Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Blood-Retinal Barrier: A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Blood-Testis Barrier: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Occludin: A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.Blood-Aqueous Barrier: The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Air Filters: Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Visible Human Projects: Digital image data sets, consisting of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Rumex: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Naphazoline: An adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent used as a decongestant.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Awards and PrizesBooksSertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Seminiferous Epithelium: The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Bronchial DiseasesTrigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.

Control of cAMP in lung endothelial cell phenotypes. Implications for control of barrier function. (1/131)

Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) form a more restrictive barrier to macromolecular flux than pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs); however, the mechanisms responsible for this intrinsic feature of PMVECs are unknown. Because cAMP improves endothelial barrier function, we hypothesized that differences in enzyme regulation of cAMP synthesis and/or degradation uniquely establish an elevated content in PMVECs. PMVECs possessed 20% higher basal cAMP concentrations than did PAECs; however, increased content was accompanied by 93% lower ATP-to-cAMP conversion rates. In PMVECs, responsiveness to beta-adrenergic agonist (isoproterenol) or direct adenylyl cyclase (forskolin) activation was attenuated and responsiveness to phosphodiesterase inhibition (rolipram) was increased compared with those in PAECs. Although both types of endothelial cells express calcium-inhibited adenylyl cyclase, constitutive PMVEC cAMP accumulation was not inhibited by physiological rises in cytosolic calcium, whereas PAEC cAMP accumulation was inhibited 30% by calcium. Increasing either PMVEC calcium entry by maximal activation of store-operated calcium entry or ATP-to-cAMP conversion with rolipram unmasked calcium inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. These data indicate that suppressed calcium entry and low ATP-to-cAMP conversion intrinsically influence calcium sensitivity. Adenylyl cyclase-to-cAMP phosphodiesterase ratios regulate cAMP at elevated levels compared with PAECs, which likely contribute to enhanced microvascular barrier function.  (+info)

Clara cell protein as a marker of Clara cell damage and bronchoalveolar blood barrier permeability. (2/131)

The 16 kDa Clara cell protein (CC16), an abundant component of airway secretions, has recently been proposed in humans as a pulmonary marker measurable not only in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) but also in serum. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes and determinants of CC16 concentrations in these fluids in normal rats and rats with lung injury. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single i.p. injection of arachis oil (n=20) or chemicals in arachis oil (n=10) that mainly damage Clara cells (4-ipomeanol (IPO) 8 mg x kg(-1) and methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) 5 mg x kg(-1)) or endothelial cells (alpha-naphthylthiourea (ANTU) 5 mg x kg(-1)). CC16 concentration (mean+/-sD in microg x L(-1)), measured by a sensitive latex immunoassay, was significantly reduced in BALF of all treated groups (IPO 380+/-100; MMT 730+/-200; ANTU 1,070+/-200; controls 1,700+/-470). The same pattern of decrease was observed in the labelling of Clara cells with an anti-CC16 antiserum as well as in the CC16 messenger ribonucleic acid levels assessed by Northern enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In serum, by contrast, CC16 was significantly increased in all treated groups (IPO 31+/-7; MMT 22+/-12; ANTU 52+/-24; controls 15+/-6). This rise of CC16 in serum was associated with an elevation of albumin in BALF which is an index of increased bronchoalveolar/blood barrier permeability. In conclusion, lung injury induces a decrease of the 16 kDa Clara cell protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid owing to a reduced production by damaged Clara cells, and an increase in serum protein levels resulting from its enhanced leakage across the bronchoalveolar/blood barrier. This study provides new insights into the understanding of the changes of lung secretory proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum.  (+info)

Modulation of bronchial epithelial cell barrier function by in vitro jet propulsion fuel 8 exposure. (3/131)

The loss of epithelial barrier integrity in bronchial and bronchiolar airways may be an initiating factor in the observed onset of toxicant-induced lung injuries. Acute 1-h inhalation exposures to aerosolized jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) have been shown to induce cellular and morphological indications of pulmonary toxicity that was associated with increased respiratory permeability to 99mTc-DTPA. To address the hypothesis that JP-8 jet fuel-induced lung injury is initiated through a disruption in the airway epithelial barrier function, paracellular mannitol flux of BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells was measured. Incubation of confluent cell cultures with non-cytotoxic concentrations of JP-8 or n-tetradecane (C14), a primary constituent of JP-8, for a 1-h exposure period resulted in dose-dependent increases of paracellular flux. Following exposures of 0.17, 0.33, 0.50, or 0.67 mg/ml, mannitol flux increased above vehicle controls by 10, 14, 29, and 52%, respectively, during a 2-h incubation period immediately after each JP-8 exposure. C14 caused greater mannitol flux increases of 37, 42, 63, and 78%, respectively, following identical exposure conditions. The effect on transepithelial mannitol flux reached a maximum at 12 h and spontaneously reversed to control values over a 48-h recovery period, for both JP-8 and C14 exposure. These data indicate that non-cytotoxic exposures to JP-8 or C14 exert a noxious effect on bronchial epithelial barrier function that may preclude pathological lung injury.  (+info)

Estrogen-induced microvilli and microvillar channels and entrapment of surfactant-lipids by alveolar type I cells of bovine lung. (4/131)

The ATI cells are simple, flat squamous epithelial cells, which are evolved to function as a component of the alveolar-capillary membrane, ideally designed for gaseous exchange. They inherently lack an active metabolic machinery and lead a precarious existence in the face of hostile environment. On the other hand, the ATI cells of the lung of ruminating animals are endowed with structure-functional properties which enable them to exert a selective barrier function against a wide range of osmotic pressure gradients at their luminal surface. Such gradients are created by a complex gaseous homeostasis due to expectoration of several gases and volatile fatty acids originating from the complex stomach of the ruminants. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of estradiol propionate on the ultrastructure of the ATI cells and their interaction with the surfactant lipids. The lungs of estrogen and dexamethasone treated male calves were harvested for electromicroscopic examination. The evidence is presented that estradiol induced the formation of microvilli and microvillar channels at the luminal surface. At these regional modifications, intense interactions with the surfactant lipids and their entrapment into the pathways of endocytosis, took place in the squamous part of the ATI cells. Concurrently, large basal protrusions ended up as long lamellipods deep into the alveolar interstitium. The filamentous cytoskeletal network and microtubules intermixed with the translocated organelles such as Golgi apparatus and associated coated and uncoated vesicles. The results of this study support the hypothesis that estrogen regulate the selective barrier-function of the ATI cells. The entrapment of surfactant lipids under the influence of estrogen by ATI cells is a significant change perhaps in response to extracellular stimuli and expression of transmembrane receptors. It implies that these epithelial cells are specially evolved to adapt to a complex gaseous homeostasis in the lung of the ruminating ungulates.  (+info)

Impeded alveolar-capillary gas transfer with saline infusion in heart failure. (5/131)

The microvascular pulmonary endothelium barrier is critical in preventing interstitial fluid overflow and deterioration in gas diffusion. The role of endothelium in transporting small solutes in pathological conditions, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), has not been studied. Monitoring of pulmonary gas transfer during saline infusion in CHF was used to probe this issue. Carbon monoxide diffusion (DL(CO)), its membrane diffusion (D(M)) and capillary blood volume (V(C)) subcomponents, and mean right atrial (rap) and mean pulmonary wedge (wpp) pressures after saline or 5% D-glucose solution infusions were compared with baseline in 26 moderate CHF patients. Saline was also tested in 13 healthy controls. In patients, 750 mL of saline lowered DL(CO) (-8%, P<0.01 versus baseline), D(M) (-10%, P<0.01 versus baseline), aldosterone (-29%, P<0.01 versus baseline), renin (-52%, P<0.01 versus baseline), and hematocrit (-6%, P<0.05 versus baseline) and increased V(C) (20%, P<0.01 versus baseline), without changing rap and wpp. Saline at 150 mL produced qualitatively similar results regarding DL(CO) (-5%, P<0.01 versus baseline), D(M) (-7%, P<0.01 versus baseline), V(C) (9%, P<0.01 versus baseline), rap, wpp, aldosterone (-9%, P<0.05 versus baseline), and renin (-14%, P<0.05 versus baseline). Glucose solution (750 mL), on the contrary, increased DL(CO) (5%, P<0.01 versus 750 mL of saline) and D(M) (11%, P<0.01 versus 750 mL of saline) and decreased V(C) (-9, P<0.01 versus 750 mL of saline); aldosterone (-40%), renin (-41%), hematocrit (-3%), rap, and wpp behaved as they did after saline infusion. In controls, responses to both saline amounts were similar to responses in CHF patients regarding aldosterone, renin, hematocrit, rap, and wpp, whereas DL(CO), D(M), and V(C) values tended to rise. Hindrance to gas transfer (reduced DL(CO) and D(M)) with salt infusion in CHF, despite an increase in V(C) and no variations in pulmonary hydrostatic forces, indicates an upregulation in sodium transport from blood to interstitium with interstitial edema. Redistribution of blood from the lungs, facilitating interstitial fluid reabsorption, or sodium uptake from the alveolar lumen by the sodium-glucose cotransport system might underlie the improved alveolar-capillary conductance with glucose.  (+info)

Differentiated and functional human airway epithelium regeneration in tracheal xenografts. (6/131)

To investigate the regeneration process of a well-differentiated and functional human airway epithelium, we adapted an in vivo xenograft model in which adult human nasal epithelial cells adhere and progressively repopulate denuded rat tracheae grafted in nude mice. The proliferating activity, the degree of differentiation, and the barrier integrity of the repopulated epithelium were studied during the regeneration process at optical and ultrastructural levels with immunocytochemistry and a permeability tracer. Three days after implantation in nude mice, tracheal xenografts were partially repopulated with a flattened nonciliated and poorly differentiated leaky epithelium. By the end of the first week after the graft, cell proliferation produced on the entire surface of the rat trachea an epithelium that was stratified into multiple layers and tightly sealed. During successive weeks, cell proliferation dramatically decreased. Moreover, the epithelium became progressively columnar, secretory, ciliated, and transiently leaky. At 4-5 wk, a fully differentiated pseudostratified functional epithelial barrier impermeable to a low-molecular-weight tracer was reconstituted. The regeneration of a well-differentiated and functional human airway epithelium in rat tracheae grafted in nude mice includes several steps that mimic the regeneration dynamics of airway epithelium after injury.  (+info)

Primate pleuroesophageal tissue barrier frequency response and esophageal pressure waveform bandwidth in health and acute lung injury. (7/131)

BACKGROUND: Dynamic intraesophageal pressure (Pes) is used to estimate intrapleural pressure (Ppl) to calculate lung compliance and resistance. This study investigated the nonhuman primate Ppl-Pes tissue barrier frequency response and the dynamic response requirements of Pes manometers. METHODS: In healthy monkeys and monkeys with acute lung injury undergoing ventilation, simultaneous Ppl and Pes were measured directly to determine the Ppl-Pes tissue barrier amplitude frequency response, using the swept-sine wave technique. The bandwidths of physiologic Pes waveforms acquired during conventional mechanical ventilation were calculated using digital low-pass signal filtering. RESULTS: The Ppl-Pes tissue barrier is amplitude-uniform within the bandwidth of conventional Pes waveforms in healthy and acute lung injury lungs, and does not significantly attenuate Ppl-Pes signal transmission between 1 and 40 Hz. At Pes frequencies higher than conventional clinical regions of interest the Ppl-Pes barrier resonates significantly, is pressure amplitude dependent at low-pressure offsets, and is significantly altered by acute lung injury. Allowing for 5% or less Pes waveform error, the maximum Pes bandwidths during conventional ventilation were 1.9 Hz and 3.4 Hz for physiologic and extreme-case waveforms in healthy lungs and 4.6 Hz and 8.5 Hz during acute lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: In monkeys, the Ppl-Pes tissue barrier has a frequency response suitable for Ppl estimation during low-frequency mechanical ventilation, and Pes manometers should have a minimum uniform frequency response up to 8.5 Hz. However, the Ppl-Pes tissue barrier adversely affects the accurate estimation of dynamic Ppl at high frequencies, with varied airway pressure amplitudes and offsets, such as the Ppl encountered during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.  (+info)

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid urea as a measure of pulmonary permeability in healthy smokers. (8/131)

The effects of cigarette smoking on blood to airway pulmonary permeability to the low-molecular-weight solute urea were investigated, in an attempt to evaluate its use as a dilution marker for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) studies. Five healthy normal smokers who smoked a cigarette 10 min prior to undergoing a 3 x 60 mL bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and five nonsmokers who also underwent BAL but without cigarette smoke exposure were studied. Five minutes before bronchoscopy, 4 MBq 3H-water and 1 MBq 14C-urea were injected intravenously and biochemical urea assays and an indirect radiotracer method were used to evaluate permeability. It was shown that the smoking group had less urea in their BAL supernatants compared to nonsmokers the results using the radiotracer method being significant (p<0.005). Using both methods, it was shown that levels of urea increased in sequentially aspirated aliquots in both groups. The median directly assayed levels of urea in the smokers rose as follows: aliquot 1 0.05 micromol x mL(-1), (range 0.03-0.14), aliquot 2 0.10 micromol x mL(-1) (0.07-0.17), aliquot 3 0.12 micromol x mL(-1) (0.06-0.23) (p<0.05). This led to significantly increased calculated levels of epithelial lining fluid in the sequential aliquots (p<0.05). In addition, there were large but variable amounts of labelled water detected in both subject groups indicating a complex interaction between the BAL procedure and the circulation. Changing urea measurements during the bronchoalveolar lavage procedure confound the use of the urea (epithelial lining fluid) method for normalizing dilution factors. The use of epithelial lining fluid determinations in smokers ignores the additional and probably complex permeability changes. The present data suggest that acute exposure to cigarette smoke in smokers may decrease blood to airway permeability.  (+info)

*Blood-air barrier

... diving portal Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier ... The blood-air barrier (alveolar-capillary barrier or membrane) exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs. It exists to ... Possible consequences of rupture of the blood-air barrier include arterial gas embolism and hemoptysis. Failure of the barrier ... The barrier is permeable to molecular oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and many other gases. This blood gas barrier is ...

*Alveolar cells

This reduces the thickness of the cell, thereby reducing the thickness of the blood-air barrier. The cytoplasm in the thin ... Type II alveolar cells are typically found at the blood-air barrier. Although they only comprise ... These cells need to be so thin to be readily permeable for enabling an easy gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood. ... Type I cells are involved in the process of gas exchange between the alveoli and blood. These cells are extremely thin ( ...

*Lung

During the period covering the 26th week until birth the important blood-air barrier is established. Specialised type I ... On inhalation, air travels through the trachea of a bird into the air sacs. Air then travels continuously from the air sacs at ... The alveolar and pulmonary capillary gases equilibrate across the blood-air barrier, a very thin diffusion membrane which is ... Since the blood gases in the alveolar capillaries equilibrate with those in the alveolar air, the arterial blood that is spread ...

*Blood barrier

Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier ...

*Sparkling violetear

According to it has the smallest mean blood-air barrier thickness (0.183 µm) and the highest mass-specific respiratory surface ...

*Respiratory system

11). This process occurs by simple diffusion, across a very thin membrane (known as the blood-air barrier), which forms the ... These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. These air ... the posterior air sacs filling with fresh inhaled air, while the anterior air sacs fill with "spent" (oxygen-poor) air that has ... This blood gas barrier is extremely thin (in humans, on average, 2.2 μm thick). It is folded into about 300 million small air ...

*Phosgene

... their damage disrupts the blood-air barrier, causing suffocation. It reacts with the amines of the proteins, causing ... The phosgene was produced by decomposing Freon-22 after flames ducted up from a grease fire heated an air-conditioning unit on ... visible as a green cloud in the air, allowing troops to take readily available countermeasures. Phosgene, colorless with a more ... phosgene poisoning is a possibility for people fighting fires that occur in the vicinity of refrigerant leaks from air- ...

*List of MeSH codes (A04)

... blood-air barrier MeSH A04.531.378 --- nasal bone MeSH A04.531.449 --- nasal cavity MeSH A04.531.520 --- nasal mucosa MeSH ...

*Gas exchange

... called the blood-air barrier) separates the blood in the alveolar capillaries (in the walls of the alveoli) from the alveolar ... Air exiting the lungs during exhalation joins the air being expelled from the anterior air sacs (both consisting of "spent air ... The membrane across which gas exchange takes place in the alveoli (i.e. the blood-air barrier) is extremely thin (in humans, on ... 6). Gas exchange in mammals occurs between this alveolar air (which differs significantly from fresh air) and the blood in the ...

*Aerosol

Particles in nanoscale have been shown to penetrate the air-blood barrier in lungs and be translocated into secondary organs in ... Nanoparticles in the air often form agglomerates due to attractive inter-particle forces, such as van der Waals force or ... An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles or liquiddroplets, in air or another gas. Aerosols can be natural or ... The inhalable fraction of particles, defined as the proportion of particles originally in the air that can enter the nose or ...

*Blood-thymus barrier

Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier. ... The blood-thymus barrier regulates exchange of substances between the circulatory system and thymus, providing a sequestered ... The barrier is formed by the continuous blood capillaries in the thymic cortex, reinforced by epithelial reticular cells and ... The barrier also prevents the immature T cells from contacting foreign antigens (since contact with antigens at this stage will ...

*Blood-retinal barrier

Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier Biologyonline.org. Blood- ... The blood-retinal barrier, or the BRB, is part of the blood-ocular barrier that consists of cells that are joined tightly ... Retinal blood vessels that are similar to cerebral blood vessels maintain the inner blood-ocular barrier. This physiological ... The barrier becomes more leaky in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Animal models have shown that the blood-retinal barrier ...

*Blood-testis barrier

Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-thymus barrier Spermatogenesis Ganong. ... The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between ... The blood-testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. ... This composition is maintained by blood-testis barrier. The barrier also protects the germ cells from blood-borne noxious ...

*Blood-ocular barrier

Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier Peiffer, Robert L.; ... Blood-aqueous barrier: the ciliary epithelium and capillaries of the iris. Blood-retinal barrier: non-fenestrated capillaries ... The blood-ocular barrier is a barrier created by endothelium of capillaries of the retina and iris, ciliary epithelium and ... It is a physical barrier between the local blood vessels and most parts of the eye itself, and stops many substances including ...

*Blood-brain barrier

Blood-air barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier Choroid plexus for blood ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from ... "History of Blood-Brain Barrier". Davis Lab. Retrieved 5 January 2015. "History of Blood-Brain Barrier". The Davis Lab. ... A few regions in the brain, including the circumventricular organs, do not have a blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier ...

*Neuroplastic effects of pollution

In dogs air pollution shows to cause damage to the CNS by altering the blood-brain barrier, causing neurons in the cerebral ... Air pollution is known to affect small and large blood vessels throughout the body. High levels of air pollution are associated ... which allows a large amount of particulate matter to reach the blood-brain barrier. These facts, coupled with air pollution's ... Lead's ability to imitate calcium allows it to cross the blood-brain barrier. Lead also upregulates glutathione. Heavy metal ...

*Ultrafine particle

"Blood Pressure and Same-Day Exposure to Air Pollution at School: Associations with Nano-Sized to Coarse PM in Children". ... Disruption of the Blood-Brain Barrier, Ultrafine Particulate Deposition, and Accumulation of Amyloid Β-42 and Α-Synuclein in ... and or passage of the blood brain barrier to name just a few. Certain UFPs like silver based nanostructures have antimicrobial ... In 2014, an air quality study found harmful ultrafine particles from the takeoffs and landings at Los Angeles International ...

*Toxic encephalopathy

... as they are lipophilic and readily transported across the blood-brain barrier. This is a result of increased membrane ... air fresheners, and even perfumes. These harmful chemicals can be inhaled (in the case of air fresheners) or applied (in the ... In addition, a full examination of blood (CBC) and metabolites (CMP) should be done. Treatment is mainly for the symptoms that ... solubility and local blood flow, with central nervous system (CNS) solvent uptake being further increased with high levels of ...

*Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation

These barriers should provide a one-way filter valve which lets the air from the rescuer deliver to the patient while any ... This means that there is more than enough residual oxygen to be used in the lungs of the patient, which then enters the blood. ... It is also known as expired air resuscitation (EAR), expired air ventilation (EAV), rescue breathing or colloquially the kiss ... Barriers available include pocket masks and keyring-sized face shields. These barriers are an example of Personal Protective ...

*Drug delivery to the brain

These drugs increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier temporarily by increasing the osmotic pressure in the blood ... They used lipophilicity, Gibbs Adsorption Isotherm, a Co CMC Plot, and the surface area of the drug to water and air. They ... in blood). Because these exosomes are able to cross the blood-brain barrier, this protocol could solve the issue of poor ... The blood-brain barrier is formed by special tight junctions between the epithelial cells that surround the brain tissue. All ...

*Blood and Water (TV series)

"Blood and Water, Chinese-Canadian crime drama, breaks TV barriers". CBC News, November 7, 2015. "OMNI's Asian Canadian crime ... A second season, also consisting of eight episodes, first aired on November 13, 2016. The series has been renwed for a third ... "Omni renews Canadian multicultural TV series Blood and Water, Second Jen, Mangoes". Georgia Straight, November 1, 2017. Blood ... Blood and Water (simplified Chinese: 血与水; traditional Chinese: 血與水; pinyin: Xuè Yǔ Shuǐ) is a Canadian television crime drama ...

*Avondale Mine disaster

Air was pumped down, the objective being to establish successive fresh air bases deeper in the mine. Operations were directed ... A makeshift brattice (barrier) of coal, rock, scrap wood, mud, and canvas was encountered less than 100 feet inward. The ... Their "bodies were bloated with blood oozing from their mouths". By 6:30 a.m., workers arrived at the east gangway, which was a ... At 9:00 a.m., a canvas brattice was fashioned on the east gangway to direct air to the west gangway. More victims were ...

*Epidermis

The epidermis has no blood supply and is nourished almost exclusively by diffused oxygen from the surrounding air. It is 95% ... Most of the barrier functions of the epidermis localize to this layer. clear/translucent layer (stratum lucidum, only in palms ... Blood capillaries are found beneath the epidermis, and are linked to an arteriole and a venule. In the epidermis, the cells are ... Immunologically active barrier through humoral and cellular constituents of the immune system. Water content of the stratum ...

*Human skin

... making skin a natural barrier to infection. The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and is nourished by diffusion from the ... Sunlight, water and air play an important role in keeping the skin healthy. Oily skin is caused by over-active sebaceous glands ... Dilated blood vessels increase perfusion and heatloss, while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow and ... It contains the hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. The blood ...

*The Feast of the Drowned

He takes blood samples from Rose, Keisha, and Vida, and finds that Rose and Keisha have alien matter in their blood, and specks ... There is a barrier across the top of the chamber, but the Doctor uses his sonic screwdriver to open the inspection hatch, which ... There is a ladder on one side, and the air smells of sea water. The Doctor takes a polythene bag from his pocket and fills it ... After closing the doors behind him, he notices the salty reek to the air. As he moves down the corridor, he sticks his finger ...

*Diseases of poverty

Yinusa-Nyahkoon, L. S., Cohn, E. S., Cortes, D. E., & Bokhour, B. G. (2010). Ecological Barriers and Social Forces in Childhood ... March 1999). "The effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on HIV-1 RNA blood plasma concentration". AIDS. 13 (4): 487-94. doi: ... 2007). [Washington, D.C.] : U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Indoor Environments Division, [ ... They can aggravate malnutrition by depleting essential nutrients through intestinal blood loss and chronic diarrhea. Chronic ...
Definition of blood-air barrier in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is blood-air barrier? Meaning of blood-air barrier as a legal term. What does blood-air barrier mean in law?
A reliable knowledge of the thickness of the alveolo-capillary "membrane" or air-blood barrier is of physiologic interest since it is intimately related to a quantitative estimation of such functional events as gas diffusion or tissue metabolism in the lung. The characteristic thickness of the air-blood barrier with respect to gas diffusion is its harmonic mean thickness, while the arithmetic mean thickness is related to the mass of tissue building the barrier and consuming oxygen in the lung. Two morphometric methods are proposed by which these two dimensions can be estimated from random measurements in the electron microscope in a reliable, simple, and efficient manner. By applying these methods to three rat lungs the arithmetic mean thickness of the barrier was found to measure 1.25 µ, the harmonic mean thickness, 0.57 µ. On the basis of these measurements a geometric model of the barrier in the form of a corrugated membrane was derived. Its dimensions showed close similarity to those of ...
Pulmonary edema is traditionally classified as caused by either an increased capillary pressure ("hydrostatic" or "cardiogenic" edema) or an increased permeability of the capillary wall ("high-permeability" edema). The distinction between the two has usually been made on the basis of the protein concentration of the edema fluid.30 The protein concentration is usually less than one half that of blood in hydrostatic or cardiogenic pulmonary edema, whereas the ratio is typically ,0.7 in high-permeability edema.30 31 The differences arise because the pulmonary blood-gas barrier tends to retain its low-permeability characteristics in hydrostatic edema, with the result that the sieving of protein remains effective. By contrast, damage to the wall of the pulmonary capillary increases its permeability, resulting in a greater protein loss from the capillary. In practice, this traditional classification does not always match expectations. For example, Fein et al30 pointed out that there is a substantial ...
Morphometric data from stable (nonedematous) isolated dog lungs, perfused with nearly cell-free perfusates, were compared to similar stereological evaluations of isolated dog lungs after induction of severe acute hydrostatic edema. In the edematous lungs, capillary surface and volume densities were substantially increased. Alveolar surface density was also increased. Thicknesses of the endothelial and type I epithelial cellular compartments of the air-blood barrier were unchanged. Thickness of the interstitial compartmemt of the air-blood barrier was substantially increased and this, in turn, caused an overall increase in mean thickness of the barrier. Volume densities of the nonparenchymal connective tissue spaces surrounding the extra-alveolar vessels and airways were also increased. In both the endothelial and type I epithelial cells cytoplasmic volume densities of pinocytotic vesicles were increased. In addition, the number of vesicles opening onto the luminal and albuminal cellular surfaces ...
Drug Packaging - Many natural barriers to delivery of drugs are porous to nano particles. Interestingly, the window of sizes that can pass through the barrier varies, being 8-12nm for kidneys, 10-24nm in the air-blood barrier in the lungs. This can be used to advantage by creating custom-sized particles that combine the drug and a coating of nano-material. Carefully controlling the size of the final particle allows it to be targeted at a specific organ, potentially preventing harmful effects elsewhere. An example of this is Doxil, which encapsulates the drug doxorubicin in liposomes (tiny spheres of fat like molecules) about ~ 100 nm in size - which is the ideal size for the structure to penetrate tumours and also reduces harmful effects on other tissues ...
The presence of a blood-like or metallic taste in the mouth following exercise can be attributed to extreme stress on the pulmonary capillaries which form the blood-gas barrier in the lung, according...
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is triggered by injury to the alveolar-capillary barrier from any of a variety of causes, resulting in fluid accumulation and acute respiratory failure ...
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Looking for online definition of alveolar-capillary membrane in the Medical Dictionary? alveolar-capillary membrane explanation free. What is alveolar-capillary membrane? Meaning of alveolar-capillary membrane medical term. What does alveolar-capillary membrane mean?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosgene#Chemical_warfare Phosgene is an insidious poison as the odor may not be noticed and symptoms may be slow to appear.[17] The odor detection threshold for phosgene is 0.4 ppm, which is four times the Threshold Limit Value. Its high toxicity arises from the action of the phosgene on the proteins in the pulmonary alveoli, which are the site of gas exchange: their damage disrupts the blood-air barrier, causing suffocation. It reacts with the amines of the proteins, causing crosslinking via formation of urea-like linkages, in accord with the reactions discussed above. Phosgene detection badges are worn by those at risk of exposure.[3]Sodium bicarbonate may be used to neutralise liquid spills of phosgene. Gaseous spills may be mitigated with ammonia.[18 ...
Looking for online definition of secondary failure in the Medical Dictionary? secondary failure explanation free. What is secondary failure? Meaning of secondary failure medical term. What does secondary failure mean?
Lung is the first portal of entry into our body to airborne particles, which have been associated to lung and cardiovascular diseases [33, 34]. Aggregated NPs are a major form of airborne particles [7, 12]. Their low effective density compared to single particles of similar size increases their mobility and allow them to penetrate and deposit in the deep lung region [8]. However their behavior at the lung barrier is poorly studied, therefore gaining a better understanding of the aggregates interaction and fate at the human alveolar epithelial tissue barrier is important. In this study, an approach combining air liquid interface and advanced lung cell co-culture has been used representing a more realistic perspective when compared to submerged exposures [35]. Although the system has its limitation, i.e. it is not possible to follow the long-term fate of the particles and/or drugs in the blood as well as lymph circulations and secondary organs, it has been shown to give comparable results to in ...
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major etiologic agent of bacterial pneumonia. Autolysis and antibiotic-mediated lysis of pneumococci induce release of the pore-forming toxin, pneumolysin (PLY), their major virulence factor, which is a prominent cause of acute lung injury. PLY inhibits alveolar liquid clearance and severely compromises alveolar-capillary barrier function, leading to permeability edema associated with pneumonia. As a consequence, alveolar flooding occurs, which can precipitate lethal hypoxemia by impairing gas exchange. The a subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is crucial for promoting Na + reabsorption across Na + -transporting epithelia. However, it is not known if human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HL-MVEC) also express ENaC-α and whether this subunit is involved in the regulation of their barrier function. Methods: The presence of α, β, and γ subunits of ENaC and protein phosphorylation status in HL-MVEC were assessed in western blotting. The ...
This project aims at improving the diagnosis of drowning. Diatoms in the water that enter the lungs will cross the alveolar-capillary barrier and will be distributed to, and trapped in the capillaries of remote tissues via the blood circulation. These diatoms can then be extracted from tissue samples and analyzed microscopically. In collaboration with Stockholm University the extracts are studied using conventional bright field microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We have established a method protocol based on protein K digestion of the organic material.
Effects of silica NPs in alveolar-capillary permeability. C57Bl/6j mice were instilled with 5 mg/kg (100 μg/mice) of SiO2 NPs, FITC- SiO2 NPs or vehicle. 5
Medical Director, Johns Hopkins Bayview Hospital MICU. Expertise, Disease and Conditions: Critical Care Medicine, Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care Medicine, Pulmo... [more]. Research Interests: Pulmonary endothelial barrier function, Acute lung injury, Pulmonary thro... [more]. ...
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Diffusing capacity of the lung (DL) measures the transfer of gas from air in the lung, to the red blood cells in lung blood vessels. It is part of a comprehensive series of pulmonary function tests to determine the overall ability of the lung to transport gas into and out of the blood. DL, especially DLCO, is reduced in certain diseases of the lung and heart. DLCO measurement has been standardized according to a position paper by a task force of the European Respiratory and American Thoracic Societies. In respiratory physiology, the diffusing capacity has a long history of great utility, representing conductance of gas across the alveolar-capillary membrane and also takes into account factors affecting the behaviour of a given gas with hemoglobin[citation needed]. The term may be considered a misnomer as it represents neither diffusion nor a capacity (as it is typically measured under submaximal conditions) nor capacitance. In addition, gas transport is only diffusion limited in extreme cases, ...
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More frequent utilization of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) organs for lung transplantation has the potential to relieve the shortage of donor organs. In particular with respect to uncontrolled NHBD, concerns exist regarding the risk of ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury-related graft damage or dysfunction. Due to their immunomodulating and tissue-remodelling properties, bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been suspected of playing a beneficial role regarding short- and long-term survival and function of the allograft. Thus, MSC administration might represent a promising pretreatment strategy for NHBD organs. To study the initial effects of warm ischaemia and MSC application, a large animal lung transplantation model was generated, and the structural organ composition of the transplanted lungs was analysed stereologically with particular respect to the blood-gas barrier and the surfactant system. In this study, porcine lungs (n = 5/group) were analysed. Group 1 was the ...
More frequent utilization of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) organs for lung transplantation has the potential to relieve the shortage of donor organs. In particular with respect to uncontrolled NHBD, concerns exist regarding the risk of ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury-related graft damage or dysfunction. Due to their immunomodulating and tissue-remodelling properties, bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been suspected of playing a beneficial role regarding short- and long-term survival and function of the allograft. Thus, MSC administration might represent a promising pretreatment strategy for NHBD organs. To study the initial effects of warm ischaemia and MSC application, a large animal lung transplantation model was generated, and the structural organ composition of the transplanted lungs was analysed stereologically with particular respect to the blood-gas barrier and the surfactant system. In this study, porcine lungs (n = 5/group) were analysed. Group 1 was the ...
Vascular barrier dysfunction and acute lung inflammation are fundamental features that contribute to the significant mortality associated with VILI and ARDS. Despite advances in protective LTV ventilation strategies, effective pharmacotherapy for this devastating syndrome is lacking. Using an aseptic in vivo model of VILI, we show here for the first time that a single intravenous dose of OxPAPC significantly attenuates the early vascular barrier disruption and acute inflammation induced by mechanical ventilation at HTV. Intravenous OxPAPC significantly reduced alveolar and tissue inflammatory cell recruitment and protein accumulation in the BAL after 2 hours of mechanical ventilation at HTV.. In our previous study, we described similar protective effects of OxPAPC in an animal model of LPS-induced lung injury [20]. In that model, OxPAPC prevented neutrophil influx and barrier disruption likely in part via direct competitive inhibition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) binding [13, 19, 20]. However, ...
The alveolar-capillary membrane, in the adult, consists of a thinned-out cell wall plus the cytoplasm of a type I cell with its basement membrane and the thinned-out cell wall and cytoplasm of a capillary endothelial cell with its basement membran Where they meet, the two basement membranes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic control of ventilation. T2 - What are we learning from murine models?. AU - Tankersley, Clarke G.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Advances in human and mouse genomes are revolutionizing research in lung biology and pulmonary medicine. Genomic strategies are available that link functional variation to molecular structure, and these approaches are currently being applied to the study of ventilatory control mechanisms. In this review, the author discusses the functional data obtained from inbred murine models in which genetic mutations and polymorphisms play a role in altered breathing. At the conclusion of this review, the author emphasizes the relatively small number of studies that have incorporated the use of genomics to link differential ventilatory function to molecular structure. Curr Opin Pulm Med 1999, 5:344-348. AB - Advances in human and mouse genomes are revolutionizing research in lung biology and pulmonary medicine. Genomic strategies are available that link ...
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Can you pick the right answers for gas Transfer and Transport?? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by CMUPA2014
Section of Ageing and Health and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Medicine, Centre for Cardiovascular and Lung Biology, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, United Kingdom ...
Exam and surgical gloves provide fingers, hands and wrists with barrier protection against infectious materials and other fluids during dental procedures or exams ...
Kymograph: …a device known as a kymograph to record changes in arterial blood pressure; a simple stromuhr (1867), or flowmeter, to measure the rate of blood flow through arteries and veins; and a mercurial blood-gas pump for the separation of gases from the blood, which led to an understanding of the…
Everything youll probably ever need to know about safer sex barriers, like which to use, how to use them, how to get more comfortable with them, and how surprisingly cute they are.
Everything youll probably ever need to know about safer sex barriers, like which to use, how to use them, how to get more comfortable with them, and how surprisingly cute they are.
Changes were measured in the permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane and lavage surfactant concentrations following phosgene (75445) exposure and the influence of colchicine on both. Male Sprague-Dawley-rats were treated with either colchicine at 1.0mg/kg or saline intraperitoneally 30 minutes prior to exposure to phosgene at 0.5 parts per million for 60 minutes and air. Lavage surfactant
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased angiostatin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from ARDS patients and from human volunteers after lung instillation of endotoxin. AU - Lucas, Rudolf. AU - Lijnen, H. Roger. AU - Suffredini, Anthony F.. AU - Pepper, Michael S.. AU - Steinberg, Kenneth P.. AU - Martin, Thomas R.. AU - Pugin, Jérôme. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by a disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier, due to both an epithelial and an endothelial dysfunction. Whereas epithelial apoptosis seems to be mainly mediated by Fas ligand, the mediators of endothelial damage remain to be identified. Angiostatin, a powerful inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo, also specifically induces apoptosis in endothelial cells. The concentration of various enzymes that cleave angiostatin from plasminogen was reported to be significantly increased in bronchalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from patients with ARDS. Therefore, in this study, we ...
Background: - Protein S-glutathionylation (Pr-SSG) is a prevalent form of oxidative modification of reactive cysteines and serves as an important mode of redox signaling. Vascular redox dysregulation and impaired barrier function have long been recognized as early vascular alterations in diabetes, a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanistic link of Pr-SSG to the metabolic stress-induced endothelial cell (EC) hyper-permeability is not established and being investigated in the present study.. Methods and Results: - elevated Pr-SSG was observed in ECs isolated from patients with type-2 diabetes and atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE deficient (ApoE-/-) mice, concurring with a decrease in glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx-1), a specific deglutathionylation enzyme. Exposure of human aortic ECs to diabetic conditions increased the formation of Pr-SSG and permeability that was associated with the disassembly of cell adherens junctions and cortical actin structures, all of which ...
Pneumonia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, despite advances in antimicrobial therapy. Pneumonia causes injury to the terminal alveolo-capillary unit, which is followed by...
The concept of mechanical barrier was proposed to explain the lack of immune response in organs such as the brain, cornea, testicles and kidneys. We refer to these tissues as immune privileged sites where an immune response represents a dangerous condition for the tissue. Immune privilege sites are also organs or tissues of the body which, when grafted to conventional (nonprivileged) body sites, experience extended or indefinite survival. Whereas foreign grafts placed at nonprivileged sites are rejected promptly. The pregnant uterus is an example of an immune privilege site.. The first reasonable explanation of immune privilege was proposed by Peter Medawar in the late 1940s.3 Medawar proposed that organs such as the anterior chamber of the eye and the brain resided behind blood:tissue barriers. The existence of a mechanical barrier, (in the brain the blood brain barrier [BBB]), prevents the movement of immune cells in and out of the tissue.4 This barrier created a state of immunologic ...
To fulfill their roles of immune surveillance and pathogen elimination, cells of the immune system (such as blood leukocytes, which include lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells and neutrophils) must continuously traffic throughout the body (von Andrian and Mackay, 2000). This requires not only locomotion and chemotaxis, but also an explicit propensity to negotiate and cross tissue barriers. Such `migratory pathfinding represents an important and rate-limiting aspect of leukocyte trafficking, and is considered a key therapeutic target for inflammatory and immune-mediated disease (Ley et al., 2007; von Andrian and Mackay, 2000).. Leukocyte trafficking can be broken into two major phases: movement within the vascular and lymphatic circulation, and migration within tissues. The vascular and lymphatic circulatory systems are lined by monolayers of endothelial cells that grow on an ablumenal layer of extracellular matrix (the basement membrane); these cells form organized intercellular junctional ...
Focal adhesion kinase and actin regulatory/binding proteins that modulate F-actin organization at the tissue barrier: Lesson from the testis.by Cheng CY, Lie PP, Wong EW, Mruk DD. MiniManuscript.
The endothelial barrier function maintains vascular and tissue homeostasis, and therefore modulates many cardinal physiological processes such as angiogenesis, immune responses, and dynamic fluid exchanges throughout organs.
Blood is stored under refrigeration at a temperature of about 4 C. When it is utilized on a relatively rapid basis within a surgical theater it is transported by tubing through a blood warming apparatus which, while warming the blood, causes an outgasing of entrained air. This air is trapped in an air trap receptacle having a drip chamber within which a gas-blood interface is developed. To assure that the capacity of the trap is not exceeded, an improved technique of gas removal and interface level setting is provided wherein access is achieved essentially through the entrance region of the gas trap receptacle.
Seminar Speaker: Dr. Jerome Dempsey, Professor Emeritus of Preventive Medicine at University of Wisconsin, Madison, is internationally recognized for his distinguished research career. To date he has 334 primary research publications. Many of these publications relate to basic mechanisms of the respiratory system (control of breathing, pulmonary mechanics, and alveolar-capillary gas exchange), while others relate […]. ...
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Multi scale microscopy allows for the correlation of various imaging tools and modalities such as X-ray microCT, DualBeam, Laser PFIB, SEM and TEM.
BACKGROUND:: An increased alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference is frequent in anesthetized patients. In this study, we evaluated the effect on the lung of anesthesia, muscle paralysis, and a brief course of mechanical ventilation.METHODS:: Lung diffusion for carbon monoxide (DLCO), including pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and conductance of the alveolar-capillary membrane (DM), and pulmonary surfactant protein type B (a marker of alveolar damage) were measured in 45 patients without pulmonary disease undergoing extrathoracic surgery.RESULTS:: Anesthesia, muscle paralysis, and mechanical ventilation led to impairment of gas exchange, with a reduction of DLCO values immediately after anesthetic induction due to a concomitant reduction of both DM and Vc. While changes in DM were due to the reduction of lung volume, changes in Vc were not limited to volume loss, since the Vc/alveolar volume ratio decreased significantly. Although DLCO and its components decreased immediately after ...
Mounting evidence suggests that diisocyanates are able to bind airway epithelial cell proteins, resulting in airway inflammation with cytokine and chemokine production and cellular recruitment [29]. The toxicity of diisocyanates toward airway epithelial tissues has also been reported, and MDI and HDI prepolymers were shown to induce airway epithelial barrier dysfunction that was partly associated with altered glutamine levels [30, 31]. The effect of TDI on the expression of lung cytokine P450 enzymes has also been documented [32]. We attempted to culture human bronchial epithelial cells, Beas-2B, with TDI-HSA conjugates to identify the source of the IL-8 detected in the sputum of TDI-induced asthma patients [33]. The production of IL-8 and regulated upon activation in normal T cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES) was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to a peripheral mononuclear cell culture supernatant derived from a TDI-induced asthma patient, and this effect ...
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Click the title to purchase the article.. Background:. "Cardiac surgery often causes ischemia and development of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which impairs vascular barrier function, normally maintained by the endothelial cell line and the endothelial glycocalyx (EG). The EG normally covers and protects healthy endothelial cells throughout the vasculature. The aim of the present study was to assess the disruption of the cellular part of the microvascular barrier by determining parameters of endothelial cell activation known to influence and reflect cell-cell junctional integrity. Particular attention was placed on angiopoietins and their important effects on endothelial gap junctions. Furthermore, comparative measurements were undertaken in patients undergoing on- and off-pump cardiac surgery, the latter group presumably experiencing less ischemic stress."1. ...
In this current study, we tested the efficacy of "sorbent strategy"-based HA on a porcine ARDS model and found that HA reduced circulating and alveolar levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improved oxygenation and attenuated lung injuries in the exudative phase. This provides some clue that HA330 cartridge may be a novel potential weapon fighting against the "cytokine storm" on the alveolar-capillary membrane barrier.. The most commonly used large-animal models of ARDS include endotoxin infusion, repeated lavage, oleic acid and smoke/burn injury [17]. To reproduce the most known risk factor and etiology for ARDS, which is sepsis [18], we systemically administrated endotoxin (LPS) to mimic the clinically relevant sepsis-induced ARDS. The susceptibility to LPS is highly variable and differs among different animals. Pigs, sheep, calves, and cats are more sensitive to LPS challenge. Low dosage of LPS (μg/kg range) can induce significant ARDS-like features in these animals. In contrast, animals such ...
Background In heart failure (HF) alveolar-capillary membrane is abnormal. Surfactant-derived proteins (SPs) and plasma receptor for advanced-glycation-end-products (RAGE) have been proposed as lung damage markers. Methods Eighty-nine chronic HF and 17 healthy subjects were evaluated by echocardiography, blood parameters, carbon monoxide lung diffusion (DLCO) and cardiopulmonary exercise test. We measured immature SP-B, mature SP-B, SP-A, SP-D and RAGE plasma levels. Results Immature SP-B (arbitrary units), mature SP-A (ng/ml) and SP-D (ng/ml), but not mature SP-B (ng/ml) and RAGE (pg/ml) levels, were higher in HF than in controls [immature SP-B: 15.6 (13.1, 75th-25th interquartile range) Vs. 11.1 (6.4), p|0.01; SP-A, 29.6 (20.1) Vs. 18.3 (13.5), p = 0.01; SP-D: 125 (90) Vs. 78 (58), p|0.01]. Immature SP-B, SP-A, SP-D and RAGE values were related to DLCO, peak oxygen consumption, ventilatory efficiency, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), whereas plasma mature SP-B was not. The DLCO Vs. immature SP-B
Louisiana is one of the states in the U. S. which has high prevalence of pulmonary diseases, such as pneumonia, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). These diseases have high mortality, morbidity and health care costs. Therefore, improved treatment and/or prevention strategies are warranted. Identification of mechanisms underlying these diseases is a prerequisite for the development of new treatment and/or prevention strategies. The Lung Biology laboratories seek to identify the novel mechanisms of lung inflammation and host defense, and explore how these mechanisms may be exploited to develop novel treatment and prevention strategies. The scientific focus of the members working in Lung Biology range from innate immunity, adaptive immunity and immunotherapy. The Lung Biology group in the Schol of Veterinary Medicine (SVM) uses vertically integrated experimental cutting edge methodologies aimed at dissecting lung inflammation and host defense with expertise ranging from cell ...
Louisiana is one of the states in the U. S. which has high prevalence of pulmonary diseases, such as pneumonia, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). These diseases have high mortality, morbidity and health care costs. Therefore, improved treatment and/or prevention strategies are warranted. Identification of mechanisms underlying these diseases is a prerequisite for the development of new treatment and/or prevention strategies. The Lung Biology laboratories seek to identify the novel mechanisms of lung inflammation and host defense, and explore how these mechanisms may be exploited to develop novel treatment and prevention strategies. The scientific focus of the members working in Lung Biology range from innate immunity, adaptive immunity and immunotherapy. The Lung Biology group in the Schol of Veterinary Medicine (SVM) uses vertically integrated experimental cutting edge methodologies aimed at dissecting lung inflammation and host defense with expertise ranging from cell ...
Health, ...Hanover N.H.The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has awarded a $5....For the past 10 years COBRE funding has supported the Centers work ...Directed by Principal Investigator Bruce Stanton PhD professor of mi... Continued federal funding for the Lung Biology Center is very importa...,Dartmouth,researchers,,receive,$5.9,million,grant,from,NIH,for,lung,research,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Current research in Dr. Hastings laboratory at the Department of Anesthesiology, UCSD, focuses on a basic science topic, PTHrP in lung biology, and a clinical topic, the mechanics of laryngoscopy.
As for the humectants, although I really like sodium lactate and sodium PCA, they do wash off in water. Ill include 2% because I tend to use this recipe at night, so washing off isnt an issue. Glycerin, hydrovance, or a cationic polymer will all work here at up to 3%. I think Ill include both humectants - I need all the moisturizing I can get! I like a film former, so the hydrolyzed protein has to be there! And I need panthenol. As Im creating something to help with my chapped and burned hands, the panthenol will offer some great qualities without adding greasiness. I could include some dimethicone here for emolliency and barrier protection, and cyclomethicone for glide and slip. I think Ill do that, too ...
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This maximises surface area (optimising gas transfer) and makes the cells flexible enough to pass through capillary beds (which are narrower than the cell ...
The airway epithelial barrier is an important target for the proteolytic activities of allergens and may play a crucial role in allergic sensitisation.24 Disruption of the epithelial barrier may facilitate transport of allergens to allergen-presenting cells and promote pro-inflammatory activities of the epithelium.14 21 25 In this study we investigated the effects of three different HDM extracts, varying extensively in composition and proteolytic activities. Interestingly, the Greer extract, which exerted the most pronounced effects on epithelial immune and barrier function in vitro, also induced allergic sensitisation and manifestations of asthma, including goblet cell hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltrates and increased Th2 cytokine levels in vivo. Importantly, this extract displayed the lowest serine and cysteine protease activity. Furthermore, the in vitro effects could not be prevented by heat inactivation and could not be mimicked by LPS administration. In line with our observations, ...
Receptor for trypsin and trypsin-like enzymes coupled to G proteins. Its function is mediated through the activation of several signaling pathways including phospholipase C (PLC), intracellular calcium, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB and Rho. Can also be transactivated by cleaved F2R/PAR1. Involved in modulation of inflammatory responses and regulation of innate and adaptive immunity, and acts as a sensor for proteolytic enzymes generated during infection. Generally is promoting inflammation. Can signal synergistically with TLR4 and probably TLR2 in inflammatory responses and modulates TLR3 signaling. Has a protective role in establishing the endothelial barrier; the activity involves coagulation factor X. Proposed to have a bronchoprotective role in airway epithelium, but also shown to compromise the airway epithelial barrier by interrupting E-cadherin adhesion. Involved in the regulation of vascular tone; activation results in hypotension presumably mediated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The ARP 2/3 complex mediates endothelial barrier function and recovery. AU - Belvitch, Patrick. AU - Brown, Mary E.. AU - Brinley, Brittany N.. AU - Letsiou, Eleftheria. AU - Rizzo, Alicia N.. AU - Garcia, Joe G.N.. AU - Dudek, Steven M.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) barrier dysfunction and recovery is critical to the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cytoskeletal and subsequent cell membrane dynamics play a key mechanistic role in determination of EC barrier integrity. Here, we characterizAQe the actin related protein 2/3 (Arp 2/3) complex, a regulator of peripheral branched actin polymerization, in human pulmonary EC barrier function through studies of transendothelial electrical resistance (TER), intercellular gap formation, peripheral cytoskeletal structures and lamellipodia. Compared to control, Arp 2/3 inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor CK-666 results in a reduction of baseline barrier function (1,241±53 ...
This site was designed and produced solely by Pelican Parts. Pelican Parts is not associated with Porsche Cars North America in any manner, except for a mutual appreciation and love of the cars. All pictures and references to the Porsche name, and the car names and shapes are for restoration reference only, and do not imply any association with Porsche. Pelican Parts is not responsible for any typographical errors contained within the site. Information and technical articles within this website are for reference only. Consult authorized factory manuals when performing repair procedures. By entering this site, you agree to hold Pelican Parts free from any liability arising out of the use of any information contained within ...
This site was designed and produced solely by Pelican Parts. Pelican Parts is not associated with Porsche Cars North America in any manner, except for a mutual appreciation and love of the cars. All pictures and references to the Porsche name, and the car names and shapes are for restoration reference only, and do not imply any association with Porsche. Pelican Parts is not responsible for any typographical errors contained within the site. Information and technical articles within this website are for reference only. Consult authorized factory manuals when performing repair procedures. By entering this site, you agree to hold Pelican Parts free from any liability arising out of the use of any information contained within ...
Women demonstrate lower diffusing capacity-to-cardiac output ratio (DlCO/Q̇), pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), and membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) compared with height-matched men during exercise. However, these differences disappear after correction for lung size. The drop in DlCO/Q̇ was proportionally less in women, and pulmonary transit time did not drop below 0.3 s in either group. After differences in lung volume are accounted for, there is no intrinsic sex difference in DlCO, Vc, or Dm response to exercise. ...
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Parry, H. M., Donnelly, L. A., Van Zuydam, N., Doney, A. S. F., Elder, D. H. J., Morris, A. D., Struthers, A. D., Palmer, C. N. A., Lang, C. C. & Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 23 Jul 2013 In : Cardiovascular Diabetology. 12, 109. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
If you are a member, please log in to view this content. If you are not currently a member, please consider joining ASCRS.. Member benefits include resources such as the comprehensive video and image libraries, and document library available to assist members with the creation of patient educational materials or for resident educational opportunities. Membership in the ASCRS includes a subscription to Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, the ASCRS News and the ASCRS Membership Directory. More information about accessing this content and other member benefits are available on the Join Now page.. ...
Misdiagnosis of Alveolar capillary dysplasia including hidden diseases, diagnosis mistakes, alternative diagnoses, differential diagnoses, and misdiagnosis.
Guarda Foto stock di Crosssection Of An Alveolar Capillary Showing A Red Blood Cell Or Erythrocyte Tem X30000. Cerca foto premium ad alta risoluzione su Getty Images.
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Principal Investigator:SHIMADA Yasuhiro, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Anesthesiology/Resuscitation studies
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Pulmonary capillary blood flow was measured in man during slow breathing by a modification of the body plethysmograph technique for measuring N2O uptake. In seated subjects breathing slowly, flow was significantly higher during inhalation. In supine subjects whose legs were raised, the difference between inhalation and exhalation was not significant. Flow was usually greater during tidal inhalation than exhalation, but there was considerable variation. The changes in flow were not directly related to intrathoracic pressures or lung volumes. The results suggest that it is the amount and pressure of the venous blood available for aspiration into the thorax that influences pulmonary capillary blood flow during the course of a respiratory cycle.. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Development of the Pulmonary Endothelium in Development of the Pulmonary Circulation. T2 - Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis. AU - Schwarz, Margaret. AU - Cleaver, Ondine B.. PY - 2009/9/11. Y1 - 2009/9/11. KW - Angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in developing lung. KW - Arterial versus venous differentiation. KW - Blood islands and hemangioblasts. KW - Endothelial-specific factors. KW - Pulmonary endothelium and pulmonary circulation. KW - Sprouting angiogenesis. KW - Tubulogenesis. KW - Vascular cell ontogeny. KW - Vasculogenesis. KW - VEGF-A and isoforms. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84889270740&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84889270740&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1002/9780470747490.ch1. DO - 10.1002/9780470747490.ch1. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:84889270740. SN - 9780470723616. SP - 1. EP - 24. BT - The Pulmonary Endothelium: Function in health and disease. PB - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ER - ...
Aeroallergens produced by can elicit life-threatening exacerbations of asthma in patients sensitized to this fungus. In this study, the effect of on ion transport mechanisms underlying mucociliary clearance and airway epithelial barrier function was investigated in human airway epithelial cells. Apical exposure to induced an increase in anion secretion that was inhibited by blockers of CFTR and Ca-activated Cl channels. Stimulation of anion secretion was dependent on Ca uptake from the apical solution. exposure also produced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was blocked by pretreatment with the oxidant scavenger glutathione (GSH). GSH and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor/complex 1 electron transport inhibitor diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI) blocked ATP release and the increase in intracellular [Ca] evoked by also decreased transepithelial resistance, and a portion of this effect was dependent on the increase in ROS. However, the -induced increase in unidirectional dextran ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alveolar capillary dysplasia. AU - Bishop, Naomi B.. AU - Stankiewicz, Pawel. AU - Steinhorn, Robin H. PY - 2011/7/15. Y1 - 2011/7/15. N2 - Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare, fatal developmental lung disorder of neonates and infants. This review aims to address recent findings in the etiology and genetics of ACD/MPV and to raise awareness of this poorlyknowndisease, whichmayalso present as milder, unclassified forms. Successively discussed are what is known about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, diagnostic indicators and approaches, genetic testing, treatment, and cases of delayed onset. The review concludes with suggestions for future directions to answer the many unknowns about this disorder.. AB - Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare, fatal developmental lung disorder of neonates and infants. This review aims to address recent findings in the etiology ...
We develop tidal-ventilation pulmonary gas-exchange equations that allow pulmonary shunt to have different values during expiration and inspiration, in accordance with lung collapse and recruitment during lung dysfunction (Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 158 (1998) 1636). Their solutions are tested against published animal data from intravascular oxygen tension and saturation sensors. These equations provide one explanation for (i) observed physiological phenomena, such as within-breath fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation and blood-gas tension; and (ii) conventional (time averaged) blood-gas sample oxygen tensions. We suggest that tidal-ventilation models are needed to describe within-breath fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation and blood-gas tension in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) subjects. Both the amplitude of these oxygen saturation and tension fluctuations, and the mean oxygen blood-gas values, are affected by physiological variables such as inspired oxygen concentration,
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Abnormal scarring is a serious threat resulting in non-healing chronic wounds or fibrosis. Scars form when fibroblasts, a type of cell of connective tissue, reach wounded skin and deposit plugs of extracellular matrix. Until today, the question about the exact anatomical origin of these fibroblasts has not been answered. In order to find potential ways of influencing the scarring process, the team of Dr. Yuval Rinkevich, Group Leader for Regenerative Biology at the Institute of Lung Biology and Disease at Helmholtz Zentrum München, aimed to finally find an answer. As it was already known that all scars derive from a fibroblast lineage expressing the Engrailed-1 gene - a lineage not only present in skin, but also in fascia - the researchers intentionally tried to understand whether or not fascia might be the origin of fibroblasts. ...
Numerous in-house conferences and seminars are available both within the Department of Medicine and the Pulmonary/Critical Care Division as well as other clinical and basic science departments within the College of Medicine. Required conferences for the pulmonary/CC fellow include medical grand rounds, medicine noon conference and two weekly pulmonary division conferences including core curriculum conference and clinical conferences (which includes case based as well as critical care and research conferences). Other conferences for research fellows include the Center for Lung Biology Research in Progress conferences, Distinguished Scientist Seminars and other College of Medicine seminars. The fellow will actively participate and present at some of these conferences as part of the educational program. A tuberculosis conference is held jointly with the Infectious Disease Division twice a month. At this conference are presented newly diagnosed patients with tuberculosis as well as difficult and ...
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Many bacteria are causative, & pid can be asymptomatic or severely painful, mimicking appendicitis. Incidence is not clearly known but guessed to be about 1% of women of child bearing age. The picture is how pid looks inside the pelvis in a very severe case. Would you like to video or text chat with me? ...
Editors note: Welcome to our ThirdAge feature that gives you a chance to play medical sleuth as we share the details of what happened when a patient presented with a problem that stumped the physician at first.. The first week of this riddle, the patient reported her symptoms to her gynecologist. The doctor proceeded with the examination using the classic S-O-A-P notes as follows:. S=Symptoms or Chief Complaint. O=Objective Findings. A=Assessment or Analysis. P=Treatment Plan or Recommendations. The second week, the doctor warned Sybil about the risk of making love with a new partner who is not using barrier protection, meaning condoms. The doctor also reported that Sybils tests and physical exam showed that she is generally healthy but that a blood test and vaginal smear held clues to what the diagnosis might be. This week, well let you know what some people have suggested as possible diagnoses. Next week, the doctor will reveal the actual diagnosis. Then well begin a new riddle for the ...
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article{0090a939-9497-4dcd-8b37-91681bced4bd, abstract = {Aims: Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) contributes to mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the most severe form of acute lung injury (ALI). Absence of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) confers susceptibility to ALI/VILI. To identify cell-specific ATF3-dependent mechanisms of susceptibility to ALI/VILI, we generated ATF3 chimera by adoptive bone marrow (BM) transfer and randomized to inhaled saline or lipopolysacharide (LPS) in the presence of mechanical ventilation (MV). Adenovirus vectors to silence or overexpress ATF3 were used in primary human bronchial epithelial cells and murine BM-derived macrophages from wild-type or ATF3-deficient mice. Results: Absence of ATF3 in myeloid-derived cells caused increased pulmonary cellular infiltration. In contrast, absence of ATF3 in parenchymal cells resulted in loss of alveolar-capillary membrane integrity and increased exudative edema. ATF3-deficient ...
Mechanical ventilation is a therapeutic method used in order to keep gas exchange adequate to cell metabolism in patients with acute respiratory failure. It is currently proved that, although on one hand the use of this method keeps gas exchange, on the other hand it promotes and supports pulmonary inflammatory processes (VILI). A recent study about the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on DLCO (diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide) in patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation has proved that patients without any evident pulmonary disease (negative medical history, negative chest clinical examination, normal chest X-ray radiography and normal arterial oxygen tension [PaO2]) after 24 hours of invasive mechanical ventilation show a significant worsening of pulmonary gas exchange properties. The authors have supposed that this worsening may be caused by an early alteration of alveolar-capillary membrane caused by mechanical ventilation itself. This hypothesis ...

Blood-air barrier legal definition of blood-air barrierBlood-air barrier legal definition of blood-air barrier

What is blood-air barrier? Meaning of blood-air barrier as a legal term. What does blood-air barrier mean in law? ... Definition of blood-air barrier in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Blood-air barrier legal definition of blood-air barrier https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/blood-air+barrier ... redirected from blood-air barrier). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. barrier ...
more infohttps://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/blood-air+barrier

Blood-air barrier - WikipediaBlood-air barrier - Wikipedia

... diving portal Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier ... The blood-air barrier (alveolar-capillary barrier or membrane) exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs. It exists to ... Possible consequences of rupture of the blood-air barrier include arterial gas embolism and hemoptysis. Failure of the barrier ... The barrier is permeable to molecular oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and many other gases. This blood gas barrier is ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood%E2%80%93air_barrier

A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY ON THE THICKNESS OF THE PULMONARY AIR-BLOOD BARRIER | JCBA MORPHOMETRIC STUDY ON THE THICKNESS OF THE PULMONARY AIR-BLOOD BARRIER | JCB

A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY ON THE THICKNESS OF THE PULMONARY AIR-BLOOD BARRIER. Ewald R. Weibel, Bruce W. Knight ... The characteristic thickness of the air-blood barrier with respect to gas diffusion is its harmonic mean thickness, while the ... A reliable knowledge of the thickness of the alveolo-capillary "membrane" or air-blood barrier is of physiologic interest since ... A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY ON THE THICKNESS OF THE PULMONARY AIR-BLOOD BARRIER ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/21/3/367

Air-blood barrier thickening and alterations of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells in mouse lungs with disrupted hepcidin...Air-blood barrier thickening and alterations of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells in mouse lungs with disrupted hepcidin...

Air-blood barrier thickening and alterations of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells in mouse lungs with disrupted hepcidin/ ... The thickness of the air-blood barrier was greater in the mutated than in the WT mice. In conclusion, disruption of systemic ... thickening of the air-blood barrier and hyperplasia and hypotrophy of AE2 cells despite normal total intracellular surfactant ... Aging exacerbates acute lung injury-induced changes of the air-blood barrier, lung function and inflammation in the mouse. Am J ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00418-018-1737-y

32 - Respiratory System Flashcards by Andrea Okas | Brainscape32 - Respiratory System Flashcards by Andrea Okas | Brainscape

What forms the blood-air barrier? - Surfactant. - Type I alveolar cells. - Basal laminae of cells above and below. - ... Air conditioning = air conduction + air filtration (the first two primary functions of the respiratory system) ... The air is.... - Refined. - mucus and cilia remove fine particular matter. - humidified. - increased in temperature ... Alveolar macrophages are "heart failure cells" when blood dams up into the heart tissue and fluid/RBCs get into the lumen of ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/32-respiratory-system-3136857/packs/4955175

Cement dust exposition and bronchioalveolitis. A case report.  - PubMed - NCBICement dust exposition and bronchioalveolitis. A case report. - PubMed - NCBI

Atypical restrictive pattern; Blood-air barrier; Spirometry. Comment in. *[Diagnostic assessment of neumonitis due to cement ... A restrictive pattern pure atypical was observed, and arterial blood gas with hipoxemia. A treatment with steroids was ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25984626

Pulmonary Histology Flashcards by Antonio White | BrainscapePulmonary Histology Flashcards by Antonio White | Brainscape

What are the components of the blood-air barrier? thin capillary endothelium. thin epithelium of pneumocyte. basal lamina ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/pulmonary-histology-4486430/packs/6402534

Blood-testis barrier | definition of blood-testis barrier by Medical dictionaryBlood-testis barrier | definition of blood-testis barrier by Medical dictionary

What is blood-testis barrier? Meaning of blood-testis barrier medical term. What does blood-testis barrier mean? ... Looking for online definition of blood-testis barrier in the Medical Dictionary? blood-testis barrier explanation free. ... blood-air barrier alveolocapillary membrane.. blood-aqueous barrier the physiologic mechanism that prevents exchange of ... blood-gas barrier alveolocapillary membrane.. blood-testis barrier a barrier separating the blood from the seminiferous tubules ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/blood-testis+barrier

Delay in antibiotic therapy results in fatal disease outcome in murine pneumococcal pneumonia | Critical Care | Full TextDelay in antibiotic therapy results in fatal disease outcome in murine pneumococcal pneumonia | Critical Care | Full Text

Our data show that only early antibiotic therapy, administered prior to breakdown of the alveolar-capillary barrier and ... The findings highlight the importance of identifying CAP patients prior to lung barrier failure and systemic inflammation and ... Early treatment protected from barrier breakdown, and reduced levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and ... An intact blood-air barrier is crucial for gas exchange, and fatal barrier breakdown during streptococcal pneumonia, leading to ...
more infohttps://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13054-018-2224-5

Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the...Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the...

... disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha- ... Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. We investigated whether residency in cities with high air pollution is ... disruption of the blood-brain barrier; endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cell trafficking were seen in ... Exposure to air pollution should be considered a risk factor for Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases, and carriers of the APOE ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18349428?dopt=Abstract

Remodelling of  Membrane Rafts Expression in Lung Cells as an Early Sign of Mechanotransduction-Signalling in Pulmonary EdemaRemodelling of Membrane Rafts Expression in Lung Cells as an Early Sign of Mechanotransduction-Signalling in Pulmonary Edema

4. Water Balance in the Air-Blood Barrier. As can be appreciated from Figure 2(a), the air-blood barrier, that allows gas ... J. Gil, D. A. Silage, and J. M. McNiff, "Distribution of vesicles in cells of air-blood barrier in the rabbit," Journal of ... Figure 2: Transmission electron microscopy of the air-blood barrier in control conditions (a), after saline loading to cause ... 5. The Mechanical Setting Triggering the Cellular Response to a Perturbation in Fluid Dynamics in the Air-Blood Barrier. We ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jl/2011/695369/

Cell proliferation, tumorogenicity, and apoptosis sub-cluster 46Cell proliferation, tumorogenicity, and apoptosis sub-cluster 46

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the complete process of cell injuries in the blood-air barrier after perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) ... Cell injuries of the blood-air barrier in acute lung injury caused by ... ... In the past, TI cells were believed to serve only passive barrier functions, with no active functional properties in ... ... epithelial cells isolated from septic animals develop tight junctions with different protein composition and reduced barrier ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/cluster/2/Cell-proliferation-tumorogenicity-and-apoptosis/sub-46-p5.html

Lung - DocCheck FlexikonLung - DocCheck Flexikon

These conduct the capillaries, thereby ensuring the integrity of the blood-air barrier. The blood-air barrier can be reduced to ... The polygonal, air-filled spaces (diameter 250 microns) have a capillary network around them and are separated from one another ... The conductive, air-transporting phase of the bronchial tree ends here. Thereafter follows the sectional formation, which ... In the trachea and the bronchi, the air-conducting cavities are kept open by cartilaginous bracing. In the smaller bronchi one ...
more infohttp://flexikon.doccheck.com/en/Lung

V I PaulV I Paul

This hyperplasia causes increased distance of respiratory blood-air barrier in the secondary lamellae, leading to impaired ...
more infohttps://www.ias.ac.in/listing/bibliography/jbsc/V._I._Paul

Alveolar cells - WikipediaAlveolar cells - Wikipedia

This reduces the thickness of the cell, thereby reducing the thickness of the blood-air barrier. The cytoplasm in the thin ... Type II alveolar cells are typically found at the blood-air barrier. Although they only comprise ... These cells need to be so thin to be readily permeable for enabling an easy gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood. ... Type I cells are involved in the process of gas exchange between the alveoli and blood. These cells are extremely thin ( ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alveolar_cells

PULMONARY AGENTSPULMONARY AGENTS

Chemically induced acute lung injury by these groups of agents involves a permeability defect in the blood-air-barrier (the ... Arterial blood gases may show a low PaO2 or PaCO2, which are early nonspecific warnings of increased interstitial fluid in the ... It spontaneously converted to a colorless, low-lying (density 4 x air) gas. Because of its relatively low boiling point (7.5E C ... If the patient presented initially with symptoms and an abnormal physical examination, chest x-ray, or arterial blood gas, he ...
more infohttps://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/doctrine/army/mmcch/PulmAgnt.htm

Morphologic Study of Fetal Lung Development in Mammals--《Progress In Veterinary Medicine》2001年04期Morphologic Study of Fetal Lung Development in Mammals--《Progress In Veterinary Medicine》2001年04期

Differentiation of alveolar surface epithelial cells and formation of blood-air barrier are the morphological markers of lung ... Differentiation of alveolar surface epithelial cells and formation of blood-air barrier are the morphological markers of lung ... TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATION OF ALVEOLAR EPITHELIUM AND BLOOD-AIR BARRIER OF HUMAN FETUS[J];Acta Anatomica ... TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATION OF ALVEOLAR EPITHELIUM AND BLOOD-AIR BARRIER OF HUMAN FETUS[J];Acta Anatomica ...
more infohttp://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-DYJZ200104007.htm

Morphological characterization of pulmonary microvascular disease in bronchopulmonary dysplasia caused by hyperoxia in newborn...Morphological characterization of pulmonary microvascular disease in bronchopulmonary dysplasia caused by hyperoxia in newborn...

Compared to normal air controls, the specimens displayed also remarkably thick blood-air barriers (BABs), most of which were ... O2-Air 21d). Data are expressed as means ± standard deviations (SDs); *P , 0.05 vs. Air-14d, †P , 0.05 vs. Air-21d; n = 6 in ... Newborn ICR mice were exposed to 85% hyperoxia or normoxia for 14 days, and then normal air replacement conditions for the ... These parameters 30 did not improve under normal air replacement conditions after hyperoxia ( ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00795-018-0182-2

ArteriesArteries

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Blood Air Barrier at 5:00 AM Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to ... So after the blood gets filled with oxygen, it brings oxygenated blood back to the heart in the pulmonary vein. (from: ... and how it branches into the vertebral artery to give blood to your brain,. and the internal thoracic artery to give blood to ... Next stop for oxygenated blood in the arteries is the abdominal aorta.. The abdominal artery brings blood to your stomach, ...
more infohttps://www.kid-facts.com/search/label/Arteries

Kid Facts - Fun daily facts for kids: March 2015Kid Facts - Fun daily facts for kids: March 2015

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Blood Air Barrier Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest ... After that the radial and ulnar arteries go to the deep palmar arch and the superficial palmar arch which both bring blood to ... Weve learned how the oxygenated blood leaves the heart at the ascending aorta, then at the aortic arch it branches off to the ... We know that the subclavian artery brings oxygenated blood from the heart toward the arm, and then continues on to turn into ...
more infohttps://www.kid-facts.com/2015/03/

Middle lobe | Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing - eBooks | Read eBooks onlineMiddle lobe | Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing - eBooks | Read eBooks online

Blood-air barrier) Cells. * Pneumocyte (Type I pneumocyte * Type II pneumocyte) * Clara cell ... The conducting zone warms the air to 37 °C (99 °F) and humidifies the air. It also cleanses the air by removing particles via ... In addition, they remove several blood-borne substances, e.g. PGE1, PGE2, PGF2α, leukotrienes, serotonin, bradykinin.[4] ... The respiratory zone is the site of gas exchange with blood. * The sympathetic nervous system via noradrenaline acting on the ...
more infohttp://www.self.gutenberg.org/articles/Middle_lobe

Taste in Mouth When Exercising | LIVESTRONG.COMTaste in Mouth When Exercising | LIVESTRONG.COM

Blood-Gas Barrier. Your lungs have an area known as the blood-gas barrier or blood-air barrier, where gas and air are exchanged ... or coughing up blood. A study published in the journal "Chest" in 2004 points again to the blood-gas barrier and increased ... pressure increases to a point that breaks this barrier and allows blood to enter the lungs and causes the taste of blood in the ... There are several possible causes for odd tastes in your mouth during exercise, but if the metallic taste or taste of blood is ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/481532-taste-in-mouth-when-exercising/
  • Indeed, the volume of the extravascular water ought to be kept at minimum [ 1 ] in order to assure the maximum efficiency of the air-blood barrier in the gas diffusion mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ul. (nih.gov)
  • Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha-synuclein in children and young adults. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure to air pollution causes neuroinflammation, an altered brain innate immune response, and accumulation of Abeta42 and alpha-synuclein starting in childhood. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure to air pollution should be considered a risk factor for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and carriers of the APOE 4 allele could have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease if they reside in a polluted environment. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, abnormalities in ECs persisted even after exposure to 7 days of normal air replacement conditions. (springer.com)
  • It spontaneously converted to a colorless, low-lying (density 4 x air) gas. (fas.org)
  • a increased mean chord length (Lm), b increased percentage of air space volume density (% AVD), and c decreased septal density. (springer.com)
  • There are several possible causes for odd tastes in your mouth during exercise, but if the metallic taste or taste of blood is accompanied by other symptoms or is persistent, consult your physician. (livestrong.com)
  • A study published in the journal "Chest" in 2004 points again to the blood-gas barrier and increased pressure from exercise. (livestrong.com)
  • Why Does My Mouth Taste Like Blood After I Exercise? (livestrong.com)
  • Since normal Sertoli cell maturation is required for the development and maintenance of the blood-testis barrier (30) and these cells seem to play an important role in immunosuppression, (31) the Sertoli cell dysgenesis might be an important cause of the focal orchitis observed in this study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Newborn ICR mice were exposed to 85% hyperoxia or normoxia for 14 days, and then normal air replacement conditions for the following 7 days. (springer.com)
  • Compared to normal air controls, the specimens displayed also remarkably thick blood-air barriers (BABs), most of which were occupied by EC layer components. (springer.com)
  • These parameters 30 did not improve under normal air replacement conditions after hyperoxia (O 2 -Air 21d). (springer.com)
  • It's considered normal unless you produce blood when you cough. (livestrong.com)
  • We've learned about how oxygenated blood goes all the way from your heart to your head fingers and toes. (kid-facts.com)
  • We hypothesized that antibiotic treatment decelerates exaggerated immune responses, but does not relevantly reduce established lung barrier dysfunction and lung edema. (biomedcentral.com)
  • barrier methods contraceptive methods such as condoms and diaphragms in which a plastic or rubber barrier blocks passage of spermatozoa through the vagina or cervix. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We investigated whether residency in cities with high air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration in healthy children and young adults who died suddenly. (nih.gov)