The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
A class of quinoline compounds defined by the presence of two aromatic ring structures which are attached via a side chain to carbon 3 of the qunolinyl structure. The two aromatic moieties are typically NAPTHALENE and BENZENE. Several compounds in this class are used as ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.
Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.
Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
A gram-negative gliding bacterium isolated from the oral cavity. It is a pathogen often causing PERIODONTITIS.
A synthetic broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent active against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
Procedures for identification and measurement of IMMUNOGLOBULINS in the blood that initiate lysis of bacteria.
A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.
Disorders in which phagocytic cells cannot kill ingested bacteria; characterized by frequent recurring infection with formulation of granulomas.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
A macrolide antibiotic that has a wide antimicrobial spectrum and is particularly effective in respiratory and genital infections.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.
A macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. It is the lauryl sulfate salt of the propionic ester of erythromycin. This erythromycin salt acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
A macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. This compound is an ester of erythromycin base and succinic acid. It acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
Analog of KANAMYCIN with antitubercular as well as broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A compound originally developed as an anticoagulant, but possessing anticomplement action and lowering the bactericidal action of blood. It is used in vitro to inhibit blood coagulation and as a diagnostic reagent to encourage the growth of pathogens in the blood. It is also used to stabilize colloidal solutions such as milk and gelatin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A semi-synthetic antibiotic related to penicillin.
Substances that suppress Mycobacterium leprae, ameliorate the clinical manifestations of leprosy, and/or reduce the incidence and severity of leprous reactions.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (1/1592)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascade in human neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and in migration. (2/1592)

Killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by neutrophils involves adherence of the microorganisms, phagocytosis, and a collaborative action of oxygen reactive species and components of the granules. While a number of intracellular signalling pathways have been proposed to regulate neutrophil responses, the extent to which each pathway contributes to the killing of S. aureus and C. albicans has not been clearly defined. We have therefore examined the effect of blocking one such pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, using the specific inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, PD98059, on the ability of human neutrophils to kill S. aureus and C. albicans. Our data demonstrate the presence of ERK2 and a 43-kDa form of ERK but not ERK1 in human neutrophils. Upon stimulation with formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), the activities of both ERK2 and the 43-kDa form were stimulated. Despite abrogating the activity of both ERK forms, PD98059 only slightly reduced the ability of neutrophils to kill S. aureus or C. albicans. This is consistent with our finding that PD98059 had no effect on neutrophil adherence or degranulation, although pretreatment of neutrophils with PD98059 inhibited fMLP-stimulated superoxide production by 50%, suggesting that a change in superoxide production per se is not strictly correlated with microbicidal activity. However, fMLP-stimulated chemokinesis was markedly inhibited, while random migration and fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis were partially inhibited, by PD98059. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the ERK cascade plays only a minor role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils and that the ERK cascade is involved primarily in regulating neutrophil migration in response to fMLP.  (+info)

The levels and bactericidal capacity of antibodies directed against the UspA1 and UspA2 outer membrane proteins of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis in adults and children. (3/1592)

The UspA1 and UspA2 proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis share antigenic epitopes and are promising vaccine candidates. In this study, the levels and bactericidal activities of antibodies in sera from healthy adults and children toward UspA1 and UspA2 from the O35E strain were measured. Human sera contained antibodies to both proteins, and the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were age dependent. Adult sera had significantly higher titers of IgG than child sera (P < 0.01). The IgG3 titers to the UspA proteins were higher than the IgG1 titers in the adults' sera, while the IgG1 titers were higher than the IgG3 titers in the children's sera (P < 0.05). The IgG antibodies in the sera from 2-month-old children appeared to be maternally derived, since the mean titer was significantly higher than that in sera from 6- to 7-month-old children (P < 0.05). Serum IgA antibodies to both UspA1 and UspA2 were low during the first 7 months of age but thereafter gradually increased along with the IgG titers. Analysis of sera absorbed with UspA1 or UspA2 showed that the antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were cross-reactive with each other and associated with serum bactericidal activity. Examination of affinity-purified human antibodies confirmed that naturally acquired antibodies to UspA1 and UspA2 were bactericidal and cross-reactive. These results support using UspA1 and UspA2 in a vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections.  (+info)

Characterization of human bactericidal antibodies to Bordetella pertussis. (4/1592)

The Bordetella pertussis BrkA protein protects against the bactericidal activity of complement and antibody; however, some individuals mount an immune response that overcomes this bacterial defense. To further characterize this process, the bactericidal activities of sera from 13 adults with different modes of exposure to B. pertussis (infected as adults, occupational exposure, immunized with an acellular vaccine, or no identified exposure) against a wild-type strain and a BrkA complement-sensitive mutant were evaluated. All of the sera killed the BrkA mutant, suggesting past exposure to B. pertussis or cross-reactive organisms. Several samples had no or minimal activity against the wild type. All of the sera collected from the infected and occupationally exposed individuals but not all of the sera from vaccinated individuals had bactericidal activity against the wild-type strain, suggesting that some types of exposure can induce an immune response that can overcome the BrkA resistance mechanism. Adsorbing serum with the wild-type strain removed the bactericidal antibodies; however, adsorbing the serum with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant or an avirulent (bvg mutant) strain did not always result in loss of bactericidal activity, suggesting that antibodies to either LPS or bvg-regulated proteins could be bactericidal. All the samples, including those that lacked bactericidal activity, contained antibodies that recognized the LPS of B. pertussis. Bactericidal activity correlated best with the presence of the immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) antibodies to LPS, the IgG subtype that is most effective at fixing complement.  (+info)

Isolation of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E from aquatic habitats in Taiwan. (5/1592)

The existence of strains of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E that are avirulent for eels is reported in this work. These isolates were recovered from water and oysters and differed from eel virulent strains in (i) fermentation and utilization of mannitol, (ii) ribotyping after HindIII digestion, and (iii) susceptibility to eel serum. Lipopolysaccharide of these strains lacked the highest molecular weight immunoreactive bands, which are probably involved in serum resistance.  (+info)

Role of nonagglutinating antibody in the protracted immunity of vaccinated mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. (6/1592)

Effective immunization against infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is difficult to evaluate because agglutinin levels decline rapidly. Because fractionation of hyperimmune sera often yields more specific antibody than can be accounted for by direct agglutination tests, an immunoglobulin-specific assay based on antiglobulin augmentation was used to characterize antibody responses of C3H/HeJ mice vaccinated with P. aeruginosa type 2 lipopolysaccharide. Nonagglutinating antibodies, initially detected at 2 weeks post-primary vaccination, were predominantly immunoglobulin G after 5 weeks, and they remained elevated at levels usually 32-fold higher than the direct titer throughout the 4-month study period. The sequential production of immunoglobulin M, then immunoglobulin G, followed that found in orthodox immunological responses. Sera that contained nonagglutinating antibodies but not direct agglutinins (14 to 16 weeks) enhanced phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa type 2 by macrophages from unimmunized mice and passively immunized mice against lethal challenge doses; bactericidal activity of these sera was not demonstrated in the presence or absence of complement. When challenged with 1, 10, and 100 50% lethal doses at 16 weeks, survival rates of actively immunized mice were significantly higher than those of unvaccinated mice (P < 0.001). Thus, at a time when no direct agglutinins were detectable, the augmented system detected nonagglutinating antibodies that could confer protracted resistance in vaccinated mice to pseudomonas infection.  (+info)

Effects of iron and culture filtrates on killing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by normal human serum. (7/1592)

Neisseria gonorrhoeae GC9, both colony types T2 and T4, were killed by normal human serum, although populations of colony type T4 were more susceptible. Ferric ammonium citrate prevented the killing of populations of both T2 and T4 colony types. Other iron compounds tested showed no protective effect, nor did ammonium citrate or the divalent cations magnesium or calcium. A filtrate from cultures of an N. gonorrhoeae strain grown in a liquid defined medium showed a similar protective effect in the serum assay. The filtrate appeared to chelate iron, as measured by decreased ability of iron-free transferin to bind iron in the presence of the filtrate. However, the two effects did not appear to be related. Neither ferric ammonium citrate nor the culture filtrate sufficiently inactivated complement to account for protection.  (+info)

Type-specific opsonophagocytosis of group A Streptococcus by use of a rapid chemiluminescence assay. (8/1592)

A whole-blood chemiluminescence (CL) assay was developed to determine the presence of type-specific opsonic antibodies against group A streptococcus (GAS). Convalescent sera with high bactericidal activities against an M-1 serotype were used to opsonize different M-types of GAS. CL responses were monitored for 20 min, and results were expressed as integral counts/minute per phagocyte. CL responses of phagocytes incubated with M-1 GAS opsonized with homologous (M-1) serum were significantly higher than responses of phagocytes incubated with heterologous (M-3) GAS. Adsorption of convalescent serum against the homologous, but not the heterologous, strain markedly reduced the CL response, demonstrating type specificity. The CL assay showed a high correlation with the indirect bactericidal test (r=0.90). In conclusion, this CL assay is a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible method for quantifying type-specific opsonic antibodies against GAS and will be a useful tool for future clinical, basic science, and epidemiological studies.  (+info)

The most common form of this disease is Meningococcal Group B (MenB). Symptoms often develop within hours or days after exposure, but can be nonspecific, such as fever, headache, and muscle aches.

Early signs that are more specific and suggestive of the diagnosis include neck stiffness, confusion, seizures, and rash. Diagnosis is by culture or PCR of a sterile site. Treatment consists of antibiotics that cover Neisseria meningitidis, which should be initiated promptly after recognition of the signs and symptoms.

Prevention with vaccines is recommended for infants at 2 months of age; boosters are given at 4 months, 6 months, and 12 to 15 months of age.

Staphylococcal infections can be classified into two categories:

1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - This type of infection is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections and surgical site infections.

2. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) - This type of infection is not resistant to antibiotics and can cause milder skin infections, respiratory tract infections, sinusitis and food poisoning.

Staphylococcal infections are caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria which can enter the body through various means such as:

1. Skin cuts or open wounds
2. Respiratory tract infections
3. Contaminated food and water
4. Healthcare-associated infections
5. Surgical site infections

Symptoms of Staphylococcal infections may vary depending on the type of infection and severity, but they can include:

1. Skin redness and swelling
2. Increased pain or tenderness
3. Warmth or redness in the affected area
4. Pus or discharge
5. Fever and chills
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Shortness of breath

Diagnosis of Staphylococcal infections is based on physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans.

Treatment of Staphylococcal infections depends on the type of infection and severity, but may include:

1. Antibiotics to fight the infection
2. Drainage of abscesses or pus collection
3. Wound care and debridement
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management
5. Surgical intervention in severe cases.

Preventive measures for Staphylococcal infections include:

1. Good hand hygiene practices
2. Proper cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment
3. Avoiding close contact with people who have Staphylococcal infections
4. Covering wounds and open sores
5. Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment.

It is important to note that MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a type of Staphylococcal infection that is resistant to many antibiotics, and can be difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Causes and risk factors:

The most common cause of bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and travels to the heart. This can occur through various means, such as:

* Injecting drugs or engaging in other risky behaviors that allow bacteria to enter the body
* Having a weakened immune system due to illness or medication
* Having a previous history of endocarditis or other heart conditions
* Being over the age of 60, as older adults are at higher risk for developing endocarditis


The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the infected area. Some common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Joint pain or swelling
* Fatigue
* Shortness of breath
* Heart murmurs or abnormal heart sounds


Bacterial endocarditis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

* Blood cultures to identify the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
* Echocardiogram to visualize the heart and detect any abnormalities
* Chest X-ray to look for signs of infection or inflammation in the lungs or heart
* Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the electrical activity of the heart


The treatment of bacterial endocarditis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria and reduce inflammation, while surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. In some cases, the infected heart tissue may need to be removed.


Preventing bacterial endocarditis involves good oral hygiene, regular dental check-ups, and avoiding certain high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles. People with existing heart conditions should also take antibiotics before dental or medical procedures to reduce the risk of infection.


The prognosis for bacterial endocarditis is generally good if treatment is prompt and effective. However, delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or death. Patients with pre-existing heart conditions are at higher risk for complications.


Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year in the United States. However, people with certain risk factors such as heart conditions or prosthetic heart valves are at higher risk for developing the infection.


Bacterial endocarditis can lead to a number of complications, including:

* Heart failure
* Stroke or brain abscess
* Kidney damage or failure
* Pregnancy complications
* Nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
* Skin or soft tissue infections
* Bone or joint infections
* Septicemia (blood poisoning)


Preventive measures for bacterial endocarditis include:

* Good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups to reduce the risk of dental infections
* Avoiding high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles
* Antibiotics before dental or medical procedures for patients with existing heart conditions
* Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment
* Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis (prevention) in high-risk patients.

Emerging Trends:

Newly emerging trends in the management of bacterial endocarditis include:

* The use of novel antibiotics and combination therapy to improve treatment outcomes
* The development of new diagnostic tests to help identify the cause of infection more quickly and accurately
* The increased use of preventive measures such as antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients.

Future Directions:

Future directions for research on bacterial endocarditis may include:

* Investigating the use of novel diagnostic techniques, such as genomics and proteomics, to improve the accuracy of diagnosis
* Developing new antibiotics and combination therapies to improve treatment outcomes
* Exploring alternative preventive measures such as probiotics and immunotherapy.

In conclusion, bacterial endocarditis is a serious infection that can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures such as good oral hygiene and antibiotic prophylaxis can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic techniques, developing new treatments, and exploring alternative preventive measures.

Phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to toxins, or infections with certain viruses or other pathogens that interfere with phagocyte function.

The consequences of phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction can include increased susceptibility to infections and the development of persistent or chronic infections, which can lead to a range of health problems and diseases.

Phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction is an important area of research in immunology and infectious disease, as understanding the mechanisms that control phagocyte function can help us develop new therapies and treatments for infections and other immune-related disorders.

Definition: Meningitis, pneumococcal, is an inflammatory disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) that affects the protective membranes (meninges) covering the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of symptoms including fever, headache, vomiting, and altered mental status. It can be a severe and potentially life-threatening infection, particularly in certain patient populations such as children under 5 years old, older adults, and those with underlying medical conditions.

Epidemiology: Pneumococcal meningitis is relatively uncommon, but it remains an important public health concern, particularly in developed countries. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are approximately 350 cases of pneumococcal meningitis reported each year in the United States, resulting in about 10% of all cases of bacterial meningitis.

Risk Factors: Several risk factors have been identified for developing pneumococcal meningitis, including:

1. Age: Children under 5 years old and older adults are at increased risk.
2. Underlying medical conditions: Patients with conditions such as sickle cell disease, HIV/AIDS, and chronic lung disease are more likely to develop pneumococcal meningitis.
3. Weakened immune system: Those with compromised immune systems, such as those taking immunosuppressive medications or who have undergone organ transplants, are at higher risk.
4. Recent exposure to someone with pneumococcal disease: Close contact with someone who has recently been diagnosed with pneumococcal disease can increase the risk of developing the infection.

Clinical Presentation: Symptoms of pneumococcal meningitis can vary depending on the age of the patient, but common presentations include:

1. Fever
2. Headache
3. Vomiting
4. Altered mental status (in infants and young children) or confusion (in older adults)
5. Stiff neck
6. Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
7. Bulging of the soft spots on the skull in infants (in infants)

Diagnosis: The diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of S. pneumoniae. Imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to evaluate the brain and identify any signs of inflammation or abscesses.

Treatment: Pneumococcal meningitis is typically treated with antibiotics, which are usually given intravenously. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity of the infection and the patient's age and medical history. In addition to antibiotics, supportive care may be provided to manage symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Complications: Pneumococcal meningitis can lead to serious complications, including:

1. Hearing loss
2. Learning disabilities
3. Behavioral changes
4. Seizures
5. Brain damage
6. Death

Prevention: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is recommended for children under the age of 2 years and for certain high-risk groups, such as adults over the age of 65 and people with certain medical conditions. The vaccine can help prevent pneumococcal meningitis and other serious infections caused by S. pneumoniae. Good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing, can also help prevent the spread of the bacteria.

Prognosis: With prompt and appropriate treatment, the prognosis for pneumococcal meningitis is generally good. However, in severe cases or those with complications, the prognosis may be poorer. In some cases, long-term sequelae such as hearing loss, learning disabilities, and behavioral changes may occur.

Incubation period: The incubation period for pneumococcal meningitis is typically between 2 and 4 days, but it can range from 1 to 10 days.

Diagnosis: Pneumococcal meningitis is diagnosed based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and PCR testing to identify the presence of S. pneumoniae.

Treatment: Treatment for pneumococcal meningitis typically involves antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

In conclusion, pneumococcal meningitis is a serious infection that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent long-term sequelae and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

Symptoms of meningococcal meningitis typically develop within 3-7 days after exposure and may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, nausea and vomiting, sensitivity to light, and seizures. In severe cases, the infection can lead to shock, organ failure, and death within hours of the onset of symptoms.

Diagnosis is typically made by a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests (such as blood cultures and PCR), and imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans). Treatment typically involves antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and supportive care to manage fever, pain, and other symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit may be necessary.

Prevention of meningococcal meningitis includes the use of vaccines, good hygiene practices (such as frequent handwashing), and avoidance of close contact with people who are sick. A vaccine is available for children and teens, and some colleges and universities require students to be vaccinated before moving into dorms.

Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in preventing long-term complications and reducing the risk of death from meningococcal meningitis. If you suspect that you or someone else may have meningococcal meningitis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

Blisters are caused by friction or rubbing against a surface, which causes the top layer of skin to separate from the underlying layer. This separation creates a space that fills with fluid, forming a blister. Blisters can also be caused by burns, chemical exposure, or other types of injury.

There are different types of blisters, including:

1. Friction blisters: These are the most common type of blister and are caused by friction or rubbing against a surface. They are often seen on the hands, feet, and buttocks.
2. Burn blisters: These are caused by burns and can be more severe than friction blisters.
3. Chemical blisters: These are caused by exposure to chemicals and can be very painful.
4. Blisters caused by medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as epidermolysis bullosa (a genetic disorder that affects the skin), can cause blisters to form easily.

Blisters can be treated in several ways, depending on their size and location. Small blisters may not require treatment and can heal on their own within a few days. Larger blisters may need to be drained and covered with a bandage to prevent infection. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

Preventing blisters is key to avoiding the discomfort and pain they can cause. To prevent blisters, it is important to:

1. Wear properly fitting shoes and clothing to reduce friction.
2. Use lubricating creams or powders to reduce friction.
3. Take regular breaks to rest and allow the skin to recover.
4. Avoid using harsh chemicals or detergents that can cause irritation.
5. Keep the affected area clean and dry to prevent infection.

In conclusion, blisters are a common and uncomfortable condition that can be caused by a variety of factors. While they can be treated and managed, prevention is key to avoiding the discomfort and pain they can cause. By taking steps to prevent blisters and seeking medical attention if they do occur, individuals can reduce their risk of developing this uncomfortable condition.

Some common examples of gram-positive bacterial infections include:

1. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections: These are infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is a type of gram-positive bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics.
2. Streptococcal infections: These are infections caused by streptococcus bacteria, such as strep throat and cellulitis.
3. Pneumococcal infections: These are infections caused by pneumococcus bacteria, such as pneumonia.
4. Enterococcal infections: These are infections caused by enterococcus bacteria, such as urinary tract infections and endocarditis.
5. Candidiasis: This is a type of fungal infection caused by candida, which is a type of gram-positive fungus.

Gram-positive bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin and ampicillin, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has made the treatment of these infections more challenging. In some cases, gram-positive bacterial infections may require more aggressive treatment, such as combination therapy with multiple antibiotics or the use of antifungal medications.

Overall, gram-positive bacterial infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Some common examples of bacterial infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.

In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

Here are some common types of E. coli infections:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): E. coli is a leading cause of UTIs, which occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
2. Diarrheal infections: E. coli can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever if consumed through contaminated food or water. In severe cases, this type of infection can lead to dehydration and even death, particularly in young children and the elderly.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infections): If E. coli bacteria enter the bloodstream, they can cause septicemia, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, E. coli infections can spread to the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and supportive care.
5. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS): E. coli infections can sometimes cause HUS, a condition where the bacteria destroy red blood cells, leading to anemia, kidney failure, and other complications. HUS is most common in young children and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Preventing E. coli infections primarily involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. It's also essential to cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef, to avoid cross-contamination with other foods. Avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and drinking contaminated water can also help prevent E. coli infections.

If you suspect an E. coli infection, seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may perform a urine test or a stool culture to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment. In mild cases, symptoms may resolve on their own within a few days, but antibiotics may be necessary for more severe infections. It's essential to stay hydrated and follow your healthcare provider's recommendations to ensure a full recovery.

Pulmonary tuberculosis typically affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, kidneys, or spine. The symptoms of pulmonary TB include coughing for more than three weeks, chest pain, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Pulmonary tuberculosis is diagnosed by a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and radiologic imaging, such as chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment for pulmonary TB usually involves a combination of antibiotics and medications to manage symptoms.

Preventive measures for pulmonary tuberculosis include screening for latent TB infection in high-risk populations, such as healthcare workers and individuals with HIV/AIDS, and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in countries where it is available.

Overall, pulmonary tuberculosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications and death.

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

Bacteremia can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through various means, such as:

* Infected wounds or surgical sites
* Injecting drug use
* Skin infections
* Respiratory tract infections
* Urinary tract infections
* Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)

The symptoms of bacteremia can vary depending on the type of bacteria and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Weakness
* Confusion
* Shortness of breath

Bacteremia is diagnosed by blood cultures, which involve collecting blood samples and inserting them into a specialized container to grow the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention measures for bacteremia include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing personal items like toothbrushes or razors
* Properly cleaning and covering wounds
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can lead to bacteremia
* Following proper sterilization techniques during medical procedures

Overall, bacteremia is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure effective treatment.

Pseudomonas infections are challenging to treat due to the bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antibiotics. The treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other supportive therapies, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Epidemiology of Haemophilus Infections:

* Incidence: Hib disease was once a major cause of childhood meningitis and sepsis, but the introduction of Hib vaccines in the 1980s has significantly reduced the incidence of invasive Hib disease. Non-invasive Hib disease, such as otitis media, is still common.
* Prevalence: Hib is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under the age of 5 worldwide. In developed countries, the prevalence of invasive Hib disease has decreased significantly since the introduction of vaccines, but it remains a significant public health problem in developing countries.
* Risk factors: young age, poverty, lack of access to healthcare, and poor sanitation and hygiene are risk factors for Hib disease. Children under the age of 5, especially those under the age of 2, are at highest risk for invasive Hib disease.

Pathophysiology of Haemophilus Infections:

* Mechanisms of infection: H. influenzae can cause both respiratory and non-respiratory infections by colonizing the nasopharynx and other mucosal surfaces. The bacteria can then disseminate to other parts of the body, causing invasive disease.
* Immune response: the immune response to Hib infection involves both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Antibodies play a crucial role in protecting against reinfection, while T cells and macrophages help to clear the bacteria from the body.

Clinical Presentation of Haemophilus Infections:

* Respiratory infections: H. influenzae can cause various respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, pneumonia, and sinusitis. Symptoms may include fever, cough, sore throat, and difficulty breathing.
* Non-respiratory infections: Hib can cause a range of non-respiratory infections, including meningitis, epiglottitis, and septic arthritis. These infections can have more severe symptoms and may require prompt medical attention.

Diagnosis of Haemophilus Infections:

* Diagnostic tests: diagnosis of Hib disease is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and radiologic studies. Blood cultures, lumbar puncture, and chest x-rays may be used to confirm the presence of the bacteria and assess the extent of infection.
* Laboratory testing: identification of Hib is based on its distinctive gram stain appearance and biochemical characteristics. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing are also used to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment and Prevention of Haemophilus Infections:

* Antibiotics: Hib infections are treated with antibiotics, such as amoxicillin or ceftriaxone. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity and location of the infection.
* Vaccination: the Hib vaccine is recommended for children under 5 years old to prevent Hib disease. The vaccine is given in a series of 3-4 doses, with the first dose given at 2 months of age.
* Good hygiene practices: good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and proper cleaning and disinfection, can help prevent the spread of Hib bacteria.

Complications of Haemophilus Infections:

* Meningitis: Hib meningitis can have serious complications, including hearing loss, learning disabilities, and seizures.
* Permanent brain damage: Hib infections can cause permanent brain damage, including cognitive and behavioral impairments.
* Respiratory failure: severe Hib pneumonia can lead to respiratory failure, which may require mechanical ventilation.
* Death: Hib infections can be life-threatening, especially in young children and those with underlying medical conditions.

In conclusion, Haemophilus infections are a serious public health concern, particularly for young children and those with underlying medical conditions. Prevention through vaccination and good hygiene practices is essential to reduce the risk of infection. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

... whose blood had no bactericidal activity, acquired an N. meningitidis infection, the link between serum bactericidal activity ... concerned bactericidal properties of whole blood against strains of meningococcus. Control blood without bactericidal activity ... In 1919, Dr Heist and co-workers [Heist et al., 1922] established that clotted blood from different persons varied in its ... illustrates the lack of resistance to meningococcal infection that accompanies absence of bactericidal power against the ...
Finally, NET formation has been demonstrated to augment macrophage bactericidal activity during infection. Recently, NETs have ... Whereas basophilic white blood cells stain dark blue and eosinophilic white blood cells stain bright red, neutrophils stain a ... of all white blood cells (leukocytes). The stated normal range for human blood counts varies between laboratories, but a ... "Mitochondrial calcium uniporter affects neutrophil bactericidal activity during Staphylococcus aureus infection". Infection and ...
NO is also responsible for endothelium-derived relaxing factor activity regulating blood pressure as produced from its related ... In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions, as produced from its related enzyme NOS2. Various ...
In another study, it was established that azoximer bromide could affect the bactericidal activity of leukocytes. Many chronic ... Effect of polyoxidonium on the phagocytic activity of human peripheral blood leukocytes. Russ J Immunol 2003;8:53-60. Denisov ... It was established that a 1-hour incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes with azoximer bromide increased the ability of ... Azoximer bromide has also demonstrated antioxidant activity at all dose range of 100 to 500 μg/mL. Azoximer bromide displayed ...
Possible role in the bactericidal activity of phagocytes". The Biochemical Journal. 254 (3): 685-92. doi:10.1042/bj2540685. PMC ... The white blood cells of mammals, such as humans, also contain hypochlorous acid as a tool against foreign bodies. In living ... However, the concentration required for bactericidal activity is also highly dependent on bacterial concentration. In 1948, ... Later studies have shown that, at bacteriocidal levels, the cytosol components do not react with HClO. In agreement with this, ...
Bactericidal action of blood (George Nuttall) 1890 - Demonstration of antibody activity against diphtheria and tetanus toxins. ... Wright, A.E.; Stewart, R.D. (1 September 1903). "An experimental investigation on the role of the blood fluids in connection ... Blood groups (Karl Landsteiner) 1902 - Immediate hypersensitivity anaphylaxis (Paul Portier) and (Charles Richet) 1903 - ... Discovery of lymphocyte mitogenic activity, "blastogenic factor" (Shinpei Kamakura) and (Louis Lowenstein) (J. Gordon) and (L.D ...
The impairment of bactericidal activity manifests itself as the formation of an ulcer, plaque or papule. Malakoplakia is ... Urinalysis which indicates presence of bacteria and white blood cells. Urine culture Cystoscopic evaluation confirms presence ...
... blood bactericidal activity MeSH G09.188.250.161 - blood cell count MeSH G09. - erythrocyte count MeSH G09.188. ... whole blood coagulation time MeSH G09.188.261.145 - blood bactericidal activity MeSH G09.188.261.420 - erythrocyte aggregation ... blood flow velocity MeSH G09.330.553.400.114 - blood pressure MeSH G09.330.553.400.114.695 - pulmonary wedge pressure MeSH ... blood viscosity MeSH G09.330.553.400.214 - blood volume MeSH G09.330.553.400.214.370 - erythrocyte volume MeSH G09.330.553.400. ...
In 1886 he reported the in vivo bactericidal activity of the blood, concluding that the organism was protected against the ... 1892) 1890 - the bactericidal action of the blood and immunization 1891 - immunization by alkalinization Group, British Medical ... Bacteria in the blood of living animals] Archiv für Hygiene, 4:129-148 1887 - "Die Fähigkeit des Blutes Bacterien zu vernichten ... spread of bacteria by an unknown vital power of blood, and in 1887 he demonstrated in vitro that whole blood is able to reduce ...
... sterility of the normal small intestine Discovered that breast-fed children have stronger bactericidal activity in their blood ...
... blood bactericidal activity MeSH G04.610.575.809 - phagocytosis MeSH G04.610.619.500 - radiation chimera MeSH G04.610.626.051 ... blood cell count MeSH G04.335.130.107.330 - erythrocyte count MeSH G04.335.130.107.330.725 - reticulocyte count MeSH G04.335. ...
... of lipid raft Gal-4 participates in apical trafficking Gal-4 has bactericidal activity against bacteria expressing blood group ... Blood. 109 (1): 219-27. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-03-007153. PMC 1785076. PMID 16940423. Ideo H, Seko A, Yamashita K (2007). " ...
... 's potent activity, low toxicity and its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier makes this compound an optimum ... pathogenic bacteria associated with psoriasis exhibited moderate activity where minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal ... It was reported that avarol can penetrate the blood-brain barrier while showing a low neurotoxicity on rat brain synaptosomes. ... Intrigued by the wide range of biological activities of this metabolite, Avarol has inspired the development of many synthetic ...
NET formation has also been shown to augment macrophage bactericidal activity in response to multiple bacterial pathogens. More ... This effect is seen not only with neutrophils in the blood, but also in various tissues such as the gut, lung, liver, and blood ... "Mitochondrial calcium uniporter affects neutrophil bactericidal activity during Staphylococcus aureus infection". Infection and ... Blood. 117 (6): 2033-43. doi:10.1182/blood-2010-04-278887. PMC 3374621. PMID 21177434. Farrera, c; Fadeel B (2013). "Macrophage ...
Domingue GJ, Neter E (1 January 1966). "Opsonizing and Bactericidal Activity of Antibodies Against Common Antigen of ... Domingue GJ, Schlegel JU (December 1978). "Novel bacterial structures in human blood. II. Bacterial variants as etiologic ...
"Early Bactericidal Activity of Amoxicillin in Combination with Clavulanic Acid in Patients with Sputum Smear-positive Pulmonary ... "Lack of Activity of Orally Administered Clofazimine against Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Whole-Blood Culture". ... Jagannath, C; Reddy, M V; Kailasam, S; O'Sullivan, J F; Gangadharam, P R (1995). "Chemotherapeutic activity of clofazimine and ... Wayne, L G; Sramek, H A (1994). "Metronidazole is bactericidal to dormant cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Antimicrobial ...
Aminoglycosides in laboratory tests showed some bactericidal activity. Bacteriostatic antibiotics are not able to easily get ... It is a facultative intracellular microbe that targets red blood cells. One study showed it invaded the mature blood cells of ... It can be cultured in a lysis-centrifugation blood culture. The presence of bacteria can be detected by Warthin-Starry stain, ...
... is a bactericidal, broad-spectrum antibiotic that has activity against Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive ... This allows reentry into the blood stream and recirculation, a mechanism that can extend the half-life. The longer half-life ... It has broad-spectrum, concentration dependent, bactericidal activity; however, its efficacy is not as good as enrofloxacin or ... Azlocillin, cimetidine and probenecid increase blood levels of difloxacin. Compounds (i.e. sucralfate, antacids, multivitamins ...
Paul WE (May 1991). "Interleukin-4: a prototypic immunoregulatory lymphokine". Blood. 77 (9): 1859-70. doi:10.1182/blood.V77.9. ... Activity of the alveolar macrophage is relatively high, because they are located at one of the major boundaries between the ... ROI generation by NADPH oxidase is an important bactericidal mechanism after FcR-mediated phagocytosis. PGE2 activates both Gs- ... In humans, however, NOS2 activity has been difficult to verify. There are two explanations for the lack of responsiveness in ...
The fluoroquinolones rapidly cross the blood-placenta and blood-milk barrier, and are extensively distributed into the fetal ... Quinolones are synthetic agents that have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity as well as a unique mechanism of action, ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are bactericidal drugs, eradicating bacteria by interfering with DNA replication. ... Fritsche TR, Biedenbach DJ, Jones RN (2008). "Antimicrobial Activity of Prulifloxacin Tested against a Worldwide Collection of ...
1975). "Bactericidal and hemolytic activity of complement in bovine colostrum and serum: effect of proteolytic enzymes and ... a waste-product of dead red blood cells which is produced in large quantities at birth due to blood volume reduction from the ... increasing lymphocyte proliferation stimulating activity and increasing phagocytosis activity. These are supported by other ... Transfer factors enhance the activity of T cells. Other growth and immune factors such as IGF-1, IGF-2, FGF, EGF, TGF, PDGF, ...
These PGRPs have both peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing amidase activity and are directly bactericidal to both Gram-positive and Gram- ... Blood. 102 (2): 689-697. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-12-3853. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 12649138. Lo, David; Tynan, Wendy; Dickerson, ... Mouse and bovine PGLYRP1 also have antibacterial activity, and bovine PGLYRP1 has also antifungal activity. These human PGRPs ... Blood. 106 (7): 2551-2558. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-02-0530. ISSN 0006-4971. PMC 1895263. PMID 15956276. Ghosh, Amit; Lee, ...
... and they may block transporter proteins that pump valproic acid out of red blood cells into the blood plasma. The effect is ... Like all beta-lactam antibiotics, ertapenem is bactericidal. It inhibits cross-linking of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial ... Like all carbapenem antibiotics, ertapenem has a broader spectrum of activity than other beta-lactams like penicillins and ... and its highest concentrations in the blood plasma are reached after about 2.3 hours. In the blood, 85-95% of ertapenem are ...
... bactericidal activity. Due to the rarity of many primary immunodeficiencies, many of the above tests are highly specialised and ... The basic tests performed when an immunodeficiency is suspected should include a full blood count (including accurate ... Quantification of the different types of mononuclear cells in the blood (i.e. lymphocytes and monocytes): different groups of T ... such as otherwise healthy blood donors) having a rate of 1:600. Other disorders are distinctly more uncommon, with incidences ...
Sauerbrei A (September 2020). "Bactericidal and virucidal activity of ethanol and povidone-iodine". MicrobiologyOpen. 9 (9): ... to remove HIV from blood. Different substances have interactions between microbicides and viruses such as: Alteration of the ... Each mentioned item in the list has different microbicidal activity, i. e. some viruses can be more or less resistant. For ... Katz DH, Marcelletti JF, Khalil MH, Pope LE, Katz LR (December 1991). "Antiviral activity of 1-docosanol, an inhibitor of lipid ...
Moura IC, Hermine O (2015). "Erythroferrone: the missing link in β-thalassemia?". Blood. 126 (17): 1974-5. doi:10.1182/blood- ... Increased hepcidin activity is partially responsible for reduced iron availability seen in anemia of chronic inflammation, such ... and appeared to have bactericidal properties ("-cide" for "killing"). Detailed descriptions were published in 2000-2001. ... Blood. 106 (12): 3710-7. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-05-1857. PMID 16030190. hepcidin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...
Newman GR, Walker M, Hobot JA, Bowler PG (March 2006). "Visualisation of bacterial sequestration and bactericidal activity ... Blood vessels constrict in tissue that becomes cold and dilate in warm tissue, altering blood flow to the area. Thus keeping ... The activity of elastase is increased by human serum albumin, which is the most abundant protein found in chronic wounds. ... Another way is to spread onto the wound a gel of the patient's own blood platelets, which then secrete growth factors such as ...
It remains to be seen how in vitro activity relates to in vivo function. Mutants for the defensin-like antimicrobial peptide ... January 1989). "Insect immunity: isolation from immune blood of the dipteran Phormia terranovae of two insect antibacterial ... peptides with sequence homology to rabbit lung macrophage bactericidal peptides". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Defensins of mammals display anti-cancer activities in vitro, and down-regulation of human beta-defensin 1 is associated with ...
It also displays significant antiviral activity against the influenza A viruses. Acetylcysteine has bactericidal properties and ... Blood. 99 (5): 1552-5. doi:10.1182/blood.V99.5.1552. PMID 11861267. S2CID 24375953. Wang AL, Wang JP, Wang H, Chen YH, Zhao L, ... They found that acetylcysteine was metabolized to S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNOAC), which increased blood pressure in the ... Samuni Y, Goldstein S, Dean OM, Berk M (August 2013). "The chemistry and biological activities of N-acetylcysteine". Biochimica ...
... has been suggested that children under 5 years of age are more susceptible to BPF since they lack serum bactericidal activity ... They require preformed growth factors that are present in blood, specifically hemin (X factor) and NAD or NADP (V factor). The ... Older children and adults have much higher titers of bactericidal antibodies, which serve as a protective measure. Also ... isolation of Haemophilus Influenzae Biogroup aegyptius from blood, and negative laboratory tests for Neisseria meningitidis. ...
B1 to have significant immunosuppressive effects including reduced serum total globulin and reduced bactericidal activities. ... Sur, E; Celik, İ (2003). "Effects of aflatoxin B1on the development of the bursa of Fabricius and blood lymphocyte acid ...
The researchers found that if NF-κB activity was blocked in elderly mice by bathing them in bleach solution, the animals' skin ... Heggers JP, Sazy JA, Stenberg BD, Strock LL, McCauley RL, Herndon DN, Robson MC (1991). "Bactericidal and wound-healing ... including large blood spills (the area is first cleaned with detergent before being disinfected). It may be made by diluting ... Sodium hypochlorite in solution exhibits broad spectrum anti-microbial activity and is widely used in healthcare facilities in ...
The number of phagocytes declines in aged hosts, coupled with an intrinsic reduction of bactericidal activity. Natural killer ( ... Blood. 100 (10): 3698-3702. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-02-0657. PMID 12393723. Lefebvre JS, Maue AC, Eaton SM, Lanthier PA, Tighe M ... This is due to the accumulation of oxidative damage to DNA by aging and cellular metabolic activity and telomeric shortening. ... Bruunsgaard H, Pedersen AN, Schroll M, Skinhøj P, Pedersen BK (December 2001). "Decreased natural killer cell activity is ...
Due to the mechanism of their attack on bacterial cell wall synthesis, β-lactams are considered to be bactericidal. Unlike β- ... It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against numerous gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Given its broad ... In meningitis, cefotaxime crosses the blood-brain barrier better than cefuroxime. As a β-lactam antibiotic in the third- ... Bacteria eventually lyse due to ongoing activity of cell wall autolytic enzymes (autolysins and murein hydrolases) in the ...
... antibiotics display bactericidal activity against Gram-negative aerobes and some anaerobic bacilli where ... These agents exhibit a post-antibiotic effect in which there is no or very little drug level detectable in blood, but there ... Streptomycin Plazomicin Aminoglycosides display concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against "most gram-negative ... These activities are attributed to a primary mode of action as protein synthesis inhibitors, though additional mechanisms are ...
Bactericidal Activity of the Organo-Tellurium Compound AS101 Against Enterobacter Cloacae,' Journal of Antimicrobial ... a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Arsenic in drinking water, which causes lung and bladder cancer, has been associated ...
Ross SC, Berberich HM, Densen P (December 1985). "Natural serum bactericidal activity against Neisseria meningitidis isolates ... This is due to the release of toxins into the blood that break down the walls of blood vessels. A rash can develop under the ... The endotoxin directly affects the heart, reducing its ability to circulate blood, and also causes pressure on blood vessels ... As some blood vessels start to hemorrhage, major organs like the lungs and kidneys are damaged.[citation needed] Patients with ...
Hematopoiesis Blood count Haematopoiesis Immune system Innate immune system Trogocytosis White blood cell WebMD (2009). " ... The intracellular granules of the human neutrophil have long been recognized for their protein-destroying and bactericidal ... "Neutrophil secretion products regulate anti-bacterial activity in monocytes and macrophages". Clinical and Experimental ... Neutrophils do not return to the blood; they turn into pus cells and die. Mature neutrophils are smaller than monocytes, and ...
... circulates in blood in free form and bound to proteins. Leptin levels vary exponentially, not linearly, with fat mass. ... Leptin binds to neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons in the arcuate nucleus in such a way as to decrease the activity of these neurons ... a potential regulator of polymorphonuclear neutrophil bactericidal action?". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 69 (3): 414-418. doi ... In humans it has been observed that the ratio of leptin in the CSF compared to the blood is lower in obese people than in ...
... of the donor red blood cells by host antibodies. The cause is usually a clerical error, such as the wrong unit of blood being ... The complement system is involved in the activities of both innate immunity and acquired immunity. Activation of this system ... "The Bactericidal Action of Lymph Taken from the Thoracic Duct of the Dog". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2 (6): 701-709 ... An incompatible blood transfusion causes a transfusion reaction, which is mediated by the humoral immune response. This type of ...
... typhimurium by increasing the bactericidal activity of macrophages and neutrophils. In the late 1980s, Kelley's group showed ... Their discovery helped in the understanding how white blood cells live, die and develop into mature cells that actively defend ... Somatotropin and prolactin enhance respiratory burst activity of macrophages. In C.S. Raine (Ed.) Second International Congress ... Prolactin synthesized and secreted by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: An autocrine growth factor for ...
Andrews NC (July 2008). "Forging a field: the golden age of iron biology". Blood. 112 (2): 219-30. doi:10.1182/blood-2007-12- ... It is now known, however, that the major antimicrobial driving force lies in the bactericidal properties of its iron-bound ... Menis, Oscar (1968). "Technical Note 454". Analytical Coordination Chemistry Section: Summary of Activities July 1967 to June ... Kuwata H, Yip TT, Yip CL, Tomita M, Hutchens TW (April 1998). "Bactericidal domain of lactoferrin: detection, quantitation, and ...
... blood, and white blood cells to fill the alveoli. This condition is called pneumonia. Pneumonia is the most common of the S. ... Transformation protects S. pneumoniae against the bactericidal effect of mitomycin C. Michod et al. summarized evidence that ... Atromentin and leucomelone possess antibacterial activity, inhibiting the enzyme enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, ( ... Pericone, Christopher D.; Overweg, Karin; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Weiser, Jeffrey N. (2000). "Inhibitory and Bactericidal Effects ...
doi:10.1182/blood-2010-06-290460. PMID 21248061. Gross PL (2011). "Salivary microvesicles clot blood". Blood. 117 (11): 2989. ... Indeed, a dog's saliva is bactericidal against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Streptococcus canis, although not against ... Ihalin R, Loimaranta V, Tenovuo J (January 2006). "Origin, structure, and biological activities of peroxidases in human saliva ... A blood donor whose cat licked her chapped fingers passed on Pasteurella infection to a 74-year-old transfusion recipient. A ...
This can cause blood in urine if the kidneys are affected, and back pain if the spine is affected. Typing of strains is useful ... In addition, it is also found to be a substrate of PPM1A activity, hence the phosphorylation of JNK would cause apoptosis to ... Of these, MmpL3 is essential; knock-out of which has been shown to be bactericidal. Due to its essential nature, MmpL3 ...
In blood culture, the BacT/ALERT MB system (normally used for culturing mycobacteria) by bioMérieux has been shown to have ... 2011). "A Burkholderia pseudomallei toxin inhibits helicase activity of translation factor eIF4A". Science. 334 (6057): 821-4. ... Virkon and bleach are bactericidal for Burkholderia pseudomallei, a select agent and the cause of melioidosis". J Hosp Infect. ... Burkholderia pseudomallei is not fastidious and grows on a large variety of culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, EMB, etc ...
It is not known which of the actions of nitrofurantoin is primarily responsible for its bactericidal activity. The broad ... because of extremely poor tissue penetration and low blood levels. Nitrofurantoin has been shown to have good activity against ... The peak blood concentration of nitrofurantoin following an oral dose of nitrofurantoin 100 mg is less than 1 μg/mL and may be ... However the activity of nitrofurantoin is also pH dependent and mean inhibitory concentration rises sharply with increased pH ...
Relative to nalidixic acid, cinoxacin was found to have a slightly greater inhibitory and bactericidal activity. Cinoxacin was ... Blood DC, Studdert VP, Gay CC, eds. (2008). Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary (3rd ed.). Elsevier. ASIN B004K3VBJW. ... Cinoxacin was an older synthetic antimicrobial related to the quinolone class of antibiotics with activity similar to oxolinic ... Cinoxacin is similar chemically (and in antimicrobial activity) to oxolonic acid and nalidixic acid. ...
First-generation examples exhibit a narrow spectrum of action, and are bactericidal only against the enterococci. Some tissues ... Some other side-effects of vancomycin are nephrotoxicity including kidney failure and interstitial nephritis, blood disorders ... however several newer classes of antibiotics have proven to have activity against MRSA- including, in 2000, linezolid of the ... these newer candidates may demonstrate improvements over vancomycin due to less frequent dosing and activity against vancomycin ...
... is bactericidal against Gram-positive bacteria only. It has proven in vitro activity against enterococci (including ... Common adverse drug reactions associated with daptomycin therapy include: Cardiovascular: low blood pressure, high blood ... Further, one displayed ameliorated activity against an E. coli imp mutant that was defective in its ability to assemble its ... Some of these compounds have in vitro antibacterial activities analogous to daptomycin. ...
These results were correlated with the effect that these same viruses had on bactericidal activity in PMNL. Sever … ... Abramson JS, Parce JW, Lewis JC, Lyles DS, Mills EL, Nelson RD, Bass DA. Abramson JS, et al. Blood. 1984 Jul;64(1):131-8. Blood ... Role in depressed bactericidal activity J S Abramson, J C Lewis, D S Lyles, K A Heller, E L Mills, D A Bass ... Role in depressed bactericidal activity J S Abramson et al. J Clin Invest. 1982 Jun. ...
... efficacy was inferred from serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) responses to four reference strains. Only limited information is ... Antibodies, Bacterial / blood* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Investigation of the basis for resistance of the Quebec 2013 strain to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. (A) Pooled sera ... Breadth and Duration of Meningococcal Serum Bactericidal Activity in Health Care Workers and Microbiologists Immunized with the ...
Susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to the bactericidal activity of human serum. J Infect Dis. 1985;151:227-35. DOIPubMed ... In a recent nationwide study over a 10-year period, we collected blood culture isolates of C. jejuni and C. coli and obtained ... However, available information about possible serum sensitivity of C. jejuni isolates from blood is scarce (8,9). In our study ... A total of 72 C. jejuni isolates from blood were successfully typed by MLST; 1 isolate had a mixed MLST pattern. Five isolates ...
Bactericidal activities of antibiotics against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium blood isolates and synergistic ... Treatment in response to a single blood culture positive for coagulase-negative staphylococcus, if other blood cultures taken ... during the same time frame are negative (i.e., if contamination of the blood culture is likely). Because contamination of blood ... In-vitro activity of trospectomycin, a new aminocyclitol antibiotic against multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium. J ...
Categories: Blood Bactericidal Activity Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Bactericidal activities of antibiotics against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium blood isolates and synergistic ... Treatment in response to a single blood culture positive for coagulase-negative staphylococcus, if other blood cultures taken ... Permeability of latex and vinyl gloves to water and blood. Am J Infect Control 1989;17:196-201. * Paulssen J, Eidem T, ... In-vitro activity of trospectomycin, a new aminocyclitol antibiotic against multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium. J ...
Blood Bactericidal Activity Preferred Concept UI. M0002672. Scope Note. The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to ... which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.. Terms. Blood Bactericidal Activity Preferred Term Term UI T005146. Date01/01/ ... BLOOD PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA (IM); do not confuse with SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST (bactericidal activity in serum after ... This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patients serum as a result of ...
In recent years, adsorptive blood purification techniques (BPTs) have emerged, among which CytoSorb is the latest ... Polymyxin B, a multicationic antibiotic, exhibits strong bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria by binding to the ... In the current study, blood flow through the loop of the adsorbent blood purification device ranged from 200 mL/min to 600 ml/ ... S. Harm, C. Schildbock, and J. Hartmann, "Cytokine removal in extracorporeal blood purification: an in vitro study," Blood ...
... a novel mechanism of innate immune defense of the blood-retina barrier. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ... Bactericidal Activity 16% * Pathogen 16% * Cas9 16% * Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay 16% ... a novel mechanism of innate immune defense of the blood-retina barrier. ...
In vitro activity of gentamicin and amikacin against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi: a search for a treatment regimen for ... Both agents showed bactericidal activity at concentrations of 2 μg/mL after incubation for 6 hours. Aminoglycoside antibiotics ... this study was undertaken to assess the in vitro activity of 2 aminoglycosides (gentamicin and amikacin) against blood culture ... CFU/mL for amikacin (2 µg/mL), indicating the bactericidal activity of the antibiotics against S. enterica serovar Typhi. At ...
Pharmacokinetics and Whole-Blood Bactericidal Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis of Single Doses of PNU-100480 in ... Pharmacokinetics and Whole-Blood Bactericidal Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis of Single Doses of PNU-100480 in ... Rapid Evaluation in Whole Blood Culture of Regimens for XDR-TB Containing PNU-100480 (Sutezolid), TMC207, PA-824, SQ109, and ... Rapid Evaluation in Whole Blood Culture of Regimens for XDR-TB Containing PNU-100480 (Sutezolid), TMC207, PA-824, SQ109, and ...
... without interference with the complement bactericidal activity reduced the inflammatory response also in human whole blood. ... Here, we consider the potential of separating the bactericidal activities of the complement cascade from its immune activating ... No difference of viral load was found in tracheal or blood samples with regard to 30-day survival or disease severity. SARS-CoV ... Anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody detection of blood samples was performed with an enzyme-linked ...
Blood Bactericidal Activity G9.188.124.145 Blood-Borne Pathogens B4.909.142 B4.194 Blotting, Far-Western E5.393.525.262.500 ... and Blood Institute (U.S.) I1.409.137.500.600.480.300 I1.409.418.750.600.480.300 N3.540.52.750.300 National Human Genome ... Structure-Activity Relationship G7.690.830 G7.690.773.997 Student Dropouts I2.233.748.686 Students I2.233.748 I2.851 Students, ... Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship G7.690.830.500 G7.690.773.997.500 Queensland Z1.338.520 Z1.639.100.937 Z1.678. ...
Basophils constitute , 5% of circulating white blood cells and share several characteristics with mast cells Mast Cells The ... Cancer cells that express checkpoint molecules may thus be protected from the immune system by restraining the activity of ... bactericidal permeability-increasing protein, lactoferrin, lysozymes). DNA and histones are also released, and they, with ... About 5 to 15% of lymphocytes in the blood are B cells; they are also present in the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, and ...
Activities, Blood Bactericidal Activity, Blood Bactericidal Bactericidal Activities, Blood Bactericidal Activity, Blood Blood ... Activity, Blood Bactericidal. Bactericidal Activities, Blood. Bactericidal Activity, Blood. Blood Bactericidal Activities. ... Blood Bactericidal Activity - Preferred Concept UI. M0002672. Scope note. The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to ... BLOOD PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA (IM); do not confuse with SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST (bactericidal activity in serum after ...
Blood Bactericidal Activity Preferred Concept UI. M0002672. Scope Note. The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to ... which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.. Terms. Blood Bactericidal Activity Preferred Term Term UI T005146. Date01/01/ ... BLOOD PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA (IM); do not confuse with SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST (bactericidal activity in serum after ... This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patients serum as a result of ...
... may fail to totally inactivate high titers of virus in large quantities of blood, but in the absence of blood these ... Over the last few years, some carpet manufacturers have treated their products with fungicidal and/or bactericidal chemicals. ... Some intermediate-level disinfectants (e.g., hypochlorites) can exhibit some sporicidal activity; others (e.g., alcohols and ... Although spills of blood and body substances on non-porous surfaces require prompt spot cleaning using standard cleaning ...
... of a micro titer plate-based intrinsic killing assay to screen healthy adult blood donor sera for bactericidal activity against ... al studies, where bactericidal antibodies were measured in human complement. Individuals whose sera lacked bactericidal killing ... We are currently applying this assay to screen a subset of over 400 active sera from healthy adult blood donors against diverse ... serum bactericidal assays will be utilized to investigate sero-responses based on the original Goldschneider et. ...
Microbiology: The bactericidal activity of ceftriaxone results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Ceftriaxone has a high ... Interaction with Calcium: Two in vitro studies, one using adult plasma and the other neonatal plasma from umbilical cord blood ... A report of "Resistant" indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood ... A report of "Susceptible" indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood ...
We also examined whether prior IV injection of ZnO ENPs altered Kupffer cell bactericidal activity on circulating Pseudomonas ... However, by 4 hours, IV-injected bacteria were cleared from the blood, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. Seven days post-ZnO ... but did not alter bacterial clearance from the blood or killing in the liver, spleen, lungs, or kidneys. Our data show that ...
Defects in neutrophil granule mobilization and bactericidal activity in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 5 (FHL ... Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Apr; 46(4):482-8. PubMed ID: 16365863. [TBL] ... Molecular analysis of the novel L243R mutation in STXBP2 reveals impairment of degranulation activity.. Viñas-Giménez L; ...
Bactericidal activity of a fermented hot-water extract from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni towards enterohemorrhagic Escherichia ... The hemodynamic effects of rebaudioside A in healthy adults with normal and low-normal blood pressure. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; ... Taware, A. S., Mukadam, D. S., and Chavan, A. M. Antimicrobial Activity of Different Extracts of Callus and Tissue Cultured ... The effect of stevioside on blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci 1998;63:1679- ...
In the present study, innate (leukogram, serum lysozyme activity, peroxidase activity, antiprotease activity, bactericidal ... Blood was drawn from all three groups, and blood smears were prepared. Bacteria were found in the blood smears of 70% of the ... Serum lysozyme and bactericidal activity did not vary substantially among groups; however, serum antiprotease and peroxidase ... Furthermore, blood culture isolates from patients with multiple episodes were subjected to whole genome sequencing and ...
In addition, there are reports of deficits in bactericidal activity, chemotaxis, superoxide function by polymorphonuclear ... Finally, surface attached bacteria are intrinsically more resistant to the action of white blood cells, and they may produce ... led national activity for setting priority areas. This Program Announcement (PA), Deep Infections of Total Joint Replacements, ... bactericidal effect and optimal fixation; -- Efficacy of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate beads at the time of closure ...
Kinases Mst1 and Mst2 positively regulate phagocytic induction of reactive oxygen species and bactericidal activity. Nat ... but in the absence of genetically tractable blood derived macrophages, macrophages derived from genetically modified ... These results highlight a necessary fine balance in SAMHD1 activity in terms of cell cycle control, with too little SAMHD1 ... Phosphorylation of SAMHD1 by cyclin A2/CDK1 regulates its restriction activity toward HIV-1. Cell Rep. 2013;3:1036-43. ...
... but a similar proportion of PMNL with burst activity was seen in CB (84.7%). The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of oxidative ... We studied the oxidative burst in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL)s from maternal blood (MB) and cord blood (CB) upon ... the HOCL-mediated microbicidal activity against GV is more variable and less robust than E. coli and GBS, especially in ... Analysis of neutrophil bactericidal activity. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;412:319-32. ...
  • Seventy-three C. jejuni isolates from blood collected in Finland were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing and serum resistance. (
  • In the present study, we characterized C. jejuni blood culture isolates with respect to their clonal distribution and serum resistance. (
  • The same pool of serum samples from 10 healthy blood donors was used in all experiments. (
  • To obtain further information about the role of K-1 in serum resistance and to find out whether loss of the ability to produce K-1 can induce loss of serum resistance, we studied the serum resistance of mutants derived from completely serum-resistant, K-1-positive blood culture isolates of Escherichia coli by selection for resistance to infection with K-1 specific bacteriophages. (
  • This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST . (
  • Vaccines are available against all N. meningitidis serogroups except serogroup B (MenB) strains in the U.S. To identify susceptible populations, serum bactericidal assays will be utilized to investigate sero-responses based on the original Goldschneider et. (
  • Using a study questionnaire, information on age, anthropometry, fasting blood Glucose, serum electrolytes and Cortisol were obtained and analyzed following standard procedures. (
  • 16. Serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide activity-modulating proteins during tuberculosis. (
  • Serum bactericidal assay (SBA) with rabbit complement and a microsphere-based flow analysis method were used to determine bactericidal titers and concentrations of IgG, respectively, against serogroups A, C, W135, and Y. Decay of antibodies was modeled using linear regression. (
  • We developed and explored the feasibility of a micro titer plate-based intrinsic killing assay to screen healthy adult blood donor sera for bactericidal activity against a collection of MenB isolates. (
  • We are currently applying this assay to screen a subset of over 400 active sera from healthy adult blood donors against diverse and epidemiologically relevant MenB strains. (
  • Variable killing effect Some intermediate-level disinfectants, although they are tuberculocidal, may have limited virucidal activity. (
  • Disinfectant - A product registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that has demonstrated bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal activity. (
  • Both agents showed bactericidal activity at concentrations of 2 μg/mL after incubation for 6 hours. (
  • This activity is supported by the bactericidal and fungicidal properties of sulphide water. (
  • Bactericidal activity of sera from subjects vaccinated with bivalent rLP2086 was assessed against MnB isolates from recent disease outbreaks in France. (
  • In a recent nationwide study over a 10-year period, we collected blood culture isolates of C. jejuni and C. coli and obtained clinical features of corresponding bacteremic episodes and characteristics of patients throughout Finland ( 10 ). (
  • Annual and seasonal distribution of 72 Camplyobacter jejuni blood culture isolates belonging either to the ST-677 clonal complex (CC) or to the other multilocus sequence typing (MLST) CCs. (
  • This study assessed the in vitro activity of gentamicin and amikacin against 464 S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates obtained from blood of patients clinically suspected of enteric fever who attended the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from 1991 to 2003. (
  • High-level disinfectant chemicals possess sporicidal activity-only with extended exposure time are high level disinfections capable of killing high numbers of bacterial spores in laboratory tests. (
  • 1. Changes in polymorphonuclear leukocyte surface and plasma bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and plasma lipopolysaccharide binding protein during endotoxemia or sepsis. (
  • 3. Plasma levels of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) during hemodialysis. (
  • 5. Human granulocytes express a 55-kDa lipopolysaccharide-binding protein on the cell surface that is identical to the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. (
  • 6. Antagonistic effects of lipopolysaccharide binding protein and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein on lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release by mononuclear phagocytes. (
  • 8. The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), a potent element in host-defense against gram-negative bacteria and lipopolysaccharide. (
  • 9. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and bactericidal/permeability-increasing factor during hemodialysis: clinical determinants and role of different membranes. (
  • 12. Identification and expression analysis on bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI)/lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) of ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii. (
  • 13. Competition between rBPI23, a recombinant fragment of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein for binding to LPS and gram-negative bacteria. (
  • 15. Human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein potentiates bactericidal activity of human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. (
  • 17. Polymorphisms in the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in patients with myocardial infarction. (
  • In recent ten years, with the emergence of a new adsorptive blood purification device, CytoSorb [ 6 ], hemadsorption has been gradually applied during CPB in cardiac surgery for patients at different inflammatory risks, while its efficacy, safety, and potential application need to be further discussed. (
  • In this study, telavancin (Vibativ ® ), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide antibiotic, was assessed for in vitro activity against 17 B. anthracis strains and tested for the protective efficacy against inhalation anthrax infection in the rabbit model. (
  • Telavancin demonstrated potent in vitro activity against B. anthracis which led us to test its efficacy in the rabbit inhalation anthrax model. (
  • One-step prep offers documented two-minute bactericidal efficacy. (
  • The patented film-forming solution provides the efficacy of a five-minute scrub followed by a paint, resists wash-off by blood and saline challenge, and provides persistent activity for up to 24 hours. (
  • In order to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy, samples were collected from the inhibitory halos and re-cultured on new bacterial culture plates. (
  • A purified sample of neutrophils from the blood of a healthy laboratory staff volunteer collected for another unrelated study was used. (
  • 10. Impaired innate immunity in the newborn: newborn neutrophils are deficient in bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. (
  • We studied the oxidative burst in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL)s from maternal blood (MB) and cord blood (CB) upon phagocytosis of GV and compared against E. coli and Group B Streptococcus (GBS). (
  • Finally, surface attached bacteria are intrinsically more resistant to the action of white blood cells, and they may produce factors that impair the host response or cause direct tissue damage. (
  • INH is the drug with the highest activity against rapidly dividing bacilli, whereas RIF and PZA have the greatest sterilizing activity against bacteria that are not dividing. (
  • al studies, where bactericidal antibodies were measured in human complement. (
  • Ceftriaxone contains approximately 83 mg (3.6 mEq) of sodium per gram of ceftriaxone activity. (
  • Univariate analysis indicated that preoperative Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score >25 (P=0.005), intraoperative red blood cell infusion ≥12 U (P=0.013) and exposure to more than 2 intravenous antibiotics post-LT (P=0.003) were related to Gram-positive cocci infections. (
  • Patients with high preoperative MELD score and massive intraoperative red blood cell transfusion were more likely to suffer Gram-positive cocci infection after surgery. (
  • There was also a positive correlation between infection intensity, agglutination and lysis of blood in the experimentally infested birds, which indicated activation of the constitutive innate immune system during infection. (
  • Collectively, the low MICs against all strains tested and rapid bactericidal in vivo activity demonstrate that telavancin has the potential to be an effective alternative for the treatment or prophylaxis of anthrax infection. (
  • Two lignin-degrading basidiomycetes, Stereum hirsutum and Heterobasidium insulare , were used to degrade bisphenol A (BPA) in culture, and the estrogenic activity of the degradation products was examined using MCF-7 cell proliferation assays (E-screen) and analysis of pS2 mRNA expression in MCF 7 cells. (
  • In comparison to control birds, infected birds showed a significantly higher concentration of white blood cells and greater blood bactericidal activity. (
  • The goal of this work was to investigate the synthesis of these immunologically important factors in somatic milk cells, blood cells and mammary tissue of cows with different somatic cell count levels, i.e. different immunological activity. (
  • The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. (
  • from the place of synthesis in hepatocytes (hep) and its antimicrobial activity (cidin). (
  • Individuals whose sera lacked bactericidal killing were at risk for developing disease. (
  • 11. [Significance of changes in plasma bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein levels in patients with severe surgical infection]. (
  • 14. An opsonic function of the neutrophil bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein depends on both its N- and C-terminal domains. (
  • The bactericidal activity of Iso amyl cyanoacrylate was found to be more potent than n-butyl + 2 octyl cyanoacrylate. (
  • Columbia Blood Agar with sheep blood medium (Thermo Scientific, Melaka, Malaysia) was used for subculturing of GV and GBS, and plates were incubated in 5% CO 2 at 37 °C. To prepare the bacterial suspensions, freshly streaked colonies were inoculated into Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) (Thermo Scientific, Melaka, Malaysia), placed on a shaker and incubated at 37 °C overnight (24 h). (
  • Peripheral blood samples were obtained after written informed consent from 10 healthy pregnant women during antenatal clinic visits or pre-delivery at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. (
  • The eight cord blood (CB) samples were drawn from the umbilical cord arteries after delivery of the placenta. (
  • Blood samples were collected at various times post-infection to assess the level of bacteremia and antibody production, and tissues were collected to determine bacterial load. (
  • Blood samples for determination of leukocyte number were taken simultaneously with the biopsy samples and rectal temperature was measured at 1-h intervals. (
  • Hepcidin was first discovered in human blood hepcidin levels. (
  • The early phase occurs when blood exposure to nonendothelial surfaces triggers a process called "contact activation," and the late phase is driven by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and endotoxemia [ 7 ]. (
  • We further speculate that antenatal exposure to GV may result in maternal protective immune response to the fetus, creating a difference between maternal and cord blood phagocytic responses. (
  • 25 mcg/mL to a value of 85% bound at 300 mcg/mL Ceftriaxone crosses the blood placenta barrier. (
  • C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and a C. fetus isolate from blood were used as control organisms. (
  • Contaminated - The presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item-s surface or visible debris such as dust, hair and skin. (
  • Taking black pepper in amounts greater than those in food might cause bleeding complications or affect blood sugar levels during surgery. (
  • In addition, glycosylated superoxide dismutase and catalase were successfully developed with minimal loss of enzymatic activity. (
  • Piperine, a chemical in black pepper, might slow blood clotting. (
  • No symptoms were reported 12 months after return to sports activity. (
  • Overall, the HOCL-mediated microbicidal activity against GV is more variable and less robust than E. coli and GBS, especially in maternal than CB PMNL. (
  • Our results showed a variable and modest oxidative burst especially when PMNL from maternal blood (MB) phagocytosed GV compared to E. coli and GBS. (
  • Aged garlic products lack allicin, but may have activity due to the presence of S-allycysteine. (
  • Finally, the total antioxidant capacity of the blood increased significantly, while the carotenoid concentration decreased significantly in infected compared with control birds. (
  • HEALTHY PEOPLE 2000 The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health promotion and disease prevention objectives of "Healthy People 2000," a PHS led national activity for setting priority areas. (
  • We also examined whether prior IV injection of ZnO ENPs altered Kupffer cell bactericidal activity on circulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (
  • The local effect also involves the stimulation of microcirculation, better blood circulation and metabolism of the skin, expressed by vasomotor reaction - redness, lasting up to about 2 hours. (
  • When allowed to dry, one-step prep delivers enhanced drape adhesion after simulated surgical conditions compared to other aqueous-based iodophor preps and provides persistent activity on skin for up to 24 hours. (