The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
A class of quinoline compounds defined by the presence of two aromatic ring structures which are attached via a side chain to carbon 3 of the qunolinyl structure. The two aromatic moieties are typically NAPTHALENE and BENZENE. Several compounds in this class are used as ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.
Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.
Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
A gram-negative gliding bacterium isolated from the oral cavity. It is a pathogen often causing PERIODONTITIS.
A synthetic broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent active against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
Procedures for identification and measurement of IMMUNOGLOBULINS in the blood that initiate lysis of bacteria.
A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.
Disorders in which phagocytic cells cannot kill ingested bacteria; characterized by frequent recurring infection with formulation of granulomas.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
A macrolide antibiotic that has a wide antimicrobial spectrum and is particularly effective in respiratory and genital infections.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.
A macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. It is the lauryl sulfate salt of the propionic ester of erythromycin. This erythromycin salt acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
A macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. This compound is an ester of erythromycin base and succinic acid. It acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
Analog of KANAMYCIN with antitubercular as well as broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A compound originally developed as an anticoagulant, but possessing anticomplement action and lowering the bactericidal action of blood. It is used in vitro to inhibit blood coagulation and as a diagnostic reagent to encourage the growth of pathogens in the blood. It is also used to stabilize colloidal solutions such as milk and gelatin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A semi-synthetic antibiotic related to penicillin.
Substances that suppress Mycobacterium leprae, ameliorate the clinical manifestations of leprosy, and/or reduce the incidence and severity of leprous reactions.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (1/1592)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascade in human neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and in migration. (2/1592)

Killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by neutrophils involves adherence of the microorganisms, phagocytosis, and a collaborative action of oxygen reactive species and components of the granules. While a number of intracellular signalling pathways have been proposed to regulate neutrophil responses, the extent to which each pathway contributes to the killing of S. aureus and C. albicans has not been clearly defined. We have therefore examined the effect of blocking one such pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, using the specific inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, PD98059, on the ability of human neutrophils to kill S. aureus and C. albicans. Our data demonstrate the presence of ERK2 and a 43-kDa form of ERK but not ERK1 in human neutrophils. Upon stimulation with formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), the activities of both ERK2 and the 43-kDa form were stimulated. Despite abrogating the activity of both ERK forms, PD98059 only slightly reduced the ability of neutrophils to kill S. aureus or C. albicans. This is consistent with our finding that PD98059 had no effect on neutrophil adherence or degranulation, although pretreatment of neutrophils with PD98059 inhibited fMLP-stimulated superoxide production by 50%, suggesting that a change in superoxide production per se is not strictly correlated with microbicidal activity. However, fMLP-stimulated chemokinesis was markedly inhibited, while random migration and fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis were partially inhibited, by PD98059. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the ERK cascade plays only a minor role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils and that the ERK cascade is involved primarily in regulating neutrophil migration in response to fMLP.  (+info)

The levels and bactericidal capacity of antibodies directed against the UspA1 and UspA2 outer membrane proteins of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis in adults and children. (3/1592)

The UspA1 and UspA2 proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis share antigenic epitopes and are promising vaccine candidates. In this study, the levels and bactericidal activities of antibodies in sera from healthy adults and children toward UspA1 and UspA2 from the O35E strain were measured. Human sera contained antibodies to both proteins, and the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were age dependent. Adult sera had significantly higher titers of IgG than child sera (P < 0.01). The IgG3 titers to the UspA proteins were higher than the IgG1 titers in the adults' sera, while the IgG1 titers were higher than the IgG3 titers in the children's sera (P < 0.05). The IgG antibodies in the sera from 2-month-old children appeared to be maternally derived, since the mean titer was significantly higher than that in sera from 6- to 7-month-old children (P < 0.05). Serum IgA antibodies to both UspA1 and UspA2 were low during the first 7 months of age but thereafter gradually increased along with the IgG titers. Analysis of sera absorbed with UspA1 or UspA2 showed that the antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were cross-reactive with each other and associated with serum bactericidal activity. Examination of affinity-purified human antibodies confirmed that naturally acquired antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were bactericidal and cross-reactive. These results support using UspA1 and UspA2 in a vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections.  (+info)

Characterization of human bactericidal antibodies to Bordetella pertussis. (4/1592)

The Bordetella pertussis BrkA protein protects against the bactericidal activity of complement and antibody; however, some individuals mount an immune response that overcomes this bacterial defense. To further characterize this process, the bactericidal activities of sera from 13 adults with different modes of exposure to B. pertussis (infected as adults, occupational exposure, immunized with an acellular vaccine, or no identified exposure) against a wild-type strain and a BrkA complement-sensitive mutant were evaluated. All of the sera killed the BrkA mutant, suggesting past exposure to B. pertussis or cross-reactive organisms. Several samples had no or minimal activity against the wild type. All of the sera collected from the infected and occupationally exposed individuals but not all of the sera from vaccinated individuals had bactericidal activity against the wild-type strain, suggesting that some types of exposure can induce an immune response that can overcome the BrkA resistance mechanism. Adsorbing serum with the wild-type strain removed the bactericidal antibodies; however, adsorbing the serum with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant or an avirulent (bvg mutant) strain did not always result in loss of bactericidal activity, suggesting that antibodies to either LPS or bvg-regulated proteins could be bactericidal. All the samples, including those that lacked bactericidal activity, contained antibodies that recognized the LPS of B. pertussis. Bactericidal activity correlated best with the presence of the immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) antibodies to LPS, the IgG subtype that is most effective at fixing complement.  (+info)

Isolation of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E from aquatic habitats in Taiwan. (5/1592)

The existence of strains of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E that are avirulent for eels is reported in this work. These isolates were recovered from water and oysters and differed from eel virulent strains in (i) fermentation and utilization of mannitol, (ii) ribotyping after HindIII digestion, and (iii) susceptibility to eel serum. Lipopolysaccharide of these strains lacked the highest molecular weight immunoreactive bands, which are probably involved in serum resistance.  (+info)

Role of nonagglutinating antibody in the protracted immunity of vaccinated mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. (6/1592)

Effective immunization against infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is difficult to evaluate because agglutinin levels decline rapidly. Because fractionation of hyperimmune sera often yields more specific antibody than can be accounted for by direct agglutination tests, an immunoglobulin-specific assay based on antiglobulin augmentation was used to characterize antibody responses of C3H/HeJ mice vaccinated with P. aeruginosa type 2 lipopolysaccharide. Nonagglutinating antibodies, initially detected at 2 weeks post-primary vaccination, were predominantly immunoglobulin G after 5 weeks, and they remained elevated at levels usually 32-fold higher than the direct titer throughout the 4-month study period. The sequential production of immunoglobulin M, then immunoglobulin G, followed that found in orthodox immunological responses. Sera that contained nonagglutinating antibodies but not direct agglutinins (14 to 16 weeks) enhanced phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa type 2 by macrophages from unimmunized mice and passively immunized mice against lethal challenge doses; bactericidal activity of these sera was not demonstrated in the presence or absence of complement. When challenged with 1, 10, and 100 50% lethal doses at 16 weeks, survival rates of actively immunized mice were significantly higher than those of unvaccinated mice (P < 0.001). Thus, at a time when no direct agglutinins were detectable, the augmented system detected nonagglutinating antibodies that could confer protracted resistance in vaccinated mice to pseudomonas infection.  (+info)

Effects of iron and culture filtrates on killing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by normal human serum. (7/1592)

Neisseria gonorrhoeae GC9, both colony types T2 and T4, were killed by normal human serum, although populations of colony type T4 were more susceptible. Ferric ammonium citrate prevented the killing of populations of both T2 and T4 colony types. Other iron compounds tested showed no protective effect, nor did ammonium citrate or the divalent cations magnesium or calcium. A filtrate from cultures of an N. gonorrhoeae strain grown in a liquid defined medium showed a similar protective effect in the serum assay. The filtrate appeared to chelate iron, as measured by decreased ability of iron-free transferin to bind iron in the presence of the filtrate. However, the two effects did not appear to be related. Neither ferric ammonium citrate nor the culture filtrate sufficiently inactivated complement to account for protection.  (+info)

Type-specific opsonophagocytosis of group A Streptococcus by use of a rapid chemiluminescence assay. (8/1592)

A whole-blood chemiluminescence (CL) assay was developed to determine the presence of type-specific opsonic antibodies against group A streptococcus (GAS). Convalescent sera with high bactericidal activities against an M-1 serotype were used to opsonize different M-types of GAS. CL responses were monitored for 20 min, and results were expressed as integral counts/minute per phagocyte. CL responses of phagocytes incubated with M-1 GAS opsonized with homologous (M-1) serum were significantly higher than responses of phagocytes incubated with heterologous (M-3) GAS. Adsorption of convalescent serum against the homologous, but not the heterologous, strain markedly reduced the CL response, demonstrating type specificity. The CL assay showed a high correlation with the indirect bactericidal test (r=0.90). In conclusion, this CL assay is a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible method for quantifying type-specific opsonic antibodies against GAS and will be a useful tool for future clinical, basic science, and epidemiological studies.  (+info)

We prepared bacterial hybrids which express both K1 and K27 antigens and examined the relative contributions of these capsules to serum resistance. Escherichia coli Hfr strain F639 (rough, K27+, serum sensitive) was conjugated with E. coli recipient strain E412 (rough, K1+, His- Trp- Strr, serum resistant). Transconjugants which inherited both the his and trp linked genes for K27 antigen synthesis were analyzed. These hybrids retained and expressed the K1 antigen since the K1 locus is nonallelic with K27 gene loci. Hybrid strains which express both K1 and K27 antigens exhibit serum resistance, but not at the level of the K1+ parental strain. An isogenic K1 derivative of a hybrid which expressed only K27 antigen was serum sensitive (greater than 99% kill, 60 min). These findings indicate that the presence of the K1 capsular antigen can protect some rough strains of E. coli from serum bactericidal activity, whereas K27 and perhaps other K antigens fail to provide such a protective effect. ...
When an antibody-sensitized Escherichia coli B (parent strain) is treated with complement in the absence of lysozyme, free fatty acids (FFA) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) are liberated into the lipid fraction of the surrounding medium in addition to a little amount of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). However, when a phospholipase A-deficient mutant isolated from the parent strain is similarly treated, PE appears in the lipid fraction, but only traces of its degradation products are found. Therefore, most of the degradation of bacterial PE to FFA and LPE observed in the usual immune bactericidal reaction must be the result of the action of bacterial phospholipase A.. When liposomes which were made from a mixture of lipid fractions of sheep erythrocytes and of 14C-labeled E. coli are treated with complement, 14C-phospholipids are also liberated into the surrounding medium, but the degradation products (FFA and LPE) are not observed. Some of the liberated lipids seem to bind with some ...
Summary Bactericidal activity of serum IgA and secretory IgA in the presence of serum fractions deficient in several components of complement has been demonstrated. Two new serum factors independent of the complement system are postulated to explain the bactericidal action of IgA.
Burada antikor serum Shigellacidal etkinliğini ölçmek için bir iletişim kuralı mevcut. Serum bakteri ve inkübe, eksojen...
Inspired by nature, CiMaas will bring two arms of the immune system together to enhance the killing capacity of the system as a whole.
Do you know that smoking is killing you both mentally and physically? Here are the reasons why you should quit smoking as early possible.
Definition of intracellular killing assay in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is intracellular killing assay? Meaning of intracellular killing assay as a finance term. What does intracellular killing assay mean in finance?
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Differences in molecular composition of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) between serum-sensitive (S) clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and serum-resistant (R) clones derived by serial passage in serum were demonstrated to determine sensitivity or resistance to killing by normal human serum (NHS). LPS from R clones had a greater proportion of higher-molecular-weight, more highly O-antigen-substituted subunits than LPS from their serum S parents. Utilization of a liposomal model with inserted LPS simulating bacterial cell walls established LPS as the site of serum bactericidal action. Liposomes containing S LPS were lysed, while liposomes containing R LPS were unaffected by NHS. R and S LPS were fractionated into higher (F1)- and lower (F2)-molecular-weight fractions. Liposomes containing R LPS or the F1 fraction of S and R LPS were not lysed by serum. Liposomes containing the F2 fraction of S or R LPS were lysed by serum analogous to that observed with liposomes containing intact S LPS. These ...
Disclosed are novel bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein products wherein cysteine residue number 132 or 135 is replaced by another amino acid residue, preferably an alanine or serine residue and/or wherein the leucine residue at position 193 is the carboxy terminal residue. Also disclosed are DNA sequences encoding methods for the production of the same in appropriate host cells, and stable homogeneous pharmaceutical compositions containing the analogs suitable for use treatment of gram negative bacterial infection and its sequelae.
Forty strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii recovered from invasive and non-invasive infections were tested for their susceptibility to complement-mediated lysis by 65% pooled human serum (PHS). Based upon the results of this assay, two major populations could be defined. The first group (n = 20) consisted of serogroup 0:11 strains, all of which possessed a paracrystalline surface layer (S layer); all of these strains were refractory to the bactericidal activity of 65% PHS with the exception of A. hydrophila strain AH-121, which was composed of mixed subpopulations of serum-susceptible and serum-resistant clones. A second collection of isolates (n = 20), all of which were S-layer-negative, contained a subgroup of strains (n = 7) that were highly susceptible to complement-mediated lysis, showing a greater than 100-fold reduction of viable progeny within 30 min of exposure to 65% PHS. Serum-resistant strains from both groups could not be lysed by exposure of bacterial cells to polyclonal
Like the findings from Africa (6, 8), our results indicate the widespread occurrence of complement-dependent, antibody-mediated bactericidal activity against S. Typhimurium in sera from healthy adults in the Boston area, as well as an age-dependent increase in this activity during maturation from child to adult. However, in contrast to the results from Africa, the bactericidal antibodies in our study appear to be directed against S. Typhimurium LPS rather than outer membrane proteins. Our data also indicate that the bactericidal antibodies discriminate between LPS from S. Typhimurium and E. coli, suggesting that the antibodies recognize a determinant in the outer polysaccharide of LPS (22, 23). The bactericidal activities of 2 of our samples appeared to be affected by acetylation of the abequose residue in the LPS outer polysaccharide, suggesting fine differences in antigen specificity within our collection. IgG purified from our samples was sufficient to recapitulate the bactericidal activity ...
Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), a cationic protein isolated from human neutrophils, binds lipopolysaccharide (LPS), kills gram-negative bacteria, and neutralizes many of the effects of LPS in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that a recombinant 23-kDa NH2-terminal fragment of BPI (BPI23) would reduce acute lung injury in endotoxemic pigs. At -18 h, pigs received an intravenous priming dose of LPS (20 micrograms/kg). Anesthetized ventilated swine were randomized to receive 1) no further treatment (n = 4); 2) LPS (250 micrograms/kg over 50 min) and BPI23 (3-mg/kg bolus and 3 mg/kg over 60 min) (n = 6); or 3) LPS and thaumatin, a cationic protein devoid of LPS neutralizing activity that has a molecular mass and isoelectric point that are similar to that of BPI23 (n = 7). BPI23 treatment significantly ameliorated LPS-induced hypoxemia, functional upregulation of opsonin receptors on circulating phagocytes, and alveolitis but had no effect on the elaboration of tumor necrosis ...
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BioAssay record AID 367413 submitted by ChEMBL: Bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli NIHJ JC-2 preincubated for 1 min before addition of growth medium measured after 40 to 48 hrs.
Mouse monoclonal to CD15.DW3 reacts with CD15 (3-FAL ), a 220 kDa carbohydrate structure, also called X-hapten. CD15 is expressed on greater than 95% of granulocytes including neutrophils and eosinophils and to a varying degree on monodytes, but not on lymphocytes or basophils. CD15 antigen is important for direct carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction and plays a role in mediating phagocytosis, bactericidal activity and chemotaxis. risk of BMI less than 18 kg/m2 during follow-up was AZD6482 inverse and linear (value: 0.03). Notably 145 women experienced an episode of wasting in the first 24 months of follow-up of the full total 222 ladies who experienced this event in the entire duration of follow-up. In evaluation with continuous supplement D amounts using limited cubic splines we discovered that risk of throwing away during the 1st 24 months of follow-up was inversely and linearly linked to supplement D concentrations; the bigger the supplement D levels reduced the chance of throwing away ...
Overview of antimicrobial proteins called lysozymes Lysozymes, also known as muramidase, are the most important bactericidal proteins of the mucosal immunity. T
Normal兔Serum (Sterile)试剂datasheet (ab7487).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
Meningococcal surface proteins capable of evoking a protective immune response are candidates for inclusion in protein-based vaccines against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (NmB). In this study, a 2-dimensional (2-D) gel-based platform integrating surface and immune-proteomics was developed to
The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) gene has been identified as a candidate gene for disease-resistance breeding. We evaluated whether polymorphisms in exons 4 and 10 of the BPI gene are associated with immune indices [interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, interferon-b (IFN-b), IL-10, and IL-12]. In this study, we identified one mutation (C522T) in the BPI exon 4 site and two mutations (A1060G and T1151G) in the BPI exon 10 site.
It has been suggested that a hand rub should have at least activity against bacteria, yeasts and enveloped viruses [1]. In our study only the bactericidal activity of a hand gel based on 85% (w/w) ethanol was looked at. We were able to show for the first time that the tested gel kills the most relevant nosocomial bacterial pathogens in only 15 s. Ethanol is known to have a strong bactericidal activity with log10 reductions , 5 which has been demonstrated against some of the most common nosocomial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [7, 19-22] and which includes activity against various mycobacteria [23-25]. Nevertheless, this type of comprehensive bactericidal activity as described in our study has so far only been demonstrated with a propanol-based hand rub and an exposure time of 30 s [8].. Suspension tests, however, are not the critical part in the assessment of the efficacy assessment of alcohol-based hand antiseptics [26]. In a study with tests under practical ...
Sialic acid in the lipolysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae: Strain distribution, influence on serum resistance and structural characterization: Mol.Microbiol.
bactericidal activity under conditions of use. UNE-EN 1276: 2010 and 2011. Erratum Quantitative suspension test for the evaluation of bactericidal activity in the food, household and institutional area (phase 2, step 1). ENAC.
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Normal Rabbit Serum, 5 ml. Serum is the clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood plasma that does not contain fibrinogen or blood cells and remains fluid after clotting.
1. Healthy adolescents and young adults treated with the Neisseria meningitidis vaccine MenB-FHbp had increased bactericidal antibody responses (hSBA titer)
Sunni Islamist Baluch militants have claimed responsibility for the November 6 killing of a prosecutor in Irans restive southeastern province of Sistan-Baluchistan.
Moreover the human α-Defensin human neutrophil peptide 1 was revealed to show anti-HIV activity. HNP-one inhibits the binding of the virus to its coreceptor , the endocytosis of the virus into the target cell as well as the release of the HIV-genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. Even so HNP-one did not inhibit the endocytosis of Influenza A virus displaying some selectivity of the AMPs in their tropism. These final results evidently demonstrate that defensins not only screen antimicrobial activity but in addition are lively from viruses as nicely.Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein belongs to the class of AMPs. In distinction to the over mentioned defensins BPI owing to the 55 kDa molecular measurement of the protein is structurally significantly a lot more intricate than the peptides, which are in the selection of 3-five kDa. The BPI protein loved ones contains of far more than ten associates but only BPI alone displays a powerful antimicrobial exercise. BPI functions ...
The immunological basis for resistance of certain strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to the bactericidal action of normal human serum was studied by investigating the potential role of factors which are known to interfere with each of the sequential steps that result in immune lysis of Gram-negative b …
The simple conclusion of former investigators that the shorter the wave length of ultra violet light the greater the bactericidal action is in error. A study wi
Seham, M. Shash1, Ahmad, Z. Al-Herrawy2, Mohammed, M. Kamel2 and Hamdy, A.El-Sadik3 1 Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benh...
Seham, M. Shash1, Ahmad, Z. Al-Herrawy2, Mohammed, M. Kamel2 and Hamdy, A.El-Sadik3 1 Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benh...
Amox-Tabs is a broad-spectrum antibiotic which provides bactericidal activity against a wide range of common gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. Amoxicillin has bactericidal activity against susceptible organisms similar to that of ampicillin.
A monocyclic ring in their structure characterizes monobactams, a subclass of β-lactam antibiotics. Many of these compounds have a bactericidal mechanism of ac
Bactericidal effects of 8,9-dihydroxy-1,5,6,10b-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolin- 3(2H)-one (Trolline) on selected entero-pathogenic bacteria
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TY - JOUR UR - http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:131442 ID - pug01:131442 LA - eng TI - Decreased neutrophil bactericidal activity during phagocytosis of a slime-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain PY - 2000 JO - (2000) VETERINARY RESEARCH SN - 0928-4249 PB - 2000 AU - Barrio, Belén AU - Vangroenweghe, Fr DI08 801001347145 053711611855 AU - Dosogne, Hilde AU - Burvenich, Christian DI07 801000346934 0000-0002-1156-0981 AB - Phagocytosis and intracellular killing by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are important host defence mechanisms against mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We compared the phagocytosis and overall killing of a non slime-producing (NSP) S. aureus and its slime-producing (SP) variant by blood PMN, using an in vitro bacteriological assay. Seven clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation stage were used for this purpose. The percentages of overall killing for the NSP and SP variant were 34 +/- 3% and 21 +/- 4% (P < 0.05) and the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An apoptosis-differentiation program in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes facilitates resolution of inflammation. AU - Kobayashi, Scott D.. AU - Voyich, Jovanka M.. AU - Somerville, Greg A.. AU - Braughton, Kevin R.. AU - Malech, Harry L.. AU - Musser, James M.. AU - DeLeo, Frank R.. PY - 2003/2/1. Y1 - 2003/2/1. N2 - Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are an essential part of innate immunity and contribute significantly to inflammation. Although much is understood about the inflammatory response, the molecular basis for termination of inflammation in humans is largely undefined. We used human oligonucleotide microarrays to identify genes differentially regulated during the onset of apoptosis occurring after PMN phagocytosis. Genes encoding proteins that regulate cell metabolism and vesicle trafficking comprised 198 (98 genes induced, 100 genes repressed) of 867 differentially expressed genes. We discovered that complex cellular pathways involving glutathione and ...
EN] The evaluation of animal welfare through innate immunity (Serum Bactericidal Activity - SBA, Hemolytic Complement Assay - HCA, lysozyme) and the antioxidant status of the body (Reactive Oxygen Substances - ROS and Antioxidant Power of plasma, AP) offers a reliable prognostic and diagnostic tool. The aim of the present study was to investigate trends and correlations between some traits of innate immunity and the oxidative status of fattening rabbits at different ages. Blood samples from 120 New Zealand White fattening rabbits at 45, 55, 65, and 75 d of age were collected and analyzed. The results showed that SBA did not have a normal distribution because of numerous 0 values. Data distribution was normal when only SBA , 0 values were considered. Lysozyme (mean value 27.19 microg/mL) and HCA (mean value 50.84 CH50% ) had stable trends at different ages and showed a tendency that was comparable to that obtained in other animal species. On the contrary, SBA (mean value 42.15%) showed an ...
The virulence of the uropathogenic E. coli strain 536 (06: K 1 5: H31) which produces the S-fimbrial adhesin (Sfa•), is serum-resistant (Sre+) and hemolytic (Hiy+) and its derivatives were assessed in five different animal models. Cloned hemolysin (h/y) determinants from the Chromosomes of 06,018 and 075 E. colistrains and from the plasmid pHiy152 were introduced into the spontaneaus Sfa-, Sre-, Hly- mutant 536-21 and its Sfa+, Sre+, Hly- variant 536-31. As already demonstrated for the 536-21 strains {lnfect. Immun. 42: 57-63) the 018-hly determinant but not the plasmid-encoded hly determinant of pHiy 1 52 transformed into 536-31 contribute to lethality in a mouse peritonitis modal. Similar results were obtained with both Hlyhost strains and their Hly+ transformants in a chicken embryo test and in a mouse nephropathogenicity assay in which the renal bacterial counts were measured 1 5 min to 8 hours after i.v. infection. S-fimbriae and serum resistance had only a marginal influence in these ...
I never really gave much thought to commercial cleaning products! they cleaned and thats what they were supposed to do… I knew that I was not supposed to get them in my eye or accidentally consume them of course! but other than that it had never occurred to me that they might be slowly killing…
Former motocross ace Mark Donnelly - recently acquitted of the one-punch killing of Monaghan teenager Jason McGovern - walked free from court yesterday when a judge gave him a suspended
MenBvac is an outer membrane vesicle vaccine against systemic meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. In this placebo-controlled double-blind study including 374 healthy adolescents, the safety and immunogenicity of a schedule of three primary doses 6 weeks apart followed by a fourth dose a year later were evaluated. Antibody responses to the vaccine strain and heterologous strains (non-vaccine-type strains) and the persistence of these antibodies were measured by the serum bactericidal assay (SBA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay up to 1 year after the last dose. The proportion of subjects with SBA titers of ≥4 against the vaccine strain increased from 3% prevaccination to 65% after the third dose. Ten months later, this proportion had declined to 28%. The fourth dose induced a booster response demonstrated by 93% of subjects achieving a titer of ≥4. One year after the booster dose, 64% still showed SBA titers of ≥4. Cross-reacting antibodies were induced ...
Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) expressing hypermucoviscosity phenotype (HV-KP) has abundant capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and is capable of causing invasive syndrome. Sodium salicylate (SAL) reduces the production of CPS. The study was aimed to investigate the relationship between aspirin usage and KP-mediated invasive syndrome and the effect of SAL on HV-KP. Patients with community-acquired KP bacteraemia were prospectively enrolled. KP-M1, a serotype-K1 HV-KP clinical isolate, was used in the following experiments: CPS production, HV-KP phenotype, and the effect of SAL on neutrophils phagocytosis. The effect of oral aspirin intake on the leukocyte bactericidal activity was evaluated. Patients infected by HV-KP and diabetic patients with poor glycemic control were at an increased risk for invasive syndrome (p | 0.01); those who had recent use of aspirin (p = 0.02) were at a lower risk. CPS production was significantly reduced in the presence of SAL. The HV-KP phenotype and resistance to neutrophil
Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and potentially life-threatening infection. Innate immunity is the first line of defence, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by white blood cells and at epithelial barriers participate by killing microorganisms and neutralizing bacterial toxins. We wanted to investigate whether concentrations of AMPs (1) are increased in CAP, (2) predict the clinical outcome, and (3) differ depending on the causative microbe. Methods: Plasma concentrations of AMPs were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 89 patients with CAP, 21 patients with non-respiratory tract infections (non-RTI), and 63 healthy control subjects. Results: In subjects with CAP, mean plasma concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) were significantly higher than in healthy control subjects (85 vs 45 ng/ml, p , 0.001 and 48 vs 10 ng/ml, p , 0.001, respectively), but less markedly ...
Two Pfizer, Inc., studies released on Friday found that its bivalent rLP2086 recombinant vaccine candidate for meningococcal disease was able to generate bactericidal responses.
Immunogenicity was measured as the percentages of overall subjects with hSBA (human serum bactericidal assay) seroresponse, directed against Neisseria meningitidis (N meningitidis) serogroups A, C, W and Y, 28 days after one vaccination of MenACWY-CRM (day 29).. The seroresponse is defined as the percentages of subjects achieving hSBA ≥1:8 postvaccination with a prevaccination hSBA ,1:4 and the percentages of subjects achieving at least four-fold increases in postvaccination hSBA from day 1 in subjects with a baseline hSBA ≥1:4 ...
Percentage of participants with serum bactericidal activity (SBA) of the Meningococcal ACWY vaccine at one month after vaccination against A, C, W-135 and Y strains. Bactericidal activity (% ≥ 1:4, i.e., percentage of subjects with BCA titer ≥ 1:4; % ≥ 1:8, i.e. percentage of subjects with BCA titer ≥ 1:8) against a panel of genetically distinct meningococcal B strains:. ...
119 children with recurrent respiratory infections were investigated for immunocompetence. They were divided into two groups. The first, group A, comprised children who had had predominantly upper respiratory infections. Group B comprised those who had had repeated pneumonia in addition. The groups were comparable for gender and age (mean 4.2 years). All the children had reduced neutrophil chemotaxis, reduced neutrophil fungicidal capacity, and perhaps reduced T-cell percentages. Group B children had, in addition to the above, decreased neutrophil bactericidal capacity and a more marked depression of neutrophil chemotaxis. In both groups, some children had reduced immunoglobulin concentrations while others had either normal or increased concentrations. Serum complement, neutrophil iodination, and mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation were comparable with adult controls in both groups.. ...
We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil® source (RS) honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey killed Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 2 hours, whereas manuka honey had such rapid activity only against B. subtilis ...
The recovery, structure and function of dog granulocytes were determined before and after freeze preservation. Leucocytes were isolated from defibrinated or anticoagulated whole blood and subsequent erythrocyte sedimentation on a column of 2:1 dextran (6%)-Isopaque (33.9%). Granulocytes isolated by these procedures were examined for changes in O2 consumption associated with phagocytosis, in vitro directed migration (chemotaxis), bactericidal activity, and ultrastructure before and after freezing. Granulocytes were frozen in DMSO (7.5%) and autologous serum of HBSS and 20% autologous serum at the rate of -1 C/min to -80 C and stored in liquid N2 vapor. It is concluded that dog granulocytes freeze preserved by these methods are functional in vitro, but that phagocytic, directed migration, and bactericidal functions and ultrastructure are impaired to different degrees, according to the method of isolation and preparation for storage. These results indicate the need for continued investigation on the
Definition of neutrophil microbicidal assay in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is neutrophil microbicidal assay? Meaning of neutrophil microbicidal assay as a legal term. What does neutrophil microbicidal assay mean in law?
Emergency medicine. The focus of adaptive changes in the respiratory system in its most General form can be reduced to finding the most perfect forms of regulation during muscular work. This search is completed with a high efficiency during low-intensity work, provide aerobic (oxygen) energy sources.. Respiration in terms of relative muscular rest in the vast majority of children of school age bears the cost of civilization - prolonged sitting at a Desk, school Desk limits the mobility of the chest. Breathing becomes. shallow, shallow. Wellness, the value of such physiological respiration is small. The situation worsens when the child breathes through the mouth. The nose in this case is not fulfilling its bactericidal functions. The air is cleaned from dust particles, and at a low temperature and does not doubt. The subsequent chain of events completes the vicious circle: inflammatory processes in the nasopharynx doing breathing through KOs impossible or extremely difficult.. School-age ...
How do antibiotics kill bacteria? Compounds achieve their function by destroying the microorganism or stopping their proliferation. Read more.
Lung tissue polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) counts (expressed as PMNs/field) in 10 different fields, excluding airways and pulmonary vessels under 400 × magn
Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity. It provides bactericidal activity against a wide range of common gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens.
The full article is here at sciencemag.org A group led by engineer Xinpei Lu at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology in China believes it...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Discover Life -- BPI188783
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Discover Life -- BPI446511
The following pages link to Fleshpound (Killing Floor 2 VS): Displayed 240 items. View (previous 500 , next 500) (20 , 50 , 100 , 250 , 500) ...
The Art of Tree Killing with Technology. This John Deere is simply so efficient at cutting and stripping trees it is amazing, but it is also quicker at killing trees.
A Janesville man has been named as a person of interest in the killing of a Mazomanie woman, Dane County authorities said Wednesday.
A Janesville man has been named as a person of interest in the killing of a Mazomanie woman, Dane County authorities said Wednesday.
... whose blood had no bactericidal activity, acquired an N. meningitidis infection, the link between serum bactericidal activity ... concerned bactericidal properties of whole blood against strains of meningococcus. Control blood without bactericidal activity ... In 1919, Dr Heist and co-workers [Heist et al., 1922] established that clotted blood from different persons varied in its ... illustrates the lack of resistance to meningococcal infection that accompanies absence of bactericidal power against the ...
Possible role in the bactericidal activity of phagocytes". The Biochemical Journal. 254 (3): 685-92. doi:10.1042/bj2540685. PMC ... Hypochlorous acid is found naturally in white blood cells of mammals, including the human body. It is non-toxic and has been ... However, the concentration required for bactericidal activity is also highly dependent on bacterial concentration. In 1948, ... proposed the idea that inhibition of glucose oxidation is a major factor in the bacteriocidal nature of chlorine solutions. He ...
NO is also responsible for endothelium-derived relaxing factor activity regulating blood pressure. In macrophages, NO mediates ... tumoricidal and bactericidal actions, as indicated by the fact that inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS) block these effects. ...
The impairment of bactericidal activity manifests itself as the formation of an ulcer, plaque or papule. Malakoplakia is ... Urinalysis which indicates presence of bacteria and white blood cells. Urine culture Cystoscopic evaluation confirms presence ...
Bactericidal action of blood (George Nuttall) 1890 - Demonstration of antibody activity against diphtheria and tetanus toxins. ... Wright, A.E.; Stewart, R.D. (1 September 1903). "An experimental investigation on the role of the blood fluids in connection ... Blood groups (Karl Landsteiner) 1902 - Immediate hypersensitivity anaphylaxis (Paul Portier) and (Charles Richet) 1903 - ... Discovery of lymphocyte mitogenic activity, "blastogenic factor" (Shinpei Kamakura) and (Louis Lowenstein) (J. Gordon) and (L.D ...
... blood bactericidal activity MeSH G09.188.250.161 - blood cell count MeSH G09.188.250.161.330 - erythrocyte count MeSH G09.188. ... whole blood coagulation time MeSH G09.188.261.145 - blood bactericidal activity MeSH G09.188.261.420 - erythrocyte aggregation ... blood flow velocity MeSH G09.330.553.400.114 - blood pressure MeSH G09.330.553.400.114.695 - pulmonary wedge pressure MeSH ... blood viscosity MeSH G09.330.553.400.214 - blood volume MeSH G09.330.553.400.214.370 - erythrocyte volume MeSH G09.330.553.400. ...
... sterility of the normal small intestine Discovered that breast-fed children have stronger bactericidal activity in their blood ...
... of lipid raft Gal-4 participates in apical trafficking Gal-4 has bactericidal activity against bacteria expressing blood group ... Blood. 109 (1): 219-27. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-03-007153. PMC 1785076. PMID 16940423. Ideo H, Seko A, Yamashita K (2007). " ...
Domingue GJ, Neter E (1 January 1966). "Opsonizing and Bactericidal Activity of Antibodies Against Common Antigen of ... Domingue GJ, Schlegel JU (December 1978). "Novel bacterial structures in human blood. II. Bacterial variants as etiologic ...
These genes, however, limit the bactericidal activity of clindamycin. This type of resistance is rare in S. aureus, but has ... Clindamycin accumulates in macrophages and other white blood cells, which can result in concentrations 50 times higher than ... In this case, peptides will grow to a certain point until steric hindrance inhibits peptidyl transferase activity. Lincosamides ... Le Goffic, Francois (1985). "Structure activity relationships in lincosamide and streptogramin antibiotics". Cite journal ...
"Early Bactericidal Activity of Amoxicillin in Combination with Clavulanic Acid in Patients with Sputum Smear-positive Pulmonary ... "Lack of Activity of Orally Administered Clofazimine against Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Whole-Blood Culture". ... Jagannath, C; Reddy, M V; Kailasam, S; O'Sullivan, J F; Gangadharam, P R (1995). "Chemotherapeutic activity of clofazimine and ... Wayne, L G; Sramek, H A (1994). "Metronidazole is bactericidal to dormant cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Antimicrobial ...
1975). "Bactericidal and hemolytic activity of complement in bovine colostrum and serum: effect of proteolytic enzymes and ... This clears excess bilirubin, a waste-product of dead red blood cells, which is produced in large quantities at birth due to ... increasing lymphocyte proliferation stimulating activity and increasing phagocytosis activity. These are supported by other ... Transfer factors enhance the activity of T cells. Other growth and immune factors such as IGF-1, IGF-2, FGF, EGF, TGF, PDGF, ...
Aminoglycosides in laboratory tests showed some bactericidal activity. Bacteriostatic antibiotics are not able to easily get ... It is a facultative intracellular microbe that targets red blood cells. One study showed it invaded the mature blood cells of ... It can be cultured in a lysis-centrifugation blood culture. The presence of bacteria can be detected by Warthin-Starry stain, ...
... bactericidal activity. Due to the rarity of many primary immunodeficiencies, many of the above tests are highly specialised and ... The basic tests performed when an immunodeficiency is suspected should include a full blood count (including accurate ... Quantification of the different types of mononuclear cells in the blood (i.e. lymphocytes and monocytes): different groups of T ... such as otherwise healthy blood donors) having a rate of 1:600. Other disorders are distinctly more uncommon, with incidences ...
Possible role in the bactericidal activity of phagocytes". The Biochemical Journal. 254 (3): 685-92. doi:10.1042/bj2540685. PMC ... Disruption could occur if enough chlorohydrin is formed.[18][24] The addition of preformed chlorohydrin to red blood cells can ... the concentration required for bactericidal activity is also highly dependent on bacterial concentration.[29] ... In 1948, Knox et al.[29] proposed the idea that inhibition of glucose oxidation is a major factor in the bacteriocidal nature ...
... is a bactericidal, broad-spectrum antibiotic that has activity against Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive ... This allows reentry into the blood stream and recirculation, a mechanism that can extend the half-life. The longer half-life ... It has broad-spectrum, concentration dependent, bactericidal activity; however, its efficacy is not as good as enrofloxacin or ... Azlocillin, cimetidine and probenecid increase blood levels of difloxacin. Compounds (i.e. sucralfate, antacids, multivitamins ...
1975). "Bactericidal and hemolytic activity of complement in bovine colostrum and serum: effect of proteolytic enzymes and ... Paulík S, Slanina L, Polácek M (1985). "[Lysozyme in the colostrum and blood of calves and dairy cows]". Vet Med (Praha) (en ... McConnell, M. A.; Buchan, G.; Borissenko, M. V.; Brooks, H. J. L. (2001). "A comparison of IgG and IgG1 activity in an early ... Zimecki M (2008). "A proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum: colostrinin with immunomodulatory activity". Adv. Exp. Med ...
Paul WE (May 1991). "Interleukin-4: a prototypic immunoregulatory lymphokine". Blood. 77 (9): 1859-70. doi:10.1182/blood.V77.9. ... Activity of the alveolar macrophage is relatively high, because they are located at one of the major boundaries between the ... ROI generation by NADPH oxidase is an important bactericidal mechanism after FcR-mediated phagocytosis. PGE2 activates both Gs- ... In humans, however, NOS2 activity has been difficult to verify. There are two explanations for the lack of responsiveness in ...
1975). "Bactericidal and hemolytic activity of complement in bovine colostrum and serum: effect of proteolytic enzymes and ... Paulík S, Slanina L, Polácek M (January 1985). "[Lysozyme in the colostrum and blood of calves and dairy cows]". Vet Med (Praha ... Zimecki M (2008). A proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum: colostrinin with immunomodulatory activity. Adv. Exp. Med. ... This clears excess bilirubin, a waste-product of dead red blood cells, which is produced in large quantities at birth due to ...
The fluoroquinolones rapidly cross the blood-placenta and blood-milk barrier, and are extensively distributed into the fetal ... Quinolones are synthetic agents that have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity as well as a unique mechanism of action, ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are bactericidal drugs, eradicating bacteria by interfering with DNA replication. ... Fritsche TR, Biedenbach DJ, Jones RN (2008). "Antimicrobial Activity of Prulifloxacin Tested against a Worldwide Collection of ...
... and they may block transporter proteins that pump valproic acid out of red blood cells into the blood plasma. The effect is ... Like all beta-lactam antibiotics, ertapenem is bactericidal. It inhibits cross-linking of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial ... Like all carbapenem antibiotics, ertapenem has a broader spectrum of activity than other beta-lactams like penicillins and ... and its highest concentrations in the blood plasma are reached after about 2.3 hours. In the blood, 85-95% of ertapenem are ...
These PGRPs have both peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing amidase activity and are directly bactericidal to both Gram-positive and Gram- ... Blood. 102 (2): 689-697. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-12-3853. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 12649138. Lo, David; Tynan, Wendy; Dickerson, ... Mouse and bovine PGLYRP1 also have antibacterial activity, and bovine PGLYRP1 has also antifungal activity. These human PGRPs ... Blood. 106 (7): 2551-2558. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-02-0530. ISSN 0006-4971. PMC 1895263. PMID 15956276. Ghosh, Amit; Lee, ...
Moura IC, Hermine O (2015). "Erythroferrone: the missing link in β-thalassemia?". Blood. 126 (17): 1974-5. doi:10.1182/blood- ... Increased hepcidin activity is partially responsible for reduced iron availability seen in anemia of chronic inflammation, such ... and appeared to have bactericidal properties ("-cide" for "killing"). Although it is primarily synthesized in the liver, ... Blood. 106 (12): 3710-7. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-05-1857. PMID 16030190. hepcidin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...
It remains to be seen how in vitro activity relates to in vivo function. Mutants for the defensin-like antimicrobial peptide ... January 1989). "Insect immunity: isolation from immune blood of the dipteran Phormia terranovae of two insect antibacterial ... peptides with sequence homology to rabbit lung macrophage bactericidal peptides". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Defensins of mammals display anti-cancer activities in vitro, and down-regulation of human beta-defensin 1 is associated with ...
Newman GR, Walker M, Hobot JA, Bowler PG (March 2006). "Visualisation of bacterial sequestration and bactericidal activity ... Blood vessels constrict in tissue that becomes cold and dilate in warm tissue, altering blood flow to the area. Thus keeping ... The activity of elastase is increased by human serum albumin, which is the most abundant protein found in chronic wounds. ... Another way is to spread onto the wound a gel of the patient's own blood platelets, which then secrete growth factors such as ...
... has been suggested that children under 5 years of age are more susceptible to BPF since they lack serum bactericidal activity ... They require preformed growth factors that are present in blood, specifically hemin (X factor) and NAD or NADP (V factor). The ... Older children and adults have much higher titers of bactericidal antibodies, which serve as a protective measure. Also ... isolation of Haemophilus Influenzae Biogroup aegyptius from blood, and negative laboratory tests for Neisseria meningitidis. ...
1975). "Bactericidal and hemolytic activity of complement in bovine colostrum and serum: effect of proteolytic enzymes and ... Paulík S, Slanina L, Polácek M; Slanina; Polácek (January 1985). "[Lysozyme in the colostrum and blood of calves and dairy cows ... "Cytokine-inducing activity of a proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP) from ovine colostrum and its active nonapeptide ...
4) of the cerebral blood vessels. Vasodilation of the cerebral blood vessels will increase the blood flow to the brain's outer ... The essential oil was used for its mosquito biting deterrent and larvicidal activity. This encourages further investigation of ... 3. Drake, M.; Stuhr, E.; (1934) "Some pharmacological and bactericidal properties of umbellulone" [2]. Retrieved 2016-03-10.. ... Red blood cells will be less able to nurture organs with oxygen, therefore, the probability for hypoxia increases. ...
For example, LPCs increase the bactericidal activity of rodent neutrophils, enhance hydrogen peroxide production in rodent ... G2A-a and G2A-b mRNA are expressed at similar levels in blood leukocytes ( macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils [PMN], ... These activities are G2A-dependent. It is suggested that 9-HODE acts in human skin to block the proliferation of damaged cells ... G2A may similarly be responsible for the activities of other phospholipids which, like LPC have not been shown to bind to G2A ...
It gains access to the host's blood and lymph systems through tissue and mucous membranes. In more severe cases, it may gain ... T. pallidum's lack of either tricarboxylic acid cycle or oxidative phosphorylation results in minimal metabolic activity. The ... unless larger concentrations of penicillin are used for bactericidal effects. Penicillin overall is the most recommended ... Correlation of Functional Activities With Genome Sequence Data" (PDF). JMMB Review. 3 (1): 37-62. PMID 11200228 - via https:// ...
... blood, and white blood cells to fill the alveoli. This condition is called pneumonia.[20] It is susceptible to clindamycin.[21] ... Atromentin and leucomelone possess antibacterial activity, inhibiting the enzyme enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, ( ... pneumoniae against the bactericidal effect of mitomycin C.[17] Michod et al.[18] summarized evidence that induction of ... "Inhibitory and Bactericidal Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Streptococcus pneumoniae on Other Inhabitants of the ...
"Antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils". Medicinal Chemistry. 7 (6): 674-89. doi:10.2174/ ... and bactericidal.[14] ... nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity" ...
... coupled with an intrinsic reduction of their bactericidal activity. The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the ... Blood. 100 (10): 3698-3702. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-02-0657. PMID 12393723. Ouyang, Q.; W. M. Wagner; D. Voehringer; A. Wikby; T ... This is due to the accumulation of oxidative damage to DNA by aging and cellular metabolic activity and the shortening of ... Bruunsgaard, H.; A. N. Pedersen; M. Schroll; P. Skinhoj; B. K. Pedersen (2001). "Decreased natural killer cell activity is ...
Mechanism of antimicrobial activity[edit]. The general rule of the mechanism triggering cathelicidin action, like that of other ... as a receptor to chemoattract human peripheral blood neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells". The Journal of Experimental Medicine ... Vitamin D up-regulates genetic expression of cathelicidin, which exhibits broad-spectrum microbicidal activity against bacteria ... Gennaro R, Zanetti M (2000). "Structural features and biological activities of the cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides ...
Revis, Hannah C.; Waller, Deborah A. (2004). "Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of ant chemicals on feather parasites: an ... As blood travels through the venules to the veins a funneling occurs called vasodilation bringing blood back to the heart.[84] ... In the capillary beds blood flow is slowed to allow maximum diffusion of oxygen into the tissues. Once the blood has become ... The postcava receives blood from the limbs via the renal portal system. Unlike in mammals, the circulating red blood cells in ...
White blood cell. References[edit]. *^ WebMD (2009). "granulocyte". Webster's New World Medical Dictionary (3rd ed.). Houghton ... The intracellular granules of the human neutrophil have long been recognized for their protein-destroying and bactericidal ... "Neutrophil secretion products regulate anti-bacterial activity in monocytes and macrophages". Clinical & Experimental ... of the total circulating white blood cells.[4] One litre of human blood contains about five billion (5x109) neutrophils,[5] ...
Fletcher, R. D. (1965). "Activity and morphology of Vibrio coli phage". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 26 (111): 361- ... jejuni infection can also spread to the blood in individuals with AIDS, while C. lari is a known cause of recurrent diarrhea in ... other bactericidal antibiotics are used, such as ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, or aminoglycosides. Fluoroquinolone ... "Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Strains: In Vitro Activities of 20 ...
lipopolysaccharide receptor activity. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • receptor activity. • lipopeptide binding. ... This gene is expressed most abundantly in peripheral blood leukocytes, and mediates host response to Gram-positive bacteria[6] ... allowing a bactericidal sebum to be formed. ... positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity ... GO:0008329 pattern recognition receptor activity. • lipopolysaccharide binding. • Toll-like receptor binding. • triacyl ...
The Th1 response is characterized by the production of Interferon-gamma, which activates the bactericidal activities of ... doi:10.1182/blood.V71.4.876.876. PMID 3355895.. *^ Arese P, Turrini F, Schwarzer E (2005). "Band 3/complement-mediated ... The cells that carry out the adaptive immune response are white blood cells known as lymphocytes. B cells and T cells, two ... B Cells are the major cells involved in the creation of antibodies that circulate in blood plasma and lymph, known as humoral ...
High activity against the eukaryotic type II enzyme is exhibited by drugs containing aromatic substituents at their C-7 ... "FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are chemotherapeutic bactericidal drugs, eradicating bacteria by interfering with DNA ... The addition of the C6 fluorine atom has since been demonstrated not to be required for the antibacterial activity of this ...
In blood culture, the BacT/ALERT MB system (normally used for culturing mycobacteria) by bioMérieux has been shown to have ... 2011). "A Burkholderia pseudomallei toxin inhibits helicase activity of translation factor eIF4A". Science. 334 (6057): 821-4. ... Virkon and bleach are bactericidal for Burkholderia pseudomallei, a select agent and the cause of melioidosis". J Hosp Infect. ... B. pseudomallei is not fastidious and grows on a large variety of culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, EMB, etc.). ...
... carried in the blood to various parts of the body including the site of action (distribution), broken down in some fashion ( ... such as increased motor activity by methamphetamine, occurs with repeated use. It may occur through drug-independent learning ...
Ross SC, Berberich HM, Densen P (December 1985). "Natural serum bactericidal activity against Neisseria meningitidis isolates ... This is due to the release of toxins into the blood that break down the walls of blood vessels. A rash can develop under the ... The endotoxin directly affects the heart, reducing its ability to circulate blood, and also causes pressure on blood vessels ... As some blood vessels start to hemorrhage, major organs like the lungs and kidneys are damaged. ...
The loss of microbicidal activity and increased formation of biofilm due to decreased lactoferrin activity is observed in ... Titer of lactoferrin in the blood corresponds to this particular "transition concentration" and thus lactoferrin in the blood ... Kuwata H, Yip TT, Yip CL, Tomita M, Hutchens TW (1998). "Bactericidal domain of lactoferrin: detection, quantitation, and ... "Loss of microbicidal activity and increased formation of biofilm due to decreased lactoferrin activity in patients with cystic ...
Where AUC refers to the concentration of the drug in the blood over time t = 0 to t = ∞, Cmax refers to the maximum ... Minimum bactericidal concentration (Bactericide). Agonism and. antagonism. *Agonist: Inverse agonist. *Irreversible agonist ... concentration of the drug in the blood. When Tmax is given, it refers to the time it takes for a drug to reach Cmax. ...
... of the donor red blood cells by host antibodies. The cause is usually a clerical error, such as the wrong unit of blood being ... Activity. Discovery Alexin(s) Complement. Soluble components in the serum. that are capable of killing microorganisms. Buchner ... The Bactericidal Action of Lymph Taken From the Thoracic Duct of the Dog. (Full Text-pdf) Journal of Experimental Medicine Vol ... to lyse red blood cells. Belfanti and Carbone (1898)[8] Jules Bordet (1899)[9]. ...
... and in maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as macrophages. Mature Th cells express the surface protein CD4 and ... doi:10.1182/blood-2008-05-078154. PMC 2518872. PMID 18725574.. *^ Wan YY (June 2014). "GATA3: a master of many trades in immune ... They help the activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines. These cells help suppress or regulate immune ... Both cytokines are inhibitory to helper T cells; TGF-β suppresses the activity of most of the immune system. There is evidence ...
The use of bactericidal and fungicidal soaps will inevitably lead to bacterial and fungal populations which are resistant to ... acnes colonisation and/or activity.[39] Potential probiotic treatment includes the use of Staphylococcus epidermidis to inhibit ... resident microbes can cause skin diseases and enter the blood system, creating life-threatening diseases, particularly in ...
Reference ranges for blood tests of white blood cells, comparing neutrophil amount (shown in pink) with that of other cells ... Myeloperoxidase, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), defensins, and the serine proteases neutrophil elastase ... Unregulated activity of neutrophil elastase can lead to disruption of pulmonary barrier showing symptoms corresponding with ... Whereas basophilic white blood cells stain dark blue and eosinophilic white blood cells stain bright red, neutrophils stain a ...
The researchers found that if NF-κB activity was blocked in elderly mice by bathing them in bleach solution, the animals' skin ... Heggers JP, Sazy JA, Stenberg BD, Strock LL, McCauley RL, Herndon DN, Robson MC (1991). "Bactericidal and wound-healing ... including large blood spills (the area is first cleaned with detergent before being disinfected).[41][42] It may be made by ... Sodium hypochlorite in solution exhibits broad spectrum anti-microbial activity and is widely used in healthcare facilities in ...
99 (5): 1552-5. doi:10.1182/blood.V99.5.1552. PMID 11861267.. *^ Wang AL, Wang JP, Wang H, Chen YH, Zhao L, Wang LS, Wei W, Xu ... Acetylcysteine has bactericidal properties and breaks down bacterial biofilms of clinically relevant pathogens including ... Samuni Y, Goldstein S, Dean OM, Berk M (Aug 2013). "The chemistry and biological activities of N-acetylcysteine". Biochimica et ... which increased blood pressure in the lungs and right ventricle of the heart (pulmonary artery hypertension) in mice treated ...
Blood infection prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease.. Penicillin V is sometimes used in the treatment of ... Garrod, L. P. (1960). "The Relative Antibacterial Activity of Four Penicillins". British Medical Journal (5214): 1695-6.. ... It exerts a bactericidal action against penicillin-sensitive microorganisms during the stage of active multiplication. It acts ... Garrod, L. P. (1960). "Relative Antibacterial Activity of Three Penicillins". British Medical Journal (5172): 527-29.. ...
"Groundwater activity on Mars and implications for a deep biosphere". Nature Geoscience. 6 (2): 133-8. Bibcode:2013NatGe...6.. ... "Perchlorates on Mars enhance the bacteriocidal effects of UV light". Sci Rep. 7 (1): 4662. Bibcode:2017NatSR...7.4662W. doi ... Blood moon prophecy. *Earth Changes. *End time. *Gog and Magog. *List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events ...
... is about 37-45% bound to proteins in the blood.[13][14] ... Sparfloxacin, like other quinolones and fluoroquinolones, are bactericidal drugs, actively killing bacteria. Quinolones inhibit ... A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy and tolerability in lower respiratory ... "Uptake and intracellular activity of sparfloxacin in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and tissue culture cells". Antimicrob ...
A drug's pharmacological effects can only occur once it has been fully solubilized and has entered the blood stream. For most ... Activity at receptor. *Mechanism of action. *Mode of action. *Binding. *Receptor (biochemistry) ... where the drug molecules enter the blood stream through the villi and microvilli.[1] Gastric emptying time can vary from 0 to 3 ...
... antibiotics display bactericidal activity against Gram-negative aerobes and some anaerobic bacilli where ... There is a significant variability in the relationship between the dose administered and the resultant plasma level in blood.[ ... Aminoglycosides display concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against "most gram-negative aerobic and facultative ... These agents exhibit a post-antibiotic effect in which there is no or very little drug level detectable in blood, but there ...
"Blood" in the stool[edit]. The pediatric version of cefdinir can bind to iron in the digestive tract; in rare cases, this ... Cefdinir is a bactericidal antibiotic of the cephalosporin class of antibiotics. It can be used to treat infections caused by ... "Synthesis and biological activity of a new cephalosporin, BMY-28232 and its prodrug-type esters for oral use". The Journal of ... Blood typically appears dark brown or black in stool, and testing may confirm which is present. If the reddish stool is ...
Bactericidal Activity in Whole Blood as a Potential Surrogate Marker of Immunity after Vaccination against Tuberculosis. Seon- ... Bactericidal Activity in Whole Blood as a Potential Surrogate Marker of Immunity after Vaccination against Tuberculosis ... Bactericidal Activity in Whole Blood as a Potential Surrogate Marker of Immunity after Vaccination against Tuberculosis ... Bactericidal Activity in Whole Blood as a Potential Surrogate Marker of Immunity after Vaccination against Tuberculosis ...
... renal impairment or end-stage renal disease suggesting that there is no apparent effect of renal function on in vitro activity ... Telavancin biological activity, determined by serum titers against a reference strain of Staphylococcus aureus, was maintained ... Anti-Bacterial Agents / blood * Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacokinetics * Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology* ... Serum inhibitory and bactericidal activity of telavancin in non-infected subjects with severe renal impairment or end-stage ...
... it is important to use antibacterial agents with in vitro bactericidal activity. This conclusion is based on both human and ... The data to support bactericidal drugs superiority to bacteriostatic … ... Blood Bactericidal Activity * Communicable Diseases / drug therapy* * Humans Substances * Anti-Bacterial Agents ... it is important to use antibacterial agents with in vitro bactericidal activity. This conclusion is based on both human and ...
Blood 2013-5-21 Defects in neutrophil granule mobilization and bactericidal activity in familial hemophagocytic ... which rather depends on intact reduced NAD phosphate oxidase activity. This impairment of bacterial killing may contribute to ...
Blood samples.Deidentified serum and plasma samples from the United States were provided by the Partners Biorepository under ... A) The standard assay to test bactericidal activity against SL1344 was carried out using PBS, individual bactericidal samples ( ... Typhimurium LPS completely inhibited the bactericidal activity (Fig. 4B). LPS preincubation also inhibited the bactericidal ... lacked bactericidal activity. This sample was able to abolish the killing of S. Typhimurium by the bactericidal sera, similar ...
Bactericidal activity of the organ culture medium. The bactericidal activity of a commercial medium (Inosol, Chauvin-Opsia, ... Aims: To test the bactericidal activity of standard organ culture medium, and to compare the sensitivity and rapidity of blood ... Bactericidal activity of the organ culture medium (Table 1). The antibiotics in the organ culture medium eradicated five ... Methods: The bactericidal activity of contaminated standard organ culture medium containing 100 IU/ml penicillin, 0.1 mg/ml ...
Decreased neutrophil bactericidal activity during phagocytosis of a slime-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain Belén Barrio, ... bovine blood neutrophil. slime. bacteriological assay. HUMAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. BOVINE NEUTROPHILS. PHASE VARIATION ... Decreased neutrophil bactericidal activity during phagocytosis of a slime-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain.. ISSN:. 0928- ... "Decreased Neutrophil Bactericidal Activity During Phagocytosis of a Slime-producing Staphylococcus Aureus Strain." VETERINARY ...
A sensitive procedure for quantifying the phagocytic competence of blood granulocytes Biosci Rep (August,1986) ... Systemic hypoxia enhances bactericidal activities of human polymorphonuclear leuocytes Jong-Shyan Wang; Jong-Shyan Wang ... Jong-Shyan Wang, Huang-Chun Liu; Systemic hypoxia enhances bactericidal activities of human polymorphonuclear leuocytes. Clin ... The present study elucidates how various hypoxic interventions influence the bactericidal activity of PMNs (polymorphonuclear ...
Induction of NOS in rat blood PMN in vivo and in vitro: modulation by tyrosine kinase and involvement in bactericidal activity ... activity and (F) liver MPO activity all determined 4 hrs after LPS injection. Absolute MPO activity in control (saline-injected ... UDP- glucuronyltransferase activity toward harmol in human liver and human fetal liver cells in culture. Anal Biochem . 1990; ... Blood was removed by cardiac puncture into heparinized (50 units/ml) tubes and lung and liver snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. ...
The antimicrobial activity of a silver-impregnated polymer catheter (the Erlanger silver catheter) was demonstrated by ... Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities can be determined. The antimicrobial efficacy of the silver catheter is not reduced ... by blood components. There is no loss in antimicrobial activity for weeks after preincubation in water or phosphate buffered ... The antimicrobial activity of a silver-impregnated polymer catheter (the Erlanger silver catheter) was demonstrated by ...
NEW PUBLICATION: A series of cationic sterol lipids with gene transfer and bactericidal activity, published in Bioorganic & ... The team developed multi-scale models of blood flow to predict how platelets responded to blood vessel damage under the ... Blood 2012 120(1):190-198. Special Editorial: Neelamegham S. The computing platelet: integrating environmental cues Blood 2012 ... to run thousands of measurements on a small volume of an individuals blood. Each persons blood has a unique personality, a ...
Serum bactericidal assay. NHS was prepared from pooled blood obtained from healthy volunteers with informed consent. Human ... 9⇓A). In contrast, PE(22-160) alone did not inhibit the cytolytic activity of MAC. Vitronectin, used as a positive control, ... Blood was drawn 2-3 wk later. To increase the specificity, the PE antiserum was affinity purified with Sepharose-conjugated ... A pathogen having the capability to survive in human blood has the potential to spread to other sites of the body. NTHi is a ...
Blood Bactericidal Activity. The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such ... This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patients serum as a result of ... Blood Proteins. Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other ... The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins. ...
Blood Bactericidal Activity. Brain / blood supply, immunology, microbiology. Complement C4b-Binding Protein. Complement Factor ... Fetal Blood / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens / metabolism. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Phagocytosis. Streptococcus ...
Blood Bactericidal Activity. Escherichia coli / immunology, pathogenicity*, ultrastructure. Klebsiella pneumoniae / immunology ... The presence of colanic-acid capsules on E. coli conferred little resistance to the bactericidal activity of human serum or ...
Whole blood bactericidal activity during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2003;187(2):270-278.. View this ... Bactericidal activity in whole blood as a potential surrogate marker of immunity after vaccination against tuberculosis. Clin ... A whole blood bactericidal assay for tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2001;183(8):1300-1303.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... Anonymous buffy coats from healthy blood bank donors were used only if donors had consented scientific use of blood products. ...
In the same range, both compounds are also bactericidal. In media containing 4% serum or 5% blood the antibacterial activity is ... Antibacterial Activity Minimum Inhibit Concentration Inhibit Concentration Minimum Inhibit Concentration Cannabidiol These ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme enhances the oxidative response and bactericidal activity of neutrophils. ... Renal denervation has blood pressure-independent protective effects on kidney and heart in a rat model of chronic kidney ... Blood. 2017 Jul 20;130(3):328-339. doi: 10.1182/blood-2016-11-752006. Epub 2017 May 17. ...
Different Bactericidal and Inflammatory Activities of Human and Mouse Blood.. Lin T, Moorlag SJCFM, Liu J, Ahmed MYH, ... Probiotic supplementation has little effect on peripheral blood regulatory T cells.. West NP, Horn PL, Pyne DB, Warren HS, Asad ... Peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cell function in healthy adults assessed using the target-induced NK loss (TINKL) assay. ... Bifunctional Small Molecules Enhance Neutrophil Activities Against Aspergillus fumigatus in vivo and in vitro. ...
... whose blood had no bactericidal activity, acquired an N. meningitidis infection, the link between serum bactericidal activity ... concerned bactericidal properties of whole blood against strains of meningococcus. Control blood without bactericidal activity ... In 1919, Dr Heist and co-workers [Heist et al., 1922] established that clotted blood from different persons varied in its ... illustrates the lack of resistance to meningococcal infection that accompanies absence of bactericidal power against the ...
Susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to the bactericidal activity of human serum. J Infect Dis. 1985;151:227-35. DOIPubMed ... In a recent nationwide study over a 10-year period, we collected blood culture isolates of C. jejuni and C. coli and obtained ... However, available information about possible serum sensitivity of C. jejuni isolates from blood is scarce (8,9). In our study ... A total of 72 C. jejuni isolates from blood were successfully typed by MLST; 1 isolate had a mixed MLST pattern. Five isolates ...
We observed greater bactericidal antibody titers in mice vaccinated with modified VLP-CspZ: A serum dilution of 1:395 (modified ... borreliacidal activity. Immunizing mice with modified VLP-CspZ cleared spirochete infection, as did passive transfer of ... We observed greater bactericidal antibody titers in mice vaccinated with modified VLP-CspZ: A serum dilution of 1:395 (modified ... VLP-CspZ) vs 1:143 (VLP-CspZ) yielded 50% borreliacidal activity. Immunizing mice with modified VLP-CspZ cleared spirochete ...
Inhibition of povidone-iodines bactericidal activity by common organic substances: an experimental study. Surgery 1985;98(1): ... Isopropyl alcohol is as efficient as chlorhexidine to prevent contamination of blood cultures. American Journal of Infection ... Effective hand degerming in the presence of blood. J Emerg Med 1992;10(1):7-11. ...
Bactericidal activities of antibiotics against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium blood isolates and synergistic ... Treatment in response to a single blood culture positive for coagulase-negative staphylococcus, if other blood cultures taken ... during the same time frame are negative (i.e., if contamination of the blood culture is likely). Because contamination of blood ... In-vitro activity of trospectomycin, a new aminocyclitol antibiotic against multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium. J ...
This is anemia resulting from failure to produce the formed elements of blood by the bone marrow. Morphologically, in the vast ... Positive attempts to restore bone marrow activity.. Supportive measures include transfusion of blood or packed red cells, ... Infection should be diagnosed early and treated with bactericidal antibiotics.. © 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama ... This is anemia resulting from failure to produce the formed elements of blood by the bone marrow. Morphologically, in the vast ...
Activity of faropenem with and without rifampicin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Evaluation in a whole-blood bactericidal ... INH showed potent bactericidal activity against Δrel during chronic infection, killing 2.03 log10 bacilli in the lungs during 2 ... which shows markedly reduced activity against WT nutrient-starved WT Mtb (22). The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ... is to screen compounds for biochemical activity against conditionally essential targets and for whole-cell activity against Mtb ...
Categories: Blood Bactericidal Activity Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
It may also improve insulin sensitivity and help maintain blood glucose levels. It also has some activity against bacteria and ... The sodium salt of cefazolin, a beta-lactam antibiotic and first-generation cephalosporin with bactericidal activity. Cefazolin ... The sodium salt form of cefoxitin, a beta-lactam, second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. ... A third generation semi-synthetic cephalosporin and a beta-lactam antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefpodoximes effect ...
Systemic hypoxia enhances bactericidal activities of human polymorphonuclear leuocytes Clin Sci (Lond) (May, 2009) ... The critical role of VEGF in skeletal muscle angiogenesis and blood flow Biochem Soc Trans (November, 2011) ...
Increased bactericidal activity and NET formation in PLD2−/− CLP mice. (a) WT or PLD2−/− mice were subjected to CLP. Peritoneal ... c) Circulating blood was collected from sham or CLP-operated WT or PLD2−/− mice 6 h after surgery. Total blood neutrophils ( ... Bactericidal activity is significantly increased in PLD2−/− mice, which is mediated by increased neutrophil extracellular trap ... PLD2 deficiency enhanced bactericidal activity by up-regulating NET formation through peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) ...
  • Although a considerable amount of research has gone into the study of the role of bactericidal versus bacteriostatic antimicrobial agents in the treatment of different infectious diseases, there is no accepted standard of practice. (nih.gov)
  • The antimicrobial activity of a silver-impregnated polymer catheter (the Erlanger silver catheter) was demonstrated by determining the microbial adhesion to the surface of the catheter and by measuring the rate of proliferation (viability) of microorganisms at this site. (springer.com)
  • The antimicrobial efficacy of the silver catheter is not reduced by blood components. (springer.com)
  • There is no loss in antimicrobial activity for weeks after preincubation in water or phosphate buffered saline. (springer.com)
  • The antimicrobial activity depends on the extent of the active silver surface. (springer.com)
  • Surface antimicrobial activity of heparin-bonded and antiseptic-impregnated vascular catheters. (springer.com)
  • Antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of polyurethane and silicone catheters containing low concentrations of silver: a new perspective in prevention of polymer-associated-foreign-body-infections. (springer.com)
  • 2019. Prolonged antimicrobial activity of PMMA bone cement with embedded gentamicin-releasing silica nanocarriers . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • 2018. LbL-assembled gentamicin delivery system for PMMA bone cements to prolong antimicrobial activity . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • A colony forming unit assay was used to assess antimicrobial activity. (arvojournals.org)
  • We propose that bacteria-dependent cleavage of lacritin releases a potent gram negative and positive bactericidal activity that functions under physiological conditions in a synergistic mechanism with other antimicrobial factors found in human tear film. (arvojournals.org)
  • Several antimicrobial activity, due to extensive presystemic metab- olism of calcium, breast cancer. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • 9 the more stable the form, the lower its associated ionic concentration and, in the case of silver, the lower its antimicrobial activity. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Antimicrobial therapy should be directed against the specific organism after it has been identified by blood culture. (jaoa.org)
  • The addition of Gantrez copolymer has been shown to enhance the antimicrobial activity of triclosan. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The screening of antimicrobial activity was performed using two synthetic peptides identical to those found in menstrual blood. (chemweb.com)
  • The antimicrobial activity of Optisol-GS was reduced at refrigerated temperatures. (arvojournals.org)
  • Silver sulfadiazine exhibits broad antimicrobial activity, reports Drugs.com. (reference.com)
  • It is bactericidal to a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and stops many bacteria that are resistant to other antimicrobial agents. (reference.com)
  • 3) Several compounds related to O-carbamyl- D -serine were synthesized and tested for their antimicrobial activity. (go.jp)
  • N- D -Alanyl-O-carbamyl- D -serine which has been reported to be enzymatically synthesized by D -alanyl- D -alanine synthetase of Streptococcus faecalis R, did not have antimicrobial activity. (go.jp)
  • from the place of synthesis in hepatocytes (hep) and its antimicrobial activity (cidin). (who.int)
  • The synthetic minimum functional peptides HlDFS1 and HlDFS2 showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FDA researchers developed a new class of synthetic peptides with antimicrobial activity. (fda.gov)
  • They are also potent antimicrobial solutions and possess a broad-spectrum bactericidal activity which is credited to the acidity of the solution. (progressivehealth.com)
  • Telavancin biological activity, determined by serum titers against a reference strain of Staphylococcus aureus, was maintained in the serum of subjects with severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease suggesting that there is no apparent effect of renal function on in vitro activity of telavancin. (nih.gov)
  • Recent observations from Africa have rekindled interest in the role of serum bactericidal antibodies in protecting against systemic infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. (asm.org)
  • These studies demonstrated that most healthy individuals older than 16 months had serum IgM and IgG antibodies that killed S . Typhimurium in vitro in a complement-dependent fashion but that healthy children below this age lacked such bactericidal antibodies, observations that correlated with the declining occurrence of NTS bacteremia in patients above the age of 12 months ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Further evidence of the importance of serum bactericidal antibodies in protection against S . Typhimurium was provided by data showing that the effect of these antibodies was inhibited in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected African adults, a population that is unusually susceptible to NTS bacteremia ( 3 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Sporulation on blood serum increases the virulence of Mucor circinelloides. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this study, sporangiospores (spores) produced on YPG medium supplemented with native blood serum increased the virulence of M. circinelloides compared with spores produced on YPG supplemented with denatured blood serum or on YPG alone. (bioportfolio.com)
  • tumour necrosis factor α mRNA levels in liver and lung tissues from infected diabetic mice compared with those in tissues from animals infected with spores produced in the presence of YPG supplemented with denatured blood serum or of YPG alone. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Moreover, spores produced from cultures supplemented with native blood serum showed increased germination rates and longer hyphae compared with other spores. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The spores produced in YPG supplemented with native blood serum also enhanced resistance to stress factors and HO and increased thermotolerance compared with spores produced under other conditions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition, spores produced in presence of blood serum increased the ability of the pathogen to survive in the presence of macrophages. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Taken together, our results showed that these factors were important features for fungal virulence in humans and suggested that thermolabile components in the blood serum may induce M. circinelloides virulence. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The presence of colanic-acid capsules on E. coli conferred little resistance to the bactericidal activity of human serum or phagocytic uptake and did not protect against intracellular killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In media containing 4% serum or 5% blood the antibacterial activity is strongly reduced (MIC 50μg/ml). (springer.com)
  • When Heist, whose blood had no bactericidal activity, acquired an N. meningitidis infection, the link between serum bactericidal activity and resistance to meningococcal infection was proven" (Pollard et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seventy-three C. jejuni isolates from blood collected in Finland were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing and serum resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • In the present study, we characterized C. jejuni blood culture isolates with respect to their clonal distribution and serum resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • The same pool of serum samples from 10 healthy blood donors was used in all experiments. (cdc.gov)
  • We observed greater bactericidal antibody titers in mice vaccinated with modified VLP-CspZ: A serum dilution of 1:395 (modified VLP-CspZ) vs 1:143 (VLP-CspZ) yielded 50% borreliacidal activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Twenty-two hours after her second dose of eculizum- serum bactericidal activity ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Complement was first described as a heat-labile component in serum with bactericidal activity. (springer.com)
  • To date, most, if not all, of the serum proteins that constitute the complement system have been identified and their activities characterized. (springer.com)
  • While some fHbp-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) block binding of fH to fHbp, the stoichiometry of blocking in the presence of high serum concentrations of fH and its effect on complement-mediated bactericidal activity are unknown. (asm.org)
  • It retains its antibacterial activity in blood, serum and pus, phagocytosis is not inhibited nor does it interfere with healing. (drugs.com)
  • Serum OspA antibody and bactericidal activity against Borrelia burgdorferi. (cornell.edu)
  • The findings contrast with the observations from Africa, which linked bactericidal activity to antibodies against an S . Typhimurium outer membrane protein and correlated the presence of inhibitory anti-LPS antibodies with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (asm.org)
  • The anti- Salmonella antibodies also facilitated bacterial killing by promoting the oxidative burst activity of circulating phagocytes ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • The inhibition was shown to be mediated by high levels of IgG antibodies to the O antigen of S . Typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present in the sera of the HIV-infected individuals, which were proposed to prevent the action of bactericidal anti-outer membrane protein antibodies present in HIV-uninfected adults ( 8 , 9 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the few analyses of individual sera, apart from the recent ones from Malawi, compared bactericidal activities against S . Typhimurium in healthy controls and patients with sickle cell anemia but did not examine the antigenic target of the bactericidal antibodies ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Despite the availability of therapeutic agents such as antibiotics and diagnostic assays for the detection of pathogen-associated antibodies and antigens in units of blood, there has not been a satisfactory solution to safeguarding the supply of blood and blood components from infection. (google.com)
  • Antibodies against the recombinant NadA4 protein were bactericidal against homologous strains, whereas the activity against other NadA alleles was weak. (asm.org)
  • While all three MAbs elicited similar C1q-dependent C4b deposition on live bacteria (classical complement pathway), only those antibodies that inhibited binding of fH to fHbp (JAR 3 and JAR 5) had bactericidal activity with human complement. (asm.org)
  • The ability of fHbp vaccines to elicit protective antibodies, therefore, is likely to be enhanced if the antibody repertoire is of high avidity and includes fH-blocking activity. (asm.org)
  • In preclinical studies with mice, antibodies elicited by fHbp vaccines bound to the bacterial surface, activated complement-mediated bactericidal activity directly ( 8 , 16 , 17 , 33 , 47 ), and inhibited binding of fH to fHbp ( 8 , 30 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • By genome mining, we discovered GNA1870, a new surface-exposed lipoprotein of Neisseria meningitidis that induces high levels of bactericidal antibodies. (rupress.org)
  • The vaccine adjuvanted by aluminum hydroxide induced bactericidal antibodies in mice against 78% of a panel of 85 meningococcal strains representative of the global population diversity. (pnas.org)
  • The invasive infection is very dramatic, affecting mostly infants, children, and adolescents who do not have bactericidal antibodies to the infecting strain. (pnas.org)
  • Immunity against the disease can be acquired naturally or induced by vaccination and correlates with the presence of bactericidal antibodies, which kill the bacterium in the presence of complement ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • 1922) concerned bactericidal properties of whole blood against strains of meningococcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A polypeptide analog of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein or biologically-active fragment thereof wherein a cysteine residue at position 132 or at position 135 is replaced by a different amino acid. (google.es)
  • 5. The polypeptide analog according to claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 comprising, except for the cysteine replacement at either position 132 or 135, from 176 to 199 of the amino terminal residues of bactericidal/permeability- increasing protein. (google.es)
  • 6. The polypeptide analog according to claim 5 comprising the initial 193 amino terminal amino acid residues of bactericidal/permeability- increasing protein. (google.es)
  • 9. The DNA of claim 7 encoding the thirty-one amino acid leader sequence and the first 199 N-terminal residues of bactericidal/permeability- increasing protein and having a stop cόdon immediately following the codon for the isoleucine at position 199. (google.es)
  • 14. A method for producing polypeptide analogs of bactericidal/permeability increasing protein and biologically active fragments thereof comprising growing a host cell according to claim 11 in a suitable culture medium and isolating said analog from said host cell or said culture medium. (google.es)
  • These include LPS-binding protein (LBP) and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI). (google.com)
  • Here, we report that FHL-5 neutrophils have a profound defect in granule mobilization, resulting in inadequate bacterial killing, in particular, of gram-negative Escherichia coli, but not of Staphylococcus aureus, which rather depends on intact reduced NAD phosphate oxidase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Barrio B, Vangroenweghe F, Dosogne H, Burvenich C. Decreased neutrophil bactericidal activity during phagocytosis of a slime-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain. (ugent.be)
  • The deletion mutant N-65, but not intact lacritin is bactericidal against Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at physiological conditions. (arvojournals.org)
  • Those studies demonstrated that PMPs from both sources exert rapid and potent microbicidal activities against pathogens that commonly access the bloodstream, including Staphylococcus aureus , viridans group streptococci, Escherichia coli , and Candida albicans . (asm.org)
  • In past pre-clinical studies, SAL200 showed bactericidal activity against the following pathogens: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA), vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA), linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LRSA), linezolid-resistant MRSA (LR-MRSA), multi-resistant MRSA (mrMRSA), and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS). (prnewswire.com)
  • No lysis of red blood cells is detected under equivalent conditions, suggesting the involvement of a bacterial surface protein. (arvojournals.org)
  • Initial attempts at amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from inoculated blood culture media failed for this reason. (asm.org)
  • By our extraction technique, even uninoculated blood culture media were found to contain bacterial DNA when they were subjected to broad-range 16S rRNA gene consensus PCR. (asm.org)
  • the addition of the glycyl side chain expands its activity against bacterial pathogens that are normally resistant to tetracyclines. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • They showed bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and significantly protect mice against lethal bacterial infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EC5 shows inhibitory activity at low concentrations (MIC 8 µg/ml for E. coli and 8-32 µg/ml for P. aeruginosa) and appears to bind, to disrupt, and to permeabilize the bacterial cell membranes in a manner similar to Polymyxin B. EC5 also appears to retain its bactericidal activity in the presence of platelets and plasma, while exhibiting little cytotoxic activity or hemolytic activity against red blood cells, in vitro. (fda.gov)
  • EC5's profile of activity and low toxicity suggest it may be a favorable candidate for drug development, as an independent or combination therapy and for specific bacterial detection/diagnostics. (fda.gov)
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity enhances bactericidal immunity of neutrophils. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • The bulk of the evidence supports the concept that, in treating endocarditis and meningitis, it is important to use antibacterial agents with in vitro bactericidal activity. (nih.gov)
  • Prognostic information for vancomycin treatment outcome in MRSA bacteremia may also be obtained by testing the in vitro bactericidal potency of vancomycin. (asm.org)
  • For example, platelets possess rudimentary bactericidal and phagocytic activity (see Chapter 37). (scribd.com)
  • The infected patients were found to have decreased monocytes and neutrophils in blood counts, lower phagocytic activity of monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased bactericidal activity of leukocytes. (doaj.org)
  • Egression from the bone marrow and blood stream, adhesion, migration, activation, phagocytosis and killing of pathogens describe the basic mechanisms associated with neutrophils. (els.net)
  • The results demonstrated that exposure to 12% O 2 in the placebo group increased urinary 8-isoprostane and plasma malondialdehyde levels and decreased plasma total antioxidant content and superoxide dismutase activity, but did not alter plasma complement-C3a desArg/C4a desArg/C5a concentrations. (portlandpress.com)
  • It is bactericidal against sensitive organisms when adequate concentrations are reached and is most effective during the stage of active multiplication. (medscape.com)
  • The highest concentrations are found in the adrenal glands, pituitary gland, pancreas, spleen and white blood cells, quantitatively the largest pools of vitamin C are found in skeletal muscle, the lungs, brain and liver (Sauberlich, 1990). (dsm.com)
  • The primary objective of the DALI study is to compare antibiotic concentrations in patient blood samples with bacteriological objectives associated with maximum bactericidal activity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary endpoint for the DALI study is the comparison of antibiotic concentrations in patient blood samples with bacteriological objectives associated with maximum bactericidal activity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A further problem with therapeutic agents, specifically chemical-based pharmaceutical agents, is the high likelihood that effective concentrations of the agent will also be toxic to blood cells or inhibit the activity of blood protein components. (google.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of triclosan and triclosan with Gantrez against Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces naeslundii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Enterococcus faecalis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Because of low achievable blood concentrations, tigecycline should not be used to treat primary bacteremia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The data to support bactericidal drugs' superiority to bacteriostatic drugs do not exist for most other clinical situations, and animal models do not support this concept in some situations. (nih.gov)
  • Clinicians should be aware that drugs that are bacteriostatic for one organism may in fact be bactericidal for another organism or another strain of the same organism. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities can be determined. (springer.com)
  • bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity against test organisms 2. (pharmainfo.net)
  • A variant of signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) that antagonizes the human cell surface antigen CD47, with potential phagocytosis-inducing, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. (cancer.gov)
  • Disclosed are novel bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein products wherein cysteine residue number 132 or 135 is replaced by another amino acid residue, preferably an alanine or serine residue and/or wherein the leucine residue at position 193 is the carboxy terminal residue. (google.es)
  • Her binder C1q antistoffer eller andre molekyler, for eksempel C-reaktivt protein, som er bundet på en overflate. (tidsskriftet.no)
  • Also, because they are so small they are easily damaged by chemical imbalances in the blood that attack protein - specifically, high blood sugar and high insulin - which is why diabetes and kidney disease go hand in hand. (jonbarron.org)
  • By the blood vessels have reduced by obtaining x-rays, oestrogen unopposed by recombinant protein synthesis. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • The chapters by Drs. Douglas and Quie complete the basic metabolism sections with concise up-to-date explanations ofultrastructural and biochemical lesions affecting the qualitative response of the cell in such disorders as the Chediak-Higashi syndrome, protein-calorie malnutrition, chronic ganulomatous disease, and a legion of other disorders showing defective Chemotaxis and bactericidal activity. (jhu.edu)
  • Kinetics of growth of M. tuberculosis strains H 37 Ra and H 37 Rv and of a recent clinical isolate in whole blood of healthy volunteers. (asm.org)
  • A typical Ag-NPs suspension (S 5 ), with size being 15 nm, when tested in vitro against forty-two local isolates and two reference strains, showed a considerable anti -H. pylori activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Antibiotics, other pharmaceuticals, and immunological reagents, when used alone or in combination, do not have the broad spectrum of biocidal activity necessary to be effective against all known and unknown pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, spores, and fungi that can infect blood and blood components. (google.com)
  • Both triclosan and triclosan with Gantrez demonstrated bactericidal activity against the 5 specific endodontic pathogens. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Our results confirm recent observations that Hb-derived fragments manifest pronounced antibacterial activity and suggest that these peptides help in maintaining human vaginal homeostasis during physiologic menstrual bleeding. (chemweb.com)
  • Thus, HlDFS1 and HlDFS2 can be introduced to the medical field as new drug candidates with antibacterial activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A peptide derived from phage display library exhibits antibacterial activity against E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (fda.gov)
  • It has a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against gram-positive, gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria except P. aeruginosa and some Proteus isolates. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We compared the phagocytosis and overall killing of a non slime-producing (NSP) S. aureus and its slime-producing (SP) variant by blood PMN, using an in vitro bacteriological assay. (ugent.be)
  • P67 phox is tightly associated with p40 phox , which is especially involved in NADPH oxidase activity enhancement during phagocytosis. (els.net)
  • This action occurs in both the aerobic and anaerobic cycles of carbohydrate metabolism, explaining its bactericidal effect in aerobic, anaerobic and anaerobic facultative bacteria. (drugs.com)
  • Samples were streaked on 5% sheep blood agar plates and placed in an anaerobic incubator to determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We determined the activity of daptomycin versus vancomycin, with dexamethasone as an adjuvant, in a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • there was no significant difference in bactericidal activity between the vancomycin and daptomycin groups (p-value, 0.18). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic which has excellent activity against a broad range of Gram-positive microorganisms, including penicillin and cephalosporin resistant pneumococci [ 2 , 3 ], could be an alternative to vancomycin for treatment of pneumococcal meningitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we used a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis to compare the activity of daptomycin with that of vancomycin, when given in combination with dexamethasone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vancomycin susceptibility testing was performed, and bactericidal activity was determined for 30 isolates from 30 different patients with MRSA bacteremia for whom clinical and microbiological outcome data were available. (asm.org)
  • The basis of this belief comes partly from in vitro data that demonstrate slower bactericidal activity of vancomycin compared to the results seen with antistaphylococcal beta-lactams against S. aureus ( 1 , 28 ) as well as data suggesting slow clinical response ( 13 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Rapid bactericidal activity was observed against Pseudomonas after 2 hours at room temperature. (arvojournals.org)
  • The bactericidal activity was inhibited by competition with soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from S . Typhimurium but not from Escherichia coli , consistent with recognition of a determinant in the O-antigen polysaccharide. (asm.org)
  • Cefuroxime is a second-generation cephalosporin that maintains the gram-positive activity of first-generation cephalosporins while adding activity against Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis . (medscape.com)
  • Blood culture media containing human blood and spiked with Escherichia coli was subjected to an organic extraction procedure with benzyl alcohol, and removal of SPS was documented spectrophotometrically. (asm.org)
  • Escherichia coli DH5α (Bethesda Research Laboratories) was grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth in the logarithmic phase, and then 0.129 ml was inoculated into 0.871 ml of this blood culture medium to produce a final concentration of 2 × 10 7 CFU/ml. (asm.org)
  • All 44 identified peptides originate from Hb (mainly from the N-terminal part of alpha-globin) and all demonstrated differential killing activity toward Escherichia coli . (chemweb.com)
  • The standard RMP dose of 8 to 12 mg/kg of body weight ( 21 ) is probably at the lower limit of optimal efficacy ( 11 , 13 , 18 , 20 ), but it is not clear whether higher doses of RMP could increase its activity ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • The activity was dependent on complement and could be reproduced by immunoglobulin G (IgG) purified from the sera. (asm.org)
  • To disseminate to distal tissues, B. burgdorferi needs to evade the complement system, an important host innate immune defense mechanism in the blood of vertebrate animals ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • MAb502, which did not inhibit fH binding, had complement-mediated bactericidal activity only when tested with fH-depleted human complement. (asm.org)
  • Meningococcal carriage has been shown to be an immunizing event both in children and in adults ( 3 , 10 ) and is able to induce a bactericidal response. (asm.org)
  • 1922) stated: 'The subsequent history of man 'H' illustrates the lack of resistance to meningococcal infection that accompanies absence of bactericidal power against the meningococcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood and blood components are susceptible to infection from various infectious agents, such as bacteria, viruses, spores, and fungi. (google.com)
  • Infection of blood or blood components that are isolated, stored, and later used for therapeutic agents or treatment purposes is an important problem in the practice of medicine. (google.com)
  • Analysis of results obtained shows systemic immune disorders and impaired cytokine-synthesizing activity of CD3+ lymphocytes correlating with infection factors in the women with hyperplastic processes of reproductive system. (doaj.org)
  • If bacteria spread to the blood, it can cause a blood infection, which is also known as sepsis. (reference.com)
  • The EC5 peptide has shown efficient binding and selective bactericidal activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, while having little activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. cereus, and K. pneumonia. (fda.gov)
  • ROS (reactive oxygen species) generated by hypoxia facilitate the vascular inflammatory response, but whether systemic hypoxia influences leucocyte bactericidal activity by modulating circulatory redox status remains unclear. (portlandpress.com)
  • Because of the blood-prostate barrier, it is difficult to eradicate bacteria from the prostate, and the urinary tract may be reinfected after appropriate treatment, causing a systemic bacteremia, infecting the rest of the reproductive tract, or causing an abscess within the prostate. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • 1922] established that clotted blood from different persons varied in its ability to kill Neisseria meningitidis in a capillary tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, administration of NaHS (an H 2 S donor) to mice [ 8 ] provokes an inflammatory reaction as shown by increased tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (a marker for tissue leucocyte infiltration) and histologically by the presence of accumulated leucocytes extravascularly in the lung. (wiley.com)
  • The mechanism of bactericidal activity involves rapid membrane permeabilization. (arvojournals.org)
  • C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and a C. fetus isolate from blood were used as control organisms. (cdc.gov)
  • In some cases as with polyene antibiotics, the antibiotic activity is present in the mycelium of the streptomycete instead of culture broth. (pharmainfo.net)
  • Purpose: Our objective was to explore this hypothesis and propose a new therapeutic approach focusing on anti-biofilm activity of Myrtacine[R] New Generation (Mediterranean Myrtle extract-Botanical Expertise P. Fabre) alone or combined with antibiotics. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Here we ask whether lacritin also displays cleavage dependent antibiotic activity and by what mechanism. (arvojournals.org)
  • The present study was designed to compare the effect of an antibiotic, an organic acid and a probiotic on performance traits, blood biochemical parameters, ileal histology and antioxidant status in broilers during finishing phase exposed to Clostridium perfringens challenge. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Defects in neutrophil granule mobilization and bactericidal activity in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 5 (FHL-5) syndrome caused by STXBP2/Munc18-2 mutations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Decreased neutrophil bactericidal activity duri. (ugent.be)
  • Bifunctional Small Molecules Enhance Neutrophil Activities Against Aspergillus fumigatus in vivo and in vitro . (nih.gov)
  • Bactericidal activity is significantly increased in PLD2 −/− mice, which is mediated by increased neutrophil extracellular trap formation and citrullination of histone 3 through peptidylarginine deiminase activation. (rupress.org)
  • Analysis of neutrophil bactericidal activity. (otago.ac.nz)
  • We propose that inhibition of CSE expression and reduction in formation of the pro-inflammatory component of H 2 S activity contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect of dexamethasone in endotoxic shock. (wiley.com)
  • The anti-inflammatory effects of TP can possibly regulate macrophages due to the targeted inhibition of COX-2 activity, without affecting COX-1 activity with other anti-inflammatory effects including suppression of iNOS and inflammatory cytokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Consideration should be bactericidal drugs, lung, inhibition of 􏰀60 mmHg, whereas oxytocin acts centrally mediated stimuli. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • Some polyphenols have been reported for its selective inhibiting activity toward COX-2 expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Far from being a simple removal of water from the body, it is, rather, a process of selective filtration that not only removes waste and potential toxins from the blood while retaining essential molecules, but that also serves to balance key biochemicals and hormones in the blood. (jonbarron.org)
  • We conclude that the blood culture additive SPS is a potent inhibitor of PCR, is resistant to removal by traditional DNA purification methods, but can be removed by a benzyl alcohol extraction protocol that results in improved PCR performance. (asm.org)
  • A proprietary agent that targets the cancer stem cell (CSC) antigen CD44, with potential antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
  • A population of CD3-positive lymphocytes expressing the CD56 surface antigen, with potential immunomodulating activity. (cancer.gov)
  • In a recent nationwide study over a 10-year period, we collected blood culture isolates of C. jejuni and C. coli and obtained clinical features of corresponding bacteremic episodes and characteristics of patients throughout Finland ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Annual and seasonal distribution of 72 Camplyobacter jejuni blood culture isolates belonging either to the ST-677 clonal complex (CC) or to the other multilocus sequence typing (MLST) CCs. (cdc.gov)
  • Whole-blood incubation with the Neisseria meningitidis lpxL1 mutant induces less pro-inflammatory cytokines than the wild type, and IL-10 reduces the MyD88-dependent cytokines. (uio.no)
  • The Neisseria meningitidis lpxL1 mutant induces less tissue factor expression and activity in primary human monocytes and monocyte-derived microvesicles than the wild type meningococcus. (uio.no)
  • The exact number of cfu in the inoculum was determined retrospectively by growth of serial dilutions of the inoculum on blood agar plates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The diluted samples and undiluted samples were spiral plated onto blood agar plates. (arvojournals.org)
  • In comparative time-killing kinetics, S 5 exhibited dose- and time-dependent anti- H. pylori activity that was almost similar to tetracycline and clarithromycin, less than amoxicillin, but higher than metronidazole. (hindawi.com)
  • We studied the early bactericidal activity of twice the standard dose of rifampin in subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis evidenced by positive smears. (asm.org)
  • The observed mean 2-day activity was almost double that reported at the standard dose. (asm.org)
  • We studied the pharmacokinetics and the 2-day and 5-day early bactericidal activities (EBA) of RMP at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight. (asm.org)
  • Two 3-ml tubes of blood will be collected for beta-lactams and glycopeptides (Sample A taken at half the time of the dosing interval and sample B at 30 minutes before the next dose). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Large-scale reduction of tyrosine kinase activities in human monocytes stimulated in vitro with N. meningitidis. (uio.no)
  • Lycopene is an important carotenoid for its antioxidant function but does not possess the beta-ionone ring structure (required for vitamin A activity) and, therefore, is not a precursor of vitamin A. In humans, beta-carotene and lycopene are the predominant carotenoids in tissue (Ribaya-Mercado et al. (dsm.com)
  • During nonepidemic periods approximately once in every 10,000 colonized people or once in 100,000 population, the bacterium enters the blood stream where it multiplies and gives sepsis. (rupress.org)
  • From the blood stream the bacterium may cross the blood-brain barrier and cause meningitis. (rupress.org)
  • Different Bactericidal and Inflammatory Activities of Human and Mouse Blood. (nih.gov)
  • 2018. Cobalt and Titanium nanoparticles influence on human osteoblast mitochondrial activity and biophysical properties of their cytoskeleton . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • A synergistic bactericidal effect is observed when N-65 is combined with human lysozyme. (arvojournals.org)
  • Hypochlorous acid is found naturally in white blood cells of mammals, including the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepcidin was first discovered in human blood hepcidin levels. (who.int)
  • Sera from healthy children aged 10 to 48 months also had bactericidal activity, although it was significantly less than in the adults, correlating with lower levels of LPS-specific IgM and IgG. (asm.org)
  • The team developed multi-scale models of blood flow to predict how platelets responded to blood vessel damage under the influence of a variety of anti-coagulation drugs. (upenn.edu)
  • Science News reports that Researchers Manash Chatterjee and Scott Diamond of the Diamond Lab, working with Jeremy E. Purvis of the Department of Genomics and Computational Biology and Lawrence F. Brass of the Department of Medicine at Penn, have trained a computer neural network model to accurately predict how blood platelets would respond to complex conditions found during a heart attack or stroke. (upenn.edu)
  • Despite these overall similarities in function, there exists no proof that invertebrate blood cells evolved into platelets. (scribd.com)
  • In a series of initial experiments, bacteria were inoculated into blood culture media, and DNA was purified for use as target in a broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR assay. (asm.org)
  • The environmental and chemical sensing mechanisms that regulate gene activity are extraordinarily complex and are the target of a great deal of research. (nap.edu)
  • Reversible oxidation-reduction of ascorbic acid with dehydroascorbic acid is the most important chemical property of vitamin C and the basis for its known physiological activities and stabilities (Jaffe, 1984). (dsm.com)
  • It binds to PBPs and interferes with synthesis of cell wall mucopeptide during active multiplication, resulting in bactericidal activity against susceptible microorganisms. (medscape.com)
  • Interferes with synthesis of cell wall mucopeptide during active multiplication, resulting in bactericidal activity against susceptible bacteria. (medscape.com)
  • This is anemia resulting from failure to produce the formed elements of blood by the bone marrow. (hubpages.com)
  • We found that all but 1 of the 49 adult samples tested had robust bactericidal activity against S . Typhimurium in a standard in vitro assay. (asm.org)
  • Probiotic supplementation has little effect on peripheral blood regulatory T cells. (nih.gov)
  • After ex- tensive work-up, she received a diagnosis of PNH on the Patients receiving eculizumab have an increased risk for basis of peripheral blood flow cytometry. (cdc.gov)
  • In the same range, both compounds are also bactericidal. (springer.com)
  • We screened a pharmaceutical library of over 2 million compounds for inhibitors of Rel Mtb and showed that the lead compound X9 was able to directly kill nutrient-starved M. tuberculosis and enhanced the killing activity of isoniazid. (sciencemag.org)
  • PCR inhibitors include heme compounds found in blood ( 2 ), aqueous and vitreous humors ( 26 ), heparin ( 15 ), EDTA ( 12 ), urine ( 16 ), polyamines ( 1 ), and plant polysaccharides ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • There is disclosed a composition and process for disinfecting or essentially sterilizing blood fractions and components of blood. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to compositions and to procedures for in vitro disinfection of blood fractions and components of blood. (google.com)
  • More specifically, this invention relates to in vitro procedures and compositions for disinfecting components of blood such as blood cells, blood proteins, and other fractions isolated from blood. (google.com)
  • A process has been developed by scientists at the New York Blood Center for the inactivation of viruses in certain noncellular fractions of blood (e.g., clotting factor VIII). (google.com)
  • Effect of BCG vaccination and boosting on growth of M. bovis BCG in whole blood cultures of 72- and 96-h duration. (asm.org)
  • However, this hypoxic effect on PMN bactericidal activity is ameliorated by pretreatment with vitamin E. (portlandpress.com)
  • Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) administered either 1 hr before or 1 hr after E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 4 mg/kg, i.p.) in conscious rats inhibited the subsequent (4 hrs) rise in plasma cytokine (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-α), nitrate/nitrite (NO × ), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) concentration and lung/liver myeloperoxidase activity indicative of an anti-inflammatory effect. (wiley.com)
  • We conclude that exposure to 12% O 2 promotes the chemotactic, phagocytic and oxidative burst activities of PMNs, possibly by increasing lipid peroxidation and decreasing antioxidative capacity. (portlandpress.com)
  • HlDFS1, but not HlDFS2, showed inhibitory activity against fungus Candida albicans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • NEW PUBLICATION : Computational Model of Platelet Activation, published in Blood . (upenn.edu)
  • Presence of moisture and trace minerals reduces vitamin A activity in feeds (Olson, 1984). (dsm.com)