Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Anemia, Hemolytic: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital: Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Hemolytic Agents: Substances that are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.Fanconi Anemia: Congenital disorder affecting all bone marrow elements, resulting in ANEMIA; LEUKOPENIA; and THROMBOPENIA, and associated with cardiac, renal, and limb malformations as well as dermal pigmentary changes. Spontaneous CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE is a feature of this disease along with predisposition to LEUKEMIA. There are at least 7 complementation groups in Fanconi anemia: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, and FANCL. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=227650, August 20, 2004)Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital Nonspherocytic: Any one of a group of congenital hemolytic anemias in which there is no abnormal hemoglobin or spherocytosis and in which there is a defect of glycolysis in the erythrocyte. Common causes include deficiencies in GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE; PYRUVATE KINASE; and GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE.Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Anemia, Pernicious: A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Anemia, Sideroblastic: Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.Anemia, Megaloblastic: A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Anemia, Refractory: A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Equine Infectious Anemia: Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.Erythroblastosis, Fetal: A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chicken anemia virus: The type species of GYROVIRUS, a small, non-enveloped DNA virus originally isolated from contaminated vaccines in Japan. It causes chicken infectious anemia and may possibly play a key role in hemorrhagic anemia syndrome, anemia dermatitis, and blue wing disease.Spherocytosis, Hereditary: A group of familial congenital hemolytic anemias characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions.Anemia, Dyserythropoietic, Congenital: A familial disorder characterized by ANEMIA with multinuclear ERYTHROBLASTS, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors (ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS). Type II is the most common of the 3 types; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Heinz Bodies: Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan: A rare congenital hypoplastic anemia that usually presents early in infancy. The disease is characterized by a moderate to severe macrocytic anemia, occasional neutropenia or thrombocytosis, a normocellular bone marrow with erythroid hypoplasia, and an increased risk of developing leukemia. (Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Mar;7(2):85-94)Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins: A diverse group of proteins whose genetic MUTATIONS have been associated with the chromosomal instability syndrome FANCONI ANEMIA. Many of these proteins play important roles in protecting CELLS against OXIDATIVE STRESS.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts: Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that regulates the activities of CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE and GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE. It is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM, but moves to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to FANCE PROTEIN.Rh-Hr Blood-Group System: Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that undergoes mono-ubiquitination by FANCL PROTEIN in response to DNA DAMAGE. Also, in response to IONIZING RADIATION it can undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein. Modified FANCD2 interacts with BRCA2 PROTEIN in a stable complex with CHROMATIN, and it is involved in DNA REPAIR by homologous RECOMBINATION.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that is the most commonly mutated protein in FANCONI ANEMIA. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by PROTEIN KINASE B and forms a complex with FANCC PROTEIN in the CELL NUCLEUS.Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Streptolysins: Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Pallor: A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Shiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Blood Group Incompatibility: An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).Hemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Thrombotic Microangiopathies: Diseases that result in THROMBOSIS in MICROVASCULATURE. The two most prominent diseases are PURPURA, THROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC; and HEMOLYTIC-UREMIC SYNDROME. Multiple etiological factors include VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL damage due to SHIGA TOXIN; FACTOR H deficiency; and aberrant VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR formation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Rh Isoimmunization: The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group G Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE during MITOSIS. It forms a complex with other FANCONI ANEMIA PROTEINS and helps protect CELLS from DNA DAMAGE by genotoxic agents.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Plasma Exchange: Removal of plasma and replacement with various fluids, e.g., fresh frozen plasma, plasma protein fractions (PPF), albumin preparations, dextran solutions, saline. Used in treatment of autoimmune diseases, immune complex diseases, diseases of excess plasma factors, and other conditions.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Chromium Isotopes: Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.MethemoglobinPyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Spherocytes: Small, abnormal spherical red blood cells with more than the normal amount of hemoglobin.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Hemoglobinopathies: A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine: In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Favism: Hemolytic anemia due to the ingestion of fava beans or after inhalation of pollen from the Vicia fava plant by persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient erythrocytes.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Primaquine: An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)Fetal Hemoglobin: The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.Hemoglobinuria: The presence of free HEMOGLOBIN in the URINE, indicating hemolysis of ERYTHROCYTES within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (HAPTOGLOBINS), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.alpha-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenasePrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Erythroblasts: Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Hematologic Diseases: Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Reticulocytosis: An increase in circulating RETICULOCYTES, which is among the simplest and most reliable signs of accelerated ERYTHROCYTE production. Reticulocytosis occurs during active BLOOD regeneration (stimulation of red bone marrow) and in certain types of ANEMIA, particularly CONGENITAL HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Isavirus: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE containing one species: Infectious salmon anemia virus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pancytopenia: Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group F Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein. It is an essential component of a nuclear core complex that protects the GENOME against CHROMOSOMAL INSTABILITY. It interacts directly with FANCG PROTEIN and helps stabilize a complex with FANCA PROTEIN and FANCC PROTEIN.Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure: Suppression of erythropoiesis with little or no abnormality of leukocyte or platelet production.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group E Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that interacts with FANCC PROTEIN and FANCD2 PROTEIN. It promotes the accumulation of FANCC protein in the CELL NUCLEUS.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic: Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Hemolysin Factors: Plasmids controlling the synthesis of hemolysin by bacteria.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Parvovirus B19, Human: The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Erythrocyte Deformability: Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Elliptocytosis, Hereditary: An intrinsic defect of erythrocytes inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The erythrocytes assume an oval or elliptical shape.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Methyldopa: An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has both central and peripheral nervous system effects. Its primary clinical use is as an antihypertensive agent.Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Fish Venoms: Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.Trihexosylceramides: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Hydrops Fetalis: Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Melitten: Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Cucumaria: A genus of large SEA CUCUMBERS possessing the primitive radial configuration of podia in all five ambulacral areas.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Hematology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Hemoglobin C Disease: A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be intermittent abdominal discomfort, splenomegaly, and slight jaundice.Phenacetin: A phenylacetamide that was formerly used in ANALGESICS but nephropathy and METHEMOGLOBINEMIA led to its withdrawal from the market. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology,1991, p431)Complement C8: A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Methemoglobinemia: The presence of methemoglobin in the blood, resulting in cyanosis. A small amount of methemoglobin is present in the blood normally, but injury or toxic agents convert a larger proportion of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which does not function reversibly as an oxygen carrier. Methemoglobinemia may be due to a defect in the enzyme NADH methemoglobin reductase (an autosomal recessive trait) or to an abnormality in hemoglobin M (an autosomal dominant trait). (Dorland, 27th ed)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Erythrocyte Volume: Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Cnidarian Venoms: Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Intrinsic Factor: A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
"Hemolytic Anemia". University of Virginia Health System. Retrieved 2009-05-01. Coagulation Blood diseases. ... This is an effect of intravascular hemolysis, in which hemoglobin separates from red blood cells, a form of anemia. ... When hemoglobinemia is internally caused, it is a result of recessive genetic defects that cause the red blood cells to lyse, ... In externally caused hemoglobinemia, an outside attacker acts as an antibody against the red blood cells. This can cause the ...
Brodsky, Robert A. (2015-11-26). "Complement in hemolytic anemia". Blood. 126 (22): 2459-2465. doi:10.1182/blood-2015-06-640995 ... When CD55 is absent, the complement system attacks red blood cells and causes them to be destroyed (hemolysis). CHAPLE syndrome ...
"A missense mutation in the heavy subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene causes hemolytic anemia". Blood. 95 (7): ... "Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase deficiency and hemolytic anemia". Blood. 75 (1): 271-3. PMID 2294991. Konrad PN, Richards F, ... A cause of hereditary hemolytic anemia". The New England Journal of Medicine. 286 (11): 557-61. doi:10.1056/NEJM197203162861101 ... Deficiency of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in human is associated with enzymopathic hemolytic anemia. Model organisms have ...
"Generalized hexokinase deficiency in the blood cells of a patient with nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia". Blood. 61 (1): 12-8. ... Bianchi M, Magnani M (1995). "Hexokinase mutations that produce nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia". Blood Cells, Molecules & ... Mutations in this gene have been associated with hemolytic anemia due to hexokinase deficiency. Alternative splicing of this ... Murakami K, Piomelli S (Feb 1997). "Identification of the cDNA for human red blood cell-specific hexokinase isozyme". Blood. 89 ...
"Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Red Blood Cell Autoantibodies". Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 139 (11): 1455-8. ... Autoagglutination is seen to occur in a type of immune mediated hemolytic anemia known as cold agglutinin disease. Here, the ... Problems can also occur when autoagglutinated blood is tested for ABO and Rh blood grouping / typing and during cross-matching ... The agglutination results in blood being typed uniformly as 'AB Positive' and as being incompatible at cross-match. This can be ...
Blood evaluation may show signs of hemolytic anemia. Elevated creatine kinase can be seen with myopathy in McLeod syndrome. MRI ... Common features include peripheral neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, and hemolytic anemia. Other features include limb chorea, facial ... whose red blood cells were observed to have weak expression of Kell system antigens during blood donation, and his red cells ... McLeod males have variable acanthocytosis due to a defect in the inner leaflet bilayer of the red blood cell, as well as mild ...
Symptoms include anemia, jaundice, splenomegaly, and fatigue. On a blood smear, Howell-Jolly bodies may be seen within red ... This shortage of erythrocytes results in hemolytic anemia. It was first described in 1871 and is the most common cause of ... Chronic symptoms include anemia, increased blood viscosity, and splenomegaly, and some symptoms are still unknown at this stage ... This process of red blood cells rupturing directly results in varying degrees of anemia (causing a pale appearance and fatigue ...
... often requiring blood transfusions. The associated hemolytic anemia is often transient with peak incidence at 3-4 weeks, with ... It is a potential cause of neonatal hemolytic anemia. Infantile pyknocytosis typically presents with neonatal jaundice and ... Pyknocytosis is a hematologic state characterized by the presence of pyknocytes in the blood. Pyknocytes are red blood cells ... Both of these conditions can also result in pyknocytes observable on the blood smear. Treatment involves phototherapy if blood ...
Excessive schistocytes present in blood can be a sign of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA). Schistocytes are fragmented ... Haemolytic-uremic syndrome or HUS is haemolytic anaemia, acute kidney failure (uraemia), and thrombocytopenia. HUS is caused by ... The red blood cells get trapped in the fibrin strands and the sheer force of the blood flow causes the red blood cell to break ... "Extrinsic nonimmune hemolytic anemia due to mechanical damage: Fragmentation hemolysis and hypersplenism". UpToDate. Suri, ...
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, which is an autoimmune blood disorder. Sebaceous adenitis is an autoimmune skin disorder believed ... Day, M.J (1999). "Antigen specificity in canine autoimmune haemolytic anaemia". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 69 ( ... a rise in the amount of potassium that occurs due to its excessive leakage from red blood cells (RBCs) when blood is drawn. ...
Haemolytic anaemia is a characteristic sign. Systemic disease and reproductive wastage are common, and cattle appear to waste ... Motile organisms may be visible in the buffy coat when a blood sample is spun down. Serological testing is also common. The use ... Diagnosis relies on recognition of the flagellate on a blood smear. ... blood in urine, aching muscles and joints, headaches and irritability. In the first phase, the patient has only intermittent ...
It is a form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, specifically one in which antibodies only bind red blood cells at low body ... "Diagnosis and treatment of cold agglutinin mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia". Blood Reviews. 26 (3): 107-15. doi:10.1016/j. ... Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia List of hematologic conditions Cold Agglutinin Disease at eMedicine Gertz, Moric A ( ... Individuals with cold agglutinin disease present with signs and symptoms of hemolytic anemia. Those with secondary agglutinin ...
... hemolytic anemia causes increased heme metabolism; exception: infants where gut flora has not developed). Serum: increased ... The increased breakdown of red blood cells leads to an increase in the amount of unconjugated bilirubin present in the blood ... breakdown of red blood cells). Unconjugated bilirubin comes from the breakdown of the heme pigment found in red blood cells' ... When red blood cells have completed their life span of approximately 120 days, or when they are damaged, their membranes become ...
In 1956 Alving and colleagues showed that in some African Americans the antimalarial drug primaquine induces hemolytic anemia, ... corpuscle - obsolete name for red blood cell cytoadherance - infected red blood cells may adhere to blood vellel walls and ... reported that the Duffy blood group is the receptor for P. vivax and that the absence of the Duffy blood group on red cells is ... Therefore, pyruvate kinase deficiency can cause hemolytic anemia. There is a significant correlation between severity of PK ...
1994). "Mutations in the pyruvate kinase L gene in patients with hereditary hemolytic anemia". Blood. 83 (10): 2817-22. PMID ... associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia". Blood. 81 (9): 2439-41. PMID 8481523. Baronciani L, Beutler E (1993). "Analysis ... cDNA found in unrelated PK variants associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia". Blood. 79 (5): 1347-50. PMID 1536957. Dawson ... 1991). "Point mutations in the L-type pyruvate kinase gene of two children with hemolytic anemia caused by pyruvate kinase ...
"Rituximab for the treatment of refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children". Blood. 101 (10): 3857-61. doi:10.1182/blood ... Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a condition in which the red blood cells that normally carry oxygen and carbon dioxide are ... The diagnosis is made upon blood tests to confirm not only hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenic purpura, but also a ... Liu H, Shao Z, Jing L (2001). "[The effectiveness of cyclosporin A in the treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and Evans ...
"Genetic basis of hemolytic anemia caused by pyrimidine 5' nucleotidase deficiency". Blood. 97 (11): 3327-32. doi:10.1182/blood. ... "Genetic basis of hemolytic anemia caused by pyrimidine 5' nucleotidase deficiency". Blood. 97 (11): 3327-32. doi:10.1182/blood. ... nucleotidase mutants causing nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia". Blood. 105 (8): 3340-5. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-10-3895. PMID ... Mutations in this gene are a cause of hemolytic anemia due to uridine 5-prime monophosphate hydrolase deficiency. Alternatively ...
haemolytic jaundice - caused by destruction of red blood cells. This causes increased bilirubin formation and anaemia ... which stops it from removing dead red blood cells properly. These blood cells contain a chemical called bilirubin.[1] Bilirubin ... The bile then gets mixed with blood and this gives a yellow colour to the skin.[3] The blockage of the bile ducts could be ... Other causes of jaundice are pernicious anaemia and diseases affecting the liver such as typhoid, malaria, yellow fever and ...
Ham's test is occasionally positive in aplastic anemia. Ham, Thomas H. (1937). "Chronic Hemolytic Anemia with Paroxysmal ... The Ham test is a test used in the diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The test involves placing red blood ... cells in mild acid; a positive result (increased RBC fragility) indicates PNH or Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia. This is ...
"Study of the molecular defects in glucose phosphate isomerase-deficient patients affected by chronic hemolytic anemia". Blood. ... deficiency mutations associated with hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (HNSHA)". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 23 (3): 402-9. ... "Molecular analysis of glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia". Blood. 88 (6): 2321- ... A deficiency of GPI is responsible for 4% of the hemolytic anemias due to glycolytic enzyme deficiencies. Several cases of GPI ...
"Autoantibodies in Acquired Hemolytic Anemia With Special Reference to the LW System". Blood. 42 (3): 445-453. ISSN 0006-4971. ... Anti-LW has also been associated with cases of warm type autoimmune haemolytic anaemia; Philip Levine suggested that it was the ... Haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDFN) due to alloanti-LW is described as mild and very rare, even the very potent anti-LWab ... The LW blood system was first described by Landsteiner and Wiener in 1940. It was often confused with the Rh system, not ...
"Neonatal hemolytic anemia due to inherited harderoporphyria: clinical characteristics and molecular basis". Blood. 91 (4): 1453 ... Clinically, it is characterized by neonatal haemolytic anaemia. Sometimes, the presence of skin lesions with marked faecal ...
"Neonatal hemolytic anemia due to inherited harderoporphyria: Clinical characteristics and molecular basis". Blood. 91 (4): 1453 ... in a family with three children identified at birth with jaundice and hemolytic anemia. There is no standard treatment for ... anemia enlarged liver and spleen, often presenting in the neonatal period. Later in life, these individuals may present with ...
It has not been associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia of the fetus. However, it does cause difficulty in the blood bank ... definition of a human blood group system. Further research may identify them as blood group systems. This antibody is ... The Knops blood group system was formerly part of this collection. All that remains are the Csa and Csb antigens. Csa is a very ... In addition to the defined human blood group systems, there are erythrocyte antigens which do not meet the definition of a ...
Hemolytic anemia, in which red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the blood, also develops. Chills, sweats, and ... When people do develop symptoms, the most common are fever and hemolytic anemia, symptoms that are similar to those of malaria. ... In bovine species, the organism causes hemolytic anemia, so an infected animal shows pale mucous membranes initially. As the ... Other laboratory findings include decreased numbers of red blood cells and platelets on complete blood count. ...
Other autoimmune diseases that have been treated with rituximab include autoimmune hemolytic anemia, pure red cell aplasia, ... doi:10.1182/blood-2013-02-482570. PMID 23613524.. *^ T Shaw, J Quan, and M Totoritis, "B cell therapy for rheumatoid arthritis ... Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, and Evans Syndrome" (PDF). Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 78: 1340-1346. doi:10.4065/78.11.1340. PMID ... "Blood. 90 (6): 2188-95. PMID 9310469.. *^ Scott SD (1998). "Rituximab: a new therapeutic monoclonal antibody for non-Hodgkin's ...
May 2002). "Mixed warm and cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia: complete recovery after 2 courses of rituximab treatment". Blood. ... Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA) is the most common form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. About half of the ... versus cold antibody induced hemolytic anemia whose antibodies only bind red blood cells at low body temperatures, typically 28 ... ISBN 0-7216-0187-1. AUTOIMMUNE HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA (AIHA) By J.L. Jenkins. The Regional Cancer Center. 2001 Nowak-Wegrzyn A, King ...
Haemolytic anaemia in early infancy is often a result of blood group incompatibility, hereditary red cell morphological ... Treatment of refractory autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with anti-CD20 (Rituximab). Br J Haematol2001;114:241-6. ... A diagnosis of idiopathic autoimmune haemolytic anaemia was made, and the patient started on high dose methylprednisolone (5 mg ... Paediatricians should be aware of this new therapeutic tool for treating severe autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, but until there ...
These antibodies lyse the red blood cells. Thus, in a person with a severe automimmune haemolytic anaemia, the lifespan of red ... Haemolytic anaemia is a form of anaemia caused by haemolysis. It may be either hereditary or acquired. Haemolytic anaemia that ... Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is an example of an acquired form of haemolytic anaemia. It occurs when the antibodies act ... Warm (antibody) autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is more common than cold (antibody) autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. 2 ...
Anemia: Central venous hemoglobin , 13 g/dL or capillary hemoglobin , 14.5 g/dL in infant , 34 weeks and 0-28 days old Average ... Neonatal Anemia. Kirsten E. Crowley, MD June 2005. Definitions. ... Iatrogenic blood loss due to blood draws. Hemolytic anemia* ... Anemia -. brittany brown nikayla pasley-watson marta gruzdova chelsy gray. about anemia. anemia is a chronic blood disorder ... classification of anemia. laboratory tests in the diagnosis of anemia. anemia inability of blood to supply the tissue with ...
... also had hemolytic anemia caused by rupturing red blood cells ... Red blood cells & hemolytic anemia. In hemolytic anemia, red ... Hemolytic anemia and antibodies. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), also known as "immunohemolytic anemia," occurs when ... In serious cases of hemolytic anemia, a red blood cell may only live for a few days. A healthy red blood cell lives somewhere ... It can even cause hemolytic anemia which impacts red blood cells.. There are various types of anemias, but the symptoms are ...
Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular ... Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular ... Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with ... little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated ...
It was diagnosed as ,b,Auto Immune Hemolytic Anemia,/b,. Could you please throw some light on this condition and prevention of ... The blood test done on 08.04.02 which showed hemoglobin as 8.0. Subsequent blood test done on 10.4.02 morning revealed that the ... Blood - autoimmune hemolytic anaemia. Answered by: Dr SK Sood , Senior Consultant Haematologist,. Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New ... Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » Blood - autoimmune hemolytic anaemia. ...
Hemolytic Anemia II - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pps), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view ... Drug induced immune hemolytic anemia. Allo-immune hemolytic anemia. 1. Incompatible ABO blood transfusion. Donor Blood Goup A ... Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA). 1. Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA). 2. Cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia (cold AIHA ... None-immune hemolytic anemia. Red cell fragment syndrome Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia Macroangiopathic hemolytic anemia ...
ALLAN W. Hookworm Disease Causing the Blood Picture of Primary Hemolytic Anemia in an Infant. Ann Intern Med. 1928;1:605-606. ... Hookworm Disease Causing the Blood Picture of Primary Hemolytic Anemia in an Infant WM. ALLAN, M.D. ... and that these findings make it so difficult in infancy to recognize the type of blood disease from the blood alone that the ... In speaking of anemia in infancy Cabot (1) says there is apt to be (a) enlargement of the spleen, (b) leukocytosis, (c) high ...
The effects of haemolytic anaemia induced by i.p. injection of phenylhydrazine (PHZ) were studied in... ... Anaemia is a common pathology associated with many infectious and non-infectious diseases. ... Although anaemia resulted in reduced blood lactate and glucose in PHZ injected fish, there were no effects of anaemia on blood ... Phenylhydrazine is a useful model for studying haemolytic anaemia in Atlantic cod with minimal effects on blood biochemistry ...
Hypochromic microcytic anemias: Hypochromic microcytic anemias, characterized by the presence in the circulating blood of red ... Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia throughout the world. Iron is required for hemoglobin formation; if the ... hemolytic anemia caused by administration of penicillin or quinidine). The anemia develops rapidly over a few days and may be ... Hypochromic microcytic anemias. Hypochromic microcytic anemias, characterized by the presence in the circulating blood of red ...
A new technique has helped in the treatment of a rare blood disorder in which the patients body did not produce enough red ... Hemolytic Anemia. Hemolytic anemia, also known as hemolysis, is a condition where the destruction of red blood cells outpaces ... Bombay Blood Group. Bombay blood group is a rare blood type in which the people have an H antigen deficiency. They can receive ... Symptom Evaluation Bombay Blood Group Loss of Taste Methemoglobinemia Hemolytic Anemia ...
Complement is increasingly being recognized as an important driver of human disease, including many hemolytic anemias. ... atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome, complement system proteins, hemolytic anemia, hemolysis, antigens, cd59, antigens, cd55, ... Robert A. Brodsky; Complement in hemolytic anemia. Blood 2015; 126 (22): 2459-2465. doi: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-06- ... Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hemolytic anemia that results from the expansion of hematopoietic stem ...
... and treatments for hemolytic anemia, and how to participate in an NHLBI clinical trial. ... Hemolytic Anemia Hemolytic anemia is a blood disorder that occurs when your red blood cells are destroyed faster than they can ... Preventing complications from hemolytic anemia. During hemolytic anemia, red blood cells release heme molecules into the blood ... Hemolytic Anemia *Anemia (National Library of Medicine [NLM], MedlinePlus). *Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (Genetic and Rare ...
title = "Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and red blood cell autoantibodies",. abstract = "Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare ... Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and red blood cell autoantibodies. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 2015 Nov;139(11): ... Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and red blood cell autoantibodies. In: Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 2015 ; Vol. ... Quist, E., & Koepsell, S. A. (2015). Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and red blood cell autoantibodies. Archives of Pathology and ...
... cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia it was found that 25 or 44 per cent had a relative reticulocytopenia at times of hemolytic ... WILLIAM H. CROSBY, HENRY RAPPAPORT; Reticulocytopenia in Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia. Blood 1956; 11 (10): 929-936. doi: https ... 1. In a series of 57 cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia it was found that 25 or 44 per cent had a relative reticulocytopenia ... 3. There is a discussion of mechanisms that may be responsible for reticulocytopenia in the presence of severe anemia and ...
Anaemia occurs only when the erythrocyte life span is reduced to about 15-20 days. A compensated haemolytic state is when a ... Tags: anaemia, anemia, blood, education, Erythrocyte, Gilberts Syndrome, Haematology, Haemolytic Anaemia, Haptoglobin, ... Megaloblastic anaemia Megaloblastic anaemia, like haemolytic anaemia, presents with macrocytic anaemia, indirect ... Transfused blood will only be lysed if there is an extrinsic defect e.g. autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Cells transfused to ...
... red blood cells and white blood cells, collectively known as formed blood elements. A complete blood count, or CBC, includes ... counts of the formed blood elements along with other measurements that help doctors interpret the test results. ... Blood consists of protein-rich liquid and platelets, ... known as hereditary hemolytic anemias -- include sickle cell ... Hereditary Hemolytic Anemias. Several hereditary blood disorders cause chronic or episodic destruction of the red blood cells, ...
Generalized hexokinase deficiency in the blood cells of a patient with nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. ... Downeast anemia (dea), a new mouse model of severe nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia caused by hexokinase (HK(1)) deficiency. ... Hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia caused by a deficiency in erythrocytic hexokinase associated with glycogenosis of ... nonspherocytic[Title] AND hemolytic[Title] AND anemia[Title] AND hexokinase[Title] AND deficiency[Title]. Search. ...
4.1.1. Anemia, +/- mild leukocytosis (Hue et al., 2016).. 4.1.2. Blood smear examination: anisocytosis, polychromasia ( ... Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA) by Dominique Fisher 1. Pathophysiologic Etiology. 1.1. Warm AIHA (extravascular hemolysis). ... Hue, H. J., Banerjee, R., & Lau, E. S. (2016). Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia. In F. J. Domino, R. A. Baldor, J. Golding, & M. B. ... Hill, Q. A. (2015). Autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Hematology, 20(9), 553-554. doi:10.1179/1024533215Z.000000000401. 6.4. ...
Hemolytic anemias are encountered less often than anemias due to decreased red cell production or blood loss. By far, the most ... "Acquired Hemolytic Anemias." Pathophysiology of Blood Disorders, 2e Aster JC, Bunn H. Aster J.C., Bunn H Eds. Jon C. Aster, and ... Bunn H. Bunn H Bunn, H. Franklin.Acquired Hemolytic Anemias. In: Aster JC, Bunn H. Aster J.C., Bunn H Eds. Jon C. Aster, and H ... An overview of the hemolytic anemias is presented in Chapter 3 and summarized in Table 3-2. As indicated in Table 11-1, with ...
Blood lead levels of 1.193 micromoles/liter (microm/L) and above were noted in 285 of 919 children living near the site. In 170 ... exposure in children living near a lead smelter were reexamined to assess dose response relationships between blood lead level ... NIOSH-Author; Blood-analysis; Lead-poisoning; Environmental-contamination; Blood-cells; Hematology; Hemolytic-anemia; Lead- ... Blood lead levels of 1.193 micromoles/liter (microm/L) and above were noted in 285 of 919 children living near the site. In 170 ...
Leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia (see PRECAUTIONS), aplastic anemia, and pancytopenia have been ... Blood sugar control persists in some patients for up to 24 hours after a single dose of glipizide, even though plasma levels ... Hemolytic Anemia. Treatment of patients with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency with sulfonylurea agents can ... In post-marketing reports, hemolytic anemia has also been reported in patients who did not have known G6PD deficiency. ...
... see Diagnosis of haemolytic anaemia). It may be idiopathic or associated with an underlying disease. The underlying disease is ... is characterised by anaemia, reticulocytosis, conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia with the presence of a positive anti-globulin ( ... Warm antibody type of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (WAIHA) ... Haemolytic Anaemia, health, Hematology, hemolytic anemia, India ... Tags: anaemia, anemia, antiglobulin test, autoimmune disease, Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia, azathioprine, blood, coombs test ...
Shiga-like toxin producing E coli hemolytic-uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS) is a disorder that most often occurs when an infection ... Laboratory tests will show signs of hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. Tests may include:. *Blood clotting tests (PT and ... Complete blood count (CBC) may show increased white blood cell count and decreased red blood cell count ... Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) often occurs after a gastrointestinal infection with E coli bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7 ...
  • A direct antiglobulin test (DAT), which is also known as a Coombs' test, can be ordered by a clinician to determine if these antibodies are the true reason for the anemia. (lupuscorner.com)
  • Laboratory findings include severe anemia, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV, due to the presence of a large number of reticulocytes), and hyperbilirubinemia (from increased red cell destruction) that can be of the conjugated or unconjugated type. (wikipedia.org)
  • The balance between this increased RBC production and the speed with which the RBCs are broken down determines the severity of the anemia. (lupuscorner.com)
more