vaccine strain and heterologous strains (non-vaccine-type strains) and the persistence of these antibodies were measured by the serum bactericidal assay (SBA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay up to 1 year after the last dose. The proportion of subjects with SBA titers of ≥4 against the vaccine strain increased from 3% prevaccination to 65% after the third dose. Ten months later, this proportion had declined to 28%. The fourth dose induced a booster response demonstrated by 93% of subjects achieving a titer of ≥4. One year after the booster dose, 64% still showed SBA titers of ≥4. Cross-reacting antibodies were induced ...
Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) expressing hypermucoviscosity phenotype (HV-KP) has abundant capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and is capable of causing invasive syndrome. Sodium salicylate (SAL) reduces the production of CPS. The study was aimed to investigate the relationship between aspirin usage and KP-mediated invasive syndrome and the effect of SAL on HV-KP. Patients with community-acquired KP bacteraemia were prospectively enrolled. KP-M1, a serotype-K1 HV-KP clinical isolate, was used in the following experiments: CPS production, HV-KP phenotype, and the effect of SAL on neutrophils phagocytosis. The effect of oral aspirin intake on the leukocyte bactericidal activity was evaluated. Patients infected by HV-KP and diabetic patients with poor glycemic control were at an increased risk for invasive syndrome (p | 0.01); those who had recent use of aspirin (p = 0.02) were at a lower risk. CPS production was significantly reduced in the presence of SAL. The HV-KP phenotype and resistance to neutrophil
Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and potentially life-threatening infection. Innate immunity is the first line of defence, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by white blood cells and at epithelial barriers participate by killing microorganisms and neutralizing bacterial toxins. We wanted to investigate whether concentrations of AMPs (1) are increased in CAP, (2) predict the clinical outcome, and (3) differ depending on the causative microbe. Methods: Plasma concentrations of AMPs were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 89 patients with CAP, 21 patients with non-respiratory tract infections (non-RTI), and 63 healthy control subjects. Results: In subjects with CAP, mean plasma concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) were significantly higher than in healthy control subjects (85 vs 45 ng/ml, p , 0.001 and 48 vs 10 ng/ml, p , 0.001, respectively), but less markedly ...
Two Pfizer, Inc., studies released on Friday found that its bivalent rLP2086 recombinant vaccine candidate for meningococcal disease was able to generate bactericidal responses.
Immunogenicity was measured as the percentages of overall subjects with hSBA (human serum bactericidal assay) seroresponse, directed against Neisseria meningitidis (N meningitidis) serogroups A, C, W and Y, 28 days after one vaccination of MenACWY-CRM (day 29).. The seroresponse is defined as the percentages of subjects achieving hSBA ≥1:8 postvaccination with a prevaccination hSBA ,1:4 and the percentages of subjects achieving at least four-fold increases in postvaccination hSBA from day 1 in subjects with a baseline hSBA ≥1:4 ...
Percentage of participants with serum bactericidal activity (SBA) of the Meningococcal ACWY vaccine at one month after vaccination against A, C, W-135 and Y strains. Bactericidal activity (% ≥ 1:4, i.e., percentage of subjects with BCA titer ≥ 1:4; % ≥ 1:8, i.e. percentage of subjects with BCA titer ≥ 1:8) against a panel of genetically distinct meningococcal B strains:. ...
119 children with recurrent respiratory infections were investigated for immunocompetence. They were divided into two groups. The first, group A, comprised children who had had predominantly upper respiratory infections. Group B comprised those who had had repeated pneumonia in addition. The groups were comparable for gender and age (mean 4.2 years). All the children had reduced neutrophil chemotaxis, reduced neutrophil fungicidal capacity, and perhaps reduced T-cell percentages. Group B children had, in addition to the above, decreased neutrophil bactericidal capacity and a more marked depression of neutrophil chemotaxis. In both groups, some children had reduced immunoglobulin concentrations while others had either normal or increased concentrations. Serum complement, neutrophil iodination, and mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation were comparable with adult controls in both groups.. ...
We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil® source (RS) honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey killed Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 2 hours, whereas manuka honey had such rapid activity only against B. subtilis ...
The recovery, structure and function of dog granulocytes were determined before and after freeze preservation. Leucocytes were isolated from defibrinated or anticoagulated whole blood and subsequent erythrocyte sedimentation on a column of 2:1 dextran (6%)-Isopaque (33.9%). Granulocytes isolated by these procedures were examined for changes in O2 consumption associated with phagocytosis, in vitro directed migration (chemotaxis), bactericidal activity, and ultrastructure before and after freezing. Granulocytes were frozen in DMSO (7.5%) and autologous serum of HBSS and 20% autologous serum at the rate of -1 C/min to -80 C and stored in liquid N2 vapor. It is concluded that dog granulocytes freeze preserved by these methods are functional in vitro, but that phagocytic, directed migration, and bactericidal functions and ultrastructure are impaired to different degrees, according to the method of isolation and preparation for storage. These results indicate the need for continued investigation on the
Definition of neutrophil microbicidal assay in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is neutrophil microbicidal assay? Meaning of neutrophil microbicidal assay as a legal term. What does neutrophil microbicidal assay mean in law?
Emergency medicine. The focus of adaptive changes in the respiratory system in its most General form can be reduced to finding the most perfect forms of regulation during muscular work. This search is completed with a high efficiency during low-intensity work, provide aerobic (oxygen) energy sources.. Respiration in terms of relative muscular rest in the vast majority of children of school age bears the cost of civilization" - prolonged sitting at a Desk, school Desk limits the mobility of the chest. Breathing becomes. shallow, shallow. Wellness, the value of such physiological respiration is small. The situation worsens when the child breathes through the mouth. The nose in this case is not fulfilling its bactericidal functions. The air is cleaned from dust particles, and at a low temperature and does not doubt. The subsequent chain of events completes the vicious circle: inflammatory processes in the nasopharynx doing breathing through KOs impossible or extremely difficult.. School-age ...
Lung tissue polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) counts (expressed as PMNs/field) in 10 different fields, excluding airways and pulmonary vessels under 400 × magn
Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity. It provides bactericidal activity against a wide range of common gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens.
The full article is here at sciencemag.org A group led by engineer Xinpei Lu at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology in China believes it...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Discover Life -- BPI188783
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Discover Life -- BPI446511
A Janesville man has been named as a person of interest in the killing of a Mazomanie woman, Dane County authorities said Wednesday.
A Janesville man has been named as a person of interest in the killing of a Mazomanie woman, Dane County authorities said Wednesday.
BACKGROUND: There is an increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease during the teenage years. A cohort of children vaccinated with a single dose of meningococcal C protein-polysaccharide conjugate (MenC) vaccine in early childhood during the U.K. catch up campaign will enter this age group during the coming decade. The duration of protective immunity against invasive meningococcal C disease provided by this single dose regimen is uncertain.A serum bactericidal titer of |1/8 correlates with susceptibility to invasive meningococcal disease. We assessed this correlate of protection in a cohort of children approximately 2 years after a single dose of vaccine. METHODS: Serum bactericidal activity was assessed in 94 children (median age, 4.0 years) at a median time of 1.8 years after vaccination. RESULTS: Of the 94 children, 59 (63%) had a serum bactericidal titer |1/8. CONCLUSION: The data from this study add to previous evidence indicating that immunity wanes rapidly after vaccination with serogroup C
Evasion of complement-mediated killing is a common phenotype for many different types of pathogens, but the mechanism is still poorly understood. Most of the clinic isolates of Edwardsiella tarda, an important pathogen infecting both of human and fish, are commonly found serum-resistant. To explore the potential mechanisms, we applied GC-MS based metabolomics approaches to profile the metabolomes of E. tarda EIB202 in the presence or absence of serum stress. We found that TCA cycle was greatly enhanced in the presence of serum. The QRT-PCR and enzyme activity assays validated this result. Furthermore, exogenous succinate that promoting TCA cycle increased serum resistance, while TCA cycle inhibitors (bromopyruvate and propanedioic acid) that inhibit TCA cycle, attenuated serum resistance. Moreover, the enhanced TCA cycle increased membrane potential, thus decreased the formation of membrane attack complex at cell surface, resulting serum resistance. These evidences suggested a previously unknown
An azurophilic granule is a cellular object readily stainable with a Romanowsky stain. In white blood cells and hyperchromatin, staining imparts a burgundy or merlot coloration. Neutrophils in particular are known for containing azurophils loaded with a wide variety of anti-microbial defensins that fuse with phagocytic vacuoles. Azurophils may contain myeloperoxidase, phospholipase A2, acid hydrolases, elastase, defensins, neutral serine proteases, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, lysozyme, cathepsin G, proteinase 3, and proteoglycans. Azurophil granules are also known as "primary granules". Furthermore, the term "azurophils" may refer to a unique type of cells, identified only in reptiles. These cells are similar in size to so-called heterophils with abundant cytoplasm that is finely to coarsely granular and may sometimes contain vacuoles. Granules may impart a purplish hue to the cytoplasm, particularly to the outer region. Occasionally, azurophils are observed with vacuolated ...
BS EN 1040:2005 Chemical disinfectants and antispetics. Quantitative suspension test for the evaluation of basic bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics.
Purchase your copy of BS EN 1040:1997 as a PDF download or hard copy directly from the official BSI Shop. All BSI British Standards available online in electronic and print formats.
Release from Sherwin-Williams about Paint Kills Bacteria On Painted Surfaces - Sherwin-Williams from the FacilitiesNet product release section for building owners, facility and maintenance management professionals.
Buy SAC-3P-M 8MS/0,6-PUR/M 8FR 1681952 PHOENIX CONTACT Sensor/Actuator cable, 3-position, PUR halogen-free, blac.. the best price, fast worldwide shipping, u..
The Applied Design aspect of our project involved building a prototype of a filter that could potentially be used to treat water from the mines. The prototype consists of three components, one of which is a 3D printed hydrocyclone that efficiently separates sediment from water. In order to search for the best methods of inserting E.coli into the system, we visited the Taunton Aquarium Centre and purchased a fluidised media reactor, forming one of the next components of the filter, the metal binding reactor. The use of a Design of Experiments approach, along with numerous experiments we conducted on the Reactor, provided us with required information including the optimal volume of the Reactor or the type of media the bacteria should grow on. The filter is also equipped with components ensuring quality and safety of the whole process, including bactericidal mechanisms preventing the transfer of GM organisms into the natural environment. The design of the filter, at all stages of its development, ...
January 16, 2018 - killing naked girls, killing naked girls free games, killing naked girls flash games, free flash games, killing naked girls online games, play killing naked girls game
As researchers find more bacteria and viruses that resist germ-fighting drugs, the medical world is turning to old cures to fight disease.
aseanostatin P5: from actinomycetes; inhibits myeloperoxidase release from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes; structure given in first source; RN given refers to cpd without isomeric designation
The killing of Alison Galvani's mother was never solved. She hopes to persuade prosecutors to file charges - against her father.
CUONG, Ng.V. et al. Polymorphisms of candidate genes associated with meat quality and disease resistance in indigenous and exotic pig breeds of Vietnam. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.42, n.3, pp.221-231. ISSN 2221-4062.. The objectives of this study were to analyse genotype distribution and sequence variations of candidate genes putatively associated with meat quality and disease resistance in exotic and indigenous Vietnamese pig breeds. For this purpose, 340 pigs from four indigenous and two exotic breeds were included in the analysis of the polymorphisms of the heart fatty-acid-binding protein (H-FABP), alpha 1 fucosyltransferase (FUT1), and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) genes by the sequencing and PCR-RFLP methods. For H-FABP, 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in indigenous pig breeds by direct sequencing of a fragment at intron 2 of the H-FABP gene. The mutation T1556C created a new restriction site for the enzyme MspI, which gave rise ...
Learn CC Sept 2015 Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Despite the fact that many therapeutic strategies have been adopted to delay the development of sepsis, sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death in noncoronary intensive care units. Recently, sepsis-3 was defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. Here, we report that swiprosin-1 (also known as EFhd2) plays an important role in the macrophage immune response to LPS-induced or cecal ligation and puncture-induced (CLP-induced) sepsis in mice. Swiprosin-1 depletion causes higher mortality, more severe organ dysfunction, restrained macrophage recruitment in the lung and kidney, and attenuated inflammatory cytokine production (including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and IFN-γ). The immunosuppression caused by swiprosin-1 deficiency is manifested by impaired bactericidal capacity and decreased HLA-DR expression in macrophages. Swiprosin-1 affects the activation of the JAK2/STAT1/STAT3 pathway by regulating the expression of IFN-γ receptors ...
Neutrophil chemiluminescence in burned patients.: Phagocytic and bactericidal assays showed that a close correlation was present between bactericidal activity a
Synonyms for Cell lysis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cell lysis. 19 words related to lysis: convalescence, recuperation, recovery, biochemistry, autolysis, self-digestion, bacteriolysis, cytolysis, dissolution, disintegration. What are synonyms for Cell lysis?
RainShadow Labs is an FDA registered private label skin care manufacturer and supplier, providing the best in essential oils, soaps and personal care products.
A stylized visualization of the gonococcus bacterium. This bacterium is the causative agent for the sexually transmitted disease Gonorrhea. - Stock Image F002/0633
Compare prices and save on BPI Sports GRP-HD! You can shop with confidence - the best deal on GRP-HD by BPI Sports is here at PricePlow!
BPI Best BCAA, BPI Sports, : BCAA pr kov , Speci ln formulovan sm s vysoce inn ch v tven ch esenci ln ch aminokyselin: L-Leucin, L-Isoleucin, L-Valin, z skan ch speci ln technologi z p rodn ho zdroje, kter tvo a 30% z  ... - V e pro fitness, kulturistiku a aerobik. Posilovac stroje a sportovn v iva pro dom c a komer n posilovny.
I think that usually the distinction is whether it is sentient or not.....Im not sure if there is scriptural support for this or not but it is a common view...which of course points us to the question of how to define sentience......also, in a thread in a forum which is no longer functioning it was discussed about whether killing different things had different kamma and I think the scriptures supported the idea that larger animals had worse fruits than smaller ones......it was suggested by some that it was the neurological complexity that was the determinant but no Pali scriptural references were found to support that notion ...
Terrasil™ is a pitted keratolysis treatment that stops redness, inflammation & odor and kills bacteria quickly. Visit us online to learn more.
Every instance of senseless mass killing prompts soul searching about possible causes with a view to prevention. The Sandy Hook Elementary School rampage killing is no different.
There was no transparency or public discussion about the killing of our turkeys either because the powers that be know. Join the campaign and make a difference.
... The experience of LGBTI people from faith backgrounds Over the last 18 years, Anthony Venn-Brown has been collating the stories of…
BACKGROUND: The persistence of protection from meningococcal disease following immunization with serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) glycoconjugate vaccines in infancy is short-lived. The duration of protective immunity afforded by these vaccines in other at-risk age groups (i.e., adolescents and young adults) is not known. We evaluated the persistence of bactericidal antibodies following immunization with a MenC glycoconjugate vaccine (MenCV) in adolescents and the kinetics of immune response to a meningococcal AC plain polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS) challenge or a repeat dose of MenCV. METHODS: We conducted a randomized comparative trial of 274 healthy 13-15-year-olds from whom a total of 4 blood samples were obtained (prior to administration of a dose of MenPS or MenCV, again on 2 further occasions at varying times from days 2-7 after vaccination, and finally on day 28 after vaccination. The correlate of protection was a serum bactericidal assay titer | or = 8 (with a serum bactericidal assay using
Factor H Binding protein (fHbp) is an important meningococcal virulence factor, enabling the meningococcus to evade the complement system, and a main target for vaccination. Recently, the structure of fHBP complexed with factor H (fH) was published. Two fHbp glutamic acids, E(283) and E(304), form salt bridges with fH, influencing interaction between fHbp and fH. Fifteen amino acids were identified forming hydrogen bonds with fH. We sequenced fHbp of 254 meningococcal isolates from adults with meningococcal meningitis included in a prospective clinical cohort to study the effect of fHbp variants on meningococcal disease severity and outcome. All fHbp of subfamily A had E304 substituted with T304. Of the 15 amino acids in fHbp making hydrogen bonds to fH, 3 were conserved, 11 show a similar distribution between the two fHbp subfamilies as the polymorphism at position 304. The proportion of patients infected with meningococci with fHbp of subfamily A with unfavorable outcome was 2.5-fold lower than that
Catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from the substrate CMP-N-acetylneuraminate to the terminal galactose residue of the lacto-N-neotetraose branch of surface lipooligosaccharide (LOS), forming an alpha-2,3-sialyl linkage. Thus, functions in the sialylation of LOS, which plays a role in the evasion of the host immune response by protecting N.meningitidis from complement-mediated serum killing and from phagocytic killing by neutrophils. In vitro, can use a number of different synthetic acceptors with lactose or galactose as the saccharide portion, but shows a strong preference for the N-acetyllactosamine containing acceptor.
Cationic local anesthetics have been reported to influence cellular responses to surface stimuli by interfering with the function of microtubules and microfilaments. Since unimpaired microtubule and microfilament functions are required by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in order to respond normally to surface stimulation, we have studied effects of the local anesthetic, tetracaine on the function and morphology of these cells in vitro. Tetracaine (0.25--1.0 mM) significantly reduced extracellular release of the lysosomal enzymes, beta-glucuronidase and lysozyme from polymorphonuclear leukocytes exposed to serum-treated zymosan (a particulate stimulus), zymosan-treated serum (a soluble stimulus), and to the surface-active lectin, concanavalin A. Tetracaine also significantly reduced superoixde anion production (superoxide dismutase-inhibitable cytochrome c reduction) by these cells. Tetrancaine was not cytotoxic and its effects could be reversed completely by washing cells once with buffer. ...
SUMMARY. In vitro studies of neutrophils from a young man with the clinical manifestations of chronic granulomatous disease of childhood revealed a selective inability to kill opsonized staphylococci. The defect appeared to be nonfamilial, since neutrophils from his parents demonstrated normal bactericidal capacity in vitro. The patient had no detectable immunoglobulin deficiencies; his serum, however, lacked specific antibodies to staphylococcal products (F and S antigens of leukocidin). After immunization with staphylococcal toxoids he showed a rise in serum antileukocidin titers and clinical improvement. ...
September 24, 2012 DuPont Nutrition & Health has announced a strategic collaboration with AvidBiotics Corp. to develop novel bactericidal protein technologies. Through this agreement, which includes a DuPont Ventures equity investment, DuPont will gain exclusive, worldwide rights to the technologies for food and food protection applications.. AvidBiotics develops novel, non-antibody proteins targeted against bacteria, viral infections, and cancer. AvidBiotics antibacterial technology is based on R-type bacteriocins (proteins with bactericidal activity). These proteins recognize target bacteria by binding to specific receptors on the bacterial surface, then disrupting the cell envelope to kill the organism promptly. In theory, R-type bacteriocins can be developed against any pathogenic bacteria or spoilage organism of interest.. "Ensuring the safety, freshness, and quality of products throughout shelf life is at the top of the food industry agenda, and we are excited by the prospect of ...
General Information: A serum-resistant streptomycin-resistant proline-requiring strain isolated from a patient with disseminated gonococcal infections. Causes gonorrhea. One of two pathogenic Neisseria, this species causes the sexually transmitted disease (STD) gonorrhea, which is the leading reportable STD in adults in the USA. This human-specific organism colonizes and invades the mucosal surface of the urogenital epithelium, crosses the epithelial barrier, and ends up multiplying on the basement membrane. The Opa proteins are responsible for the opaque colony phenotype due to the tight junctions between adjacent Neisseria, and are also responsible for tight adherence to host cells. This organism, like Neisseria meningitidis, is also naturally competent for DNA uptake. ...
Antibiotic kill bacteria - As antibiotic kill bacteria and endotoxin is released when bacteria die, wont it worsen fever or cause mild sepsis? Depends. Yes, it can but depends on which bacteria it is and which antibiotic it is. Are you on penicillin? Please let us know as some do.
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
A MIT student recreates Alexander Flemings discovery of how bread mold kills bacteria. Fleming accidentally discovered that mold secretes the chemical penicillin, and penicillin is molds secret weapon against bacteria.
THERE are some disease-causing organisms (coming from an infected persons saliva, for instance) that thrive and even multiply while they are on objects like phone receivers. THERE are some disease-causing organisms (coming from an infected persons saliva, for instance) that thrive and even multiply while they are on objects like phone receivers.
Learn how to get a comprehensive clean with Lysol® Disinfecting Wipes. These wipes clean and disinfect at the same time, without bleach or harsh chemicals.
An addict with a criminal past, Christer Pettersson remains the only person ever put on trial for the killing of Olof Palme, and while he was exonerated, many still consider him guilty.

Effects of complement regulators bound to Escherichia coli K1 and Group B Streptococcus on the interaction with host cells.Effects of complement regulators bound to Escherichia coli K1 and Group B Streptococcus on the interaction with host cells.

Blood Bactericidal Activity. Brain / blood supply, immunology, microbiology. Complement C4b-Binding Protein. Complement Factor ... Fetal Blood / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens / metabolism. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Phagocytosis. Streptococcus ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Effects-complement-regulators-bound-to/18028369.html

The role of capsular polysaccharide K21b of Klebsiella and of the structurally related colanic-acid polysaccharide of...The role of capsular polysaccharide K21b of Klebsiella and of the structurally related colanic-acid polysaccharide of...

Blood Bactericidal Activity. Escherichia coli / immunology, pathogenicity*, ultrastructure. Klebsiella pneumoniae / immunology ... The presence of colanic-acid capsules on E. coli conferred little resistance to the bactericidal activity of human serum or ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/role-capsular-polysaccharide-K21b-Klebsiella/3320374.html

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Blood Bactericidal Activity Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Blood+Bactericidal+Activity&parentid=42397&catid=4524

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Blood Bactericidal Activity Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Blood+Bactericidal+Activity&parentid=42398&catid=4525

JCI -
Mycobacterial growth inhibition is associated with trained innate immunityJCI - Mycobacterial growth inhibition is associated with trained innate immunity

Whole blood bactericidal activity during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2003;187(2):270-278.. View this ... Bactericidal activity in whole blood as a potential surrogate marker of immunity after vaccination against tuberculosis. Clin ... A whole blood bactericidal assay for tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2001;183(8):1300-1303.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... Anonymous buffy coats from healthy blood bank donors were used only if donors had consented scientific use of blood products. ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/97508

Determination of the C5 proteolytic activity of B. vala | Open-iDetermination of the C5 proteolytic activity of B. vala | Open-i

Determination of the C5 proteolytic activity of B. valaisiana.(A) Schematic representation of the α-, and β-chain of C5. (B) ... Antibodies, Bacterial/blood. *Blood Bactericidal Activity/immunology. *Complement Activation/immunology. *Humans. *Lyme Disease ... pone-0053659-g007: Determination of the C5 proteolytic activity of B. valaisiana.(A) Schematic representation of the α-, and β- ... pone-0053659-g007: Determination of the C5 proteolytic activity of B. valaisiana.(A) Schematic representation of the α-, and β- ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3539980_pone.0053659.g007&req=4

WikiGenes - Robert S. WallisWikiGenes - Robert S. Wallis

Whole blood bactericidal activity during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Wallis, R.S., Vinhas, S.A., Johnson, J.L., ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/author/e/962339.html

Biomarker-Assisted Dose Selection for Safety and Efficacy in Early Development of PNU-100480 for Tuberculosis | Antimicrobial...Biomarker-Assisted Dose Selection for Safety and Efficacy in Early Development of PNU-100480 for Tuberculosis | Antimicrobial...

Cumulative whole-blood bactericidal activity of PNU-100480 at this dose (−0.316 ± 0.04 log) was superior to the activities of ... bactericidal activity against intracellular M. tuberculosis was measured ex vivo using whole-blood culture (whole-blood ... superior whole-blood bactericidal activity compared to the activities achieved with standard linezolid doses, and additive or ... Bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis was measured in ex vivo whole-blood culture. Plasma drug and ...
more infohttps://aac.asm.org/content/55/2/567?ijkey=3a5d7122ccf7eb83e46aea50b77cb40cde202c71&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Immunogenicity of 2 Serogroup B Outer-Membrane Protein Meningococcal Vaccines: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Chile - PubMedImmunogenicity of 2 Serogroup B Outer-Membrane Protein Meningococcal Vaccines: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Chile - PubMed

Blood Bactericidal Activity Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Objective: To evaluate serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against homologous vaccine type strains and a heterologous Chilean ... All blood samples were taken by December 1994. Setting: Santiago, Chile, where a clonal serogroup B meningococcal disease ... Blood samples were obtained at baseline, prior to dose 3, and at 4 to 6 weeks after dose 3. ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10227322/

The Association of Helicobacter Pylori in the Pathogenesis of Hyperemesis Gravidarum in Pregnant WomenThe Association of Helicobacter Pylori in the Pathogenesis of Hyperemesis Gravidarum in Pregnant Women

This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY. ... Serum Bactericidal Test. Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patients serum as a result of ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/161665/The-Association-of-Helicobacter-Pylori-in-the-Pathogenesis-of-Hyperemesis-Gravidarum-in.html

Sporulation on blood serum increases the virulence of Mucor circinelloides.Sporulation on blood serum increases the virulence of Mucor circinelloides.

Blood Bactericidal Activity. The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such ... This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patients serum as a result of ... Blood Proteins. Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other ... The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins. ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2478051/Sporulation-on-blood-serum-increases-the-virulence-of-Mucor-circinelloides.html

Find Publications
             - Oregon Health & Science UniversityFind Publications - Oregon Health & Science University

Ethanol sleep times and hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities in mice. Belknap, J., MacInnes, J. W. & McClearn ... Blood Sedimentation Flow sheets and care of the urology clinic patient.. Barry, J., Palken, M. & Hodges, C. V., Nov 1972, In : ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/?format=&descending=false&page=12

Heptose I glycan substitutions on Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosacch by Sanjay Ram, Jutamas Ngampasutadol et al."Heptose I glycan substitutions on Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosacch" by Sanjay Ram, Jutamas Ngampasutadol et al.

Blood Bactericidal Activity; Colony Count, Microbial; Complement C4b-Binding Protein; Galactosyltransferases; Heptoses; Humans ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/1263/

George Heist - WikipediaGeorge Heist - Wikipedia

... whose blood had no bactericidal activity, acquired an N. meningitidis infection, the link between serum bactericidal activity ... concerned bactericidal properties of whole blood against strains of meningococcus. Control blood without bactericidal activity ... Heists seminal study of the properties of a persons blood serum that protect against this bacterium, he died of meningitis. ... In 1919, Dr Heist and co-workers [Heist et al., 1922] established that clotted blood from different persons varied in its ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Heist

Platelet Microbicidal Protein 1: Structural Themes of a Multifunctional Antimicrobial Peptide | Antimicrobial Agents and...Platelet Microbicidal Protein 1: Structural Themes of a Multifunctional Antimicrobial Peptide | Antimicrobial Agents and...

Comparative bactericidal activities of blood serum and plasma serum. J. Exp. Med. 112:15-22. ... Synthetic peptides that exert antimicrobial activities in whole blood and blood-derived matrices. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. ... Blood 86:910a, abstr. 3626, 1995; Y. Q. Tang, M. R. Yeaman, and M. E. Selsted, Blood 86:556a, abstr. 2212, 1995). Such ... Verification of antimicrobial activity of purified tPMP-1.The antimicrobial profiles of purified nPMP-1 and tPMP-1 against a ...
more infohttps://aac.asm.org/content/48/11/4395

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

Blood Bactericidal Activity 血液殺菌活性 Base Composition 塩基組成 ...
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?geneid=8857&taxonomy=human

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

Blood Bactericidal Activity 血液殺菌活性 Virulence ビルレンス Genetic Linkage 連鎖(遺伝学) ...
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?omimid=130130&taxonomy=human

Enhancement of Serum and Mucosal Immune Responses to a Haemophilus influenzae Type B Vaccine by Intranasal Delivery | Clinical...Enhancement of Serum and Mucosal Immune Responses to a Haemophilus influenzae Type B Vaccine by Intranasal Delivery | Clinical...

Bactericidal activity of blood serum PRP-specific IgG and IgA. Groups of female BALB/c mice (n = 6) were inoculated as ... and used to measure bactericidal activity. The Hib bactericidal assay was performed as described elsewhere (28, 29). Briefly, ... suggesting that at least IgG was associated with serum bactericidal effects, although the role of IgA in bactericidal activity ... Avidity and bactericidal activity of antibody elicited by different Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. The ...
more infohttps://cvi.asm.org/content/20/11/1690

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

blood bactericidal activity (3) 3 Filter by. Remove filter. blood transfusion (3) 3 ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=Author:Leers,%20W.-D

Ghent University Academic BibliographyGhent University Academic Bibliography

Phagocytic and bactericidal activity of blood and milk-resident neutrophils against Staphylococcus aureus in primiparous and ... Respiratory burst activity and viability of bovine blood and milk neutrophils during different stages of lactation and mastitis ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/publication?q=author%3D%22Mehrzad%2C+Jalil%22+or+

Antibiotic Concentrations Among Critically Ill Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govAntibiotic Concentrations Among Critically Ill Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

antibiotics] in blood versus bactericidal activity [ Time Frame: 1/2 antibiotic dose interval (expected maximum of 4 days; days ... antibiotics] in blood versus bactericidal activity [ Time Frame: 30 minutes before second antibiotic dose (expected maximum of ... Biological: Blood sampling Blood samples will be harvested in one sequence at any time during the week set for the study. In ... SOFA score [ Time Frame: at time of blood sampling (day 1) ]. *PIRO score [ Time Frame: at time of blood sampling (day 1) ]. * ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01543334?term=AMPICILLIN&

International consortium for trials in tuberculosis (intertb)International consortium for trials in tuberculosis (intertb)

Whole blood bactericidal activity during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. J Inf Dis 2003; 187: 270-278. 14. Wallis RS, ... several markers of sterilising activity. 2.2.1 Early Bactericidal Activity. Studies of the early bactericidal activity (EBA) of ... 2.2.1 Early bactericidal activity (EBA) 2.2.2 Markers of sterilising activity Clinical 3. Capacity strengthening in operations ... A review of pyrazinamide activity 26 indicates that one would expect greater bactericidal activity as the metabolism of the ...
more infohttp://diseasepdf.com/i/intertb.sgul.ac.uk1.html

Persistence of bactericidal antibodies to 5 years of age after immunization with serogroup B meningococcal vaccines at 6, 8, 12...Persistence of bactericidal antibodies to 5 years of age after immunization with serogroup B meningococcal vaccines at 6, 8, 12...

Forty-nine control children were also recruited and blood obtained before and after 2 doses of 4CMenB at 60 and 62 months of ... However, data are limited on persistence of serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA), which is necessary to inform cost- ... Antibodies, Bacterial, Blood Bactericidal Activity, Female, Humans, Infant, Male, Meningococcal Vaccines, Neisseria ... Persistence of bactericidal antibodies to 5 years of age after immunization with serogroup B meningococcal vaccines at 6, 8, 12 ...
more infohttps://www.ovg.ox.ac.uk/publications/462117

Plus itPlus it

Pharmacokinetics and whole-blood bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis of single doses of PNU-100480 in ... Delamanid showed, both in vitro and in vivo, a high activity (and significant early bactericidal activity (EBA)) in adult cases ... assessing safety and efficacy using EBA and whole-blood bactericidal activity was completed (table 6) [47]. ... The bactericidal activity of the of the 8-week regimens was higher than that of the current WHO-recommended regimen in both ...
more infohttps://openres.ersjournals.com/content/1/1/00010-2015

Most recent papers with the keyword hup A | Read by QxMDMost recent papers with the keyword hup A | Read by QxMD

Activity of faropenem with and without rifampicin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: evaluation in a whole-blood bactericidal ... We tested this in a whole-blood bactericidal activity (WBA) trial. Methods: We randomized healthy volunteers to receive a ... of-faropenem-with-and-without-rifampicin-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-evaluation-in-a-whole-blood-bactericidal-activity- ... allopurinol-to-increase-antimycobacterial-efficacy-of-pyrazinamide-as-evaluated-in-a-whole-blood-bactericidal-activity-model ...
more infohttps://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/43976
  • Taken together, our results showed that these factors were important features for fungal virulence in humans and suggested that thermolabile components in the blood serum may induce M. circinelloides virulence. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Lycopene is an important carotenoid for its antioxidant function but does not possess the beta-ionone ring structure (required for vitamin A activity) and, therefore, is not a precursor of vitamin A. In humans, beta-carotene and lycopene are the predominant carotenoids in tissue (Ribaya-Mercado et al. (dsm.com)
  • In contrast, control mice vaccinated transdermally (t.d.) with Hibv did not produce significant levels of PRP-specific IgA in the blood serum and saliva, and anti-PRP IgG was increased only in serum. (asm.org)
  • Those studies demonstrated that PMPs from both sources exert rapid and potent microbicidal activities against pathogens that commonly access the bloodstream, including Staphylococcus aureus , viridans group streptococci, Escherichia coli , and Candida albicans . (asm.org)
  • Because of their importance in assessing the activity of new antituberculosis drugs, basic studies of factors affecting response to chemotherapy and the study of surrogate markers of relapse will form a major part of the work of the consortium. (diseasepdf.com)
  • Intranasal vaccination with Hibv using a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist as an adjuvant significantly increased the levels of IgA specific for the PRP capsule antigen in blood serum, saliva, and mucosal secretion specimens. (asm.org)
  • If you frequently use a large area of the wound surface and mucous membranes may occur systemic reabsorption of iodine, which can affect the tests of functional activity of the thyroid gland. (blogspot.com)
  • In this study, sporangiospores (spores) produced on YPG medium supplemented with native blood serum increased the virulence of M. circinelloides compared with spores produced on YPG supplemented with denatured blood serum or on YPG alone. (bioportfolio.com)
  • During Dr. Heist's seminal study of the properties of a person's blood serum that protect against this bacterium, he died of meningitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present studies defined the structure of PMP-1 and examined its structure-activity relationships. (asm.org)
  • Four of these carotenoids, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, gamma-carotene, and cryptoxanthin (the main carotenoid of corn), are of particular importance because of their provitamin A activity. (dsm.com)