The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The motion of air currents.
The contamination of indoor air.
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.
Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Digital image data sets, consisting of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)
Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.
Supplies used in building.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent used as a decongestant.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.

Control of cAMP in lung endothelial cell phenotypes. Implications for control of barrier function. (1/131)

Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) form a more restrictive barrier to macromolecular flux than pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs); however, the mechanisms responsible for this intrinsic feature of PMVECs are unknown. Because cAMP improves endothelial barrier function, we hypothesized that differences in enzyme regulation of cAMP synthesis and/or degradation uniquely establish an elevated content in PMVECs. PMVECs possessed 20% higher basal cAMP concentrations than did PAECs; however, increased content was accompanied by 93% lower ATP-to-cAMP conversion rates. In PMVECs, responsiveness to beta-adrenergic agonist (isoproterenol) or direct adenylyl cyclase (forskolin) activation was attenuated and responsiveness to phosphodiesterase inhibition (rolipram) was increased compared with those in PAECs. Although both types of endothelial cells express calcium-inhibited adenylyl cyclase, constitutive PMVEC cAMP accumulation was not inhibited by physiological rises in cytosolic calcium, whereas PAEC cAMP accumulation was inhibited 30% by calcium. Increasing either PMVEC calcium entry by maximal activation of store-operated calcium entry or ATP-to-cAMP conversion with rolipram unmasked calcium inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. These data indicate that suppressed calcium entry and low ATP-to-cAMP conversion intrinsically influence calcium sensitivity. Adenylyl cyclase-to-cAMP phosphodiesterase ratios regulate cAMP at elevated levels compared with PAECs, which likely contribute to enhanced microvascular barrier function.  (+info)

Clara cell protein as a marker of Clara cell damage and bronchoalveolar blood barrier permeability. (2/131)

The 16 kDa Clara cell protein (CC16), an abundant component of airway secretions, has recently been proposed in humans as a pulmonary marker measurable not only in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) but also in serum. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes and determinants of CC16 concentrations in these fluids in normal rats and rats with lung injury. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single i.p. injection of arachis oil (n=20) or chemicals in arachis oil (n=10) that mainly damage Clara cells (4-ipomeanol (IPO) 8 mg x kg(-1) and methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) 5 mg x kg(-1)) or endothelial cells (alpha-naphthylthiourea (ANTU) 5 mg x kg(-1)). CC16 concentration (mean+/-sD in microg x L(-1)), measured by a sensitive latex immunoassay, was significantly reduced in BALF of all treated groups (IPO 380+/-100; MMT 730+/-200; ANTU 1,070+/-200; controls 1,700+/-470). The same pattern of decrease was observed in the labelling of Clara cells with an anti-CC16 antiserum as well as in the CC16 messenger ribonucleic acid levels assessed by Northern enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In serum, by contrast, CC16 was significantly increased in all treated groups (IPO 31+/-7; MMT 22+/-12; ANTU 52+/-24; controls 15+/-6). This rise of CC16 in serum was associated with an elevation of albumin in BALF which is an index of increased bronchoalveolar/blood barrier permeability. In conclusion, lung injury induces a decrease of the 16 kDa Clara cell protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid owing to a reduced production by damaged Clara cells, and an increase in serum protein levels resulting from its enhanced leakage across the bronchoalveolar/blood barrier. This study provides new insights into the understanding of the changes of lung secretory proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum.  (+info)

Modulation of bronchial epithelial cell barrier function by in vitro jet propulsion fuel 8 exposure. (3/131)

The loss of epithelial barrier integrity in bronchial and bronchiolar airways may be an initiating factor in the observed onset of toxicant-induced lung injuries. Acute 1-h inhalation exposures to aerosolized jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) have been shown to induce cellular and morphological indications of pulmonary toxicity that was associated with increased respiratory permeability to 99mTc-DTPA. To address the hypothesis that JP-8 jet fuel-induced lung injury is initiated through a disruption in the airway epithelial barrier function, paracellular mannitol flux of BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells was measured. Incubation of confluent cell cultures with non-cytotoxic concentrations of JP-8 or n-tetradecane (C14), a primary constituent of JP-8, for a 1-h exposure period resulted in dose-dependent increases of paracellular flux. Following exposures of 0.17, 0.33, 0.50, or 0.67 mg/ml, mannitol flux increased above vehicle controls by 10, 14, 29, and 52%, respectively, during a 2-h incubation period immediately after each JP-8 exposure. C14 caused greater mannitol flux increases of 37, 42, 63, and 78%, respectively, following identical exposure conditions. The effect on transepithelial mannitol flux reached a maximum at 12 h and spontaneously reversed to control values over a 48-h recovery period, for both JP-8 and C14 exposure. These data indicate that non-cytotoxic exposures to JP-8 or C14 exert a noxious effect on bronchial epithelial barrier function that may preclude pathological lung injury.  (+info)

Estrogen-induced microvilli and microvillar channels and entrapment of surfactant-lipids by alveolar type I cells of bovine lung. (4/131)

The ATI cells are simple, flat squamous epithelial cells, which are evolved to function as a component of the alveolar-capillary membrane, ideally designed for gaseous exchange. They inherently lack an active metabolic machinery and lead a precarious existence in the face of hostile environment. On the other hand, the ATI cells of the lung of ruminating animals are endowed with structure-functional properties which enable them to exert a selective barrier function against a wide range of osmotic pressure gradients at their luminal surface. Such gradients are created by a complex gaseous homeostasis due to expectoration of several gases and volatile fatty acids originating from the complex stomach of the ruminants. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of estradiol propionate on the ultrastructure of the ATI cells and their interaction with the surfactant lipids. The lungs of estrogen and dexamethasone treated male calves were harvested for electromicroscopic examination. The evidence is presented that estradiol induced the formation of microvilli and microvillar channels at the luminal surface. At these regional modifications, intense interactions with the surfactant lipids and their entrapment into the pathways of endocytosis, took place in the squamous part of the ATI cells. Concurrently, large basal protrusions ended up as long lamellipods deep into the alveolar interstitium. The filamentous cytoskeletal network and microtubules intermixed with the translocated organelles such as Golgi apparatus and associated coated and uncoated vesicles. The results of this study support the hypothesis that estrogen regulate the selective barrier-function of the ATI cells. The entrapment of surfactant lipids under the influence of estrogen by ATI cells is a significant change perhaps in response to extracellular stimuli and expression of transmembrane receptors. It implies that these epithelial cells are specially evolved to adapt to a complex gaseous homeostasis in the lung of the ruminating ungulates.  (+info)

Impeded alveolar-capillary gas transfer with saline infusion in heart failure. (5/131)

The microvascular pulmonary endothelium barrier is critical in preventing interstitial fluid overflow and deterioration in gas diffusion. The role of endothelium in transporting small solutes in pathological conditions, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), has not been studied. Monitoring of pulmonary gas transfer during saline infusion in CHF was used to probe this issue. Carbon monoxide diffusion (DL(CO)), its membrane diffusion (D(M)) and capillary blood volume (V(C)) subcomponents, and mean right atrial (rap) and mean pulmonary wedge (wpp) pressures after saline or 5% D-glucose solution infusions were compared with baseline in 26 moderate CHF patients. Saline was also tested in 13 healthy controls. In patients, 750 mL of saline lowered DL(CO) (-8%, P<0.01 versus baseline), D(M) (-10%, P<0.01 versus baseline), aldosterone (-29%, P<0.01 versus baseline), renin (-52%, P<0.01 versus baseline), and hematocrit (-6%, P<0.05 versus baseline) and increased V(C) (20%, P<0.01 versus baseline), without changing rap and wpp. Saline at 150 mL produced qualitatively similar results regarding DL(CO) (-5%, P<0.01 versus baseline), D(M) (-7%, P<0.01 versus baseline), V(C) (9%, P<0.01 versus baseline), rap, wpp, aldosterone (-9%, P<0.05 versus baseline), and renin (-14%, P<0.05 versus baseline). Glucose solution (750 mL), on the contrary, increased DL(CO) (5%, P<0.01 versus 750 mL of saline) and D(M) (11%, P<0.01 versus 750 mL of saline) and decreased V(C) (-9, P<0.01 versus 750 mL of saline); aldosterone (-40%), renin (-41%), hematocrit (-3%), rap, and wpp behaved as they did after saline infusion. In controls, responses to both saline amounts were similar to responses in CHF patients regarding aldosterone, renin, hematocrit, rap, and wpp, whereas DL(CO), D(M), and V(C) values tended to rise. Hindrance to gas transfer (reduced DL(CO) and D(M)) with salt infusion in CHF, despite an increase in V(C) and no variations in pulmonary hydrostatic forces, indicates an upregulation in sodium transport from blood to interstitium with interstitial edema. Redistribution of blood from the lungs, facilitating interstitial fluid reabsorption, or sodium uptake from the alveolar lumen by the sodium-glucose cotransport system might underlie the improved alveolar-capillary conductance with glucose.  (+info)

Differentiated and functional human airway epithelium regeneration in tracheal xenografts. (6/131)

To investigate the regeneration process of a well-differentiated and functional human airway epithelium, we adapted an in vivo xenograft model in which adult human nasal epithelial cells adhere and progressively repopulate denuded rat tracheae grafted in nude mice. The proliferating activity, the degree of differentiation, and the barrier integrity of the repopulated epithelium were studied during the regeneration process at optical and ultrastructural levels with immunocytochemistry and a permeability tracer. Three days after implantation in nude mice, tracheal xenografts were partially repopulated with a flattened nonciliated and poorly differentiated leaky epithelium. By the end of the first week after the graft, cell proliferation produced on the entire surface of the rat trachea an epithelium that was stratified into multiple layers and tightly sealed. During successive weeks, cell proliferation dramatically decreased. Moreover, the epithelium became progressively columnar, secretory, ciliated, and transiently leaky. At 4-5 wk, a fully differentiated pseudostratified functional epithelial barrier impermeable to a low-molecular-weight tracer was reconstituted. The regeneration of a well-differentiated and functional human airway epithelium in rat tracheae grafted in nude mice includes several steps that mimic the regeneration dynamics of airway epithelium after injury.  (+info)

Primate pleuroesophageal tissue barrier frequency response and esophageal pressure waveform bandwidth in health and acute lung injury. (7/131)

BACKGROUND: Dynamic intraesophageal pressure (Pes) is used to estimate intrapleural pressure (Ppl) to calculate lung compliance and resistance. This study investigated the nonhuman primate Ppl-Pes tissue barrier frequency response and the dynamic response requirements of Pes manometers. METHODS: In healthy monkeys and monkeys with acute lung injury undergoing ventilation, simultaneous Ppl and Pes were measured directly to determine the Ppl-Pes tissue barrier amplitude frequency response, using the swept-sine wave technique. The bandwidths of physiologic Pes waveforms acquired during conventional mechanical ventilation were calculated using digital low-pass signal filtering. RESULTS: The Ppl-Pes tissue barrier is amplitude-uniform within the bandwidth of conventional Pes waveforms in healthy and acute lung injury lungs, and does not significantly attenuate Ppl-Pes signal transmission between 1 and 40 Hz. At Pes frequencies higher than conventional clinical regions of interest the Ppl-Pes barrier resonates significantly, is pressure amplitude dependent at low-pressure offsets, and is significantly altered by acute lung injury. Allowing for 5% or less Pes waveform error, the maximum Pes bandwidths during conventional ventilation were 1.9 Hz and 3.4 Hz for physiologic and extreme-case waveforms in healthy lungs and 4.6 Hz and 8.5 Hz during acute lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: In monkeys, the Ppl-Pes tissue barrier has a frequency response suitable for Ppl estimation during low-frequency mechanical ventilation, and Pes manometers should have a minimum uniform frequency response up to 8.5 Hz. However, the Ppl-Pes tissue barrier adversely affects the accurate estimation of dynamic Ppl at high frequencies, with varied airway pressure amplitudes and offsets, such as the Ppl encountered during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.  (+info)

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid urea as a measure of pulmonary permeability in healthy smokers. (8/131)

The effects of cigarette smoking on blood to airway pulmonary permeability to the low-molecular-weight solute urea were investigated, in an attempt to evaluate its use as a dilution marker for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) studies. Five healthy normal smokers who smoked a cigarette 10 min prior to undergoing a 3 x 60 mL bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and five nonsmokers who also underwent BAL but without cigarette smoke exposure were studied. Five minutes before bronchoscopy, 4 MBq 3H-water and 1 MBq 14C-urea were injected intravenously and biochemical urea assays and an indirect radiotracer method were used to evaluate permeability. It was shown that the smoking group had less urea in their BAL supernatants compared to nonsmokers the results using the radiotracer method being significant (p<0.005). Using both methods, it was shown that levels of urea increased in sequentially aspirated aliquots in both groups. The median directly assayed levels of urea in the smokers rose as follows: aliquot 1 0.05 micromol x mL(-1), (range 0.03-0.14), aliquot 2 0.10 micromol x mL(-1) (0.07-0.17), aliquot 3 0.12 micromol x mL(-1) (0.06-0.23) (p<0.05). This led to significantly increased calculated levels of epithelial lining fluid in the sequential aliquots (p<0.05). In addition, there were large but variable amounts of labelled water detected in both subject groups indicating a complex interaction between the BAL procedure and the circulation. Changing urea measurements during the bronchoalveolar lavage procedure confound the use of the urea (epithelial lining fluid) method for normalizing dilution factors. The use of epithelial lining fluid determinations in smokers ignores the additional and probably complex permeability changes. The present data suggest that acute exposure to cigarette smoke in smokers may decrease blood to airway permeability.  (+info)

Definition of blood-air barrier in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is blood-air barrier? Meaning of blood-air barrier as a legal term. What does blood-air barrier mean in law?
Definition of Alveolar-capillary barrier in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Alveolar-capillary barrier? Meaning of Alveolar-capillary barrier as a finance term. What does Alveolar-capillary barrier mean in finance?
A reliable knowledge of the thickness of the alveolo-capillary membrane or air-blood barrier is of physiologic interest since it is intimately related to a quantitative estimation of such functional events as gas diffusion or tissue metabolism in the lung. The characteristic thickness of the air-blood barrier with respect to gas diffusion is its harmonic mean thickness, while the arithmetic mean thickness is related to the mass of tissue building the barrier and consuming oxygen in the lung. Two morphometric methods are proposed by which these two dimensions can be estimated from random measurements in the electron microscope in a reliable, simple, and efficient manner. By applying these methods to three rat lungs the arithmetic mean thickness of the barrier was found to measure 1.25 µ, the harmonic mean thickness, 0.57 µ. On the basis of these measurements a geometric model of the barrier in the form of a corrugated membrane was derived. Its dimensions showed close similarity to those of ...
Scheme electron microscopy. (1, ↓) Represents type I pneumocytes lining alveolar spaces (A). Cell (2) represents a free alveolar macrophage. The type II pneumocyte (3) is adherent to type I pneumocyte extensions (note junctional connection), and contains multilamellar bodies (surfactant). A myofibroblast (4) is located in the interstitium (note surrounding cross-sectioned collagen fiber dots), and (*) indicate elastin. (5, ↓) Indicate endothelial cells within the capillaries. (6↔) Indicates the thin-walled area of the air-blood barrier.
Pulmonary edema is traditionally classified as caused by either an increased capillary pressure (hydrostatic or cardiogenic edema) or an increased permeability of the capillary wall (high-permeability edema). The distinction between the two has usually been made on the basis of the protein concentration of the edema fluid.30 The protein concentration is usually less than one half that of blood in hydrostatic or cardiogenic pulmonary edema, whereas the ratio is typically ,0.7 in high-permeability edema.30 31 The differences arise because the pulmonary blood-gas barrier tends to retain its low-permeability characteristics in hydrostatic edema, with the result that the sieving of protein remains effective. By contrast, damage to the wall of the pulmonary capillary increases its permeability, resulting in a greater protein loss from the capillary. In practice, this traditional classification does not always match expectations. For example, Fein et al30 pointed out that there is a substantial ...
Morphometric data from stable (nonedematous) isolated dog lungs, perfused with nearly cell-free perfusates, were compared to similar stereological evaluations of isolated dog lungs after induction of severe acute hydrostatic edema. In the edematous lungs, capillary surface and volume densities were substantially increased. Alveolar surface density was also increased. Thicknesses of the endothelial and type I epithelial cellular compartments of the air-blood barrier were unchanged. Thickness of the interstitial compartmemt of the air-blood barrier was substantially increased and this, in turn, caused an overall increase in mean thickness of the barrier. Volume densities of the nonparenchymal connective tissue spaces surrounding the extra-alveolar vessels and airways were also increased. In both the endothelial and type I epithelial cells cytoplasmic volume densities of pinocytotic vesicles were increased. In addition, the number of vesicles opening onto the luminal and albuminal cellular surfaces ...
In the PrevenTAP-project financed by the Norwegian Research Council a major task is to evaluate the relative impact of abrasion versus exhaust PM on pulmonary and cardiovascular health effects. It is important to predict what measures are likely to be most efficient to reduce specific health effects. The project will include a human panel study, in vivo studies in sensitized animal models and in vitro studies in advanced cell models mimicking lung tissue with blood vessels in the airways. National and international expertise across different scientific disciplines are involved, including important executing and regulatory authorities and end-users at national and local level.. In the Master thesis, advanced cell models of lung tissue will be used to examine inflammatory potency of different size-fractions of PM-samples collected in a tunnel in Trondheim. The coarse PM-fraction with the largest particles consists of a mix of wear and exhaust particles, the fine fraction with an increasing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of barrier protection for sexual activity among women who have sex with women. AU - Rowen, Tami S.. AU - Breyer, Benjamin N.. AU - Lin, Tzu Chin. AU - Li, Chin-Shang. AU - Robertson, Patricia A.. AU - Shindel, Alan W. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Objective: To assess the frequency and associations of barrier protection use during sexual activity in a population of women who have sex with women (WSW). Methods: WSW were invited to participate in an international internet-based survey. Information regarding ethnodemographics, sexual health, and barrier use during sexual activities was collected. Results: The study cohort comprised 1557 participants. Barrier use was least prevalent during digital genital stimulation (11.3% ever used barriers) and most prevalent during stimulation with a sex toy (34.4% ever used barriers). Univariate analysis revealed that women in non-monogamous relationships were more likely than monogamous women to always use barrier protection for sexual ...
Drug Packaging - Many natural barriers to delivery of drugs are porous to nano particles. Interestingly, the window of sizes that can pass through the barrier varies, being 8-12nm for kidneys, 10-24nm in the air-blood barrier in the lungs. This can be used to advantage by creating custom-sized particles that combine the drug and a coating of nano-material. Carefully controlling the size of the final particle allows it to be targeted at a specific organ, potentially preventing harmful effects elsewhere. An example of this is Doxil, which encapsulates the drug doxorubicin in liposomes (tiny spheres of fat like molecules) about ~ 100 nm in size - which is the ideal size for the structure to penetrate tumours and also reduces harmful effects on other tissues ...
Physical forces such as stretch play an important role in physiological processes. In fetal life breathing is essential for lung development and in the mature lung ventilation stimulates surfactant production by type II pneumocytes.71 Central to this is the concept of mechanotransduction, whereby physical forces are detected by cells and converted into biochemical signals. There is now good evidence that signalling events activated by injurious ventilation play a role in VILI.81,82. The increase in lung vascular permeability induced in isolated perfused rat lungs by high airway pressure ventilation can be blocked by gadolinium in the perfusate.83 Gadolinium probably exerts this effect through its inhibition of stretch activated cation channels. This indicates that the oedema seen in injurious ventilation is, at least in part, due to the activation of specific cellular processes rather than simply being a reflection of physical disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier (the stretched pore ...
The presence of a blood-like or metallic taste in the mouth following exercise can be attributed to extreme stress on the pulmonary capillaries which form the blood-gas barrier in the lung, according...
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is triggered by injury to the alveolar-capillary barrier from any of a variety of causes, resulting in fluid accumulation and acute respiratory failure ...
Purchase the awesome Pediatric Nasal and Sinus Disorders (Lung Biology in Health and Disease) by CRC Press online today. This popular item is currently in stock - buy securely online here today.
Looking for online definition of alveolar-capillary membrane in the Medical Dictionary? alveolar-capillary membrane explanation free. What is alveolar-capillary membrane? Meaning of alveolar-capillary membrane medical term. What does alveolar-capillary membrane mean?
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement ...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosgene#Chemical_warfare Phosgene is an insidious poison as the odor may not be noticed and symptoms may be slow to appear.[17] The odor detection threshold for phosgene is 0.4 ppm, which is four times the Threshold Limit Value. Its high toxicity arises from the action of the phosgene on the proteins in the pulmonary alveoli, which are the site of gas exchange: their damage disrupts the blood-air barrier, causing suffocation. It reacts with the amines of the proteins, causing crosslinking via formation of urea-like linkages, in accord with the reactions discussed above. Phosgene detection badges are worn by those at risk of exposure.[3]Sodium bicarbonate may be used to neutralise liquid spills of phosgene. Gaseous spills may be mitigated with ammonia.[18 ...
Looking for online definition of secondary failure in the Medical Dictionary? secondary failure explanation free. What is secondary failure? Meaning of secondary failure medical term. What does secondary failure mean?
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a severe medical condition which is characterized by significant alveolar fluid accumulation and insufficient gas exchange. Cardiac surgery, ECMO, and use of cardiac medications are all known risk factors for ARDS which also complicates management of these and other cardiovascular diseases. Effective alveolar fluid clearance and repair of a functional alveolar-capillary barrier are considered the primary mechanisms for edema resolution in ARDS. Apart from enhancing fluid clearance, the Na+,K+-ATPase has been shown important for alveolar barrier function. Our lab showed that overexpression of the Na+,K+-ATPase b1 subunit into lungs enhances alveolar barrier integrity in previously injured lungs in mice and pigs. Previous in vitro data indicated that MRCKa mediates the upregulation of tight junction (TJ) proteins and epithelial barrier integrity by b1 overexpression. I hypothesize that the b1-Na+,K+-ATPase regulates alveolar barrier function through ...
Lung is the first portal of entry into our body to airborne particles, which have been associated to lung and cardiovascular diseases [33, 34]. Aggregated NPs are a major form of airborne particles [7, 12]. Their low effective density compared to single particles of similar size increases their mobility and allow them to penetrate and deposit in the deep lung region [8]. However their behavior at the lung barrier is poorly studied, therefore gaining a better understanding of the aggregates interaction and fate at the human alveolar epithelial tissue barrier is important. In this study, an approach combining air liquid interface and advanced lung cell co-culture has been used representing a more realistic perspective when compared to submerged exposures [35]. Although the system has its limitation, i.e. it is not possible to follow the long-term fate of the particles and/or drugs in the blood as well as lymph circulations and secondary organs, it has been shown to give comparable results to in ...
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major etiologic agent of bacterial pneumonia. Autolysis and antibiotic-mediated lysis of pneumococci induce release of the pore-forming toxin, pneumolysin (PLY), their major virulence factor, which is a prominent cause of acute lung injury. PLY inhibits alveolar liquid clearance and severely compromises alveolar-capillary barrier function, leading to permeability edema associated with pneumonia. As a consequence, alveolar flooding occurs, which can precipitate lethal hypoxemia by impairing gas exchange. The a subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is crucial for promoting Na + reabsorption across Na + -transporting epithelia. However, it is not known if human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HL-MVEC) also express ENaC-α and whether this subunit is involved in the regulation of their barrier function. Methods: The presence of α, β, and γ subunits of ENaC and protein phosphorylation status in HL-MVEC were assessed in western blotting. The ...
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This project aims at improving the diagnosis of drowning. Diatoms in the water that enter the lungs will cross the alveolar-capillary barrier and will be distributed to, and trapped in the capillaries of remote tissues via the blood circulation. These diatoms can then be extracted from tissue samples and analyzed microscopically. In collaboration with Stockholm University the extracts are studied using conventional bright field microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We have established a method protocol based on protein K digestion of the organic material.
Patients that have chronic liver failure, often due to cirrhosis, can sometimes develop respiratory symptoms as well. Interestingly will these patients have dyspnoea and hypoxaemia, but only in standing, orthostatic position! The term for dyspnoea that occurs only while standing is platypnoea, and the term for hypoxaemia that occurs only in the same condition is orthodeoxia.. Recall that ventilation is different in different parts of the lung; its lowest in the apex and highest in the base. These changes are due to gravity, so they only occur while standing. In supine position is the ventilation and perfusion mostly the same everywhere in the lung.. Recall that when the V/Q ratio decreases because of either decreased ventilation or increased perfusion will a shunt be formed, because blood passes from the arterial to the venous side without being fully oxygenized. To avoid this will the lungs vasoconstrict the vessels in the area where the V/Q is too low.. The pathogenesis of hepatopulmonary ...
Effects of silica NPs in alveolar-capillary permeability. C57Bl/6j mice were instilled with 5 mg/kg (100 μg/mice) of SiO2 NPs, FITC- SiO2 NPs or vehicle. 5
Medical Director, Johns Hopkins Bayview Hospital MICU. Expertise, Disease and Conditions: Critical Care Medicine, Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care Medicine, Pulmo... [more]. Research Interests: Pulmonary endothelial barrier function, Acute lung injury, Pulmonary thro... [more]. ...
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Diffusing capacity of the lung (DL) measures the transfer of gas from air in the lung, to the red blood cells in lung blood vessels. It is part of a comprehensive series of pulmonary function tests to determine the overall ability of the lung to transport gas into and out of the blood. DL, especially DLCO, is reduced in certain diseases of the lung and heart. DLCO measurement has been standardized according to a position paper by a task force of the European Respiratory and American Thoracic Societies. In respiratory physiology, the diffusing capacity has a long history of great utility, representing conductance of gas across the alveolar-capillary membrane and also takes into account factors affecting the behaviour of a given gas with hemoglobin[citation needed]. The term may be considered a misnomer as it represents neither diffusion nor a capacity (as it is typically measured under submaximal conditions) nor capacitance. In addition, gas transport is only diffusion limited in extreme cases, ...
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More frequent utilization of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) organs for lung transplantation has the potential to relieve the shortage of donor organs. In particular with respect to uncontrolled NHBD, concerns exist regarding the risk of ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury-related graft damage or dysfunction. Due to their immunomodulating and tissue-remodelling properties, bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been suspected of playing a beneficial role regarding short- and long-term survival and function of the allograft. Thus, MSC administration might represent a promising pretreatment strategy for NHBD organs. To study the initial effects of warm ischaemia and MSC application, a large animal lung transplantation model was generated, and the structural organ composition of the transplanted lungs was analysed stereologically with particular respect to the blood-gas barrier and the surfactant system. In this study, porcine lungs (n = 5/group) were analysed. Group 1 was the ...
More frequent utilization of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) organs for lung transplantation has the potential to relieve the shortage of donor organs. In particular with respect to uncontrolled NHBD, concerns exist regarding the risk of ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury-related graft damage or dysfunction. Due to their immunomodulating and tissue-remodelling properties, bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been suspected of playing a beneficial role regarding short- and long-term survival and function of the allograft. Thus, MSC administration might represent a promising pretreatment strategy for NHBD organs. To study the initial effects of warm ischaemia and MSC application, a large animal lung transplantation model was generated, and the structural organ composition of the transplanted lungs was analysed stereologically with particular respect to the blood-gas barrier and the surfactant system. In this study, porcine lungs (n = 5/group) were analysed. Group 1 was the ...
Caveolin-1 is a key regulator of pulmonary endothelial barrier function. interleukin-6, and promoted BAL neutrophilia in WT mice. Lung injury by these criteria was significantly reduced in Cav-1-/- mice but fully restored by i.v. injection of liposome/Cav-1 cDNA complexes that rescued expression of Cav-1 in lung microvessels. As thrombin is known to play a significant role in mediating stretch-induced vascular injury, we observed in cultured mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLECs) thrombin-induced albumin hyperpermeability and phosphorylation of p44/42 MAP kinase in WT but not in Cav-1-/- MLECs. Thus, caveolin-1 expression is required for mechanical stretch-induced lung inflammation and endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo. was measured in isolated lung preparations explanted from mice after two hours of injurious or control ventilation. The procedure is usually described in detail by Gorovoy in WT and Cav-1-/- mice (Fig. 2). For 125I-BSA determination, mice were ...
Vascular barrier dysfunction and acute lung inflammation are fundamental features that contribute to the significant mortality associated with VILI and ARDS. Despite advances in protective LTV ventilation strategies, effective pharmacotherapy for this devastating syndrome is lacking. Using an aseptic in vivo model of VILI, we show here for the first time that a single intravenous dose of OxPAPC significantly attenuates the early vascular barrier disruption and acute inflammation induced by mechanical ventilation at HTV. Intravenous OxPAPC significantly reduced alveolar and tissue inflammatory cell recruitment and protein accumulation in the BAL after 2 hours of mechanical ventilation at HTV.. In our previous study, we described similar protective effects of OxPAPC in an animal model of LPS-induced lung injury [20]. In that model, OxPAPC prevented neutrophil influx and barrier disruption likely in part via direct competitive inhibition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) binding [13, 19, 20]. However, ...
The alveolar-capillary membrane, in the adult, consists of a thinned-out cell wall plus the cytoplasm of a type I cell with its basement membrane and the thinned-out cell wall and cytoplasm of a capillary endothelial cell with its basement membran Where they meet, the two basement membranes ...
Release Date: August 27, 2019. Expiration Date: September 17, 2020. This basic-level course provides respiratory therapists with a review of the concepts and principles of anatomy and physiology that apply to clinical practice. This course reviews the structure (anatomy) and function (physiology) of the respiratory system. Structure is covered beginning with a description of the thoracic cage and thoracic cavity, followed by a discussion of lung structures. A description of the airways, alveoli, and the alveolar-capillary membrane is then provided. Physiology related to the pulmonary system is then described. The process of bulk air movement and lung volumes and lung capacities are discussed. Dead space, defenses of the lung, alveolar stability and expansion, and diffusion are also presented. The course concludes with a description of O2 transport, CO2 transport, and neural control of the lungs. ...
The influence of detrimental forms of mechanical ventilation on the fluid balance across the alveolo-capillary barrier and its influence on the surfactant system have been extensively described in literature. Moreover, possible mechanisms by which such ventilation strategies exert systemic effects and effects on other organs are becoming increasingly realized. This paper describes the complications of detremental forms of mechanical ventilation and the physiological background to prevent such complications.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic control of ventilation. T2 - What are we learning from murine models?. AU - Tankersley, Clarke G.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Advances in human and mouse genomes are revolutionizing research in lung biology and pulmonary medicine. Genomic strategies are available that link functional variation to molecular structure, and these approaches are currently being applied to the study of ventilatory control mechanisms. In this review, the author discusses the functional data obtained from inbred murine models in which genetic mutations and polymorphisms play a role in altered breathing. At the conclusion of this review, the author emphasizes the relatively small number of studies that have incorporated the use of genomics to link differential ventilatory function to molecular structure. Curr Opin Pulm Med 1999, 5:344-348. AB - Advances in human and mouse genomes are revolutionizing research in lung biology and pulmonary medicine. Genomic strategies are available that link ...
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The presence of cell and tissue barriers together with the low biomembrane permeability of various therapeutics often hampers systemic drug distribution; thus, most of the available molecules are of limited therapeutic value. Opportunities to increase medicament concentrations in areas that are diff …
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Section of Ageing and Health and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Medicine, Centre for Cardiovascular and Lung Biology, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, United Kingdom ...
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Kymograph: …a device known as a kymograph to record changes in arterial blood pressure; a simple stromuhr (1867), or flowmeter, to measure the rate of blood flow through arteries and veins; and a mercurial blood-gas pump for the separation of gases from the blood, which led to an understanding of the…
Everything youll probably ever need to know about safer sex barriers, like which to use, how to use them, how to get more comfortable with them, and how surprisingly cute they are.
Everything youll probably ever need to know about safer sex barriers, like which to use, how to use them, how to get more comfortable with them, and how surprisingly cute they are.
Changes were measured in the permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane and lavage surfactant concentrations following phosgene (75445) exposure and the influence of colchicine on both. Male Sprague-Dawley-rats were treated with either colchicine at 1.0mg/kg or saline intraperitoneally 30 minutes prior to exposure to phosgene at 0.5 parts per million for 60 minutes and air. Lavage surfactant
Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain unsolved problems of intensive care medicine. ALI/ARDS are characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation. Lung edema, endothelial and epithelial injury are accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the interstitium and broncheoalveolar space. Hence, activation and recruitment of neutrophils are regarded to play a key role in progression of ALI/ARDS. Neutrophils are the first cells to be recruited to the site of inflammation and have a potent antimicrobial armour that includes oxidants, proteinases and cationic peptides. Under pathological circumstances, however, unregulated release of these microbicidal compounds into the extracellular space paradoxically can damage host tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment into the lung and on the contribution of neutrophils
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased angiostatin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from ARDS patients and from human volunteers after lung instillation of endotoxin. AU - Lucas, Rudolf. AU - Lijnen, H. Roger. AU - Suffredini, Anthony F.. AU - Pepper, Michael S.. AU - Steinberg, Kenneth P.. AU - Martin, Thomas R.. AU - Pugin, Jérôme. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by a disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier, due to both an epithelial and an endothelial dysfunction. Whereas epithelial apoptosis seems to be mainly mediated by Fas ligand, the mediators of endothelial damage remain to be identified. Angiostatin, a powerful inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo, also specifically induces apoptosis in endothelial cells. The concentration of various enzymes that cleave angiostatin from plasminogen was reported to be significantly increased in bronchalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from patients with ARDS. Therefore, in this study, we ...
Background: - Protein S-glutathionylation (Pr-SSG) is a prevalent form of oxidative modification of reactive cysteines and serves as an important mode of redox signaling. Vascular redox dysregulation and impaired barrier function have long been recognized as early vascular alterations in diabetes, a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanistic link of Pr-SSG to the metabolic stress-induced endothelial cell (EC) hyper-permeability is not established and being investigated in the present study.. Methods and Results: - elevated Pr-SSG was observed in ECs isolated from patients with type-2 diabetes and atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE deficient (ApoE-/-) mice, concurring with a decrease in glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx-1), a specific deglutathionylation enzyme. Exposure of human aortic ECs to diabetic conditions increased the formation of Pr-SSG and permeability that was associated with the disassembly of cell adherens junctions and cortical actin structures, all of which ...
The Lung Biology and Disease Program represents the coordinated efforts of more than 30 faculty members whose research focuses on the lung. The program members consist of both MD and Ph.D. faculty with research interests in basic science aspects of lung disease, translational and pre-clinical animal models, as well as clinical research.. The program hosts an annual Lung Research & Trainee Day that celebrates lung disease research at the University of Rochester, which features posters from graduate students, postdoctoral trainees, and staff from many departments at the University. Lung Research & Trainee Day also features a distinguished guest speaker that presents on his or her current research into lung disease and participants in a career development round table discussion.. ...
Pneumonia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, despite advances in antimicrobial therapy. Pneumonia causes injury to the terminal alveolo-capillary unit, which is followed by...
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The concept of mechanical barrier was proposed to explain the lack of immune response in organs such as the brain, cornea, testicles and kidneys. We refer to these tissues as immune privileged sites where an immune response represents a dangerous condition for the tissue. Immune privilege sites are also organs or tissues of the body which, when grafted to conventional (nonprivileged) body sites, experience extended or indefinite survival. Whereas foreign grafts placed at nonprivileged sites are rejected promptly. The pregnant uterus is an example of an immune privilege site.. The first reasonable explanation of immune privilege was proposed by Peter Medawar in the late 1940s.3 Medawar proposed that organs such as the anterior chamber of the eye and the brain resided behind blood:tissue barriers. The existence of a mechanical barrier, (in the brain the blood brain barrier [BBB]), prevents the movement of immune cells in and out of the tissue.4 This barrier created a state of immunologic ...
To fulfill their roles of immune surveillance and pathogen elimination, cells of the immune system (such as blood leukocytes, which include lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells and neutrophils) must continuously traffic throughout the body (von Andrian and Mackay, 2000). This requires not only locomotion and chemotaxis, but also an explicit propensity to negotiate and cross tissue barriers. Such `migratory pathfinding represents an important and rate-limiting aspect of leukocyte trafficking, and is considered a key therapeutic target for inflammatory and immune-mediated disease (Ley et al., 2007; von Andrian and Mackay, 2000).. Leukocyte trafficking can be broken into two major phases: movement within the vascular and lymphatic circulation, and migration within tissues. The vascular and lymphatic circulatory systems are lined by monolayers of endothelial cells that grow on an ablumenal layer of extracellular matrix (the basement membrane); these cells form organized intercellular junctional ...
Focal adhesion kinase and actin regulatory/binding proteins that modulate F-actin organization at the tissue barrier: Lesson from the testis.by Cheng CY, Lie PP, Wong EW, Mruk DD. MiniManuscript.
Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one intrinsic property of metastatic tumor cells to breach tissue barriers and to disseminate into different tissues. This process is initiated by the formation of invadopodia, which are actin-driven, finger-like membrane protrusions. Yet, …
The endothelial barrier function maintains vascular and tissue homeostasis, and therefore modulates many cardinal physiological processes such as angiogenesis, immune responses, and dynamic fluid exchanges throughout organs.
Blood is stored under refrigeration at a temperature of about 4 C. When it is utilized on a relatively rapid basis within a surgical theater it is transported by tubing through a blood warming apparatus which, while warming the blood, causes an outgasing of entrained air. This air is trapped in an air trap receptacle having a drip chamber within which a gas-blood interface is developed. To assure that the capacity of the trap is not exceeded, an improved technique of gas removal and interface level setting is provided wherein access is achieved essentially through the entrance region of the gas trap receptacle.
Seminar Speaker: Dr. Jerome Dempsey, Professor Emeritus of Preventive Medicine at University of Wisconsin, Madison, is internationally recognized for his distinguished research career. To date he has 334 primary research publications. Many of these publications relate to basic mechanisms of the respiratory system (control of breathing, pulmonary mechanics, and alveolar-capillary gas exchange), while others relate […]. ...
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Multi scale microscopy allows for the correlation of various imaging tools and modalities such as X-ray microCT, DualBeam, Laser PFIB, SEM and TEM.
This reduces the thickness of the cell, thereby reducing the thickness of the blood-air barrier. The cytoplasm in the thin ... Type II alveolar cells are typically found at the blood-air barrier. Although they only comprise ... These cells need to be so thin to be readily permeable for enabling an easy gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood. ... Type I cells are involved in the process of gas exchange between the alveoli and blood. These cells are extremely thin ( ...
During the period covering the 26th week until birth the important blood-air barrier is established. Specialised type I ... On inhalation, air travels through the trachea of a bird into the air sacs. Air then travels continuously from the air sacs at ... The alveolar and pulmonary capillary gases equilibrate across the blood-air barrier, a very thin diffusion membrane which is ... Since the blood gases in the alveolar capillaries equilibrate with those in the alveolar air, the arterial blood that is spread ...
According to it has the smallest mean blood-air barrier thickness (0.183 µm) and the highest mass-specific respiratory surface ...
11). This process occurs by simple diffusion, across a very thin membrane (known as the blood-air barrier), which forms the ... These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. These air ... the posterior air sacs filling with fresh inhaled air, while the anterior air sacs fill with "spent" (oxygen-poor) air that has ... This blood gas barrier is extremely thin (in humans, on average, 2.2 μm thick). It is folded into about 300 million small air ...
... their damage disrupts the blood-air barrier, causing suffocation. It reacts with the amines of the proteins, causing ... The phosgene was produced by decomposing Freon-22 after flames ducted up from a grease fire heated an air-conditioning unit on ... visible as a green cloud in the air, allowing troops to take readily available countermeasures. Phosgene, colorless with a more ... phosgene poisoning is a possibility for people fighting fires that occur in the vicinity of refrigerant leaks from air- ...
... blood-air barrier MeSH A04.531.378 --- nasal bone MeSH A04.531.449 --- nasal cavity MeSH A04.531.520 --- nasal mucosa MeSH ...
Particles in nanoscale have been shown to penetrate the air-blood barrier in lungs and be translocated into secondary organs in ... Nanoparticles in the air often form agglomerates due to attractive inter-particle forces, such as van der Waals force or ... An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles or liquiddroplets, in air or another gas. Aerosols can be natural or ... The inhalable fraction of particles, defined as the proportion of particles originally in the air that can enter the nose or ...
... called the blood-air barrier) separates the blood in the alveolar capillaries (in the walls of the alveoli) from the alveolar ... Air exiting the lungs during exhalation joins the air being expelled from the anterior air sacs (both consisting of "spent air ... The membrane across which gas exchange takes place in the alveoli (i.e. the blood-air barrier) is extremely thin (in humans, on ... 6). Gas exchange in mammals occurs between this alveolar air (which differs significantly from fresh air) and the blood in the ...
The alveolar and pulmonary capillary gases equilibrate across the thin blood-air barrier.[30][64][65] This thin membrane (about ... On inhalation, air travels to air sacs near the back of a bird. The air then passes through the lungs to air sacs near the ... On inhalation, air travels through the trachea of a bird into the air sacs. Air then travels continuously from the air sacs at ... Blood or air with a high oxygen content is shown in red; oxygen-poor air or blood is shown in various shades of purple-blue. ...
Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier ...
... diving portal Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier ... The blood-air barrier (alveolar-capillary barrier or membrane) exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs. It exists to ... Possible consequences of rupture of the blood-air barrier include arterial gas embolism and hemoptysis. Failure of the barrier ... The barrier is permeable to molecular oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and many other gases. This blood gas barrier is ...
Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier Biologyonline.org. Blood- ... The blood-retinal barrier, or the BRB, is part of the blood-ocular barrier that consists of cells that are joined tightly ... Retinal blood vessels that are similar to cerebral blood vessels maintain the inner blood-ocular barrier. This physiological ... The barrier becomes more leaky in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Animal models have shown that the blood-retinal barrier ...
Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier. ... The blood-thymus barrier regulates exchange of substances between the circulatory system and thymus, providing a sequestered ... The barrier is formed by the continuous blood capillaries in the thymic cortex, reinforced by epithelial reticular cells and ... The barrier also prevents the immature T cells from contacting foreign antigens (since contact with antigens at this stage will ...
Blood-air barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier Choroid plexus for blood ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from ... "History of Blood-Brain Barrier". Davis Lab. Retrieved 5 January 2015. "History of Blood-Brain Barrier". The Davis Lab. ... A few regions in the brain, including the circumventricular organs, do not have a blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier ...
Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-thymus barrier Spermatogenesis Ganong. ... The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between ... The blood-testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. ... This composition is maintained by blood-testis barrier. The barrier also protects the germ cells from blood-borne noxious ...
Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier Peiffer, Robert L.; ... Blood-aqueous barrier: the ciliary epithelium and capillaries of the iris. Blood-retinal barrier: non-fenestrated capillaries ... The blood-ocular barrier is a barrier created by endothelium of capillaries of the retina and iris, ciliary epithelium and ... It is a physical barrier between the local blood vessels and most parts of the eye itself, and stops many substances including ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *Dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Respiratory exchange ratio ... Seymour began carrying Smith back to Aquarius, but his air umbilical became fouled about thirty yards from the habitat. Dodd ... who were 300 feet from Aquarius using an underwater jackhammer to install a way station that would contain breathable air. ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Normocapnia ...
Oxygen diffuses from the breathed air, mixed with water vapour, to arterial blood, where its partial pressure is around 100 ... Great Barrier Reef. *iSimangaliso Marine Protected Area. *Poor Knights Islands. *Table Mountain National Park Marine Protected ... Polycythemia, in which the body increases the number of red blood cells in circulation, thickens the blood, raising the danger ... Martin, Lawrence (1999). All you really need to know to interpret arterial blood gases (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *Dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Respiratory exchange ratio ... If such a barrier limits the adsorption rate, the dynamics are said to be 'kinetically limited'. Such energy barriers can be ... The displacement of air from the matrix of cotton pads and bandages so that medicinal solutions can be absorbed for application ... Surfactants will diffuse in water and adsorb at interfaces between air and water or at the interface between oil and water, in ...
Blood-air barrier). Cells. *Alveolar cells *Type I. *Type II. *Club cell ... allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs. The trachea extends from the ... The trachea is one part of the respiratory tree, that is a conduit for air to pass through on its way to or from the alveoli of ... In the head, thorax, or abdomen, tracheae may also be connected to air sacs. Many insects, such as grasshoppers and bees, which ...
Blood-air barrier. *Blood shift. *Breathing. *Circulatory system. *CO₂ retention. *Cold shock response ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Normocapnia ... It results most commonly from a drop in maternal blood pressure or interference during delivery with blood flow to the infant's ... carbon monoxide has a higher affinity than oxygen to the hemoglobin in the blood's red blood corpuscles, bonding with it ... environments where sufficiently oxygenated air is present, but cannot be adequately breathed because of air contamination such ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Normocapnia ...
Here the red blood cells absorb oxygen from the air and then carry it back in the form of oxyhaemaglobin, to nourish the cells ... The lungs are encased in a serous membrane that folds in on itself to form the pleurae - a two-layered protective barrier. The ... In the lungs, oxygen from the inhaled air is transferred into the blood and circulated throughout the body. Carbon dioxide (CO2 ... a layer of mucous membrane acts as a filter and traps pollutants and other harmful substances found in the air. Next, air moves ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *Dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Respiratory exchange ratio ... A barrier reef forms a calcareous barrier around an island resulting in a lagoon between the shore and the reef. An atoll is a ... Reef types include fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls. A fringing reef is a reef that is attached to an island. ... Earth's largest coral reef system is the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, at a length of over 2,300 kilometres (1,400 miles). ...
Blood-air barrier. *Blood shift. *Breathing. *Circulatory system. *CO₂ retention. *Cold shock response ... causing these animals to wash ashore in a decreased metabolic state with increases of immune system responses upon blood ...
Blood-air barrier. *Blood shift. *Breathing. *Circulatory system. *CO₂ retention. *Cold shock response ... Tension forces are shown for the liquid-air interface, the liquid-solid interface, and the solid-air interface. The example on ... Little or no effect, for example sugar at water,air, most organic compounds at oil,air ... γsa is the solid-air surface tension,. *θ is the contact angle, where a concave meniscus has contact angle less than 90° and a ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *Dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Respiratory exchange ratio ... Air line, lifeline, power cable, control cable. An umbilical cable or umbilical is a cable and/or hose that supplies required ... This is done by measuring pressure of the air in the pneumo hose after a thin stream of bubbles has been emitted from the open ... An umbilical can, for example, supply air and power to a pressure suit or hydraulic power, electrical power and fiber optics to ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *Dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Respiratory exchange ratio ... Air-sea rescue (ASR or A/SR, also known as sea-air rescue [3]) is the coordinated search and rescue (SAR) of the survivors of ... Military and civilian units can perform air-sea rescue. Air-sea rescue operations carried out during war have saved valuable ... Marion, Forrest L. (Spring 2004). "Bombers and boats: SB-17 and SB-29 combat operations in Korea". Air Power History. 51.. ...
What is blood-air barrier? Meaning of blood-air barrier as a legal term. What does blood-air barrier mean in law? ... Definition of blood-air barrier in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Blood-air barrier legal definition of blood-air barrier https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/blood-air+barrier ... redirected from blood-air barrier). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. barrier ...
A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY ON THE THICKNESS OF THE PULMONARY AIR-BLOOD BARRIER. Ewald R. Weibel, Bruce W. Knight ... The characteristic thickness of the air-blood barrier with respect to gas diffusion is its harmonic mean thickness, while the ... A reliable knowledge of the thickness of the alveolo-capillary "membrane" or air-blood barrier is of physiologic interest since ... A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY ON THE THICKNESS OF THE PULMONARY AIR-BLOOD BARRIER ...
Effects of air pollution particles in advanced co-culture cell models of the air-blood barrier. Traffic is a major source to ... fractions will be assessed in mono-cultures of lung epithelial cells and/or complex co-cultures of the air-blood barrier ... Even in Norway, air pollution is ranked among the to-ten risk factors for premature death. Traffic pollution comprises a ... Globally, far more people die from air pollution than from all wars and acts of violence, or from AIDS, malaria and ...
6↔) Indicates the thin-walled area of the air-blood barrier. ... Air-blood barrier in the lung (mammals). Creator. Poels, ... Air-blood barrier in the lung (mammals). Download Item , Share , JSON , Reference URL. ...
Thickness of the interstitial compartmemt of the air-blood barrier was substantially increased and this, in turn, caused an ... Thicknesses of the endothelial and type I epithelial cellular compartments of the air-blood barrier were unchanged. ... overall increase in mean thickness of the barrier. Volume densities of the nonparenchymal connective tissue spaces surrounding ...
What is Alveolar-capillary barrier? Meaning of Alveolar-capillary barrier as a finance term. What does Alveolar-capillary ... Definition of Alveolar-capillary barrier in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Intravenously administered UFP were found to cross the blood-brain barrier (Kreuter, 2001), and a transport function of ... Ultrafine particles in the urban air: to the respiratory tract--and beyond? Is the central nervous system yet another target ...
The extremely thin blood gas barrier (0.2-0.4 μM) permits free gas exchange by diffusion but exposes the capillary to high wall ... Weg JG, Anzueto A, Balk RA, et al. The relation of pneumothorax and other air leaks to mortality in the acute respiratory ... the blood-gas barrier is more prone to stress failure at higher lung volumes, probably due to increased longitudinal forces ... The association between high airway pressure and air leaks has long been recognised.4,5 However, this relationship does not ...
... Go to external page http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0003948 Copy ... The membrane between the capillary blood and alveolar air, comprised of the alveolar epithelium and the capillary epithelium ...
... diving portal Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier ... The blood-air barrier (alveolar-capillary barrier or membrane) exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs. It exists to ... Possible consequences of rupture of the blood-air barrier include arterial gas embolism and hemoptysis. Failure of the barrier ... The barrier is permeable to molecular oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and many other gases. This blood gas barrier is ...
... disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha- ... Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. We investigated whether residency in cities with high air pollution is ... disruption of the blood-brain barrier; endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cell trafficking were seen in ... Exposure to air pollution should be considered a risk factor for Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases, and carriers of the APOE ...
Air-blood barrier thickening and alterations of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells in mouse lungs with disrupted hepcidin/ ... The thickness of the air-blood barrier was greater in the mutated than in the WT mice. In conclusion, disruption of systemic ... thickening of the air-blood barrier and hyperplasia and hypotrophy of AE2 cells despite normal total intracellular surfactant ... Aging exacerbates acute lung injury-induced changes of the air-blood barrier, lung function and inflammation in the mouse. Am J ...
... disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition Cory Thomason ... Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, ...
Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Particle Size / Permeability / Humans / Blood-Air Barrier / ... A549 Cells , Blood-Air Barrier , Metabolism , Epithelium , Metabolism , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles , Toxicity , Particle Size ... Comparative Toxicity of Nanomaterials to Air-blood Barrier Permeability Using an In Vitro Model / 生物医学与环境科学(英文) ... Comparative Toxicity of Nanomaterials to Air-blood Barrier Permeability Using an In Vitro ...
4. Water Balance in the Air-Blood Barrier. As can be appreciated from Figure 2(a), the air-blood barrier, that allows gas ... J. Gil, D. A. Silage, and J. M. McNiff, "Distribution of vesicles in cells of air-blood barrier in the rabbit," Journal of ... Figure 2: Transmission electron microscopy of the air-blood barrier in control conditions (a), after saline loading to cause ... 5. The Mechanical Setting Triggering the Cellular Response to a Perturbation in Fluid Dynamics in the Air-Blood Barrier. We ...
Atypical restrictive pattern; Blood-air barrier; Spirometry. Comment in. *[Diagnostic assessment of neumonitis due to cement ... A restrictive pattern pure atypical was observed, and arterial blood gas with hipoxemia. A treatment with steroids was ...
... particulate air pollution has recently been shown to be associated with their release into the blood. We propose that episodic ... of biologic microparticles from pollution-induced lung inflammation causes secondary inflammation in the blood-brain barrier ... Since our original proposal, it has become apparent that inflammation may be carried by blood from organ to organ by biologic ... we extend our 1995 hypothetical explanation of the association of air pollution with cardiac deaths as a plausible alternative ...
Large-volume, low pressure venous blood input. Deoxygenated blood from heart enters capillary network surrounding alveoli ... Common tube for digestive and respiratory systems-- Air is shuttled posteriorly with food, then buds off anteriorly with larynx ... Provides systemic blood to lung tissues except alveoli. Arise at aorta and enter lung at hilus ... End of conducting division, filtered air gets to lungs at 37 degrees ...
Air-blood barrier = *the surfactant layer==, *the plasma membranes and cytoplasm of thin type I cell ==, ... Type I & Type II pneymocytes = cells on alveolar septa facing air supplu *Type I = thin, flat cover most of surface facing air ...
The respiratory epithelium forms a continuous layer of cells that separates air from liquid throughout the lung. The integrity ... Structural basis for some permeability properties of the air-blood barrier. Fed. Proc. 37:2471-2478.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Transfer of gases between the air and the blood requires two anatomical structures: the conducting airways, which distribute ... Membrane proteins related to anion permeability of human red blood cells. J. Membr. Biol. 15:207-226.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
What is blood-testis barrier? Meaning of blood-testis barrier medical term. What does blood-testis barrier mean? ... Looking for online definition of blood-testis barrier in the Medical Dictionary? blood-testis barrier explanation free. ... blood-air barrier alveolocapillary membrane.. blood-aqueous barrier the physiologic mechanism that prevents exchange of ... blood-gas barrier alveolocapillary membrane.. blood-testis barrier a barrier separating the blood from the seminiferous tubules ...
Rights & permissionsfor article Engineering an in vitro air-blood barrier by 3D bioprinting . Opens in a new window. ... Engineering an in vitro air-blood barrier by 3D bioprinting *Lenke Horváth ...
Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier. ... The blood-thymus barrier regulates exchange of substances between the circulatory system and thymus, providing a sequestered ... The barrier is formed by the continuous blood capillaries in the thymic cortex, reinforced by epithelial reticular cells and ... The barrier also prevents the immature T cells from contacting foreign antigens (since contact with antigens at this stage will ...
Blood-Air Barrier / physiopathology* * Bronchoalveolar Lavage * Capillaries / physiopathology* * Capillary Permeability * Cell ... Influenza Causes Prolonged Disruption of the Alveolar-Capillary Barrier in Mice Unresponsive to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy ... We report that influenza induces marked, long-lasting dysfunction of the alveolar-capillary barrier peaking at 1 wk but lasting ...
... an index of air-blood barrier permeability; and activities of three enzymes: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; an indicator of cell ...
Our data show that only early antibiotic therapy, administered prior to breakdown of the alveolar-capillary barrier and ... The findings highlight the importance of identifying CAP patients prior to lung barrier failure and systemic inflammation and ... Early treatment protected from barrier breakdown, and reduced levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and ... An intact blood-air barrier is crucial for gas exchange, and fatal barrier breakdown during streptococcal pneumonia, leading to ...
Architecture and cellular composition of the air-blood barrier. Authors. Pinkerton-KE; Gehr-P; Crapo-JD ...
Calcium signaling-related proteins regulate epithelial differentiation and development of the air-blood barrier. SFTP-A2 has ... In order to form the blood gas barrier, the epithelium starts thinning and becomes surrounded by a network of capillaries. ... Biomarkers in Blood. As indicated in Table 2, the vast majority of biomarkers identified in blood are of protein nature, and ... Airway and blood vessel interaction during lung development. J Anat (2002) 201:325-34. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00097.x ...
Figure 2. In this in vitro model of the air-blood barrier in the lungs, two types of cells - epithelial cells and endothelial ... Figure 2 illustrates an example of a microfluidic platform - the air-blood barrier where gas exchange occurs. Two types of ... Nemmar, A., et al., "Passage of Inhaled Particles into Blood Circulation in Humans," Circulation,105 (4), pp. 411-414 (Jan. ... Air, water, and land quality are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Founded in 1970, the EPA consolidated ...
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the complete process of cell injuries in the blood-air barrier after perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) ... Cell injuries of the blood-air barrier in acute lung injury caused by ... ... In the past, TI cells were believed to serve only passive barrier functions, with no active functional properties in ... ... epithelial cells isolated from septic animals develop tight junctions with different protein composition and reduced barrier ...
Impacts on the Blood-Brain Barrier. The BBB is the major site of controlled blood-CNS exchange. This physical barrier protects ... A. M. Palmer, "The role of the blood-CNS barrier in CNS disorders and their treatment," Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 37, no. 1 ... M. B. Segal, "The choroid plexuses and the barriers between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid," Cellular and Molecular ... W. A. Banks and S. M. Robinson, "Minimal penetration of lipopolysaccharide across the murine blood-brain barrier," Brain, ...
The air-blood barrier is mainly formed by two epithelial cell types: alveolar type I (ATI) and alveolar type II (ATII) cells.. ...
It is now known that particulates in air pollution can cross the blood-brain barrier and also reach the placenta. The aim of ... Two databases available on the Internet were used in the analysis: the bank of measurement data on air quality in Poland (the ... Now the effects of air pollutants on tumors in the airways, kidneys, bladder, breast, and colon have been investigated and are ... The results of the analyses indicate a high correlation of air pollution with the incidence of selected types of cancer. ...
Air Toxics. Find more information about our research on Air Pollution. ... This page has a list of publications and news articles related to Air Pollution - ... Manganese transport rates were compared with those of sucrose and dextran, which do not easily cross the blood-brain barrier. ... Air Toxics. This page has a list of publications and news articles related to Air Pollution - Air Toxics. Find more information ...
  • introduced a co-culture model comprising the epithelial cell line NCI H441 and ISO-HAS-1 as endothelial cells mimicking the alveolar-capillary barrier to evaluate the impact of silica NPs in the deep lung. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The effects of alcohol abuse on pulmonary alveolar-capillary barrier function in humans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The project will include a human panel study, in vivo studies in sensitized animal models and in vitro studies in advanced cell models mimicking lung tissue with blood vessels in the airways. (uio.no)
  • The relative contribution of mineral versus the exhaust particles for the adverse effects of the different fractions will be assessed in mono-cultures of lung epithelial cells and/or complex co-cultures of the air-blood barrier consisting of lung epithelial cells, macrophages, and vascular endothelial cells. (uio.no)
  • The association between high airway pressure and air leaks has long been recognised. (bmj.com)
  • 4, 5 However, this relationship does not necessarily imply causality as damaged, stiff lungs that require high airway pressures for ventilation may be intrinsically more prone to air leaks. (bmj.com)
  • Recent large studies in patients with ARDS have, in fact, shown a poor correlation between airway pressure (or tidal volume) and the occurrence of air leaks, which occurred in 8-14% of the patients. (bmj.com)
  • Traffic is a major source to urban air pollution and represents the largest environmental health problem worldwide. (uio.no)
  • Globally, far more people die from air pollution than from all wars and acts of violence, or from AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined. (uio.no)
  • Even in Norway, air pollution is ranked among the to-ten risk factors for premature death. (uio.no)
  • It is a major political issue to improve the urban air and the health of the population in Norway. (uio.no)
  • Ultrafine particles in the urban air: to the respiratory tract--and beyond? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1 Although not specifically addressed, Forthergill's admonition against the use of the bellows probably related to gross air leaks produced by large pressures. (bmj.com)
  • Prosjektet omfatter en human eksponeringsstudie, in vivo studier i sensitive dyremodeller, samt in vitro studier i avanserte cellemodeller som etterlikner lungevev med blodsystem i luftveiene. (uio.no)
  • The relative contribution of mineral versus the exhaust particles for the adverse effects of the different fractions will be assessed in mono-cultures of lung epithelial cells and/or complex co-cultures of the air-blood barrier consisting of lung epithelial cells, macrophages, and vascular endothelial cells. (uio.no)
  • Therefore we hypothesized that alveolar epithelial cells isolated from septic animals develop tight junctions with different protein composition and reduced barrier function relative to alveolar epithelial cells from healthy animals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gas exchange occurs primarily across the attenuated blood-air barrier that is formed by the juxtaposition of alveolar type I (ATI) epithelial cells and microcapillary endothelial cells. (jci.org)
  • Differentiation of alveolar surface epithelial cells and formation of blood-air barrier are the morphological markers of lung development. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Oxygenation of circulating blood and removal of carbon dioxide take place through the alveolar membrane, a thin (0.6-2 mm) and sophisticated barrier structure that is composed of alveolar epithelial cells, intermediate basement membrane (BM) and capillary endothelial cells (ECs) in the lung. (frontiersin.org)
  • AT2 cells can differentiate into alveolar type I (AT1) epithelial cells and can promote the formation of alveolar structure and the air-blood barrier, promoting normal alveolar development ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Model a realistic air-blood barrier using our expandable and functional human alveolar epithelial cells - the functional alternative to A549 cells. (inscreenex.de)
  • In conclusion, soluble factors from lung endothelial cells can strengthen the alveolar epithelium barrier in vitro, which suggests communication between endothelial and epithelial cells regulating the integrity of the blood-air barrier. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The barrier is formed by the continuous blood capillaries in the thymic cortex, reinforced by epithelial reticular cells and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • These conduct the capillaries , thereby ensuring the integrity of the blood-air barrier . (doccheck.com)
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB), made up of endothelial cells of capillaries in the brain, maintains the microenvironment of the central nervous system. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In the alveoli, where the blood gets oxygenated and the carbon dioxide leaves the body, the cells are cyclically stretched by the respiratory movements and stressed by the viscous forces induced by the blood flow in tiny capillaries. (grstiftung.ch)
  • blood-testis barrier a barrier separating the blood from the seminiferous tubules, consisting of special junctional complexes between adjacent Sertoli cells near the base of the seminiferous epithelium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Now the effects of air pollutants on tumors in the airways, kidneys, bladder, breast, and colon have been investigated and are better understood. (mdpi.com)
  • A new study found cyclists in Ottawa, Ontario, had heart irregularities in the hours after their exposure to a variety of air pollutants on busy roads. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Using epidemiologic approaches to determine the health risks of exposure to air pollutants is challenging: it is difficult to measure exposure to the relatively low levels of pollutants to which people are generally exposed, and to find populations with different degrees of pollutant exposure but comparable exposure to potentially confounding factors. (epa.gov)
  • In the early 1990s the Health Effects Institute (HEI) supported an Environmental Epidemiology Planning Project to identify the methodological issues that needed to be addressed in future studies of the health effects of air pollutants (HEI Communications Number 3, 1994). (epa.gov)
  • One important feature of this study was that the investigators were able to test the statistical models they developed using data from the University of Southern California Children's Health Study of the long-term effects of air pollutants on children. (epa.gov)
  • Second, because measurement error (the difference between true and measured exposures) can have a substantial impact on the accuracy of estimated health effects, Navidi constructed a model to evaluate the reliability of two approaches to estimating cumulative exposure to air pollutants. (epa.gov)
  • These individual studies were also not able to account for the effects of gaseous air pollutants in a systematic manner. (epa.gov)
  • HEI funded the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) to characterize the effects of airborne particles less than 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) alone and in combination with gaseous air pollutants in a consistent way in a large number of cities. (epa.gov)
  • the 90 largest cities were analyzed for possible modification of PM10 effects among cities by factors other than air pollutants. (epa.gov)
  • The mortality analysis used one analytic approach to examine the PM10 effect in many cities that cover a wide geographic area and have varying levels of different air pollutants. (epa.gov)
  • Here's 10 facts everyone should know about indoor air pollutants and how to protect children, the elderly, and everyone else from the serious health dangers they cause. (infowars.com)
  • EPA studies found indoor air pollutants were generally 2 to 5 times greater than outdoor pollution levels. (infowars.com)
  • Developed countries have made great strides in reducing outdoor air pollution and protecting children from indoor pollutants," Lake said. (cnn.com)
  • Millions of children are exposed to concentrations of air pollutants, including fine particulate matter (PM2.5), above safety standards. (tracemin.info)
  • We investigated serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) antibodies to neural and tight junction proteins and environmental pollutants in 139 children ages 11.91 ± 4.2 y with high versus low air pollution exposures. (tracemin.info)
  • But the 2 leading mechanistic hypotheses are only at odds over the flimsiest of barriers - the pulmonary air/blood barrier. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In conclusion, disruption of systemic iron homeostasis affects the ultrastructure of interalveolar septa which is characterized by membrane-bound iron storage in AE1 cells, thickening of the air-blood barrier and hyperplasia and hypotrophy of AE2 cells despite normal total intracellular surfactant pools. (springer.com)
  • On the basis of these measurements a geometric model of the barrier in the form of a corrugated membrane was derived. (rupress.org)
  • This analysis suggested furthermore that the gas conductance of the barrier is nearly optimal if one considers the mass of tissue and the minimal barrier thickness as fixed properties which are determined by other functional requirements on the alveolo-capillary membrane. (rupress.org)
  • blood-air barrier alveolocapillary membrane . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The bronchioles end in the small sacs called alveoli, where the barrier between the air and the blood is a thin membrane. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • An adult human breathes ~5-8 liters of air per minute (about 10,000 liters per day) to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide through the alveolar membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • These membranes are continuously exposed to various toxins or pathogens in the air, and consequently the alveolar membrane is vulnerable to the outer gaseous environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • The functionality of the air-blood barrier could be restored by using a co-culture of epithelial and endothelial cells that formed tight monolayers on each side of the thin, porous membrane. (grstiftung.ch)
  • The most important function of the respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The respiratory system protects its own delicate airways by warming and humidifying inhaled air and by filtering out particles. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The NRDC determined most air fresheners contain phthalates, noxious chemicals known to disrupt hormone function in babies and children, interfere with reproductive development, and aggravate respiratory ailments such as asthma. (infowars.com)
  • [ 2 ] A recent study found the terpenes released by air fresheners interact with ozone to form compounds like formaldehyde and acetone at concentrations which can cause respiratory sensitivity and airflow limitation. (infowars.com)
  • The human respiratory tract provides a vast epithelial surface area for air conduction and gas-exchange with a combined surface area that is about 150 m 2 . (springer.com)
  • These trends are matched by an increasing incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular problems-consequences of the inflammation and tissue damage provoked by multiple components of air pollution. (the-scientist.com)
  • To date, most researchers have focused on evaluating air pollution's effects on mortality or respiratory health. (the-scientist.com)
  • Together, outdoor and indoor air pollution are directly linked to pneumonia and other respiratory diseases that account for almost one in 10 under-five deaths, making air pollution one of the leading dangers to children's health. (unicef.org)
  • Respiratory ailments and cardio-vascular diseases are the most common fall-outs of long-term air pollution. (ibtimes.co.uk)
  • Animal experiments have shown that investigated ENPs (metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes) can translocate to the brain from different entry points (skin, blood, respiratory pathways). (biomedcentral.com)
  • After inhalation or instillation into parts of the respiratory tract a very small fraction of the inhaled or instilled ENPs reaches the blood and subsequently secondary organs, including the CNS, at a low translocation rate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of the present review is to give a short overview of how engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) can translocate from the respiratory tract to the circulation, pass the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), affect the brain, and to discuss possible adverse health effects and associated risks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consequently, with each respiratory phase, air leaves one air sac, passes over the respiratory exchange surface and then exits into the second air sac before being exhaled. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • And because we use the same pipework to get the air both in and out, there is a problem of anatomical deadspace, which further impairs the efficiency of the respiratory system. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Prosjektet omfatter en human eksponeringsstudie, in vivo studier i sensitive dyremodeller, samt in vitro studier i avanserte cellemodeller som etterlikner lungevev med blodsystem i luftveiene. (uio.no)
  • Endothelial cells (ECs) constitute small capillary blood vessels and contribute to delivery of nutrients, oxygen and cellular components to the local tissues, as well as to removal of carbon dioxide and waste products from the tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • It exists to prevent air bubbles from forming in the blood, and from blood entering the alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The branched structure of the human airways allows for efficient bidirectional transfer of approximately six liters of air per minute between the external environment and the alveoli. (jci.org)
  • In humans we alternately fill and empty our alveoli (exchange surfaces), meaning that there is always admixture of exhaled gas to the fresh air being breathed in. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continue to be a growing public health concern worldwide. (hindawi.com)
  • Since our original proposal, it has become apparent that inflammation may be carried by blood from organ to organ by biologic microparticles derived from cell membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • Our data show that only early antibiotic therapy, administered prior to breakdown of the alveolar-capillary barrier and systemic inflammation, led to restored fitness and rescued mice from fatal streptococcal pneumonia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The choroid plexus (CP), main component of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), protects the brain from peripheral inflammation similar to the blood-brain barrier. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We postulate an interplay between postoperative inflammation leading to blood aqueous barrier breakdown and IOL surface changes due to air to account for the clinical and ultrastructural findings. (escrs.org)
  • In the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) megacity, children show an early brain imbalance in oxidative stress, inflammation, innate and adaptive immune response-associated genes, and blood-brain barrier breakdown. (tracemin.info)
  • Epidemiological studies of air pollution have shown associations between exposure to particles and dementia. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. (hindawi.com)
  • Air quality is usually characterized by the mass concentration of fine particulate matters with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), which is mainly contributed by micron-sized particles, whereas the hazard induced by ultrafine particulates (with diameters smaller than hundreds of nanometers) remains seriously underestimated. (pku.edu.cn)
  • The barrier is permeable to molecular oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and many other gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood distributes oxygen to the body and collects carbon dioxide, the waste product of cell metabolism. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • It is a physical barrier with many chemical and immunological properties. (ersjournals.com)
  • Defining the air pollution linkage of the brain/immune system interactions and damage to physical and immunological barriers with short and long term neural detrimental effects to children's brains ought to be of pressing importance for public health. (tracemin.info)
  • Indeed, the volume of the extravascular water ought to be kept at minimum [ 1 ] in order to assure the maximum efficiency of the air-blood barrier in the gas diffusion mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Cerebral air embolism can sometimes be identified on brain CT, 1 and subsequent multiple infarcts can be observed on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). (bmj.com)
  • Diffusion-weighted imaging performed 5 days later showed multiple infarcts in the cortex area nearby the air (C). (bmj.com)
  • Early treatment protected from barrier breakdown, and reduced levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and perivascular and alveolar edema formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 4 The entrapped air bubbles can obstruct local blood flow, breakdown the blood-brain barrier, activate inflammatory reactions and then lead to infarcts. (bmj.com)
  • A breakdown in the blood-brain barrier allows not only particulate matter from air pollution but also the harmful neurotoxins like carbon and sulphur to enter the brain and cause long-lasting damage. (ibtimes.co.uk)
  • The thickness of the air-blood barrier was greater in the mutated than in the WT mice. (springer.com)
  • Thickness of the interstitial compartmemt of the air-blood barrier was substantially increased and this, in turn, caused an overall increase in mean thickness of the barrier. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) New research findings ( ACS Nano , 'Evolution of Nanoparticle Protein Corona across the Blood-Brain Barrier' ) demonstrate that the protein corona formed on engineered nanoparticles is dramatically affected by interaction with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and is more stable after it crosses the barrier. (nanowerk.com)
  • The use of nanoparticles is an interesting approach to overcome the problem of delivering therapeutic and/or diagnostic molecules through the blood-brain barrier to the brain, particularly due to the possibility of multifunctionalization. (nanowerk.com)
  • In this work, using a cellular model of the BBB and gold nanoparticles, a European team of scientists shows that the composition of the protein corona undergoes dramatic quantitative and qualitative molecular modifications during passage from the blood to the brain side, while it is stable once beyond the BBB. (nanowerk.com)
  • We report that influenza induces marked, long-lasting dysfunction of the alveolar-capillary barrier peaking at 1 wk but lasting longer than 3 wk postinfection. (nih.gov)
  • However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. (hindawi.com)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate protects against brain microvascular endothelial junctional protein disorganization and barrier dysfunction caused by alcohol. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Air pollution collectively describes the presence of a diverse and complex mixture of chemicals, particulate matter (PM), or of biological material in the ambient air which can cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. (hindawi.com)
  • During that time, she's discovered many links between exposure to air pollution and signs of neural damage in animals and humans. (the-scientist.com)
  • Only in the last few years, however, have researchers begun raising the alarm about links between humans' exposure to air pollution and brain function. (the-scientist.com)
  • Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ul. (nih.gov)
  • Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha-synuclein in children and young adults. (nih.gov)
  • Oxidative stress in the choroid plexus contributes to blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier disruption during sepsis development. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Prof. Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas of Montana University http://news.umt.edu/2014/09/09814airp.php has published ground-breaking research, demonstrating the devastating effects of air pollution, particularly the fine particulate matter on human health. (tracemin.info)
  • blood-aqueous barrier the physiologic mechanism that prevents exchange of materials between the chambers of the eye and the blood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Possible consequences of rupture of the blood-air barrier include arterial gas embolism and hemoptysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • En la gasometría arterial efectuada al trabajador se encontró hipoxemia en posición de decúbito supino. (nih.gov)
  • A restrictive pattern pure atypical was observed, and arterial blood gas with hipoxemia. (nih.gov)
  • Stroke incidence and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease pathology are linked to air pollution. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure to air pollution causes neuroinflammation, an altered brain innate immune response, and accumulation of Abeta42 and alpha-synuclein starting in childhood. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure to air pollution should be considered a risk factor for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and carriers of the APOE 4 allele could have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease if they reside in a polluted environment. (nih.gov)
  • Instruments on the bikes' panniers measured exposure to air pollution. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Minimize children's exposure to air pollution by keeping schools away from factories and other pollution sources and using cleaner cookstoves in homes. (cnn.com)
  • Monitor air pollution: Better monitoring has been proven to help children, youth, families and communities to reduce their exposure to air pollution, become more informed about its causes, and advocate for changes that make the air safer to breathe. (unicef.org)
  • Drs. Yokel and Crossgrove at the University of Kentucky Medical Center studied the mechanisms by which manganese enters and leaves the brain across the blood-brain barrier and, in particular, whether transporter molecules are involved. (healtheffects.org)
  • The relative transport through the barrier for small hydrophilic molecules (FITC-Na) was increase by more than 45% when the cells were exposed to stress in comparison to cells cultured in a static environment. (grstiftung.ch)
  • UNICEF said its air pollution report uses satellite imagery to show the global scope of the air pollution problem. (cnn.com)
  • Clear the Air for Children uses satellite imagery to show for the first time how many children are exposed to outdoor pollution that exceeds global guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO), and where they live across the globe. (unicef.org)
  • The higher velocity and turbulent flow of air in proximal airways creates conditions for the impaction of larger particulates and the "scrubbing" of water-soluble contaminants from inspired air. (jci.org)
  • In addition to their mass distribution, the size distributions of airborne particulates are becoming increasingly important for the evaluation of air hazards. (pku.edu.cn)
  • While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that microglial activation and changes in the blood-brain barrier are key components. (nih.gov)
  • Third, the investigators adapted a multilevel analytic design to air pollution epidemiology. (epa.gov)
  • We believe that this patient experienced cerebral air embolism as a complication of a central venous catheter. (bmj.com)
  • This case report suggests that the differential diagnosis of multiple small foci of marked hypointensity on GRE should include cerebral air embolism, particularly in patients who have sudden cardiopulmonary or neurological findings in the presence of a central venous catheter. (bmj.com)
  • Voorhies R M , Fraser R A R. Cerebral air embolism occurring at angiography and diagnosed by computerized tomography. (bmj.com)
  • MRI characteristics of cerebral air embolism from a venous source. (bmj.com)
  • We investigated whether residency in cities with high air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration in healthy children and young adults who died suddenly. (nih.gov)
  • Although her findings are observational, and the pathology of proteins such as amyloid-ß is not fully understood, Calderón-Garcidueñas argues that air pollution is the most likely culprit behind the development of the abnormalities she saw in her postmortem samples-plus many other detrimental changes to the brains of Mexico City's residents. (the-scientist.com)
  • Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. (hindawi.com)
  • Mechanistically, air pollution may affect the nervous system through a variety of cellular, molecular, and inflammatory pathways that either directly damage brain structures or lead to a predisposition to neurological diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • A patient of biliary atresia, Zuana with O positive blood group underwent a successful liver transplant from her grandmother Naseem who is A positive, he said. (hindustantimes.com)
  • In the trachea and the bronchi, the air-conducting cavities are kept open by cartilaginous bracing. (doccheck.com)
  • As these seem unlikely in terms of the very small dose likely to reach the brain in usual Western urban circumstances, we extend our 1995 hypothetical explanation of the association of air pollution with cardiac deaths as a plausible alternative explanation of its associations with dementia. (mdpi.com)
  • Air pollution ranks eighth among the leading risk factors for mortality and accounts for 2.5% of all deaths in developed countries [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution is responsible for over 3 million premature deaths each year [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hospitals may want to evaluate their protocol of taking post-mortem blood samples from infant deaths for DNA banking, especially for infants to be subject to an autopsy, to ensure the quality of the DNA for prompt and comprehensive results, and to provide a wider sample base for research into rare diseases such as ACD. (rarediseases.org)
  • UNICEF is calling on world leaders to reduce air pollution, saying it leads to the deaths of more children yearly than malaria and HIV/AIDS combined. (cnn.com)
  • At the World Health Organization's inaugural conference on air pollution last fall, health officials gathered to discuss data showing that dirty air is implicated in more than 7 million deaths per year, with the organization's directorgeneral, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, declaring the situation a "silent public health emergency. (the-scientist.com)
  • Air pollution is a major contributing factor in the deaths of around 600,000 children under five every year - and it threatens the lives and futures of millions more every day," said UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake. (unicef.org)
  • Polluted outdoor air caused 620,000 premature deaths in India in 2010, up from the 100,000 deaths in 2000 according to Global Burden of Disease 2013. (ibtimes.co.uk)
  • Air pollution killed 7 million people in 2012, causing one in eight of the total deaths globally, says the World Health Organisation. (ibtimes.co.uk)
  • Around 600,000 children under age 5 die every year from diseases caused by or exacerbated by outdoor and indoor air pollution, especially in poor nations, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake said in the introduction to a report titled "Clear the Air for Children. (cnn.com)
  • Air pollution exposure damages epithelial and endothelial barriers and is a robust trigger of tight junction and neural antibodies. (tracemin.info)
  • citation needed] Underwater diving portal Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier Pulmonary vein Sheenan Kindlen (2003). (wikipedia.org)
  • the barrier separating the blood from the brain parenchyma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Individuals with higher blood lead levels as children had less gray matter in some brain areas. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • Here we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS, culminating in CNS disease. (nih.gov)
  • A brain CT and GRE revealed multiple lesions, apparently representing air, in the bi-hemispheric corticomedullary junctional area (fig 1A, B). DWI showed multiple infarctions restricted to the cortex nearby the air (fig 1C). (bmj.com)
  • Brain CT performed 30 min after symptom onset revealed multiple low density lesions (A). A T2-weighted gradient-echo image (GRE) obtained 5 h later showed multiple hypointense lesions in the bi-hemispheric corticomedullary junction (B) consistent with air (arrows). (bmj.com)
  • Microbleeds in the areas with injury to the blood-brain barrier caused by air embolism should also be considered as a differential diagnosis. (bmj.com)
  • Once controversial, the theory that air pollution damages the brain is gaining traction in the research community. (the-scientist.com)
  • Yale School of Public Health economist Xi Chen got interested in how poor air quality can affect the brain years ago as he started thinking about pollution's cost to human society. (the-scientist.com)
  • DL-3-n-butylphthalide protects the blood-brain barrier against ischemia/hypoxia injury via upregulation of tight junction proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Blood-brain barrier pericytes as a target for HIV-1 infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has known endothelial barrier protective properties, but whether this extends to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is unclear. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this research study is to determine if sunitinib can get past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain tumor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the ExAblate® Model 4000 Type 2.0 system as a tool to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with probable Alzh. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Nanowerk Spotlight ) The challenge in treating most brain disorders is overcoming the difficulty of delivering therapeutic agents to specific regions of the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (nanowerk.com)
  • This indicates damage to the blood-brain barrier that keeps antigens and neurotoxins away from the brain. (ibtimes.co.uk)
  • These experimental results demonstrated that freeze- and spray-dried powders have the potential for pulmonary sustained release, and they also have the potential to be used as a novel treatment for the delivery of drugs that pass through the air-blood barrier and enter the brain and are efficient carriers for the treatment of brain metastasis. (dovepress.com)
  • In contrast to this, soluble factors derived from brain endothelial cells weakened the barrier significantly. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • This important Research, published in the reputable Journal of Alzheimer Disease 2015;43(3):1039-58 demonstrates that combustion metal exposure breaks down the body's natural barriers, including the blood brain barrier. (tracemin.info)
  • The major factor determining the impact of neural antibodies is the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. (tracemin.info)
  • Compare pre- and post-treatment whole-cell HDAC-activity levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. (bioportfolio.com)