Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.
A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.
An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Proteins that take part in the formation or structure of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.
A specialized barrier in the kidney, consisting of the fenestrated CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE; and glomerular epithelium (PODOCYTES). The barrier prevents the filtration of PLASMA PROTEINS.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Designs for approaching areas inside or outside facilities.
The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The interactions between physician and patient.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A family of low molcular-weight proteins that contain PROLINE-RICH PROTEIN DOMAINS. Members of this family play a role in the formation of an insoluble cornified envelope beneath the plasma membrane of stratified squamous epithelial cells.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.
Interactions between health personnel and patients.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.
The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.
Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A zonula occludens protein subtype found in epithelial cell junctions. Several isoforms of zonula occludens-2 protein exist due to use of alternative promoter regions and alternative mRNA splicings.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
A subfamily of lysophospholipid receptors with specificity for LYSOSPHINGOLIPIDS such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosine phosphorylcholine.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.

Effects of experimental ocular inflammation on ocular immune privilege. (1/47)

PURPOSE: To determine whether the inflammation of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) and experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) alters key in vivo and in vitro parameters of ocular immune privilege. METHODS: For EIU induction, C3H/HeN mice received 200 microg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For EAU induction, B10.A mice were immunized with 50 microg interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. Aqueous humor (AqH) was collected at periodic intervals and assayed for leukocyte content and the ability to suppress or enhance T-cell proliferation. Eyes with EAU were assessed for the capacity to support anterior chamber (AC)-associated immune deviation (ACAID) induction after injection of ovalbumin (OVA). RESULTS: Inflammation within the anterior segment in EIU peaked at 12 to 24 hours and was detected from 10 days onward in EAU. In AqH of EIU, protein content rose within 4 hours, followed by infiltrating leukocytes. EIU AqH promptly lost its capacity to suppress T-cell proliferation and became mitogenic for T cells. In AqH of EAU, protein and leukocyte content rose at 11 days and continued to remain elevated thereafter. Whereas 11-day EAU AqH failed to suppress T-cell proliferation, AqH at later time points reacquired immunosuppressive properties. Injection of OVA into the AC of eyes of mice with EAU failed to induce ACAID. CONCLUSIONS: The intraocular inflammation of EIU and EAU disrupted important parameters of immune privilege, ranging from breakdown of the blood- ocular barrier, to loss of an immunosuppressive microenvironment, to abrogation of ACAID. Because AqH from inflamed EAU reacquired the ability to suppress T-cell proliferation, the authors conclude that the capacity to regulate immune expression and inflammation can be a property even of inflamed eyes.  (+info)

Latrunculins' effects on intraocular pressure, aqueous humor flow, and corneal endothelium. (2/47)

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of latrunculin (LAT)-A or -B on intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous humor flow (AHF), anterior chamber (AC) protein concentration ([protein]AC), corneal endothelial permeability and morphology, and corneal thickness in living cynomolgus monkeys. METHODS: Topical LAT-A or LAT-B was administered to one eye, and vehicle to the other. IOP was measured by Goldmann tonometry, AHF and corneal endothelium transfer coefficient (ka) by fluorophotometry, [protein]Ac by Lowry assay, corneal endothelial cell morphology by specular microphotography, and corneal thickness by ultrasound pachymetry. RESULTS: LAT-A began to lower IOP at 6 hours and maximally reduced IOP by 4.6 mm Hg at 9 hours. LAT-B lowered IOP within 1 hour and maximally reduced IOP by 3.1 mm Hg at 6 hours. LAT-A increased AHF by 87% for 3 hours and increased ka by 94% over 6 hours; LAT-B increased ka by 39% over 6 hours without affecting AHF. LAT-A increased IV fluorescein entry into the cornea approximately 10 fold, but did not affect IV fluorescein entry into the AC. LAT-A increased [protein]AC by 25% at 2 hours but not 5.5 hours. LAT-B variably and insignificantly increased [protein]AC: at 1 hour but not at 6.5 hours. LAT-A induced extensive corneal endothelial pseudoguttata within 1 hour, with normal cell counts by 7 days. LAT-B increased central corneal thickness maximally by 47 microm at 3.5 hours. CONCLUSIONS: LAT-A and -B significantly reduced IOP and were consistent in their facility-increasing effect, indicating that pharmacologic disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in the trabecular meshwork by latrunculins may be a useful antiglaucoma strategy. However, effects on corneal endothelium or ciliary epithelium are a potential safety issue.  (+info)

The role of NaKCl cotransport in blood-to-aqueous chloride fluxes across rabbit ciliary epithelium. (3/47)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of NaKCl cotransport in short-circuit current (Isc) and chloride fluxes across rabbit ciliary epithelium mounted in a Ussing-type chamber. METHODS: Bilayered intact ciliary epithelium free of stroma was obtained after perfusion and dissection of rabbit eyes and mounted in an Ussing-type chamber. The effects of bumetanide and other drugs on Isc and transepithelial 36Cl fluxes in bicarbonate-containing Ringer's were determined. Immunoblot analysis was performed by standard techniques. RESULTS: Bumetanide (100 microM) applied to the blood (pigmented epithelium [PE]) side of the ciliary bilayer caused a dose-dependent decrease in Isc from 18.2 +/- 2.2 to 10.4 +/- 1.4 microA/cm2 (43%). Bumetanide applied to the aqueous (nonpigmented epithelium [NPE]) side of the tissue inhibited Isc by only 12%. Immunoblots of dissected NPE and PE tissue probed with an antibody to mammalian NaKCl cotransporter detected approximately 10 times more NaKCl cotransporter protein in PE than in NPE. 36Cl flux studies revealed a PE-to-NPE chloride flux of 180.3 +/- 37.2 microEq/cm2 per hour and an NPE-to-PE flux of 72.3 +/- 22.9 microEq/cm2 per hour, indicating a net PE-to-NPE flux of 108.0 +/- 31.3 microEq/cm2 per hour across rabbit ciliary epithelium. Bumetanide inhibited the PE-to-NPE chloride flux by 52% but did not inhibit the NPE-to-PE flux. Isoproterenol (10 microM) added to the PE side of the bilayer increased Isc by a dose-dependent 53%. Prior addition of bumetanide to the PE side blocked the increase due to isoproterenol by 37%. Isoproterenol (10 microM) stimulated the PE-to-NPE chloride flux by 75% but had no stimulatory effect on the NPE-to-PE chloride flux. 4,4'Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'disulfonic acid (DIDS) inhibited Isc when added to either side of the bilayer but was more potent at low concentrations (<100 microM) when added to the NPE side and more potent at higher concentrations (>100 microM) when added to the PE side. Prior addition of 1 mM DIDS to the NPE side decreased isoproterenol stimulation of Isc by 56%. CONCLUSIONS: NaKCl cotransporters located primarily on the blood side of rabbit ciliary epithelium contribute to aqueous-negative Isc and to blood-to-aqueous chloride transport across the tissue in bicarbonate-containing medium. DIDS-inhibitable mechanisms, possibly including HCO3-Cl exchange and Cl channels, also play a role. Isoproterenol stimulation of Isc involves coordinate upregulation of PE-side NaKCl cotransport and an NPE-side DIDS-inhibitable mechanism(s).  (+info)

IL-6 antagonizes TGF-beta and abolishes immune privilege in eyes with endotoxin-induced uveitis. (4/47)

PURPOSE: To determine the immunosuppressive status of aqueous humor (AqH) from mouse eyes afflicted with endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) and to identify the relevant cytokines responsible for immunomodulatory activity within EIU AqH. METHODS: Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into hind footpads of C3H/HeN mice; and AqH, collected at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours, was evaluated for content of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and interferon (IFN)-gamma and capacity to suppress anti-CD3-driven T-cell proliferation. Cytokine mRNA expression in iris-ciliary body (I/CB) was analyzed by RNase protection assays. RESULTS: During 6 to 24 hours after LPS injection, total TGF-beta levels in AqH increased even though the fluid lost its capacity to suppress T-cell activation. At this time, AqH contained high levels of IL-6, and I/CB contained high levels of IL-6 mRNA. When IL-6 was neutralized with specific antibodies, inflamed AqH reacquired its capacity to suppress T-cell activation, which correlated with high levels of TGF-beta. Coinjection of IL-6 plus antigen into the anterior chamber of the eye of normal mice prevented antigen-specific anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID). CONCLUSIONS: LPS-induced intraocular inflammation is associated with local production of IL-6, which robs AqH of its immunosuppressive activity, perhaps by antagonizing TGF-beta. The fact that IL-6 antagonized ACAID induction in normal eyes suggests that strategies to suppress the intraocular synthesis of IL-6 may reduce inflammation and restore ocular immune privilege.  (+info)

Influence of rectus eye muscles tenotomy on the aqueous humor composition in rabbits. (5/47)

INTRODUCTION: Anterior segment ischaemia manifesting in aqueous malformation may follow tenotomy of the extraocular muscles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tenotomy of 2 or 4 rectus eye muscles was performed on the right eyes of 23 adult rabbits. The aqueous humor was withdrawn from the anterior chamber of both eyes in 7 rabbits on the 11th, on the 22nd in 8 and on the 32nd postoperative day in 8 rabbits. Aqueous natrium, potassium and glucose concentrations and protein electrophoresis were examined. RESULTS: The only significant change was lower mean aqueous potassium concentration in the operated eyes as compared to controls on the 11th postoperative day. CONCLUSION: Tenotomy of rectus eye muscles in healthy rabbits evoked a discrete blood-aqueous barrier break-down.  (+info)

Corneal autofluorescence in choroidal melanoma or in choroidal naevus. (6/47)

AIMS: To investigate whether corneal autofluorescence is different in patients with choroidal melanoma or choroidal naevus. METHODS: Corneal autofluorescence was determined by fluorophotometry in both eyes of 32 patients with a unilateral choroidal melanoma, 32 patients with a unilateral choroidal naevus, and 32 age matched healthy controls. The corneal autofluorescence ratio between affected and contralateral eyes of patients or between randomly selected eyes of healthy controls was calculated. RESULTS: Mean corneal autofluorescence ratio of patients with a choroidal melanoma was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (mean ratio: 1.09 (SD 0.15) and 1.00 (0.09), respectively, ANOVA p=0.014), and than that of patients with choroidal naevus (mean ratio 0.96 (0.09), p<0.001). Mean ratios of patients with choroidal naevus and healthy controls were not significantly different (p=0.27). CONCLUSIONS: Corneal autofluorescence ratio of patients with a unilateral choroidal melanoma is increased. This is probably due to an increased flow of glucose through the impaired blood-aqueous barrier in the affected eye, resulting in additional glycation of corneal proteins and hence in increased autofluorescence. The corneal autofluorescence is not increased in patients with a choroidal naevus, because the blood-aqueous barrier is not impaired in the affected eye in these patients. Measurement of corneal autofluorescence is simple, fast, and non-invasive, and might be helpful to distinguish between patients with choroidal melanoma and those with choroidal naevus.  (+info)

Effects of topical antiglaucoma eye drops on prostaglandin E(2)-induced aqueous flare elevation in pigmented rabbits. (7/47)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of topical instillation of some antiglaucoma agents on experimental elevation of aqueous flare induced by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in pigmented rabbits. METHODS: Transcorneal diffusion of PGE(2) (25 microg/mL or 7.09 x 10(-2) mM) with the use of a glass cylinder was achieved to produce aqueous flare elevation in pigmented rabbits. An antiglaucoma agent was topically administered before application of PGE(2). Aqueous flare was measured with a laser flare cell meter. RESULTS: A single instillation of apraclonidine 1.15%, two instillations of epinephrine 1.25%, two instillations of dipivefrin 0.1%, and two instillations and one instillation of dipivefrin 0.04% eye drops inhibited 98%, 96%, 87%, 73%, and 47% of PGE(2)-induced aqueous flare elevation, respectively. Timolol 0.5%, nipradilol 0.25%, dorzolamide 1%, and pilocarpine 2% eye drops had no effects on the increase of PGE(2)-induced flare. CONCLUSIONS: Apraclonidine, epinephrine, and dipivefrin eye drops inhibit PGE(2)-induced elevation of aqueous flare in pigmented rabbits.  (+info)

Effect of a single drop of latanoprost on intraocular pressure and blood-aqueous barrier permeability in patients with uveitis. (8/47)

The purpose of our study is to evaluate the effect of a single drop of latanoprost on the intraocular pressure and blood-aqueous barrier permeability in 8 patients with uveitis. The degree of inflammation was determined by the intensity of aqueous flare measured with a laser flare cell meter every 2 hours from 11:00 to 17:00 hours for 2 days. Intraocular pressure was measured at 11:00 and 17:00 hours with a Goldmann applanation tonometer on both days. Patients were given one drop of 0.005% latanoprost at 11:00 hours on day 2 and results were compared with day 1 when latanoprost was not administered. There was no significant difference in the intensity of aqueous flare or intraocular pressure between day 1 and day 2. A single drop of latanoprost had little effect on intraocular pressure and aqueous flare intensity in patients with uveitis.  (+info)

Purpose: Epiretinal membrane (ERM) is a frequent macular complication in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The etiology of ERM formation in RP is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between aqueous flare, a surrogate index of intraocular inflammation, and ERM secondary to RP. Methods: We retrospectively studied a total of 206 eyes of 117 patients who were diagnosed with typical RP. Aqueous flare values were measured consecutively in 2012 and 2013 using a laser flare cell meter. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images and fundus photographs taken on the same day of the aqueous flare measurements were analyzed for ERM detection. Results: The mean values of aqueous flare, age, and frequency of male sex were significantly higher in the RP patients with ERM compared with the RP patients without ERM (P , 0.0001, P = 0.007, and P = 0.004, respectively). After adjustment for age and sex, the eyes in the highest quartile of aqueous flare had ...
The FM-700 aqueous flare meter (also known as a Laser Flare Meter) enhances the follow up of patients by enabling the in-vivo measurement of aqueous flare in a non-contact, non-invasive and painless manner. The quantitative and reproducible measurement of aqueous flare it provides is known to be useful in cases of uveitis and following IOL implantation, and increased levels of flare have been reported with many other ocular conditions. This latest generation of the Kowa aqueous flare meter has been designed to combine the ultimate in efficiency and accuracy providing fast detection of ocular inflammation and subclinical change of inflammation levels ...
PH determination by pyranine medium related artifacts and their correction. In many centers these are used routinely for all sedated procedures. Blood-aqueous barrier and alpha-chymotrpsin glaucoma in rab- bits. Intrahepatic cholangio-enteric anastomo- sis in carcinoma of the hilus of the liver.
ATTITUDE: Bright, alert, and responsive; EARS: AU: no ceruminous debris, no stenosis or erythema; EYES: OU: No episcleral injection, epiphora or aqueous flare. LS OU; NOSE/THROAT: No nasal discharge; LUNGS/TRACHEA: Clear bronchovesicular sounds in all quadrants, no crackles or wheezes noted, slight increase in upper airway noise; HEART/CARDIOVASCULAR: No murmur or arrhythmia. Femoral pulse strong and synchronous; LYMPH NODES: Mandibular, prescapular and popliteal WNL; HYDRATION: Normal; MUCOUS MEMBRANES: Pink and moist. CRT ,2; MOUTH/TEETH/GUMS/TONGUE: Severe calculus, moderate gingivitis ; GI/ABDOMINAL PALPATION: Soft and comfortable. No masses, mild cranial organomegaly due to rounded liver margins; URINARY/REPRODUCTIVE: Normal conformation; NERVOUS SYSTEM: Normal mentation, no ataxia, hyperreflexive patellar reflexes bilaterally with cross extensor present, SKIN/HAIRCOAT/NAILS: Full haircoat, minimal shedding, multiple S/c masses ; PAIN SCORE: 2/4; RECTAL: moderate discomfort with palpation ...
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Performed in our office, retinal laser photocoagulation may be combined with other retinal procedures, such as cryopexy (freezing) or an eye injection. Your Texas Retina Associates doctor will determine the best treatment plan for your specific condition. The procedure itself typically takes about 15 minutes.. We begin a retinal laser photocoagulation procedure by placing drops in your eye to numb it and dilate your pupil. In addition, a special contact lens may be placed on the front of your eye to precisely focus the laser for treatment. Your retina physician will then use the laser to make small burns to targeted areas, creating scar tissue that can seal off a retinal tear, halt leaking blood vessels or slow the growth of abnormal blood vessels, depending on your specific condition.. You may experience bright flashes of light or feel a pinprick sensation as the laser is applied. Your retina surgeon will talk to you throughout the procedure to ensure you remain as comfortable as possible. If ...
Results Serum IL-23 levels were significantly increased in VKH compared with control patients and peaked at 1 day postoperative, decreased rapidly in the first week, then attenuated gradually. In VKH patients, serum levels of IFN-γ were elevated in the first week after surgery and IL-27 was upregulated in the first month. Importantly, serum IL-23 levels were strongly correlated with aqueous flare value (r=0.689; p=0.007) and cell counts (r=0.671; p=0.01) in VKH compared with control patients. ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytotoxicity to lens epithelial cells of sera from two patients with atopic cataract. AU - Ayaki, M.. AU - Singh, D. P.. AU - Shinohara, T.. AU - Majima, Y.. AU - Majima, K.. AU - Kousaka, M.. AU - Azuma, N.. PY - 1998/1/1. Y1 - 1998/1/1. N2 - We studied the cytotoxic effect of sera from two patients with bilateral atopic cataract. They were aged 19 and 26 years each. The sera was diluted 20 times, mixed with lens epithelial cells of mouse, and was stained by trypan blue after incubation for 3 hours. The incidence of cell death was 22% and 36% respectively. It was 7% in a 33-year-old normal person. The major cytotoxic factors were larger than 100kDa and were neutralized when mixed with the homogenate of lens epithelial cells. Both cases showed high levels of serum histamine. The findings seemed to suggest that atopic cataract was the result of breakdown of blood-aqueous barrier due to serum histamine or repeated rubbing of the eyeball which allowed entrance of autoantibodies to ...
Keratic precipatates and mild aqueous flare were present in both eyes. This photograph is focused on the vitreous through a dilated pupil. The gray-white material (arrows) is posterior to the lens and presents an inflammatory process extending into the vitreous. The only positive serology was the FIV results.. ...
Keratic precipatates and mild aqueous flare were present in both eyes. This photograph is focused on the vitreous through a dilated pupil. The gray-white material (arrows) is posterior to the lens and presents an inflammatory process extending into the vitreous. The only positive serology was the FIV results.. ...
Fourty eyes of 20 patients were included. Mean decentration of the test IOL and the control IOL 1 hour post-operatively was 0.4 ± 0.1mm and 0.4 ± 0.4mm and 3 months post-operatively 0.5 ± 0.2mm and 0.3 ± 0.2mm. These differences were not found to be significant (p=0.99 und p=0.64). Results of IOL tilt will be presented. Mean aqueous flare pre-operatively, 1 hour and 3 months post-operatively in the test group and in the control group were 4.8 ± 1.5pc/ms, 9.8 ± 5.9pc/ms and 4.3 ± 3.0pc/ms and 4.3 ± 2.2pc/ms, 6.9 ± 6.2pc/ms and 4.1 ± 0.02pc/ms, respectively. These differences were not found to be significant (p=0.50, p=0.07 und p=0.94 ...
Device Technologies NZ Ltd. 47 Arrenway Drive. PO Box 302 413. Albany. Auckland 0751. Freephone: 0508 338 423. Fax: 09 913 2009. Web: www.device.co.nz/ophthalmology. Orders: [email protected] Sales enquiries:[email protected] Contact: Diego Sonderegger. Quantel Medical. • Vitra® 532nm - Green Single and pattern retinal laser. • Easyret® 577nm - Yellow Micro pulsed pattern retinal laser. • Supra® 660nm - Red retinal laser. • Supra® 810nm - Infrared retinal laser. • Solutis® 532nm - SLT Solutis. • Fusion® 1064nm - YAG and SLT combined laser (retinal laser can be added to the Fusion®). ...
DAFTAR ISI BAB I INDUKSI MATEMATIKA BAB II PROGRAM LINEAR BAB III MATRIKS BAB IV TRANSFORMASI GEOMETRI BAB V BARISAN DAN DERET BAB I INDUKSI MATEMATIKA A. Pengantar Induksi Matematika B. Induksi Matematika DAFTAR ISI DAF
Figure 18.1 Blood Cells A single drop of blood contains millions of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. One of each type is shown here, isol
Ok I was reading an article about Sweden being angry and what not, when I saw this picture of a supposedly deceased child drowning victim, but the thing is his hair is perfectly dry, his whole body is dry....if you look under him theres not a single drop falling. Am I wrong? Did I miss something and this is real? Im not trying to push either way, but the photo is strange [url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/press/sweden-accuses-daily-mail-of-running-anti-refugee-propaganda-campaign-a6905066.html#gallery]link[/u rl ...
Some things in the economy of grace are measured; for instance our vinegar and gall are given us with such exactness that we never have a single drop too much, but of the salt of grace no stint is made, Ask what thou wilt and it shall be given unto thee. C. H. Spurgeon ...
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Seperti yang kita ketahui bahwa sekarang ini tehnologi berkembang semakin canggih, pembangunan juga meningkat. Akan tetapi, dengan berkembangnya tehnologi dan | untukguru.my.id
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I got a RIDGID double flaring tool P/N 345DL, because I read it was the best to do brake line flares. Will it dosnt seem to work very good. Ive tried about...
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement ...
Corneal ulcer, or ulcerative keratitis, is an inflammatory or more seriously, infective condition of the cornea involving disruption of its epithelial layer with involvement of the corneal stroma. It is a common condition in humans particularly in the tropics and the agrarian societies. In developing countries, children afflicted by Vitamin A deficiency are at high risk for corneal ulcer and may become blind in both eyes, which may persist lifelong. In ophthalmology, a corneal ulcer usually refers to having an infectious cause while the term corneal abrasion refers more to physical abrasions. Corneal ulcers are extremely painful due to nerve exposure, and can cause tearing, squinting, and vision loss of the eye. There may also be signs of anterior uveitis, such as miosis (small pupil), aqueous flare (protein in the aqueous humour), and redness of the eye. An axon reflex may be responsible for uveitis formation-stimulation of pain receptors in the cornea results in release inflammatory mediators ...
In this 1-minute video, Dr. Carol Shields offers pearls on managing choroidal nevus, a common condition that is estimated to affect between 5% to 20% of U.S. ad
Retinal laser photocoagulation is an in-office procedure used to treat a number of retinal conditions, including retinal tears, diabetic retinopathy, macular edema and retinal vein occlusion. It is most frequently used to. read more ...
Japanese scientists have created a cloned mouse from just a single drop of blood. The Riken BioResource Center collected circulating blood from the tail of a donor mouse to produce the genetically ...
As if you needed another reason not to drink sea water! David Liittschwager, an accomplished award-winning photographer who has created numerous marine wildlife photos for National Geographic, has created an image showing the microfauna that exists inside a single drop of seawater! By magnifying the water 25 times, he showed that the salty taste of seawater isn t just salt there are bacteria, worms, fish eggs, crab larva, diatoms, and a whole host of other creepy crawlies all fighting
Japanese scientists say they can build a veritable assembly line of identical mice. One drop of blood at a time. The BBC reports thats all it took -- 10 microlitres of blood taken from a mouses tail...
The microRNA (miRNA), a substance that is secreted from cells into the blood and controls the movements of genes, can communicate between healthy cells and cancer cells, allowing for the cancer detection to occur. The study used blood samples from 40,000 patients, where the researchers were able to identify miRNA that connected with each type of cancer listed, achieving more than 95 percent accuracy. They were also able to diagnose early stage 1 cancers, with 96 percent accuracy. Breast cancer was successfully diagnosed with 97 percent accuracy.. However, since the blood samples were preserved, there is a chance that the miRNA could have changed. To counteract this possibility, clinical tests are planned for August 2017 with fresh blood from 3,000 people.. Chief of the Molecular Pathology Department of the Tokyo Medical University said, In Europe, research aimed at early detection of diseases using miRNA is being actively pursued, but there havent been any studies where analysis was conducted ...
bab|i|ru|sa, bab|i|rous|sa, or bab|i|rus|sa «BAB uh ROO suh, BAH buh », noun. a wild hog found in the East Indies. The boar has tusks that curve upward and backward from its snout. ╂[< Malay babi hog + rusa deer]
View BAB III pkl.doc from AA 1BAB III GAMBARAN UMUM PERUSAHAAN 3.1 Gambaran Umum Perusahaan Nama Perusahaan : Hotel Grand Mansion Alamat : Jl. Melati No.90, Blitar Telp/Fax :
Consider a superior being whose intellect is so huge that it can take decisions and see and operate the world 1.000.000x as fast as an average man. This is a big number, but it is certainly tiny compared to an infinite. But how would this being experience timelapses? If a sentence spoken by you takes 5 seconds to be said, it would take over 57 days in the beings subject time experience. He, if human, would probably be too bored to even wish to speak to you. And its not just speech, everything would be just too slow to him, except for a few very fast things to us which would probably happen at the very level of his experience time. His reality, as in his experience of reality, would thus probably be vastly different to our own, and we are only considering the time factor alone. But only this factor being present and a human would be able to perform miracles such as completing a surgery before a single drop of blood falls. So, is this beings reality more real than ours? If only a being ...
A kicsi f rdet se egyre t bb csal dban az apa dolga, ahogy az ut na esed kes pelenk z s, lt ztet s is. Az rint s, a kellemes vizes r tus sokat adhat a bab nak s az ap nak is.
Nem kell hozz var zslatos helysz n, hogy egy kisfi , vagy kisl ny elnevesse mag t. N ha eg szen ban lis helysz nek s szitu ci k b rj k kacag sra a bab kat. Vide bizony t kunk is van r .
3/8x3/8x3/8 Flare x Flare x Female Flare Swivel Tee SS- 3/8x3/8x3/8 Female Flare Swivel x Flare x Flare Tee 303 Stainless SteelAll 303 Stainless
I was under the impression that flares come and go, is that correct? If so, why have I had symptoms for so many months? Is this how I will always feel wit...
Hi all, I am new to this group but not new to DS. I was dx with RA 9 years go and after an initial horrible flare was ok for a long while. We were really bad.....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discovery of potent and selective urea-based ROCK inhibitors and their effects on intraocular pressure in rats. AU - Yin, Yan. AU - Cameron, Michael D.. AU - Lin, Li. AU - Khan, Susan. AU - Schröter, Thomas. AU - Grant, Wayne. AU - Pocas, Jennifer. AU - Chen, Yen Ting. AU - Schürer, Stephan. AU - Pachori, Alok. AU - Lograsso, Philip. AU - Feng, Yangbo. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - A series of urea-based Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors were designed and evaluated. The discovered compounds had excellent enzyme and cellular potency, high kinase selectivity, high aqueous solubility, good porcine corneal penetration, and appropriate DMPK profiles for topical applications as antiglaucoma therapeutics.. AB - A series of urea-based Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors were designed and evaluated. The discovered compounds had excellent enzyme and cellular potency, high kinase selectivity, high aqueous solubility, good porcine ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
The Role of Oxidative Stress after Retinal Laser Photocoagulation in Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy. Galetović, Davor; Bojić, Lovro; Bućan, Kajo; Karlica, Dobrila; Lešin, Mladen; Znaor, Ljubo // Collegium Antropologicum;Sep2011, Vol. 35 Issue 3, p835 Diabetic retinopathy (DR) represents the most common chronic complication of diabetes, and it is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in patients between 20-74 years old in developed countries. Laser photocoagulation (LF) represents an efficacious approach to the treatment of DR.... ...
Retinal laser surgery is offered at Perth Retina Clinic by Dr. Tim Isaacs in Leederville, Subiaco, and Perth to treat retinal detachment.
This study was aimed at clarifying the gender differences in the urinary excretion of organic anions and the gene expression of organic anion transporters in rats. The renal clearance with regard to the plasma concentration (CLurine,p) of taurocholate, dibromosulfophthalein (DBSP), and zenarestat, all substrates and/or inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1 (Oatp1), was much higher in female than in male rats. The following results imply that the transport system(s) for the reabsorption of zenarestat across the luminal side exhibits a gender difference: 1) the renal uptake clearance assessed by an in vivo integration plot analysis of zenarestat from the blood side does not show any clear gender differences; 2) the renal clearance with regard to the kidney concentration (CLurine,k) of zenarestat in female rats was approximately 30 times higher than in male rats; and 3) both CLurine,p and CLurine,k were increased in male rats by the coinfusion of DBSP, which is an inhibitor of ...
The Lake of Blood side contains the songs Eternal in my Domain in a studio and a live version, as well as the band-named song Lake of Blood in a live version. The studio version of Eternal in my Domain starts with wind noises and turns into a black metal blast storm. The song is very clear and well produced and therefore has a high sustainability. You can hear a little tiny pinch of Death Metal before the song penetrates into epic realms but remains very catchy. A hint of melancholy is sprayed. The riffing, on the other hand, is very reminiscent of Immortal in its At the Heart of Winter phase. The live versions are not very professional now but exude the spirit of the 90s. All in all a good but not very sustainable thing ...
Dark gray - brownish pigmented, flat or minimally elevated lesion with slightly well demarcated margin, which size is mostly not greater than a disc ...
Similarly, the most significant SNPs in the bab region also correspond to previously described regulatory regions. The bab locus consists of two paralogous genes, bab1 and bab2, both affecting abdominal pigmentation, with the segment scored here (A7) affected primarily by bab1 activity [17], [32]. The significant SNP in bab1 maps to the dimorphic regulatory element in the first intron of this gene, which upregulates bab1 in females, and represses it in males ([17]; Figure 2B, middle). The remaining highly ranked, but non-significant bab SNPs fall into regions that are plausibly also regulatory-a second region within the first intron of bab1 (downstream of the dimorphic element), and a third region near the promoter region of bab1-though they have not been validated with functional genetic studies. Finally, the highest ranked SNP outside of the tan and bab regions lies in the male repressor module of ebony, which affects pigmentation in males ([23]; Figure 2B, right), though this SNP was also ...
kappa min x bov gt sh hrs sw rab gp ch bab ms ig s clone lo hk 3 mab kappa min x bov gt sh hrs sw dog rab gp ch bab ms ig s clone lo hk 3 rat mab anti human biotin |
Luxurious. Opulent. Precious. Truly the gold standard of de-aging, this newly enhanced skin-enriching super serum with a fresh scent gives your face a golden glow. Newly developed peptides join 24k Gold suspended in a colloidal gel to help prevent the breakdown of collagen and elastin and improve elasticity and firmness.. With one single drop, it diminishes lines and wrinkles, while re-vitalizing and illuminating the skin with a stunning radiance.. ...
A single drop of blood (Water) Contains five million red blood cells, 10000 white blood cells and platelets quarter million and as an increasingly large number of scientists key to fighting cancer. More than 8 million people die each year from cancer. 70% of them in the poorest countries where it is almost impossible to […]. Continue Reading ... ...
PITTSBURGH, April 29, 2009 - High school and undergraduate students now have a ringside seat to watch atoms and molecules in super-slow motion and vivid color, as they jostle and bump each other within the cozy environs of a human cell or a beaker on a lab bench. In Big Numbers in Small Spaces: Simulating Atoms, Molecules and Brownian Motion, students are invited to consider how many molecules are in a single drop of water, or a single cell, and then to fly in and find out ...
Shop Tata Harpers Tatas Daily Essentials Kit at Sephora. This complete, travel-friendly regimen is made without a single drop of synthetic chemicals.
Double Cellulose Membantu Memperlancar buang air besar dan mencegah sembelit, Double Cellulose Tiens, Double Cellulose Tianshi, herbal sembelit, herbal lancar bab
Registered dietitians stand behind the mantra of food first; which means skip the supplements, as long as, you can obtain what you need from what you eat or drink. I have also always practiced and preached this stand point, but now I can no longer obtain enough of certain vitamins and minerals to reach the…
FEP - Flare Energetic Particle. Looking for abbreviations of FEP? It is Flare Energetic Particle. Flare Energetic Particle listed as FEP
Fuhh settle satu bab.. tapi yg menunggu masih ada lagi few things.. but now time to rest kejap.. lgpun mau dengan kerja nih tak pernahnya habis.. so yeah take it easy nooo.. wow, cepat jer kan masa berlalu... dah nak habis penggal persekolahan 2016.. (ayat standard cikgu2 menjelang hujung tahun ...
Mori M, Sakurai M, Araie M (1993). "[Topical timolol and blood-aqueous barrier permeability to protein in human eyes]". Nippon ... 2007). "Attractin, a dipeptidyl peptidase IV/CD26-like enzyme, is expressed on human peripheral blood monocytes and potentially ...
Uveitis results from mechanical breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier and resultant intraocular inflammation. A hyphema ... Elevated intraocular pressure can be caused by pigment dispersion, uveitis, hyphema or direct blocking of aqueous humor ... Slit-lamp examination may reveal hyphaema, aqueous cells and flare, iris neovascularization, mispositioned IOL, iris-lens ...
This occurs when there is breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier with resultant exudation of protein. "Eye Examination with the ... for better visualisation of nerve fibre layer and haemorrhages and blood vessels. Cobalt blue- after staining with fluorescein ...
... lomerizine is able to cross the blood brain barrier. For delivery in aqueous systems, nanoparticle therapy may be used. Along ...
Progesterone crosses the blood-brain barrier. In terms of plasma protein binding, progesterone is 98 to 99% protein-bound in ... An aqueous solution of progesterone for use by intravenous injection was once marketed by Schering AG under the brand name ... The transit time of red blood cells from capillaries and the release of steroid hormones from red blood cells are both very ... This could potentially explain the low levels of progesterone in venous blood in spite of very high levels in capillary blood ...
As a very weakly basic and also lipophilic compound with low aqueous solubility, cinnarizine is able to cross the blood brain ... barrier by simple diffusion. It is because of this property that it is able to exert its effects on cerebral blood flow in the ... thereby increasing their flexibility and making the blood less viscous. This allows the blood to travel more efficiently and ... Cmax, the maximum level of the drug in the tested area (typically blood plasma), has been measured to be 275 +/- 36 ng/mL, ...
... penetrates the blood-brain barrier much better than two other nitrocatechols, nitecapone and entacapone, because it ... It melts at 143 to 146 °C (289 to 295 °F), is practically insoluble in water and acids but soluble in 0.1 M aqueous sodium ... 0.8 hours) and can better penetrate the blood-brain barrier, acting both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. ... There is no current explanation for how these charged molecules permeate the blood-brain barrier. Tolcapone is an intensely ...
... they have poor blood-brain barrier penetration, and also are only stable as crystalline salts or aqueous solutions, and so were ... Blood. 27 (3): 328-42. doi:10.1182/blood.V27.3.328.328. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 5933438. Carbachol Multum Consumer Information. ... Mani, Fabrizio; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Stoppioni, Piero (2006). "CO2 absorption by aqueous NH 3 solutions: speciation of ammonium ... "The equilibrium between ammonium carbonate and ammonium carbamate in aqueous solution at 25°". Journal of the American Chemical ...
... blood-aqueous barrier MeSH A09.371.894.223 - choroid MeSH A09.371.894.223.250 - bruch membrane MeSH A09.371.894.280 - ciliary ... blood-retinal barrier MeSH A09.371.729.313 - fundus oculi MeSH A09.371.729.522 - macula lutea MeSH A09.371.729.522.436 - fovea ... aqueous humor MeSH A09.371.060.067.318 - endothelium, corneal MeSH A09.371.060.217 - cornea MeSH A09.371.060.217.113 - bowman ...
... and skin exposure than its biological precursor MPTP due to the inability of MPP+ to cross the blood-brain barrier and freely ... MPP+ injected as an aqueous solution into the bloodstream causes no symptoms of Parkinsonism in test subjects, since the highly ... its common biological precursor MPTP is a lipid-soluble molecule that diffuses readily across the blood-brain barrier. MPTP ... much lower acute toxicity than its precursor MPTP due to the inability of the former to pass through the blood-brain barrier ...
There may also be signs of anterior uveitis, such as miosis (small pupil), aqueous flare (protein in the aqueous humour), and ... However, larger or deeper ulcers often require the presence of blood vessels to supply inflammatory cells. White blood cells ... It is also a barrier to infectious agents. The epithelium sticks to the basement membrane, which also separates the epithelium ... Transparency is achieved through a lack of blood vessels, pigmentation, and keratin, and through the organization of the ...
Blood-aqueous barrier: the ciliary epithelium and capillaries of the iris. Blood-aqueous barrier is formed by nonpigmented ... Blood-air barrier - Membrane separating alveolar air from blood in lung capillaries Blood-brain barrier - Semipermeable ... A physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes Blood-thymus barrier - A barrier ... Part of the blood-ocular barrier that prevents certain substances from entering the retina Blood-testis barrier - ...
Aluminium has been established as a neurotoxin and has been shown to adversely affect the blood-brain barrier, cause DNA damage ... An experiment with mice found that applying an aqueous solution of aluminum chloride to the skin resulted in "a significant ... Banks WA, Kastin AJ (1989). "Aluminum-induced neurotoxicity: alterations in membrane function at the blood-brain barrier". ... study reveals that aluminium induces DNA damage and inhibits the repair of radiation-induced lesions in human peripheral blood ...
It is not well absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It is usually administered ... In topical ocular and intraocular administration its principal effects are miosis and increased aqueous humour outflow. In the ...
are not able to diffuse across the blood-brain barrier into the CSF. Only CO2 levels affect this as it can diffuse across, ... and aqueous sodium cyanide injection into the whole animal[1] and in vitro slice preparation. These methods can be used to ... as carbon dioxide easily diffuses across the blood-brain barrier. However, a change in plasma pH alone will not stimulate ... This is an important mechanism for maintaining arterial blood pO2, pCO2, and pH within appropriate physiological ranges. For ...
"Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in aging induces hyperactivation of TGFβ signaling and chronic yet reversible neural ... "Active transforming growth factor-beta2 is increased in the aqueous humor of keratoconus patients". Molecular Vision. 13: 1198- ... TGFB proteins are produced by all white blood cell lineages. Activated TGF-β complexes with other factors to form a serine/ ... Higher concentrations of TGF-β are found in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease as compared ...
It crosses the blood-brain barrier better than doxycycline and other tetracyclines, reaching therapeutically relevant ... Minocycline reacts acidic in aqueous solution. Minocycline was patented in 1961 and came into commercial use in 1971. A topical ... Its superior ability to cross the blood-brain barrier adds to its effectiveness against Lyme disease. Although minocycline's ... It reaches highest blood plasma concentrations after one to two hours and has a plasma protein binding of 70-75%. The substance ...
The overall result of this structure is to construct a fatty barrier between the cell's interior and its surroundings. Apart ... They are usually organized into a bilayer in membranes with the polar hydrophilic heads sticking outwards to the aqueous ... For example, they are important constituents of lipoproteins (soluble proteins that transport fat in the blood) hence affect ... whereas the hydrophobic tails maximize hydrophobic interactions with each other and are kept away from the aqueous environments ...
Many such devices feature hydrophobic barriers on hydrophilic paper that passively transport aqueous solutions to outlets where ... This is the method used to e.g. size and count erythrocytes (red blood cells [wiki]) as well as leukocytes (white blood cells) ... for standard blood analysis. The generic term for this method is resistive pulse sensing (RPS); Coulter counting is a trademark ... blood. A drawback of DNA and protein arrays is that they are neither reconfigurable nor scalable after manufacture. Digital ...
... shown reduced drug-HSA interactions which contributes to its blood stability and they can also cross the blood brain barrier. ... But these compounds are relatively insoluble in aqueous solutions, which causes difficulty in administrations. Methoxy group at ... hCPTs exhibit enhanced human plasma stability because of decreased protein binding and more affinity for red blood cells than ... Lipophilicity makes compounds more stable because of improved lactone partitioning into red blood cells and consequently less ...
"UCL spin-out aims to smuggle antibodies across the blood-brain barrier". biopharma-reporter.com. Retrieved 2018-10-21. "IACTA ... "Facile aqueous, room temperature preparation of high transverse relaxivity clustered iron oxide nanoparticles". Colloids and ... Nanomerics are developing structures that can transport antibodies that can cross the blood-brain barrier. Nanomerics develop ... Retrieved 2018-10-21.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) "Barriers are there to be broken: Meet Ijeoma F. Uchegbu - ...
... bilateral symmetry bile duct biology bipolar cells of the retina bitemporal heminopia blastomere blood blood brain barrier body ... anus aorta aortic body aponeurosis apophysis appendage appendicular skeleton appendix aprosody aqueductal stenosis aqueous ...
This was to decrease the risk that templates would be chosen that would cross the blood brain barrier and thus block the ... and good aqueous solubility (33 mg/ml as the besylate salt). Epelsiban was investigated for a potential role in benign ... Epelsiban was designed to work on peripheral human oxytocin receptors and not to readily pass the blood-brain barrier. However ... followed by the addition of aqueous hydrochloric acid gave the acid 10 which was converted to the amide Epelsiban 11 by ...
... sodium pyruvate has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and is used in several studies on brain injury because of ... Pandit, Bijan; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sinha, Biswajit (2016). "Solution thermodynamics of sodium pyruvate in aqueous glycine ...
An aqueous form of Alfaxan was released in Australia in 2000-2001, and Saffan was finally removed from the market in 2002. ... Alfaxalone has been used to perform c-sections in pregnant cats; though it crosses the placental barrier and had some effects ... Greyhounds, who are particularly susceptible to anesthetic side effects, can have decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the ... Such doses, however, can cause low blood pressure, apnea, hypoxia, and arrhythmia (caused by the apnea and hypoxia). Alfaxalone ...
... proteins and nutrients across the cell barrier. This fluid is not static, but is continually being refreshed by the blood ... For example, the aqueous humor, the vitreous humor, the cerebrospinal fluid, the serous fluid produced by the serous membranes ... The main intravascular fluid in mammals is blood, a complex mixture with elements of a suspension (blood cells), colloid ( ... When fluid moves out of the intravascular compartment (the blood vessels), blood pressure can drop to dangerously low levels, ...
It can also cross the blood-brain barrier intact, and register pharmacological effects directly. Theanine is structurally ... Amino acid racemization in aqueous media is a well-established chemical process promoted by elevated temperature and non- ... Natural Standard rates the evidence to support the usage of theanine for anxiety reduction, blood pressure control, and mood ... "Reduction Effect of Theanine on Blood Pressure and Brain 5-Hydroxyindoles in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats". Bioscience, ...
Thus, these are useful in enhancing lesions and tumors where blood-brain barrier is compromised and the Gd(III) leaks out. In ... As a free solubilized aqueous ion, gadolinium (III) is somewhat toxic, but was generally regarded as safe when administered as ... Gd(III) chelates do not pass the intact blood-brain barrier because they are hydrophilic. ... of vessels in MR angiography or for brain tumor enhancement associated with the degradation of the blood-brain barrier. For ...
... aqueous humour) which is continuously replenished, the gel in the vitreous chamber is stagnant. Therefore, if blood, cells or ... Something More than a Constituent of the Blood-Retinal Barrier?Implications for the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy". ... The vitreous humour contains no blood vessels, and 98-99% of its volume is water (as opposed to only 75% in the cornea). In ... The vitreous does not undergo a regular formation and drainage process like the aqueous humor. Instead, it stays permanently in ...
Talk:Blood-brain barrier. *Talk:Body hair. *Talk:Body of femur. *Talk:Body of humerus ... Talk:Aqueous humour. *Talk:Arachnoid mater. *Talk:Arches of the foot. *Talk:Arcuate artery of the foot ...
... aorta for oxygenated blood and pulmonary vein for deoxygenated blood. The spiral valve is essential to keeping the mixing of ... In some animals waterproof barriers impede the exchange of gases through the skin. For example, keratin in human skin, the ... The key innovation in amniotes over amphibians is the ability for the eggs to retain their aqueous contents on land, rather ... in which oxygenated blood from the lungs and de-oxygenated blood from the respiring tissues enters by separate atria, and is ...
blood-brain barrier. A semipermeable membrane separating the blood from the cerebrospinal fluid, and constituting a barrier to ... A numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of an aqueous solution. It is roughly the negative of the ... Also called a white blood cell.. A colourless cell of the immune system which circulates in the blood and body fluids and is ... white blood cell. See leukocyte.. whole genome sequencing. The process of determining the complete DNA sequence of a particular ...
... also suggesting the distribution of these receptors may drive AEA directional transport through the blood-brain barrier and ... transporters have been described that act as carriers to solubilize and transport the endocannabinoids through the aqueous ... "Regulation by cannabinoid receptors of anandamide transport across the blood-brain barrier and through other endothelial cells" ... Bojesen, Inge N.; Hansen, Harald S. (2005). "Membrane transport of anandamide through resealed human red blood cell membranes ...
Able to cross the blood-brain barrier, theanine has reported psychoactive properties.[28] Theanine has been studied for its ... Amino acid racemization in aqueous media is a well-established chemical process promoted by elevated temperature and non- ... It can also cross the blood-brain barrier intact, and register pharmacological effects directly.[14] ... blood pressure control, and mood improvement as "unclear or conflicting scientific evidence" and the evidence for improved ...
Tight junctions that form the blood retinal barrier separate the subretinal space from the blood supply, thus protecting it ... Blood supply[edit]. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn ... The white blood cells in the capillaries in front of the photoreceptors can be perceived as tiny bright moving dots when ... The optic nerve carries the ganglion cell axons to the brain, and the blood vessels that supply the retina. The ganglion cells ...
However, aqueous geochemistry is still very important. In oceans, rare-earth elements reflect input from rivers, hydrothermal ... and it will take a few years to restart production as there are many barriers to entry.[37] One example is the Mountain Pass ... It was found that people living near mines in China had many times the levels of REEs in their blood, urine, bone and hair ...
See also: Debye-Hückel theory and List of viscosities § Aqueous_solutions. Depending on the solute and range of concentration, ... where the Arrhenius energy barrier is identified with the high-frequency shear modulus times a characteristic shoving volume.[ ... Blood 4 × 10−3 10−2 - 100 Oils and long-chain hydrocarbons Linseed oil 0.028 ... Abdulagatov, Ilmutdin M.; Zeinalova, Adelya B.; Azizov, Nazim D. (2006). "Experimental viscosity B-coefficients of aqueous LiCl ...
Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD): this is a non-thermal discharge generated by the application of high voltages across small ... in analogy with blood.[17][18] Mott-Smith recalls, in particular, that the transport of electrons from thermionic filaments ... The dielectric barrier discharge configuration was also used in the design of low temperature plasma jets. These plasma jets ... The dielectric barrier discharge was used in the mid-1990s to show that low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma is ...
If such a barrier limits the adsorption rate, the dynamics are said to be 'kinetically limited'. Such energy barriers can be ... In the bulk aqueous phase, surfactants form aggregates, such as micelles, where the hydrophobic tails form the core of the ... Schematic diagram of a micelle of oil in aqueous suspension, such as might occur in an emulsion of oil in water. In this ... A common example is salting out, by adding an inorganic salt to an aqueous solution of a weakly polar substance, the substance ...
In an acidic aqueous solution, thorium occurs as the tetrapositive aqua ion [Th(H2O)9]4+, which has tricapped trigonal ... Neutron capture is the only way for stars to synthesise elements beyond iron because of the increased Coulomb barriers that ... and blood, as lungs and other internal organs can be penetrated by alpha radiation.[157] Internal exposure to thorium leads to ... "Hydrated metal ions in aqueous solution: How regular are their structures?". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 82 (10): 1901-1917. ...
It is expressed primarily in the blood brain barrier and liver and is thought to be involved in protecting cells from toxins. ... In the inward facing conformation, the binding site on the A domain is open directly to the surrounding aqueous solutions. This ... "Challenges for blood-brain barrier (BBB) screening". Xenobiotica. 37 (10-11): 1135-51. doi:10.1080/00498250701570285. PMID ...
... of blood zinc levels in venous blood samples could be traced to zinc from ZnO nanoparticles applied to human skin for 5 days, ... It is used in products such as baby powder and barrier creams to treat diaper rashes, calamine cream, anti-dandruff shampoos, ... ZnO forms cement-like products when mixed with a strong aqueous solution of zinc chloride and these are best described as zinc ... Aligned ZnO nanowires on pre-seeded silicon, glass, and gallium nitride substrates have been grown using aqueous zinc salts ...
In an aqueous solution, it can be expelled by boiling. The aqueous solution of ammonia is basic. The maximum concentration of ... Reference ranges for blood tests, comparing blood content of ammonia (shown in yellow near middle) with other constituents ... The energy barrier to this inversion is 24.7 kJ/mol, and the resonance frequency is 23.79 GHz, corresponding to microwave ... Perrin, D. D., Ionisation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution; 2nd Ed., Pergamon Press: Oxford, 1982. ...
Because the membrane acts as a barrier for certain molecules and ions, they can occur in different concentrations on the two ... Lipid vesicles and liposomes are formed by first suspending a lipid in an aqueous solution then agitating the mixture through ... "On bimolecular layers of lipoids on the chromocytes of the blood". J. Exp. Med. 41 (4): 439-443. doi:10.1084/jem.41.4.439. PMC ... Although the concentration of membrane components in the aqueous phase is low (stable membrane components have low solubility ...
... a blood-brain barrier transportable form of vitamin C, mediates potent cerebroprotection in experimental stroke". Proceedings ... This 1,2,3-tricarbonyl is too electrophilic to survive more than a few milliseconds in aqueous solution, however. The actual ... DHA is transported through the blood-brain barrier via GLUT1 transporters, and then converted back to ascorbate.[7] ...
... calculator for aqueous solutions containing the ions H+, NH+. 4, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO2−. 4, NO−. 3, Cl−, CO2 ... Blood-air barrier. *Blood shift. *Breathing. *Circulatory system. *CO₂ retention. *Cold shock response ... Szyszkowski equation - Calculating surface tension of aqueous solutions. *Tears of wine - the surface tension induced ...
Carvedilol therapy is commonly associated with edema.[44] Due to the high penetration across the blood-brain barrier, ... Glaucoma [16][21](As eye drops, they decrease intraocular pressure by lowering aqueous humor secretion.[22]) ... The blockade of only beta receptors increases blood pressure, reduces coronary blood flow, left ventricular function, and ... for those beta blockers that do cross the blood-brain barrier, e.g. propranolol). ...
11). This process occurs by simple diffusion,[17] across a very thin membrane (known as the blood-air barrier), which forms the ... Molluscs generally possess gills that allow gas exchange between the aqueous environment and their circulatory systems. These ... and the blood gas tensions in the pulmonary arterial (blue blood entering the lung on the left) and venous blood (red blood ... 10).[18] This blood gas barrier is extremely thin (in humans, on average, 2.2 μm thick). It is folded into about 300 million ...
... in the red blood cells of salmon.[1] Unlike mammalian red blood cells, those of other vertebrates still contain nuclei. ... Clegg JS (February 1984). "Properties and metabolism of the aqueous cytoplasm and its boundaries". The American Journal of ... The nuclear envelope acts as a barrier that prevents both DNA and RNA viruses from entering the nucleus. Some viruses require ... In most types of granulocyte, a white blood cell, the nucleus is lobated and can be bi-lobed, tri-lobed or multi-lobed. ...
... as the blood-brain barrier is impervious to most free fatty acids,[citation needed] excluding short-chain fatty acids and ... so that the longer-chain fatty acids have minimal effect on the pH of an aqueous solution. Even those fatty acids that are ... Main article: Blood fatty acids. Blood fatty acids adopt distinct forms in different stages in the blood circulation. They are ... "Small molecular drug transfer across the blood-brain barrier via carrier-mediated transport systems". NeuroRx. 2 (1): 54-62. ...
Blood[edit]. Drug-testing a blood sample measures whether or not a drug or a metabolite is in the body at a particular time. ... is created by the presence of cocaine in an aqueous solution with a pH greater than 7.0, while the second (EME) results from ... Both a urine sample and a blood sample may be tested.[33] A blood sample is routinely used to detect ethanol/methanol and ASA/ ... Blood plasma may need to be separated by centrifuge from blood cells prior to testing. Sweat patches are opened and the sweat ...
In an aqueous system, the polar heads of lipids align towards the polar, aqueous environment, while the hydrophobic tails ... metabolism and blood pressure; and the oxysterols such as 25-hydroxy-cholesterol that are liver X receptor agonists.[78] ... So in an aqueous environment, the water molecules form an ordered "clathrate" cage around the dissolved lipophilic molecule.[64 ... water in an aqueous solution) become more ordered around the dissolved lipophilic substance, since the polar molecules cannot ...
... and can be used to open the blood-brain barrier to increase uptake of neurological drugs in the brain.[16] ... "Free radical generation by ultrasound in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions". Environmental Health Perspectives. 64: 233-252. ... "Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening: Association with Mechanical Index and Cavitation Index Analyzed by ...
... cannot take free fatty acids up from the blood, as the blood-brain barrier is impervious to most free fatty acids,[citation ... so that the longer-chain fatty acids have minimal effect on the pH of an aqueous solution. Even those fatty acids that are ... Main article: Blood fatty acids. Blood fatty acids are in different forms in different stages in the blood circulation. They ... "Small molecular drug transfer across the blood-brain barrier via carrier-mediated transport systems". NeuroRx. 2 (1): 54-62. ...
"Blood-brain barrier taurine transport during osmotic stress and in focal cerebral ischemia". Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and ... which in turn is obtained from the reaction of ethylene oxide with aqueous sodium bisulfite. A direct approach involves the ... Taurine crosses the blood-brain barrier[27][28][29] and has been implicated in a wide array of physiological phenomena ... Tsuji A, Tamai I (1996). "Sodium- and chloride-dependent transport of taurine at the blood-brain barrier". Advances in ...
... are mainly blood borne and therefore enable monitoring of different processes in the body."[46] And it appears that VOC ... the paint and coating industries are increasingly shifting toward aqueous solvents.[20] ... Vapor barrier. *Vapor-compression refrigeration (VCRS). *Variable air volume (VAV). *Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) ...
aqueous-blood barrier synonyms, aqueous-blood barrier pronunciation, aqueous-blood barrier translation, English dictionary ... definition of aqueous-blood barrier. adj. 1. Relating to, similar to, containing, or dissolved in water; watery. 2. Geology ... Aqueous-blood barrier - definition of aqueous-blood barrier by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/aqueous- ... aqueous. (redirected from aqueous-blood barrier). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. a·que·ous. (ā′kwē-əs, ăk′wē ...
Continued breakdown of the blood aqueous barrier following cataract surgery. Message subject: (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
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Effect of paracentesis upon the blood-aqueous barrier of cynomolgus monkeys. You will receive an email whenever this article is ... H D Jampel, A Brown, A Roberts, P Koya, H Quigley; Effect of paracentesis upon the blood-aqueous barrier of cynomolgus monkeys ... Anterior chamber paracentesis disrupts the blood aqueous barrier (BAB) of rabbits and nonhuman primates, but the magnitude and ... Effects of Paracentesis on The Blood-Aqueous Barrier: An Electron Microscope Study on Macaca Mulatto, Using Horseradish ...
Effects of brimonidine on the intraocular pressure and blood-aqueous barrier permeability after phacoemulsification and ... Effects of brimonidine on the intraocular pressure and blood-aqueous barrier permeability after phacoemulsification and ... reduces the early post-surgical increases in the blood-aqueous barrier permeability and intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes ... on the early postoperative IOP and blood-aqueous barrier permeability in subject with glaucoma after cataract surgery. ...
The doses tested had minimal effects on the permeability of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB). In vitro studies of human tissue ... This review summarizes in vitro and in vivo studies of the effects of PGs on aqueous humor dynamics and BAB integrity in humans ... The PGD2 analogue BW245C is unique in that it is the only PG that decreases aqueous flow. Mechanistic studies in humans have ... PGA2 in cats increases aqueous flow and outflow facility, but it reduces IOP primarily by stimulating uveoscleral outflow. ...
... of urea resulted in destruction of the nonpigmented epithelium and the consequent breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier. The ... The intercellular zonulae occludens were not altered and the intercellular pathway from blood to posterior chamber remained ... Damage to the blood-aqueous barrier in eyes with primary angle closure glaucoma. Xiangyun Kong, Xing Yi Liu, +3 authors Wei Chi ... Immunohistochemical evaluation of the integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier in normal and rubeotic human eyes. Michael Kiichle ...
blood-aqueous barrier. 🔊 Listen to this. n.. *A membrane of the capillary bed of the ciliary body of the eye that permits two- ... way transfer of fluids between the aqueous chamber of the eye and the blood. ...
Results: Mean preoperative aqueous flare (in photon counts per millisecond) in FHU vs. controls was 11.7 ± 3.5 vs. 5.8 ± 1.7. ... Aqueous flare was quantified using the laser flare-cell meter (LFCM, Kowa FC-1000) following medical pupillary dilation ... Following cataract surgery, mean aqueous flare increased to 27.8 ± 4.4 vs. 16.0 ± 4.5 on day 1, decreased to 23.6 ± 4.0 vs. ... aqueous flare values were 2-3 times higher in FHU eyes than in control eyes with senile cataract (p = 0.01). No postoperative ...
N2 - Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) permeability were assessed by various methods to clarify ... AB - Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) permeability were assessed by various methods to clarify ... Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) permeability were assessed by various methods to clarify ... abstract = "Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) permeability were assessed by various methods to ...
this topic explain about ocular route and barriers system. and classification of different injection routes … ... Blood-aqueous barrier: The ciliary epithelium and capillaries of the iris. • Blood-retinal barrier: Non-fenestrated capillaries ... These barriers can be broadly classified as • Anatomical barriers • Physiological barriersBlood-ocular barriers ... Blood-ocular barrier • The blood-ocular barrier normally keeps most drugs out of the eye. However, inflammation breaks down ...
... includes such as the role of blood-ocular barriers and effects of paracenthesis-effects. The spectrum of potential ... aqueous Arch Clin Exp Arch Ophthalmol artery atrophy block excision blood Bowmans layer cataract extraction cataract surgery ... includes such as the role of blood-ocular barriers and effects of paracenthesis-effects. The spectrum of potential ...
Early re-establishment of blood aqueous barrier after phacoemulsification. Early re-establishment of blood aqueous barrier ... Aqueous Humor/metabolism , Blood-Aqueous Barrier/physiology , Capillary Permeability/physiology , Fluorescein/diagnosis , ... Blood-Aqueous Barrier / Fluorescein / Lens Implantation, Intraocular / Middle Aged Language: English Journal: Indian J ... Blood-Aqueous Barrier / Fluorescein / Lens Implantation, Intraocular / Middle Aged Language: English Journal: Indian J ...
Blood-aqueous barrier deterioration following retained metallic corneal foreign body: A laser flare photometric study. Ismail ... Blood-aqueous barrier deterioration following retained metallic corneal foreign body: A laser flare photometric study. Ulus ...
Firocoxib on aqueous humor prostaglandin E 2 levels for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of blood-aqueous barrier ... such increase was not able to break the blood-aqueous barrier and cause anterior uveitis. Firocoxib did not prevent intraocular ... study aimed to evaluate the effects of firocoxib for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier ... Aqueous samples of seropositive cats were tested for anti- T. gondii specific IgG. In M0, aqueous samples of CT showed a ...
The increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) induced by ischemia/hypoxia is generally correlated with alteration ... BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid- ... The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD- ... Blood-nerve Barrier. The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of ...
aqueous humor. Aza. 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. BRB. blood-retina barrier. DC. dendritic cell. nTreg. natural regulatory T cell. RA ... and rabbit aqueous humour and the difference in composition before and after disruption of the blood/aqueous humour barrier. ... These include sequestration of retinal Ags behind an efficient blood-retina barrier (BRB), absence of lymphatic drainage of the ... Laboratory evaluation of aqueous humor in the healthy dog, cat, horse, and cow. Am. J. Vet. Res. 46: 657-659. ...
This, along with tight junctions in iris vasculature, is the blood-aqueous barrier. Breakdown of this barrier can be seen in ... Aqueous production The non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells of the ciliary body pars plicata produce aqueous humour. The ... cycles the aqueous before it exits the eye at the anterior chamber drainage angle. Aqueous outflow Outflow occurs via two ... or red blood cells (traumatic or neovascular) * Anterior chamber--are there cells, pigment or red blood cells? * Iris--is there ...
Secretion of aqueous humour via epithelial cells in the ciliary body. Epithelial cells removed but blood-aqueous barrier ... After UCP treatment, double-layer epithelial cells producing aqueous humour have been removed but blood aqueous barrier remains ... UCP allows the decrease of aqueous humour production by partial coagulation of the ciliary body. ...
... it is doubtful whether GABA penetrates the blood-brain barrier.. Many analytical high performance liquid chromatographic ... The amount of GABA present in aqueous extracts of valerian is sufficient to account for [ 3 H]GABA release in synaptosomes . ... The alkaloid concentration in roots and rhizomes is low, usually less than 0.2%. The aqueous extract of valerian contains ... 3. Leathwood PD , Chauffard F , Heck E , Munoz-Box R . Aqueous extract of valerian root ( Valeriana officinalis L.) improves ...
... has been shown to induce blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening in targeted brain areas in rat animal models with minimal ... has been shown to induce blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening in targeted brain areas in rat animal models with minimal ... Mason, T. J., Lorimer, J. P., Bates, D. M., and Zhao, Y. (1994). Dosimetry in Sonochemistry - the use of aqueous terephthalate ... Detection of intra cerebral hemorrhage and transient blood-supply shortage in focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier ...
... and leptin at the interface of blood-brain barrier as well as the neural circuits regulating the physiological functions of ɑ- ... Chapter 5.The Role of α-MSH on Blood-Aqueous Barrier, Intraocular Pressure, and Lens Yan Zhang ... Chapter 5.The Role of α-MSH on Blood-Aqueous Barrier, Intraocular Pressure, and Lens ... and leptin at the interface of blood-brain barrier as well as the neural circuits regulating the physiological functions of ɑ- ...
1.1 Blood-Brain Barrier The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is described as a dynamic interface between the peripheral circulation ... Our blood is composed of blood cells and an aqueous fluid known as plasma. Human blood type is determined by the presence or ... 1.1 Blood-Brain Barrier. The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is described as a dynamic interface between the peripheral circulation ... ABO Blood Group System Analysis. 1668 Words , 7 Pages. The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system in ...
Sample Types: Aqueous humor. * Disrupting the blood-brain barrier by focused ultrasound induces sterile inflammation Proc. Natl ... Role of sex steroids in modulating tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced changes in vascular function and blood pressure. Authors ... Cholinergic agonist physostigmine suppresses excessive superoxide anion radical generation in blood, oxidative stress, early ...
cDistribution: aqueous solubility blood-brain barrier penetration. dMetabolism: YPA2D6. eExcretion: plasma protein binding; f ... The ADMET Descriptors of DS 3.5 includes models for intestinal absorption, aqueous solubility, blood-brain barrier penetration ... and their efficacies in controlling blood cholesterol levels have been well recognized.3,4 ...
The aqueous perfusion medium for the microdialysis experiments contained 147 mM NaCl, 2.3 mM CaCl2, and 4 mM KCl (modified ... Various antiepileptic drugs were shown to be substrates for multidrug transporters at the level of the blood-brain barrier. ... Quantitative in Vivo Microdialysis Study on the Influence of Multidrug Transporters on the Blood-Brain Barrier Passage of ... Quantitative in Vivo Microdialysis Study on the Influence of Multidrug Transporters on the Blood-Brain Barrier Passage of ...
Long-term endothelial cell loss and breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier in cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 17, 622 ... Thus, we hypothesized that iris atrophy can directly cause an irreversible disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) and ... Pathological processes in aqueous humor due to iris atrophy predispose to early corneal graft failure in humans and mice ... Pathological processes in aqueous humor due to iris atrophy predispose to early corneal graft failure in humans and mice ...
Selective permeability of mouse blood-aqueous barrier as determined by 15N-heavy isotope tracing and mass spectrometry Pan Liu ...
Selective permeability of mouse blood-aqueous barrier as determined by 15N-heavy isotope tracing and mass spectrometry Pan Liu ... The bacterial outer membrane is an evolving antibiotic barrier Kerrie L. May and Marcin Grabowicz ... Phospholipid retention in the absence of asymmetry strengthens the outer membrane permeability barrier to last-resort ...
  • Preoperative and immediate postoperative treatment with an alpha 2 stimulant, apraclonidine, reduces the early post-surgical increases in the blood-aqueous barrier permeability and intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes after successful cataract surgery. (arvojournals.org)
  • We herein evaluated the effects of another topical alpha 2 stimulant, brimonidine, on the early postoperative IOP and blood-aqueous barrier permeability in subject with glaucoma after cataract surgery. (arvojournals.org)
  • Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) permeability were assessed by various methods to clarify conflicting reports on whether blood-retinal barrier permeability changes occur in diabetic and galactose-fed rats and to assess the potential role of aldose reductase in this process. (elsevier.com)
  • In untreated galactose-fed rats a 4-fold increase in the mean permeability surface area product (PA) to sucrose at the BRB was observed when the aqueous humor was not frozen during retinal dissection. (elsevier.com)
  • These data indicate that while BRB permeability is not increased in galactose-fed rats, BRB permeability measurements with isotopes are subject to possible contamination from the aqueous humor in untreated galactose-fed rats, which can result in false observations of increased BRB permeability. (elsevier.com)
  • The increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) induced by ischemia/hypoxia is generally correlated with alteration of tight junctions (TJs). (bioportfolio.com)
  • To investigate the effect of retigabine on the blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and its mechanism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 2007). As they play part in both, the paracellular barrier and pore formation, their involvement in permeability of epithelial and endothelial cells seems to be crucial (Shen et al. (ipl.org)
  • Heald D, Langham ME (1956) Permeability of the cornea and the blood-aqueous barrier to Oxygen. (springer.com)
  • Blood-aqueous barrier permeability determination in HLA B27-positive acute anterior uveitis patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Much of our current understanding of microvascular permeability is based on the findings of classic experimental studies of blood capillary permeability to various-sized lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The vascular endothelium forms a highly selective permeability barrier. (ahajournals.org)
  • The clinical use of endogenous neuropeptides has historically been limited due to pharmacokinetic issues, including plasma stability and blood-brain barrier permeability. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the eye and brain, high permeability capillaries are also present in the choriocapillaris, which supplies the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors, and the ciliary body and choroid plexus, the sources of aqueous humor and cerebrospinal fluid, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • We show here that (1) endothelial cells in these high permeability vascular systems have very low beta-catenin signaling compared to barrier-competent endothelial cells, and (2) elevating beta-catenin signaling leads to a partial conversion of permeable endothelial cells to a barrier-type state. (elsevier.com)
  • Continued breakdown of the blood aqueous barrier following cataract surgery. (bmj.com)
  • Anterior chamber paracentesis disrupts the blood aqueous barrier (BAB) of rabbits and nonhuman primates, but the magnitude and duration of breakdown in monkeys has not been clarified. (arvojournals.org)
  • Arterial injection of urea resulted in destruction of the nonpigmented epithelium and the consequent breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To quantify the breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) following phacoemulsification with posterior chamber lens implantation in eyes with Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis (FHU). (scienceopen.com)
  • ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effects of firocoxib for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier in healthy and Toxoplasma gondii -seropositive cats . (bvsalud.org)
  • Breakdown of this barrier can be seen in numerous inflammatory and infective disorders where large proteins Teak' through into the anterior chamber causing it to become cloudier and 'plasma-like. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier across the pigmented epithelium may cause a superimposed nonrhegmatogenous retinal detachment. (medscape.com)
  • 15 16 Among these, fluorophotometry is the most sensitive method to quantify the breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier. (ahajournals.org)
  • Breakdown of this barrier results in entry of protein and cells into the anterior chamber and is seen as aqueous flare or plasmoid aqueous. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier causes anterior uveal tissue destruction. (vetstream.com)
  • Bilirubin is formed by a breakdown product of heme rings, usually from metabolized red blood cells. (aafp.org)
  • Approximately 80 percent of the heme moiety comes from catabolism of red blood cells, with the remaining 20 percent resulting from ineffective erythropoiesis and breakdown of muscle myoglobin and cytochromes. (aafp.org)
  • The flare and cells observed in FHI are thought to occur due to the breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier which leads to the leakage of cells. (news-medical.net)
  • As the majority of the cell and flare observed are caused by the breakdown of the aqueous blood barrier and not inflammation, corticosteroids are often ineffective in addressing the low-grade anterior chamber reaction seen in FHI. (news-medical.net)
  • Because IOL opacification developed in all four eyes that had combined surgery but not in eyes that underwent cataract surgery alone, the authors suggest that combined surgery may increase inflammation and calcium concentration in the anterior chamber, possibly through breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier. (aao.org)
  • Following cataract surgery, mean aqueous flare increased to 27.8 ± 4.4 vs. 16.0 ± 4.5 on day 1, decreased to 23.6 ± 4.0 vs. 11.8 ± 3.5 on day 3, and to 18.0 ± 3.0 vs. 9.5 ± 1.7 on day 5. (scienceopen.com)
  • In this prospective study, aqueous flare was measured with the laser flare-cell meter in 20 eyes of 20 patients with age-related cataract enrolled for cataract surgery. (lww.com)
  • To evaluate the time course of blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) disturbance in the early period after small-incision cataract surgery. (escrs.org)
  • Although we have observed that aqueous humor PGE2 levels were significantly higher in cats of CT group during M0, such increase was not able to break the blood-aqueous barrier and cause anterior uveitis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Hydrophilic IOLs have a great biocompatibility which is especially important in eyes with a damaged blood-aqueous barrier (from uveitis, glaucoma, diabetes). (zeiss.com)
  • Anterior uveitis therapy should last at least 2 months as the blood-aqueous barrier remains disrupted for about 8 weeks after insult. (vetstream.com)
  • Over time, multiple mechanisms can increase the resistance to aqueous outflow during episodes of uveitis, thereby leading to elevated IOP. (aao.org)
  • In chronic cases of uveitis, obstruction of aqueous outflow may result from scarring and obliteration of trabecular meshwork beams or Schlemm's canal or from overgrowth of a fibrovascular membrane in the angle. (aao.org)
  • Structural alterations in the ciliary process and the blood-aqueous barrier of the monkey after systemic urea injections. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A membrane of the capillary bed of the ciliary body of the eye that permits two-way transfer of fluids between the aqueous chamber of the eye and the blood. (liberaldictionary.com)
  • The non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells of the ciliary body pars plicata produce aqueous humour. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • UCP allows the decrease of aqueous humour production by partial coagulation of the ciliary body. (eyetechcare.com)
  • The blood-aqueous barrier is a function of the iris and ciliary body epithelium. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The presence of barriers such as the iris, ciliary body, and lens, as well as normal movement of aqueous humor through the pupil and out the trabecular and uveoscleral meshwork can further limit the distribution of drugs. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • During episodes of intraocular inflammation, IOP is typically reduced because of aqueous humor hyposecretion from ciliary body inflammation and increased uveoscleral outflow. (aao.org)
  • RHT shows extremely low aqueous solubility and poor penetration, resulting in inadequate concentration reaching the brain, thus necessitating frequent oral dosing. (springer.com)
  • Use of salt forms of hydrophobic molecules should improve aqueous solubility. (biomol.com)
  • The low aqueous solubility and high lipophilicity of elacridar result in poor oral absorption, most likely dissolution-rate-limited. (aspetjournals.org)
  • After phacoemulsification and foldable IOL implantation, postoperative alteration in the blood-aqueous barrier was statistically significantly lower with the clear corneal tunnel incision group compared with the sclerocorneal incision group, in the first 3 days postoperatively. (scienceopen.com)
  • Blood-aqueous barrier deterioration following retained metallic corneal foreign body: A laser flare photometric study. (tjtes.org)
  • Drugs predominantly leave the anterior chamber with the aqueous humor via the corneal trabecular and/or uveoscleral meshwork, although small amounts may move posteriorly into the vitreous. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Iridal congestion, aqueous flare, hypopyon, keratitic precipitates and corneal edema develop along with cellular infiltration. (vetstream.com)
  • Quantitation of aqueous humor total protein and prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) were determined. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate protects against brain microvascular endothelial junctional protein disorganization and barrier dysfunction caused by alcohol. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is postulated that dilution of aqueous in the anterior chamber is the mechanism by which pupil dilation decreases aqueous flare 5 because the protein content of the aqueous humor is thought to arise mainly in the anterior chamber. (lww.com)
  • More precisely, the influence of intrahippocampal perfusion of verapamil, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, and probenecid, a multidrug resistance protein inhibitor, on the blood-brain barrier passage and anticonvulsant properties of oxcarbazepine were investigated in the focal pilocarpine model for limbic seizures. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The blood-ocular barriers (ie, the blood-aqueous and blood-retinal barriers) allow the eye to control entry of inflammatory cells, protein, and low-molecular-weight compounds from the systemic circulation. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • UVR promoted anterior uveitic inflammatory injury, with expansion of the hyperemic iris vessels, over-production of aqueous humor protein, disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier, and embedding of infiltrative leukocytes inside the iridocorneal angle. (molvis.org)
  • All aqueous humor (AqH) samples were tested for total protein concentration, ability to suppress in vitro T-cell activation, and total TGF-β 2 content. (egms.de)
  • The intravitreal injection of 10(5) to 5 X 10(5) units of recombinant human TNF produced a sustained disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier as manifested by elevated aqueous humor protein levels. (nih.gov)
  • Due to its lipophilic nature and small molecular size, lomerizine is able to cross the blood brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • It thereby prevents the 3-O-methylation of levodopa by COMT in the periphery, which produces 3-O-methyldopa, a major metabolite that competes with levodopa to cross the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, it can easily cross the blood-brain barrier or enter the placenta. (aafp.org)
  • An increase in transmural pressure in the choroidal vascular plexus can be caused by elevated blood pressure, low intraocular pressure (IOP), or a combination. (medscape.com)
  • Intraocular pressure is regulated by a balance between aqueous humor production and its outflow. (aao.org)
  • We elected to combine systemic rituximab with intraocular injections because of limited evidence on the effectiveness of systemic rituximab in penetrating the blood-aqueous barrier - and because one of the two previously reported cases developed ocular PTLD despite previously receiving systemic injections," says Shakila P. Khan, M.D. , a pediatric oncologist at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Early re-establishment of blood aqueous barrier after phacoemulsification. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this prospective, randomized controlled, single-center study, aqueous humor samples were obtained immediately after performing the femtosecond laser procedure or at the start of conventional phacoemulsification. (healio.com)
  • After tropicamide instillation, aqueous flare decreased preoperatively and on all postoperative days. (lww.com)
  • Postoperative inflammation was measured by aqueous flare and cell count with a laser flare cell - meter. (escrs.org)
  • The blood-retinal barrier is composed of two layers: an endothelial and epithelial portion. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • It can be blocked by inflammatory cells, proteins, debris or fibrin liberated from a disrupted blood-aqueous barrier, resulting in obstruction of the aqueous outflow facility. (aao.org)
  • Corticosteroids have been reported to cause biochemical and morphological changes in the trabecular meshwork, decreasing aqueous outflow facility. (aao.org)
  • The non-pigmented epithelium actively transports ions into the posterior chamber, which then allows for the passive flow of water and the formation of aqueous humour. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Once secreted into the posterior chamber, the aqueous passes between the iris and lens into the anterior chamber (see Figure 1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Therefore, exchange of aqueous humor between the anterior and posterior chambers is constant. (lww.com)
  • Angle closure with pupillary block occurs when inflammation in the anterior chamber causes 360 degrees of posterior synechiae that block the flow of aqueous from the posterior chamber to the anterior chamber, resulting in iris bombé and acute angle-closure glaucoma. (aao.org)
  • Anti- T. gondii specific IgG were reported only in samples of M1, and aqueous titers did not change significantly between FT and CT (P=0.11). (bvsalud.org)
  • Tropicamide significantly decreased aqueous flare, seemingly by pharmacological means, not volumetric changes. (lww.com)
  • The aqueous flare and cell count time course differed significantly among patients. (escrs.org)
  • Retigabine protects the blood-brain barrier by regulating tight junctions between cerebral vascular endothelial cells in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This, along with tight junctions in iris vasculature, is the blood-aqueous barrier. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Presence of tight junctions in blood brain barrier (BBB) pose a major hurdle for delivery of drug and severely affects adequate therapeutic concentration to reach the brain. (springer.com)
  • Aqueous extracts of Valerian have different spectrum of active constituents than extracts that have been processed with ethanol [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 128 volunteers were given 400 mg of an aqueous extract of valerian, a commercial preparation containing 60 mg valerian and 30 mg hops, and a placebo [ 13 ]. (nih.gov)
  • However, the short-lived effect of paracentesis may permit the repetitive collection of "primary aqueous" for physiologic and biochemical studies. (arvojournals.org)
  • The classification of blood capillary types on the basis of differences in the physiologic upper limits of pore size to transvascular flow highlights the differences in the transcapillary exchange routes for the transvascular transport of endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules across the capillary walls of different blood capillary types. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, the blood capillary types in different tissues and organs were classified on the basis of the physiologic upper limits of pore size to the transvascular flow of lipid-insoluble molecules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across capillary walls of non-sinusoidal non-fenestrated blood capillaries is less than 1 nm for those with interendothelial cell clefts lined with zona occludens junctions (i.e. brain and spinal cord), and approximately 5 nm for those with clefts lined with macula occludens junctions (i.e. skeletal muscle). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The physiologic upper limit of pore size in the capillary walls of most non-sinusoidal blood capillaries to the transcapillary passage of lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules ranges between 5 and 12 nm. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • blood-aqueous barrier the physiologic mechanism that prevents exchange of materials between the chambers of the eye and the blood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Red and, sometimes, itchy palms (palmar erythema) and soles of the feet appearing at any time during pregnancy are probably caused by elevated blood estrogen levels (1). (amazonaws.com)
  • Studies of these mechanical and vasogenic factors in the pathogenesis of glaucoma have turned attention to endothelin (ET) and nitric oxide (NO), two of the main cellular mediators involved in the regulation of IOP and local ocular blood flow. (molvis.org)
  • Title: Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) susceptibility gene PLEKHA7 encodes a novel Rac1/Cdc42 GAP that modulates cell migration and blood-aqueous barrier function. (nih.gov)
  • The pathogenesis of uveitic glaucoma relates to alterations in aqueous production and composition, changes to the anterior chamber angle anatomy and the effects of corticosteroid treatment. (aao.org)
  • Out of these it's the epithelium which acts as the principal barrier. (slideshare.net)
  • blood-testis barrier a barrier separating the blood from the seminiferous tubules, consisting of special junctional complexes between adjacent Sertoli cells near the base of the seminiferous epithelium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, a convection current, established by the relatively cooler anterior chamber being closer to the cornea, cycles the aqueous before it exits the eye at the anterior chamber 'drainage angle. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In 20 rabbits the effect of, gas exchange, between the aqueous humor and surrounding air through the cornea, on the acid-base balance in the aqueous was investigated. (springer.com)
  • Kwan M, Niinikoski J, Hunt TK (1972) In vivo measurements of Oxygen tension in the cornea, aqueous humour and anterior lens of the open eye. (springer.com)
  • Rupture of the blood-aqueous barrier, with leakage of serum proteins into the aqueous humour, is the main pathogenic factor. (dovepress.com)
  • The blood-aqueous barrier can be evaluated clinically by anterior segment fluorescein angiography, 11 12 13 the cell-flare meter, 14 and fluorophotometry. (ahajournals.org)
  • Sodium fluorescein is readily metabolized to fluorescein glucuronide, which is weakly fluorescent and easily crosses the blood-ocular barrier. (google.com)
  • Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The hydroalcoholic extract selectively interacted with quisqualic acid (QA), group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) ligand, while the aqueous extract did not alter the binding of QA. (hindawi.com)
  • After 10 days, the aqueous extract inhibited 85% of [ 3 H]FW binding while the hydroalcoholic extract markedly potentiated (200%) [ 3 H]FW binding to AMPA receptors. (hindawi.com)
  • Evaluation of antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. (scielo.br)
  • OBJECTIVE We studied the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. (scielo.br)
  • 2010) Effect of the Plant Matrix on the Uptake of Luteolin Derivatives-containing Artemisia afra Aqueous-extract in Caco-2 cells. (uwc.ac.za)
  • A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the case of the sinusoidal reticuloendothelial blood capillaries of myeloid bone marrow, the transvascular transport of non-endogenous macromolecules larger than 5 nm into the bone marrow interstitial space takes place via reticuloendothelial cell-mediated phago-endocytosis and transvascular release, which is the case for systemic bone marrow imaging agents as large as 60 nm in diameter. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When treating the eye via the systemic circulation, these barriers can limit the entry and amount of medications into the eye, especially highly water-soluble compounds. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Considering the effects of prostaglandin analogues on blood-aqueous barrier, latanoprost use might have been related to allograft reaction in this case. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Barriers of Drugs Permeation Through Ocular Route. (slideshare.net)
  • this topic explain about ocular route and barriers system. (slideshare.net)
  • Crucial aspects of restoring the anterior chamber, includes such as the role of blood-ocular barriers and effects of paracenthesis-effects. (google.com)
  • These include sequestration of retinal Ags behind an efficient blood-retina barrier (BRB), absence of lymphatic drainage of the interior of the intact globe (although once the BRB is breached, the eyes are drained by submandibular lymph nodes), a paucity of resident class II + APC in the healthy retina, and an immunosuppressive ocular microenvironment composed of soluble and cell-bound inhibitory factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Photography of the circulatory system of the eye and angiography of the ocular fundus require the absorption of a fluorescent indicator substance or dye into the blood as it flows through the vasculature of the eye. (google.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the ocular penetration of 0.5% caspofungin eye drops into human aqueous humor. (asm.org)
  • Like the brain, the eye has protective barriers from the vascular system. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Downregulation of PLEKHA7 in PACG may affect BAB integrity and aqueous humor outflow via its Rac1/Cdc42 GAP activity, thereby contributing to disease etiology. (nih.gov)
  • Assays of immune privilege markers in AqH reveal that mean TGF-β 2 content is abnormally low in patients coming to PK due to the high risk cases and that PK surgery results in a sustained loss of integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier. (egms.de)
  • Loss of blood-retinal barrier integrity was demonstrated by a reduction of ZO-1 expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this experiment, we used fluorophotometry to detect the status of the blood-aqueous barrier in hyperlipidemic rabbits. (ahajournals.org)
  • DL-3-n-butylphthalide protects the blood-brain barrier against ischemia/hypoxia injury via upregulation of tight junction proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Blood-brain barrier pericytes as a target for HIV-1 infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has known endothelial barrier protective properties, but whether this extends to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is unclear. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The choroid plexus (CP), main component of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), protects the brain from peripheral inflammation similar to the blood-brain barrier. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this research study is to determine if sunitinib can get past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain tumor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the ExAblate® Model 4000 Type 2.0 system as a tool to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with probable Alzh. (bioportfolio.com)
  • however, it is doubtful whether GABA penetrates the blood-brain barrier. (drugs.com)
  • Focused extracorporeal shockwave (FSW), one kind of focused high-intensity pulsed ultrasound, has been shown to induce blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening in targeted brain areas in rat animal models with minimal detrimental effects below threshold intensity levels or iterations. (frontiersin.org)
  • The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a multicellular vascular structure which controls the passage of molecules and ions between the bloodstream and the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • His work during this period focused on the molecular interactions between the signaling pathways mediated by ɑ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (ɑ-MSH) and leptin at the interface of blood-brain barrier as well as the neural circuits regulating the physiological functions of ɑ-MSH and leptin in the hypothalamus. (scirp.org)
  • The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is described as a dynamic interface between the peripheral circulation and the central nervous system. (ipl.org)
  • Various antiepileptic drugs were shown to be substrates for multidrug transporters at the level of the blood-brain barrier. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The present in vivo microdialysis study was conducted to investigate the impact of the transport kinetics of oxcarbazepine across the blood-brain barrier on the observed treatment refractoriness. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The present data indicate that oxcarbazepine is a substrate for multidrug transporters at the blood-brain barrier. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Abundant in the brain and CNS, where it is expressed in tissues of the blood-brain barrier and secreted into the cerebro-spinal fluid. (abcam.com)
  • P-Glycoprotein, a gatekeeper in the blood-brain barrier. (springer.com)
  • In comparison with entacapone, another nitrocatechol COMT inhibitor, tolcapone has a longer half life (2.9 hours vs. 0.8 hours) and can better penetrate the blood-brain barrier, acting both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood-brain barrier penetration is important for desired central nervous system (CNS) effects. (biomol.com)
  • Mercury is one of the priority pollutants listed by the USEPA as it can easily pass the blood-brain barrier and affect the fetal brain [ 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The brain-to-plasma partition coefficient ( K p,brain) of elacridar increased as plasma exposure increased, suggesting saturation of the efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Brain is the highly protected organ of the body by the sanctuary known as blood brain barrier (BBB). (pharmatutor.org)
  • More than 95% of drugs for delivery to the brain are limited by the formidable blood-brain barrier (BBB). (pharmatutor.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 22306333 The successful treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders is hampered by inefficient drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (jove.com)
  • Quantitative analysis of the expressed cytokines in the aqueous humor was performed using FlowCytomix FC 500 Pro 3.0 Software (Bender MedSystems GmbH, Vienna, Austria). (healio.com)
  • Oxidative stress in the choroid plexus contributes to blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier disruption during sepsis development. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Aqueous flare was quantified using the laser flare-cell meter (LFCM, Kowa FC-1000) following medical pupillary dilation preoperatively and 1, 3, and 5 days, then 1 and 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. (scienceopen.com)
  • Pre- and postoperatively, aqueous flare values were 2-3 times higher in FHU eyes than in control eyes with senile cataract (p = 0.01). (scienceopen.com)
  • Fluid accumulation, either serumlike or blood, also can occur within the choroid, which is a spongy tissue. (medscape.com)
  • Chloramphenicol enters cerebrospinal fluid even in the absence of meningeal inflammation, appearing in concentrations about half of those found in the blood. (drugs.com)
  • The purpose of our study is to validate the accuracy of 4D PC flow method in quantification of thoracic and upper abdominal blood flow volumes in children. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Changes in the blood-aqueous barrier function associated with total serum cholesterol (CHO) and triglyceride (TG) levels were studied at the beginning of the study and every 2 weeks thereafter for up to 16 weeks following 0.5% cholesterol-enriched diet feeding. (ahajournals.org)
  • The brain, spinal cord, and retina are supplied by capillaries that do not permit free diffusion of molecules between serum and parenchyma, a property that defines the blood-brain and blood-retina barriers. (elsevier.com)
  • If dilation is the cause of flare decrease, one would predict that in the pseudophakic eye, pupil dilation would alter aqueous flare less than in the phakic eye. (lww.com)
  • Measurable levels are also detected in pleural and in ascitic fluids, saliva, milk, and in the aqueous and vitreous humors. (drugs.com)
  • From the medullary sinuses, the filtered lymph drains into one or two efferent lymphatic vessels located at the hilum (depression in the concave side of the 'bean shape') (blood vessels also enter and exit the node here). (ipl.org)
  • In particular, the compositions may be used to block blood flow in malfunctioning human organs such as the kidney, spleen, and liver, or to block blood flow into the malfunctioning areas of blood vessels such as arterio-venous malformations (AVM) and aneurysms. (google.com)
  • The IOP and aqueous flare intensity were determined before the operation and six hours, 24 hours and seven days after the operation using a Goldmann applanation tonometer and a laser flare-cell meter. (arvojournals.org)
  • barrier methods contraceptive methods such as condoms and diaphragms in which a plastic or rubber barrier blocks passage of spermatozoa through the vagina or cervix. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Non-sinusoidal blood capillaries were further sub-classified as non-fenestrated or fenestrated based on the absence or presence of endothelial cells with fenestrations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The sinusoidal blood capillaries of the liver, myeloid (red) bone marrow, and spleen were sub-classified as reticuloendothelial or non-reticuloendothelial based on the phago-endocytic capacity of the endothelial cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It functions as a physical and metabolical barrier between the nervous system and the circulating blood and is important for neuronal microenvironment, protection against in the peripheral blood circulating toxic molecules and to prevent neurotransmitters to escape into the general circulation. (ipl.org)
  • The blood-aqueous barrier also became more permeable than that in group 1 after 2 weeks' and increased above its baseline level after 6 weeks' feeding. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5. The aqueous polyurethane dispersion of claim 1 wherein the aliphatic mono, di or polyhydroxy compound which has an aliphatic side chain substituent which contains from 5 to 30 carbon atoms is present at a concentration of from 1.0 to 4.5 weight percent of the polymer. (google.com.au)
  • Compounds travel through a maze of aqueous solutions, lipid membranes, and barriers between the blood and tissues like the brain. (redorbit.com)
  • To analyze the frequency of polymorphic variants of the endothelin EDN gene (K198N) and the endothelin receptor type A gene EDN RA (C1222T, C70G, G231A), DNA was isolated from peripheral blood, and SNP genotyping was performed using the real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method. (molvis.org)
  • While blood studies may detect early peripheral blood changes, such as leukopenia, reticulocytopenia, or granulocytopenia, before they become irreversible, such studies cannot be relied on to detect bone marrow depression prior to development of aplastic anemia. (drugs.com)