The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The motion of air currents.
The contamination of indoor air.
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.
Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Digital image data sets, consisting of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)
Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.
Supplies used in building.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent used as a decongestant.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.

Control of cAMP in lung endothelial cell phenotypes. Implications for control of barrier function. (1/131)

Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) form a more restrictive barrier to macromolecular flux than pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs); however, the mechanisms responsible for this intrinsic feature of PMVECs are unknown. Because cAMP improves endothelial barrier function, we hypothesized that differences in enzyme regulation of cAMP synthesis and/or degradation uniquely establish an elevated content in PMVECs. PMVECs possessed 20% higher basal cAMP concentrations than did PAECs; however, increased content was accompanied by 93% lower ATP-to-cAMP conversion rates. In PMVECs, responsiveness to beta-adrenergic agonist (isoproterenol) or direct adenylyl cyclase (forskolin) activation was attenuated and responsiveness to phosphodiesterase inhibition (rolipram) was increased compared with those in PAECs. Although both types of endothelial cells express calcium-inhibited adenylyl cyclase, constitutive PMVEC cAMP accumulation was not inhibited by physiological rises in cytosolic calcium, whereas PAEC cAMP accumulation was inhibited 30% by calcium. Increasing either PMVEC calcium entry by maximal activation of store-operated calcium entry or ATP-to-cAMP conversion with rolipram unmasked calcium inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. These data indicate that suppressed calcium entry and low ATP-to-cAMP conversion intrinsically influence calcium sensitivity. Adenylyl cyclase-to-cAMP phosphodiesterase ratios regulate cAMP at elevated levels compared with PAECs, which likely contribute to enhanced microvascular barrier function.  (+info)

Clara cell protein as a marker of Clara cell damage and bronchoalveolar blood barrier permeability. (2/131)

The 16 kDa Clara cell protein (CC16), an abundant component of airway secretions, has recently been proposed in humans as a pulmonary marker measurable not only in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) but also in serum. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes and determinants of CC16 concentrations in these fluids in normal rats and rats with lung injury. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single i.p. injection of arachis oil (n=20) or chemicals in arachis oil (n=10) that mainly damage Clara cells (4-ipomeanol (IPO) 8 mg x kg(-1) and methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) 5 mg x kg(-1)) or endothelial cells (alpha-naphthylthiourea (ANTU) 5 mg x kg(-1)). CC16 concentration (mean+/-sD in microg x L(-1)), measured by a sensitive latex immunoassay, was significantly reduced in BALF of all treated groups (IPO 380+/-100; MMT 730+/-200; ANTU 1,070+/-200; controls 1,700+/-470). The same pattern of decrease was observed in the labelling of Clara cells with an anti-CC16 antiserum as well as in the CC16 messenger ribonucleic acid levels assessed by Northern enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In serum, by contrast, CC16 was significantly increased in all treated groups (IPO 31+/-7; MMT 22+/-12; ANTU 52+/-24; controls 15+/-6). This rise of CC16 in serum was associated with an elevation of albumin in BALF which is an index of increased bronchoalveolar/blood barrier permeability. In conclusion, lung injury induces a decrease of the 16 kDa Clara cell protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid owing to a reduced production by damaged Clara cells, and an increase in serum protein levels resulting from its enhanced leakage across the bronchoalveolar/blood barrier. This study provides new insights into the understanding of the changes of lung secretory proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum.  (+info)

Modulation of bronchial epithelial cell barrier function by in vitro jet propulsion fuel 8 exposure. (3/131)

The loss of epithelial barrier integrity in bronchial and bronchiolar airways may be an initiating factor in the observed onset of toxicant-induced lung injuries. Acute 1-h inhalation exposures to aerosolized jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) have been shown to induce cellular and morphological indications of pulmonary toxicity that was associated with increased respiratory permeability to 99mTc-DTPA. To address the hypothesis that JP-8 jet fuel-induced lung injury is initiated through a disruption in the airway epithelial barrier function, paracellular mannitol flux of BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells was measured. Incubation of confluent cell cultures with non-cytotoxic concentrations of JP-8 or n-tetradecane (C14), a primary constituent of JP-8, for a 1-h exposure period resulted in dose-dependent increases of paracellular flux. Following exposures of 0.17, 0.33, 0.50, or 0.67 mg/ml, mannitol flux increased above vehicle controls by 10, 14, 29, and 52%, respectively, during a 2-h incubation period immediately after each JP-8 exposure. C14 caused greater mannitol flux increases of 37, 42, 63, and 78%, respectively, following identical exposure conditions. The effect on transepithelial mannitol flux reached a maximum at 12 h and spontaneously reversed to control values over a 48-h recovery period, for both JP-8 and C14 exposure. These data indicate that non-cytotoxic exposures to JP-8 or C14 exert a noxious effect on bronchial epithelial barrier function that may preclude pathological lung injury.  (+info)

Estrogen-induced microvilli and microvillar channels and entrapment of surfactant-lipids by alveolar type I cells of bovine lung. (4/131)

The ATI cells are simple, flat squamous epithelial cells, which are evolved to function as a component of the alveolar-capillary membrane, ideally designed for gaseous exchange. They inherently lack an active metabolic machinery and lead a precarious existence in the face of hostile environment. On the other hand, the ATI cells of the lung of ruminating animals are endowed with structure-functional properties which enable them to exert a selective barrier function against a wide range of osmotic pressure gradients at their luminal surface. Such gradients are created by a complex gaseous homeostasis due to expectoration of several gases and volatile fatty acids originating from the complex stomach of the ruminants. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of estradiol propionate on the ultrastructure of the ATI cells and their interaction with the surfactant lipids. The lungs of estrogen and dexamethasone treated male calves were harvested for electromicroscopic examination. The evidence is presented that estradiol induced the formation of microvilli and microvillar channels at the luminal surface. At these regional modifications, intense interactions with the surfactant lipids and their entrapment into the pathways of endocytosis, took place in the squamous part of the ATI cells. Concurrently, large basal protrusions ended up as long lamellipods deep into the alveolar interstitium. The filamentous cytoskeletal network and microtubules intermixed with the translocated organelles such as Golgi apparatus and associated coated and uncoated vesicles. The results of this study support the hypothesis that estrogen regulate the selective barrier-function of the ATI cells. The entrapment of surfactant lipids under the influence of estrogen by ATI cells is a significant change perhaps in response to extracellular stimuli and expression of transmembrane receptors. It implies that these epithelial cells are specially evolved to adapt to a complex gaseous homeostasis in the lung of the ruminating ungulates.  (+info)

Impeded alveolar-capillary gas transfer with saline infusion in heart failure. (5/131)

The microvascular pulmonary endothelium barrier is critical in preventing interstitial fluid overflow and deterioration in gas diffusion. The role of endothelium in transporting small solutes in pathological conditions, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), has not been studied. Monitoring of pulmonary gas transfer during saline infusion in CHF was used to probe this issue. Carbon monoxide diffusion (DL(CO)), its membrane diffusion (D(M)) and capillary blood volume (V(C)) subcomponents, and mean right atrial (rap) and mean pulmonary wedge (wpp) pressures after saline or 5% D-glucose solution infusions were compared with baseline in 26 moderate CHF patients. Saline was also tested in 13 healthy controls. In patients, 750 mL of saline lowered DL(CO) (-8%, P<0.01 versus baseline), D(M) (-10%, P<0.01 versus baseline), aldosterone (-29%, P<0.01 versus baseline), renin (-52%, P<0.01 versus baseline), and hematocrit (-6%, P<0.05 versus baseline) and increased V(C) (20%, P<0.01 versus baseline), without changing rap and wpp. Saline at 150 mL produced qualitatively similar results regarding DL(CO) (-5%, P<0.01 versus baseline), D(M) (-7%, P<0.01 versus baseline), V(C) (9%, P<0.01 versus baseline), rap, wpp, aldosterone (-9%, P<0.05 versus baseline), and renin (-14%, P<0.05 versus baseline). Glucose solution (750 mL), on the contrary, increased DL(CO) (5%, P<0.01 versus 750 mL of saline) and D(M) (11%, P<0.01 versus 750 mL of saline) and decreased V(C) (-9, P<0.01 versus 750 mL of saline); aldosterone (-40%), renin (-41%), hematocrit (-3%), rap, and wpp behaved as they did after saline infusion. In controls, responses to both saline amounts were similar to responses in CHF patients regarding aldosterone, renin, hematocrit, rap, and wpp, whereas DL(CO), D(M), and V(C) values tended to rise. Hindrance to gas transfer (reduced DL(CO) and D(M)) with salt infusion in CHF, despite an increase in V(C) and no variations in pulmonary hydrostatic forces, indicates an upregulation in sodium transport from blood to interstitium with interstitial edema. Redistribution of blood from the lungs, facilitating interstitial fluid reabsorption, or sodium uptake from the alveolar lumen by the sodium-glucose cotransport system might underlie the improved alveolar-capillary conductance with glucose.  (+info)

Differentiated and functional human airway epithelium regeneration in tracheal xenografts. (6/131)

To investigate the regeneration process of a well-differentiated and functional human airway epithelium, we adapted an in vivo xenograft model in which adult human nasal epithelial cells adhere and progressively repopulate denuded rat tracheae grafted in nude mice. The proliferating activity, the degree of differentiation, and the barrier integrity of the repopulated epithelium were studied during the regeneration process at optical and ultrastructural levels with immunocytochemistry and a permeability tracer. Three days after implantation in nude mice, tracheal xenografts were partially repopulated with a flattened nonciliated and poorly differentiated leaky epithelium. By the end of the first week after the graft, cell proliferation produced on the entire surface of the rat trachea an epithelium that was stratified into multiple layers and tightly sealed. During successive weeks, cell proliferation dramatically decreased. Moreover, the epithelium became progressively columnar, secretory, ciliated, and transiently leaky. At 4-5 wk, a fully differentiated pseudostratified functional epithelial barrier impermeable to a low-molecular-weight tracer was reconstituted. The regeneration of a well-differentiated and functional human airway epithelium in rat tracheae grafted in nude mice includes several steps that mimic the regeneration dynamics of airway epithelium after injury.  (+info)

Primate pleuroesophageal tissue barrier frequency response and esophageal pressure waveform bandwidth in health and acute lung injury. (7/131)

BACKGROUND: Dynamic intraesophageal pressure (Pes) is used to estimate intrapleural pressure (Ppl) to calculate lung compliance and resistance. This study investigated the nonhuman primate Ppl-Pes tissue barrier frequency response and the dynamic response requirements of Pes manometers. METHODS: In healthy monkeys and monkeys with acute lung injury undergoing ventilation, simultaneous Ppl and Pes were measured directly to determine the Ppl-Pes tissue barrier amplitude frequency response, using the swept-sine wave technique. The bandwidths of physiologic Pes waveforms acquired during conventional mechanical ventilation were calculated using digital low-pass signal filtering. RESULTS: The Ppl-Pes tissue barrier is amplitude-uniform within the bandwidth of conventional Pes waveforms in healthy and acute lung injury lungs, and does not significantly attenuate Ppl-Pes signal transmission between 1 and 40 Hz. At Pes frequencies higher than conventional clinical regions of interest the Ppl-Pes barrier resonates significantly, is pressure amplitude dependent at low-pressure offsets, and is significantly altered by acute lung injury. Allowing for 5% or less Pes waveform error, the maximum Pes bandwidths during conventional ventilation were 1.9 Hz and 3.4 Hz for physiologic and extreme-case waveforms in healthy lungs and 4.6 Hz and 8.5 Hz during acute lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: In monkeys, the Ppl-Pes tissue barrier has a frequency response suitable for Ppl estimation during low-frequency mechanical ventilation, and Pes manometers should have a minimum uniform frequency response up to 8.5 Hz. However, the Ppl-Pes tissue barrier adversely affects the accurate estimation of dynamic Ppl at high frequencies, with varied airway pressure amplitudes and offsets, such as the Ppl encountered during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.  (+info)

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid urea as a measure of pulmonary permeability in healthy smokers. (8/131)

The effects of cigarette smoking on blood to airway pulmonary permeability to the low-molecular-weight solute urea were investigated, in an attempt to evaluate its use as a dilution marker for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) studies. Five healthy normal smokers who smoked a cigarette 10 min prior to undergoing a 3 x 60 mL bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and five nonsmokers who also underwent BAL but without cigarette smoke exposure were studied. Five minutes before bronchoscopy, 4 MBq 3H-water and 1 MBq 14C-urea were injected intravenously and biochemical urea assays and an indirect radiotracer method were used to evaluate permeability. It was shown that the smoking group had less urea in their BAL supernatants compared to nonsmokers the results using the radiotracer method being significant (p<0.005). Using both methods, it was shown that levels of urea increased in sequentially aspirated aliquots in both groups. The median directly assayed levels of urea in the smokers rose as follows: aliquot 1 0.05 micromol x mL(-1), (range 0.03-0.14), aliquot 2 0.10 micromol x mL(-1) (0.07-0.17), aliquot 3 0.12 micromol x mL(-1) (0.06-0.23) (p<0.05). This led to significantly increased calculated levels of epithelial lining fluid in the sequential aliquots (p<0.05). In addition, there were large but variable amounts of labelled water detected in both subject groups indicating a complex interaction between the BAL procedure and the circulation. Changing urea measurements during the bronchoalveolar lavage procedure confound the use of the urea (epithelial lining fluid) method for normalizing dilution factors. The use of epithelial lining fluid determinations in smokers ignores the additional and probably complex permeability changes. The present data suggest that acute exposure to cigarette smoke in smokers may decrease blood to airway permeability.  (+info)

Definition of blood-air barrier in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is blood-air barrier? Meaning of blood-air barrier as a legal term. What does blood-air barrier mean in law?
Definition of Alveolar-capillary barrier in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Alveolar-capillary barrier? Meaning of Alveolar-capillary barrier as a finance term. What does Alveolar-capillary barrier mean in finance?
epithelial cells (AECs) maintain the pulmonary blood-gas barrier integrity with gasketlike intercellular tight junctions (TJ) that are anchored internally to the actin cytoskeleton. the Rac1 downstream proteins mediates stretch-induced increases in permeability and PJAR formation. ≤ 0.05. All the BMS-707035 statistical tests were implemented in JMP (version 8.0 SAS Institute BMS-707035 Cary NC). To test the effect of stretch readout values were compared with time-matched unstretched-untreated controls using a one-way ANOVA with a post hoc Dunnetts test (72). To test the effect of treatment (inhibitors or exogenous agonists) readout values were compared with time-matched VCs as well as UNS-VCs by a two-way ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post hoc analysis (72). RESULTS Rac1 downstream proteins are activated by stretch. We hypothesized that actin cytoskeleton remodeling during formation of PJARs would be accompanied by an increase in phosphorylation of Rac1 downstream proteins Akt and LIMK1/2 and by a ...
A reliable knowledge of the thickness of the alveolo-capillary membrane or air-blood barrier is of physiologic interest since it is intimately related to a quantitative estimation of such functional events as gas diffusion or tissue metabolism in the lung. The characteristic thickness of the air-blood barrier with respect to gas diffusion is its harmonic mean thickness, while the arithmetic mean thickness is related to the mass of tissue building the barrier and consuming oxygen in the lung. Two morphometric methods are proposed by which these two dimensions can be estimated from random measurements in the electron microscope in a reliable, simple, and efficient manner. By applying these methods to three rat lungs the arithmetic mean thickness of the barrier was found to measure 1.25 µ, the harmonic mean thickness, 0.57 µ. On the basis of these measurements a geometric model of the barrier in the form of a corrugated membrane was derived. Its dimensions showed close similarity to those of ...
Scheme electron microscopy. (1, ↓) Represents type I pneumocytes lining alveolar spaces (A). Cell (2) represents a free alveolar macrophage. The type II pneumocyte (3) is adherent to type I pneumocyte extensions (note junctional connection), and contains multilamellar bodies (surfactant). A myofibroblast (4) is located in the interstitium (note surrounding cross-sectioned collagen fiber dots), and (*) indicate elastin. (5, ↓) Indicate endothelial cells within the capillaries. (6↔) Indicates the thin-walled area of the air-blood barrier.
Latin macrophagocytus … Wikipedia. The dendritic cells also phagocytize the pathogens, and they are also the major type of antigen presenting cells in the immune system. In conclusion, CNC exposure may result in dysregulation of macrophage activation and function that are … CNC exposure also affected the function of activated alveolar macrophages resulting in a prominent cytokine burst and altered phagocytic activity. They are specialized to serve as very thin (often only 25 nm in width) gas-permeable components of the blood-air barrier. Other full-time defensive phagocytes exist in the lungs, spleen, nervous tissue, thymus and many other areas, including mast cells, dendritic cells and sinusoidal cells. The dust cell is also called the alveolar phagocyte. Macrophage - A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms (pseudopodia) to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens. However, whether these lung phagocytes also display unique spatial distribution remains unclear. Also, alveolar macrophages ...
Pulmonary edema is traditionally classified as caused by either an increased capillary pressure (hydrostatic or cardiogenic edema) or an increased permeability of the capillary wall (high-permeability edema). The distinction between the two has usually been made on the basis of the protein concentration of the edema fluid.30 The protein concentration is usually less than one half that of blood in hydrostatic or cardiogenic pulmonary edema, whereas the ratio is typically ,0.7 in high-permeability edema.30 31 The differences arise because the pulmonary blood-gas barrier tends to retain its low-permeability characteristics in hydrostatic edema, with the result that the sieving of protein remains effective. By contrast, damage to the wall of the pulmonary capillary increases its permeability, resulting in a greater protein loss from the capillary. In practice, this traditional classification does not always match expectations. For example, Fein et al30 pointed out that there is a substantial ...
Morphometric data from stable (nonedematous) isolated dog lungs, perfused with nearly cell-free perfusates, were compared to similar stereological evaluations of isolated dog lungs after induction of severe acute hydrostatic edema. In the edematous lungs, capillary surface and volume densities were substantially increased. Alveolar surface density was also increased. Thicknesses of the endothelial and type I epithelial cellular compartments of the air-blood barrier were unchanged. Thickness of the interstitial compartmemt of the air-blood barrier was substantially increased and this, in turn, caused an overall increase in mean thickness of the barrier. Volume densities of the nonparenchymal connective tissue spaces surrounding the extra-alveolar vessels and airways were also increased. In both the endothelial and type I epithelial cells cytoplasmic volume densities of pinocytotic vesicles were increased. In addition, the number of vesicles opening onto the luminal and albuminal cellular surfaces ...
In the PrevenTAP-project financed by the Norwegian Research Council a major task is to evaluate the relative impact of abrasion versus exhaust PM on pulmonary and cardiovascular health effects. It is important to predict what measures are likely to be most efficient to reduce specific health effects. The project will include a human panel study, in vivo studies in sensitized animal models and in vitro studies in advanced cell models mimicking lung tissue with blood vessels in the airways. National and international expertise across different scientific disciplines are involved, including important executing and regulatory authorities and end-users at national and local level.. In the Master thesis, advanced cell models of lung tissue will be used to examine inflammatory potency of different size-fractions of PM-samples collected in a tunnel in Trondheim. The coarse PM-fraction with the largest particles consists of a mix of wear and exhaust particles, the fine fraction with an increasing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of barrier protection for sexual activity among women who have sex with women. AU - Rowen, Tami S.. AU - Breyer, Benjamin N.. AU - Lin, Tzu Chin. AU - Li, Chin-Shang. AU - Robertson, Patricia A.. AU - Shindel, Alan W. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Objective: To assess the frequency and associations of barrier protection use during sexual activity in a population of women who have sex with women (WSW). Methods: WSW were invited to participate in an international internet-based survey. Information regarding ethnodemographics, sexual health, and barrier use during sexual activities was collected. Results: The study cohort comprised 1557 participants. Barrier use was least prevalent during digital genital stimulation (11.3% ever used barriers) and most prevalent during stimulation with a sex toy (34.4% ever used barriers). Univariate analysis revealed that women in non-monogamous relationships were more likely than monogamous women to always use barrier protection for sexual ...
Drug Packaging - Many natural barriers to delivery of drugs are porous to nano particles. Interestingly, the window of sizes that can pass through the barrier varies, being 8-12nm for kidneys, 10-24nm in the air-blood barrier in the lungs. This can be used to advantage by creating custom-sized particles that combine the drug and a coating of nano-material. Carefully controlling the size of the final particle allows it to be targeted at a specific organ, potentially preventing harmful effects elsewhere. An example of this is Doxil, which encapsulates the drug doxorubicin in liposomes (tiny spheres of fat like molecules) about ~ 100 nm in size - which is the ideal size for the structure to penetrate tumours and also reduces harmful effects on other tissues ...
Physical forces such as stretch play an important role in physiological processes. In fetal life breathing is essential for lung development and in the mature lung ventilation stimulates surfactant production by type II pneumocytes.71 Central to this is the concept of mechanotransduction, whereby physical forces are detected by cells and converted into biochemical signals. There is now good evidence that signalling events activated by injurious ventilation play a role in VILI.81,82. The increase in lung vascular permeability induced in isolated perfused rat lungs by high airway pressure ventilation can be blocked by gadolinium in the perfusate.83 Gadolinium probably exerts this effect through its inhibition of stretch activated cation channels. This indicates that the oedema seen in injurious ventilation is, at least in part, due to the activation of specific cellular processes rather than simply being a reflection of physical disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier (the stretched pore ...
The presence of a blood-like or metallic taste in the mouth following exercise can be attributed to extreme stress on the pulmonary capillaries which form the blood-gas barrier in the lung, according...
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is triggered by injury to the alveolar-capillary barrier from any of a variety of causes, resulting in fluid accumulation and acute respiratory failure ...
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Looking for online definition of alveolar-capillary membrane in the Medical Dictionary? alveolar-capillary membrane explanation free. What is alveolar-capillary membrane? Meaning of alveolar-capillary membrane medical term. What does alveolar-capillary membrane mean?
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement ...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosgene#Chemical_warfare Phosgene is an insidious poison as the odor may not be noticed and symptoms may be slow to appear.[17] The odor detection threshold for phosgene is 0.4 ppm, which is four times the Threshold Limit Value. Its high toxicity arises from the action of the phosgene on the proteins in the pulmonary alveoli, which are the site of gas exchange: their damage disrupts the blood-air barrier, causing suffocation. It reacts with the amines of the proteins, causing crosslinking via formation of urea-like linkages, in accord with the reactions discussed above. Phosgene detection badges are worn by those at risk of exposure.[3]Sodium bicarbonate may be used to neutralise liquid spills of phosgene. Gaseous spills may be mitigated with ammonia.[18 ...
Looking for online definition of secondary failure in the Medical Dictionary? secondary failure explanation free. What is secondary failure? Meaning of secondary failure medical term. What does secondary failure mean?
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a severe medical condition which is characterized by significant alveolar fluid accumulation and insufficient gas exchange. Cardiac surgery, ECMO, and use of cardiac medications are all known risk factors for ARDS which also complicates management of these and other cardiovascular diseases. Effective alveolar fluid clearance and repair of a functional alveolar-capillary barrier are considered the primary mechanisms for edema resolution in ARDS. Apart from enhancing fluid clearance, the Na+,K+-ATPase has been shown important for alveolar barrier function. Our lab showed that overexpression of the Na+,K+-ATPase b1 subunit into lungs enhances alveolar barrier integrity in previously injured lungs in mice and pigs. Previous in vitro data indicated that MRCKa mediates the upregulation of tight junction (TJ) proteins and epithelial barrier integrity by b1 overexpression. I hypothesize that the b1-Na+,K+-ATPase regulates alveolar barrier function through ...
Lung is the first portal of entry into our body to airborne particles, which have been associated to lung and cardiovascular diseases [33, 34]. Aggregated NPs are a major form of airborne particles [7, 12]. Their low effective density compared to single particles of similar size increases their mobility and allow them to penetrate and deposit in the deep lung region [8]. However their behavior at the lung barrier is poorly studied, therefore gaining a better understanding of the aggregates interaction and fate at the human alveolar epithelial tissue barrier is important. In this study, an approach combining air liquid interface and advanced lung cell co-culture has been used representing a more realistic perspective when compared to submerged exposures [35]. Although the system has its limitation, i.e. it is not possible to follow the long-term fate of the particles and/or drugs in the blood as well as lymph circulations and secondary organs, it has been shown to give comparable results to in ...
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major etiologic agent of bacterial pneumonia. Autolysis and antibiotic-mediated lysis of pneumococci induce release of the pore-forming toxin, pneumolysin (PLY), their major virulence factor, which is a prominent cause of acute lung injury. PLY inhibits alveolar liquid clearance and severely compromises alveolar-capillary barrier function, leading to permeability edema associated with pneumonia. As a consequence, alveolar flooding occurs, which can precipitate lethal hypoxemia by impairing gas exchange. The a subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is crucial for promoting Na + reabsorption across Na + -transporting epithelia. However, it is not known if human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HL-MVEC) also express ENaC-α and whether this subunit is involved in the regulation of their barrier function. Methods: The presence of α, β, and γ subunits of ENaC and protein phosphorylation status in HL-MVEC were assessed in western blotting. The ...
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This project aims at improving the diagnosis of drowning. Diatoms in the water that enter the lungs will cross the alveolar-capillary barrier and will be distributed to, and trapped in the capillaries of remote tissues via the blood circulation. These diatoms can then be extracted from tissue samples and analyzed microscopically. In collaboration with Stockholm University the extracts are studied using conventional bright field microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We have established a method protocol based on protein K digestion of the organic material.
Patients that have chronic liver failure, often due to cirrhosis, can sometimes develop respiratory symptoms as well. Interestingly will these patients have dyspnoea and hypoxaemia, but only in standing, orthostatic position! The term for dyspnoea that occurs only while standing is platypnoea, and the term for hypoxaemia that occurs only in the same condition is orthodeoxia.. Recall that ventilation is different in different parts of the lung; its lowest in the apex and highest in the base. These changes are due to gravity, so they only occur while standing. In supine position is the ventilation and perfusion mostly the same everywhere in the lung.. Recall that when the V/Q ratio decreases because of either decreased ventilation or increased perfusion will a shunt be formed, because blood passes from the arterial to the venous side without being fully oxygenized. To avoid this will the lungs vasoconstrict the vessels in the area where the V/Q is too low.. The pathogenesis of hepatopulmonary ...
Effects of silica NPs in alveolar-capillary permeability. C57Bl/6j mice were instilled with 5 mg/kg (100 μg/mice) of SiO2 NPs, FITC- SiO2 NPs or vehicle. 5
Medical Director, Johns Hopkins Bayview Hospital MICU. Expertise, Disease and Conditions: Critical Care Medicine, Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care Medicine, Pulmo... [more]. Research Interests: Pulmonary endothelial barrier function, Acute lung injury, Pulmonary thro... [more]. ...
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Diffusing capacity of the lung (DL) measures the transfer of gas from air in the lung, to the red blood cells in lung blood vessels. It is part of a comprehensive series of pulmonary function tests to determine the overall ability of the lung to transport gas into and out of the blood. DL, especially DLCO, is reduced in certain diseases of the lung and heart. DLCO measurement has been standardized according to a position paper by a task force of the European Respiratory and American Thoracic Societies. In respiratory physiology, the diffusing capacity has a long history of great utility, representing conductance of gas across the alveolar-capillary membrane and also takes into account factors affecting the behaviour of a given gas with hemoglobin[citation needed]. The term may be considered a misnomer as it represents neither diffusion nor a capacity (as it is typically measured under submaximal conditions) nor capacitance. In addition, gas transport is only diffusion limited in extreme cases, ...
Tamang DL, Pirzai W, Priebe GP, Traficante DC, Pier GB, Falck JR, Morisseau C, Hammock BD, McCormick BA, Gronert K, Hurley BP. Hepoxilin A(3) facilitates neutrophilic breach of lipoxygenase-expressing airway epithelial barriers. J Immunol. 2012 Nov 15; 189(10):4960-9 ...
Background : Recently, there has been a growing interest in mucointegration as the formation of an early and long-standing soft tissue barrier seems essential for both the initial healing and long-term implant survival ...
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16 Principles of clinical biochemistry J. FYFFE AND K. WILSON Principles of clinical biochemical analysis Clinical measurements and quality control Examples of biochemical aids to clinical diagnosis Suggestions for further reading Acknowledgements 17 Cell membrane receptors and cell signalling and techiniques of.
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More frequent utilization of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) organs for lung transplantation has the potential to relieve the shortage of donor organs. In particular with respect to uncontrolled NHBD, concerns exist regarding the risk of ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury-related graft damage or dysfunction. Due to their immunomodulating and tissue-remodelling properties, bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been suspected of playing a beneficial role regarding short- and long-term survival and function of the allograft. Thus, MSC administration might represent a promising pretreatment strategy for NHBD organs. To study the initial effects of warm ischaemia and MSC application, a large animal lung transplantation model was generated, and the structural organ composition of the transplanted lungs was analysed stereologically with particular respect to the blood-gas barrier and the surfactant system. In this study, porcine lungs (n = 5/group) were analysed. Group 1 was the ...
More frequent utilization of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) organs for lung transplantation has the potential to relieve the shortage of donor organs. In particular with respect to uncontrolled NHBD, concerns exist regarding the risk of ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury-related graft damage or dysfunction. Due to their immunomodulating and tissue-remodelling properties, bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been suspected of playing a beneficial role regarding short- and long-term survival and function of the allograft. Thus, MSC administration might represent a promising pretreatment strategy for NHBD organs. To study the initial effects of warm ischaemia and MSC application, a large animal lung transplantation model was generated, and the structural organ composition of the transplanted lungs was analysed stereologically with particular respect to the blood-gas barrier and the surfactant system. In this study, porcine lungs (n = 5/group) were analysed. Group 1 was the ...
Caveolin-1 is a key regulator of pulmonary endothelial barrier function. interleukin-6, and promoted BAL neutrophilia in WT mice. Lung injury by these criteria was significantly reduced in Cav-1-/- mice but fully restored by i.v. injection of liposome/Cav-1 cDNA complexes that rescued expression of Cav-1 in lung microvessels. As thrombin is known to play a significant role in mediating stretch-induced vascular injury, we observed in cultured mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLECs) thrombin-induced albumin hyperpermeability and phosphorylation of p44/42 MAP kinase in WT but not in Cav-1-/- MLECs. Thus, caveolin-1 expression is required for mechanical stretch-induced lung inflammation and endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo. was measured in isolated lung preparations explanted from mice after two hours of injurious or control ventilation. The procedure is usually described in detail by Gorovoy in WT and Cav-1-/- mice (Fig. 2). For 125I-BSA determination, mice were ...
Wagner DE, Ikonomou L, Gilpin SE, Magin CM, Cruz F, Greaney A, Magnusson M, Chen YW, Davis B, Vanuytsel K, Rolandsson Enes S, Krasnodembskaya A, Lehmann M, Westergren-Thorsson G, Stegmayr J, Alsafadi HN, Hoffman ET, Weiss DJ, Ryan AL. Stem Cells, Cell Therapies, and Bioengineering in Lung Biology and Disease 2019. ERJ Open Res. 2020 Oct; 6(4 ...
Vascular barrier dysfunction and acute lung inflammation are fundamental features that contribute to the significant mortality associated with VILI and ARDS. Despite advances in protective LTV ventilation strategies, effective pharmacotherapy for this devastating syndrome is lacking. Using an aseptic in vivo model of VILI, we show here for the first time that a single intravenous dose of OxPAPC significantly attenuates the early vascular barrier disruption and acute inflammation induced by mechanical ventilation at HTV. Intravenous OxPAPC significantly reduced alveolar and tissue inflammatory cell recruitment and protein accumulation in the BAL after 2 hours of mechanical ventilation at HTV.. In our previous study, we described similar protective effects of OxPAPC in an animal model of LPS-induced lung injury [20]. In that model, OxPAPC prevented neutrophil influx and barrier disruption likely in part via direct competitive inhibition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) binding [13, 19, 20]. However, ...
The alveolar-capillary membrane, in the adult, consists of a thinned-out cell wall plus the cytoplasm of a type I cell with its basement membrane and the thinned-out cell wall and cytoplasm of a capillary endothelial cell with its basement membran Where they meet, the two basement membranes ...
Release Date: August 27, 2019. Expiration Date: September 17, 2020. This basic-level course provides respiratory therapists with a review of the concepts and principles of anatomy and physiology that apply to clinical practice. This course reviews the structure (anatomy) and function (physiology) of the respiratory system. Structure is covered beginning with a description of the thoracic cage and thoracic cavity, followed by a discussion of lung structures. A description of the airways, alveoli, and the alveolar-capillary membrane is then provided. Physiology related to the pulmonary system is then described. The process of bulk air movement and lung volumes and lung capacities are discussed. Dead space, defenses of the lung, alveolar stability and expansion, and diffusion are also presented. The course concludes with a description of O2 transport, CO2 transport, and neural control of the lungs. ...
The influence of detrimental forms of mechanical ventilation on the fluid balance across the alveolo-capillary barrier and its influence on the surfactant system have been extensively described in literature. Moreover, possible mechanisms by which such ventilation strategies exert systemic effects and effects on other organs are becoming increasingly realized. This paper describes the complications of detremental forms of mechanical ventilation and the physiological background to prevent such complications.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic control of ventilation. T2 - What are we learning from murine models?. AU - Tankersley, Clarke G.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Advances in human and mouse genomes are revolutionizing research in lung biology and pulmonary medicine. Genomic strategies are available that link functional variation to molecular structure, and these approaches are currently being applied to the study of ventilatory control mechanisms. In this review, the author discusses the functional data obtained from inbred murine models in which genetic mutations and polymorphisms play a role in altered breathing. At the conclusion of this review, the author emphasizes the relatively small number of studies that have incorporated the use of genomics to link differential ventilatory function to molecular structure. Curr Opin Pulm Med 1999, 5:344-348. AB - Advances in human and mouse genomes are revolutionizing research in lung biology and pulmonary medicine. Genomic strategies are available that link ...
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The presence of cell and tissue barriers together with the low biomembrane permeability of various therapeutics often hampers systemic drug distribution; thus, most of the available molecules are of limited therapeutic value. Opportunities to increase medicament concentrations in areas that are diff …
Can you pick the right answers for gas Transfer and Transport?? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by CMUPA2014
Section of Ageing and Health and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Medicine, Centre for Cardiovascular and Lung Biology, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, United Kingdom ...
Aveenos Eczema Therapy Balm both prevents and treats my eczema. Its thick, provides a strong barrier protection. If dry, patchy, itcy skin is your reality, you might want to give this a shot.
Exam and surgical gloves provide fingers, hands and wrists with barrier protection against infectious materials and other fluids during dental procedures or exams ...
Kymograph: …a device known as a kymograph to record changes in arterial blood pressure; a simple stromuhr (1867), or flowmeter, to measure the rate of blood flow through arteries and veins; and a mercurial blood-gas pump for the separation of gases from the blood, which led to an understanding of the…
Everything youll probably ever need to know about safer sex barriers, like which to use, how to use them, how to get more comfortable with them, and how surprisingly cute they are.
Everything youll probably ever need to know about safer sex barriers, like which to use, how to use them, how to get more comfortable with them, and how surprisingly cute they are.
This results in disruption of the blood-air barrier, eventually causing pulmonary edema. The extent of damage in the alveoli ... doi:10.1016/0022-2852(80)90314-8. Singh, Hanwant Bir (December 1976). "Phosgene in the ambient air". Nature. 264 (5585): 428- ... a pulmonary edema often develops which can detected by X-ray imaging and regressive blood oxygen concentration. Inhalation of ... does not primarily depend on phosgene concentration in the inhaled air, with the dose (amount of inhaled phosgene) being the ...
This also keeps the thickness of the blood-air barrier reduced to a minimum. The cytoplasm in the thin portion contains ... and the type II cells are typically found at the blood-air barrier. Type II cells start to develop at about 26 weeks of ... This thin lining enables a fast diffusion of gas exchange between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the surrounding ... The fluid coating is produced by the body in order to facilitate the transfer of gases between blood and alveolar air, ...
When the barrier between the air sacs and blood becomes leaky, fluid starts to pour into the lungs. This damage can be so ... Calfee analyses the fluid and blood samples to understand what factors cause the most extreme responses of coronavirus disease ... Her research identified that the infection attacks the alveolar epithelium, small air sacs that usually prevent fluid entering ...
The alveolar and pulmonary capillary gases equilibrate across the thin blood-air barrier. This thin membrane (about 0.5 -2 μm ... On inhalation, air travels through the trachea of a bird into the air sacs. Air then travels continuously from the air sacs at ... During the period covering the 26th week until birth the important blood-air barrier is established. Specialised type I ... the basement membrane is associated with alveolar epithelium and is important in the blood-air barrier. The deficiency is ...
11). This process occurs by simple diffusion, across a very thin membrane (known as the blood-air barrier), which forms the ... These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. These air ... the posterior air sacs filling with fresh inhaled air, while the anterior air sacs fill with "spent" (oxygen-poor) air that has ... This blood gas barrier is extremely thin (in humans, on average, 2.2 μm thick). It is folded into about 300 million small air ...
According to one study, it has the smallest mean blood-air barrier thickness (0.183 µm) and the highest mass-specific ...
... physiologist and politician Blood-air barrier - Membrane separating alveolar air from blood in lung capillaries Blood shift ... Dead space (physiology) - The volume of inhaled air that does not take part in the gas exchange Decima Flottiglia MAS - Italian ... Death of bone tissue due to interruption of the blood supply Contents: Top A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... represented by Diving reflex#Blood shift - redistributed blood flow from the extremities to the head and torso during a breath- ...
... blood-air barrier MeSH A04.531.378 - nasal bone MeSH A04.531.449 - nasal cavity MeSH A04.531.520 - nasal mucosa MeSH A04.531. ...
Particles in nanoscale have been shown to penetrate the air-blood barrier in lungs and be translocated into secondary organs in ... move with air jets, gravitational fall out in slowly moving air); as this aerosol size is most effectively adsorbed in the ... Nanoparticles in the air often form agglomerates due to attractive inter-particle forces, such as van der Waals force or ... An aerosol (abbreviation of "aero-solution") is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in air or another gas. ...
Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier ... Blood-placental barrier This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Blood barrier. If an internal link ...
The alveolar and pulmonary capillary gases equilibrate across the thin blood-air barrier.[30][64][65] This thin membrane (about ... On inhalation, air travels to air sacs near the back of a bird. The air then passes through the lungs to air sacs near the ... On inhalation, air travels through the trachea of a bird into the air sacs. Air then travels continuously from the air sacs at ... Blood or air with a high oxygen content is shown in red; oxygen-poor air or blood is shown in various shades of purple-blue. ...
Possible consequences of rupture of the blood-air barrier include arterial gas embolism and hemoptysis. Blood-brain barrier - ... A physical barrier between the local blood vessels and most parts of the eye itself Blood-retinal barrier - Part of the blood- ... A physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes Blood-thymus barrier - A barrier ... The blood-air barrier (alveolar-capillary barrier or membrane) exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs. It exists to ...
... those with high blood pressure). Blood-air barrier - Membrane separating alveolar air from blood in lung capillaries Blood- ... A physical barrier between the local blood vessels and most parts of the eye itself Blood-testis barrier - A physical barrier ... The blood-retinal barrier, or the BRB, is part of the blood-ocular barrier that consists of cells that are joined tightly ... Retinal blood vessels that are similar to cerebral blood vessels maintain the inner blood-ocular barrier. This physiological ...
Blood-air barrier - Membrane separating alveolar air from blood in lung capillaries Blood-brain barrier - Semipermeable ... A physical barrier between the local blood vessels and most parts of the eye itself Blood-retinal barrier - Part of the blood- ... ocular barrier that prevents certain substances from entering the retina Blood-testis barrier - A physical barrier between the ... The blood-thymus barrier regulates exchange of substances between the circulatory system and thymus, providing a sequestered ...
Blood-air barrier - Membrane separating alveolar air from blood in lung capillaries Blood-ocular barrier - A physical barrier ... A physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes Blood-thymus barrier - A barrier ... between the local blood vessels and most parts of the eye itself Blood-retinal barrier - Part of the blood-ocular barrier that ... thus melatonin is not affected by the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier appears to be functional by the time of ...
Blood-air barrier - Membrane separating alveolar air from blood in lung capillaries Blood-brain barrier - Semipermeable ... A physical barrier between the local blood vessels and most parts of the eye itself Blood-retinal barrier - Part of the blood- ... The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between ... The blood-testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. ...
Blood-air barrier - Membrane separating alveolar air from blood in lung capillaries Blood-brain barrier - Semipermeable ... A physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes Blood-thymus barrier - A barrier ... Blood-aqueous barrier: the ciliary epithelium and capillaries of the iris. Blood-aqueous barrier is formed by nonpigmented ... Part of the blood-ocular barrier that prevents certain substances from entering the retina Blood-testis barrier - ...
... called the blood-air barrier) separates the blood in the alveolar capillaries (in the walls of the alveoli) from the alveolar ... Air exiting the lungs during exhalation joins the air being expelled from the anterior air sacs (both consisting of "spent air ... The membrane across which gas exchange takes place in the alveoli (i.e. the blood-air barrier) is extremely thin (in humans, on ... 6). Gas exchange in mammals occurs between this alveolar air (which differs significantly from fresh air) and the blood in the ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *Dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Respiratory exchange ratio ... Access to the water is made via the 'wet porch', a chamber equipped with a moon pool, which keeps the air pressure inside the ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *Dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Respiratory exchange ratio ... Seymour began carrying Smith back to Aquarius, but his air umbilical became fouled about thirty yards from the habitat. Dodd ... who were 300 feet from Aquarius using an underwater jackhammer to install a way station that would contain breathable air. ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Normocapnia ...
Oxygen diffuses from the breathed air, mixed with water vapour, to arterial blood, where its partial pressure is around 100 ... Great Barrier Reef. *iSimangaliso Marine Protected Area. *Poor Knights Islands. *Table Mountain National Park Marine Protected ... Polycythemia, in which the body increases the number of red blood cells in circulation, thickens the blood, raising the danger ... Martin, Lawrence (1999). All you really need to know to interpret arterial blood gases (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *Dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Respiratory exchange ratio ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *Dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Respiratory exchange ratio ... If such a barrier limits the adsorption rate, the dynamics are said to be 'kinetically limited'. Such energy barriers can be ... The displacement of air from the matrix of cotton pads and bandages so that medicinal solutions can be absorbed for application ... Surfactants will diffuse in water and adsorb at interfaces between air and water or at the interface between oil and water, in ...
Blood-air barrier). Cells. *Alveolar cells *Type I. *Type II. *Club cell ... allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs. The trachea extends from the ... The trachea is one part of the respiratory tree, that is a conduit for air to pass through on its way to or from the alveoli of ... In the head, thorax, or abdomen, tracheae may also be connected to air sacs. Many insects, such as grasshoppers and bees, which ...
Blood-air barrier. *Blood shift. *Breathing. *Circulatory system. *CO₂ retention. *Cold shock response ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Normocapnia ... It results most commonly from a drop in maternal blood pressure or interference during delivery with blood flow to the infant's ... carbon monoxide has a higher affinity than oxygen to the hemoglobin in the blood's red blood corpuscles, bonding with it ... environments where sufficiently oxygenated air is present, but cannot be adequately breathed because of air contamination such ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Normocapnia ...
Here the red blood cells absorb oxygen from the air and then carry it back in the form of oxyhaemaglobin, to nourish the cells ... The lungs are encased in a serous membrane that folds in on itself to form the pleurae - a two-layered protective barrier. The ... In the lungs, oxygen from the inhaled air is transferred into the blood and circulated throughout the body. Carbon dioxide (CO2 ... a layer of mucous membrane acts as a filter and traps pollutants and other harmful substances found in the air. Next, air moves ...
Blood-air barrier. *Breathing. *CO₂ retention. *Dead space. *Gas exchange. *Hypocapnia. *Respiratory exchange ratio ... A barrier reef forms a calcareous barrier around an island resulting in a lagoon between the shore and the reef. An atoll is a ... Reef types include fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls. A fringing reef is a reef that is attached to an island. ... Earth's largest coral reef system is the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, at a length of over 2,300 kilometres (1,400 miles). ...
... crosses the blood-brain-barrier and acts as a TAAR1 agonist,[3] functioning as a selective norepinephrine ... The product delivers in each 800 milliliters of air 0.04 to 0.150 milligrams of levmetamfetamine.. .mw-parser-output cite. ... elevated blood pressure), tachycardia (rapid heart rate), nausea, stomach cramps, dizziness, headache, sweating, muscle tension ...
This may cause vomiting blood, coughing up of blood, or blood in stool.[32] Bleeding into the skin may create petechiae, ... "Air travel is low-risk for Ebola transmission". World Health Organization (WHO). 14 August 2014. Archived from the original on ... The infected person should be in barrier-isolation from other people.[109] All equipment, medical waste, patient waste and ... Blood products such as packed red blood cells, platelets, or fresh frozen plasma may also be used.[135] Other regulators of ...
Medical laboratory equipment automates or helps analyze blood, urine, genes, and dissolved gases in the blood. ... It aims to remove technical barriers to trade and dispel the consequent uncertainty for economic operators, to facilitate free ... air purifiers, and surgical drapes.[15][18][19] ... ASTM D7225: Standard Guide for Blood Cleaning Efficiency of ... "Standard Guide for Blood Cleaning Efficiency of Detergents and Washer-Disinfectors". 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014.. ...
These barriers reflected a desire to see that local populations were well fed, thus forestalling civil unrest.[116] ... December 1942: Air raids on CalcuttaEdit. The Famine Inquiry Commission's Report of 1945, discussing contributing factors to ... of blood samples examined at Calcutta hospitals during the peak period, November-December 1944.[207] Statistics for malaria ... The Government of India dated the beginning of the Bengal food crisis from the air raids on Calcutta in December 1942,[175] the ...
In accordance with air safety regulations, some tall towers, e.g. Tokyo Tower and the Yerevan TV Tower, are painted in white ... The Bell X-1, the first airplane to break the sound barrier, was also painted in International Orange. ... Blood red. Burgundy. Candy Apple Red. Cardinal. Carmine. Carnelian. Cerise. Chocolate Cosmos. Cinnabar. Claret. Coquelicot. ... as opposed to the lighter tone of safety orange used by the United States Air Force's high-altitude suits. This was also ...
a b Kasl, S.V., & Cobb, S. (1970). Blood pressure changes in men undergoing job loss: A preliminary report. Psychosomatic ... air traffic controllers, airline pilots, bus drivers, locomotive engineers, truck drivers), preschool teachers, and craftsmen. ... A meta-analysis and systematic review involving 29 samples linked job strain to elevated ambulatory blood pressure.[71] Belkić ... Kasl, S.V., & Cobb, S. (1970). Blood pressure changes in men undergoing job loss: A preliminary report. Psychosomatic Medicine ...
... which delivers de-oxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs) and the arteries that supply swim bladders.[91] Air was ... In some animals waterproof barriers impede the exchange of gases through the skin. For example, keratin in human skin, the ... aorta for oxygenated blood and pulmonary vein for deoxygenated blood. The spiral valve is essential to keeping the mixing of ... in which oxygenated blood from the lungs and de-oxygenated blood from the respiring tissues enters by separate atria, and is ...
Ivorians have a particular kind of small, open-air restaurant called a maquis, which is unique to the region. A maquis normally ... The dense rain forest covering the southern half of the country, created barriers to the large-scale political organizations ... Blood diamonds. *Economic Community of West African States. *Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative ... In 2012, the Ivory Coast Air Force consisted of one Mil Mi-24 attack helicopter and three SA330L Puma transports (marked as ...
Savoldelli, G.L., Naik, V.N., Hamstra, S.J. & Morgan, P.J. (2005). Barriers to the use of simulation-based education. Can J ... Feedback post-delivery from the simulator's arterial and venous blood gas values that give one-minute and five-minute APGAR ... Anatomical features: responsive pupils, articulated mandible, exhalation of air and CO2, secretions from eyes, ears, and mouth ... Some of the advantages to Flash-based medical simulations and animations include a visually animated representation of blood ...
It was aired for the first time in 1996, and has been aired four times since then, in 1998, 2009, in September 2012 on the ... Possibly connected to the excitement, a surge in pen 3 caused one of its metal crush barriers to give way.[39] ... South Yorkshire Police had performed blood alcohol tests on the victims, some of them children, and ran computer checks on the ... Hillsborough aired the first time on 15 April 2014, the 25th anniversary of the disaster.[304][305] The documentary was unable ...
Gillison, Douglas (1962). Royal Australian Air Force, 1939-1942. Australia in the War of 1939-1945. Series 3 - Air. 1. Canberra ... Morison, Samuel Eliot (1950). Breaking the Bismarcks Barrier. History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Boston ... Brooks, Brenton (December 2013). "The Carnival of Blood in Australian Mandated Territory". Sabretache. Military Historical ... Major General George Kenney, the commander of the Allied Air Forces, ordered air patrols stepped up over the likely Japanese ...
This demonstrated that the blood-brain barrier was broken by cerebral blood vessels, thus interfering with white matter ... In the bestselling 1996 non-fiction book Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of the Mt. Everest Disaster, Jon Krakauer describes ... The brain swelling is likely a result of vasogenic edema, the penetration of the blood-brain barrier by fluids.[15] This ... It appears to be a vasogenic edema (fluid penetration of the blood-brain barrier), although cytotoxic edema (cellular retention ...
Regional airports include the Lakefront Airport, Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base New Orleans (Callender Field) in the ... These European and African motifs signify evil, the devil, blood, sin, sacrifice, harlotry. After existing in New Orleans for ... including many of its barrier islands), which once protected New Orleans against storm surge. Following Hurricane Katrina, the ... Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base New Orleans; and the headquarters for the Marine Force Reserves in Federal City in Algiers ...
In an experiment, he used samples of rotting meat that were either fully exposed to the air, partially exposed to the air, or ... He concluded that the water barrier accounted for the scarcity of other flies. He also noted that flies will not attempt to ... "Because insects are cold-blooded animals, their rate of development is more or less dependent on ambient temperature." [23] ... Air exposure[edit]. Hanged bodies can be expected to show their own quantity and variety of flies. Also, the amount of time ...
In the acute phase of ALI, there is increased permeability of this barrier and protein rich fluid leaks out of the capillaries ... a substance that lines the air sacs in the lungs and prevents them from collapsing. Mechanistic information based on toxicology ... to the endothelium and the alveolar epithelium results in the creation of an open interface between the lung and the blood, ... The core pathology is disruption of the capillary-endothelial interface: this actually refers to two separate barriers - the ...
... blood brought to the body surface cannot dissipate heat by conduction to the air. With so much blood going to the external ... requiring an insulation and air barrier system designed to retain indoor environmental conditions while resisting external ... dry air is typically 20.9% oxygen, but at 100% relative humidity the air is 20.4% oxygen), flue gas fans must intake air at a ... of the molecules in dry air are nitrogen (N2). Another 21% of the molecules in dry air are oxygen (O2). The final 1% of dry air ...
Over time Australia has used various means to determine membership of ethnic groups such as lineage, blood quantum, birth and ... These low employment rates suggest significant barriers to Aboriginal persons gaining employment, which may include job ... "prized because their lungs were believed to have greater air capacity"[85] Aboriginal prisoners in the Aboriginal-only prison ... However, in 1889 Parliament recognised Fanny Cochrane Smith (d:1905) as the last surviving full-blooded Tasmanian Aborigine.[g] ...
blood-brain barrier. A semipermeable membrane separating the blood from the cerebrospinal fluid, and constituting a barrier to ... An organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, marine environments, or ... Also called a white blood cell.. A colourless cell of the immune system which circulates in the blood and body fluids and is ... white blood cell. See leukocyte.. whole genome sequencing. The process of determining the complete DNA sequence of a particular ...
Wittgenstein's design required air and gas to be forced along the propeller arms to combustion chambers on the end of each ... The Nuremberg Laws classified people as Jews (Volljuden) if they had three or four Jewish grandparents, and as mixed blood ( ... it was to dismantle it-to remove a barrier, as it were, that stood in the way of honest and decent thought." Of the apologies, ... He once said he felt as though he was writing for people who would think in a different way, breathe a different air of life, ...
Main articles: JMWAVE and Richmond Naval Air Station. In 1946, UM acquired the former Richmond Naval Air Station, in ... "The University of Miami Drops Its Color Barrier". New York Times. February 1, 1961. p. 33. Archived from the original on July ... for analysis of DUI suspect blood samples), and Microbiology and Immunology.[98] The University of Miami once planned to build ... On December 12, 2009, the global sports network ESPN aired a documentary on the UM football program, The U, which drew 2.3 ...
In July 2015, the preliminary average of the first 98 blood tests was higher than the national average. The EPA ordered the Air ... At two sites a permeable reactive barrier was installed to intercept and destroy the groundwater contamination (sites 49 and 73 ... Pease continues to be home to the New Hampshire Air National Guard's 157th Air Refueling Wing (157 ARW), an Air Mobility ... "Air Mobility Command. Retrieved June 29, 2017.. *^ "Pease ANGB selected to receive KC-46A Pegasus". United States Air Force. ...
The blood-gas barrier (BGB) of their lung tissue is thick. The advantage of this thick barrier may be protection from damage by ... large volumes of blood flow in times of activity, such as running,[67] since air is pumped by the air sacs rather than the lung ... the red blood cells of the ostrich are about three times larger than the red blood cells of a human.[72] The blood oxygen ... and reorientation of the gas exchange blood capillaries to establish the crosscurrent system at the blood-gas barrier.[60] ...
Blood-air barrier(英语:Blood-air barrier). *Blood shift(英语:Blood shift) ...
He was born on March 21, 1806 in the village of San Pablo Guelatao and was full blooded Zapotec. He began his career studying ... https://aldianews.com/articles/culture/social/karen-vega-oaxacan-model-breaking-barriers-vogue-mexico/59438 ... Air[edit]. Xoxocotlán International Airport.. Oaxaca-Xoxocotlan Airport (IATA code OAX) is approximately 7 km (4.3 mi) south of ...
SRI's first economic study was for the United States Air Force. In 1947, the Air Force wanted to determine the expansion ... for the detection and characterization of rare circulating tumor cells from blood samples. The test is aimed at cancer-specific ... "IraqComm computer cracks language barriers". ZDNet. Retrieved 2012-04-15.. *^ "SRI International Licenses Drug Formulation ... The institute performed much of the early research on air pollution and the formation of ozone in the lower atmosphere.[19] SRI ...
Examples of modern additions include the CPR face shields and specific body-fluid barriers included in modern kits, to assist ... Petrolatum gauze pads, used as an occlusive ( air-tight) dressing for sucking chest wounds, as well as a non-stick dressing ... Sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff). *Stethoscope. Some first aid kits, specifically those used by event first aiders and ... will contain a suitable infection barrier for performing artificial respiration as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ...
Growth is enhanced by incubation in 5% CO2 atmosphere, but they usually grow adequately in ambient air. The optimum temperature ... Streptococcus dysgalactiae form large colonies (>0.5 cm) after 24 hours of incubation, and produce haemolysis on blood agar; ... but usually in relation to a chronic skin condition or some breach of the epithelial barrier. Non-invasive disease ...
... Go to external page http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0003948 Copy ... The membrane between the capillary blood and alveolar air, comprised of the alveolar epithelium and the capillary epithelium ...
Possible consequences of rupture of the blood-air barrier include arterial gas embolism and hemoptysis. Blood-brain barrier - ... A physical barrier between the local blood vessels and most parts of the eye itself Blood-retinal barrier - Part of the blood- ... A physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes Blood-thymus barrier - A barrier ... The blood-air barrier (alveolar-capillary barrier or membrane) exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs. It exists to ...
What is blood-air barrier? Meaning of blood-air barrier as a legal term. What does blood-air barrier mean in law? ... Definition of blood-air barrier in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Blood-air barrier legal definition of blood-air barrier https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/blood-air+barrier ... redirected from blood-air barrier). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. barrier ...
... disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha- ... Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. We investigated whether residency in cities with high air pollution is ... disruption of the blood-brain barrier; endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cell trafficking were seen in ... Exposure to air pollution should be considered a risk factor for Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases, and carriers of the APOE ...
Air-blood barrier thickening and alterations of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells in mouse lungs with disrupted hepcidin/ ... The thickness of the air-blood barrier was greater in the mutated than in the WT mice. In conclusion, disruption of systemic ... thickening of the air-blood barrier and hyperplasia and hypotrophy of AE2 cells despite normal total intracellular surfactant ... Aging exacerbates acute lung injury-induced changes of the air-blood barrier, lung function and inflammation in the mouse. Am J ...
A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY ON THE THICKNESS OF THE PULMONARY AIR-BLOOD BARRIER. Ewald R. Weibel, Bruce W. Knight ... The characteristic thickness of the air-blood barrier with respect to gas diffusion is its harmonic mean thickness, while the ... A reliable knowledge of the thickness of the alveolo-capillary "membrane" or air-blood barrier is of physiologic interest since ... A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY ON THE THICKNESS OF THE PULMONARY AIR-BLOOD BARRIER ...
Effects of air pollution particles in advanced co-culture cell models of the air-blood barrier. Traffic is a major source to ... fractions will be assessed in mono-cultures of lung epithelial cells and/or complex co-cultures of the air-blood barrier ... Even in Norway, air pollution is ranked among the to-ten risk factors for premature death. Traffic pollution comprises a ... Globally, far more people die from air pollution than from all wars and acts of violence, or from AIDS, malaria and ...
... disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition Cory Thomason ... Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, ...
Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Particle Size / Permeability / Humans / Blood-Air Barrier / ... A549 Cells , Blood-Air Barrier , Metabolism , Epithelium , Metabolism , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles , Toxicity , Particle Size ... Comparative Toxicity of Nanomaterials to Air-blood Barrier Permeability Using an In Vitro Model / 生物医学与环境科学(英文) ... Comparative Toxicity of Nanomaterials to Air-blood Barrier Permeability Using an In Vitro ...
4. Water Balance in the Air-Blood Barrier. As can be appreciated from Figure 2(a), the air-blood barrier, that allows gas ... J. Gil, D. A. Silage, and J. M. McNiff, "Distribution of vesicles in cells of air-blood barrier in the rabbit," Journal of ... Figure 2: Transmission electron microscopy of the air-blood barrier in control conditions (a), after saline loading to cause ... 5. The Mechanical Setting Triggering the Cellular Response to a Perturbation in Fluid Dynamics in the Air-Blood Barrier. We ...
6↔) Indicates the thin-walled area of the air-blood barrier. ... Air-blood barrier in the lung (mammals). Creator. Poels, ... Air-blood barrier in the lung (mammals). Download Item , Share , JSON , Reference URL. ...
Atypical restrictive pattern; Blood-air barrier; Spirometry. Comment in. *[Diagnostic assessment of neumonitis due to cement ... A restrictive pattern pure atypical was observed, and arterial blood gas with hipoxemia. A treatment with steroids was ...
... particulate air pollution has recently been shown to be associated with their release into the blood. We propose that episodic ... of biologic microparticles from pollution-induced lung inflammation causes secondary inflammation in the blood-brain barrier ... Since our original proposal, it has become apparent that inflammation may be carried by blood from organ to organ by biologic ... we extend our 1995 hypothetical explanation of the association of air pollution with cardiac deaths as a plausible alternative ...
Engineering an in vitro air-blood barrier by 3D bioprinting. Sci. Rep. 5, 7974 (2015). ...
Large-volume, low pressure venous blood input. Deoxygenated blood from heart enters capillary network surrounding alveoli ... Common tube for digestive and respiratory systems-- Air is shuttled posteriorly with food, then buds off anteriorly with larynx ... Provides systemic blood to lung tissues except alveoli. Arise at aorta and enter lung at hilus ... End of conducting division, filtered air gets to lungs at 37 degrees ...
Air-blood barrier = *the surfactant layer==, *the plasma membranes and cytoplasm of thin type I cell ==, ... Type I & Type II pneymocytes = cells on alveolar septa facing air supplu *Type I = thin, flat cover most of surface facing air ...
Blood-Air Barrier / physiology * Cell Membrane Permeability / physiology * Humans * Intubation, Intratracheal * Pulmonary ... Intact epithelial barrier function is critical for the resolution of alveolar edema in humans Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990 Dec;142(6 ... active ion transport across the alveolar epithelial barrier is the primary mechanism for clearance of edema fluid from the air ...
The respiratory epithelium forms a continuous layer of cells that separates air from liquid throughout the lung. The integrity ... Structural basis for some permeability properties of the air-blood barrier. Fed. Proc. 37:2471-2478.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Transfer of gases between the air and the blood requires two anatomical structures: the conducting airways, which distribute ... Membrane proteins related to anion permeability of human red blood cells. J. Membr. Biol. 15:207-226.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
What is blood-testis barrier? Meaning of blood-testis barrier medical term. What does blood-testis barrier mean? ... Looking for online definition of blood-testis barrier in the Medical Dictionary? blood-testis barrier explanation free. ... blood-air barrier alveolocapillary membrane.. blood-aqueous barrier the physiologic mechanism that prevents exchange of ... blood-gas barrier alveolocapillary membrane.. blood-testis barrier a barrier separating the blood from the seminiferous tubules ...
Rights & permissionsfor article Engineering an in vitro air-blood barrier by 3D bioprinting . Opens in a new window. ... Engineering an in vitro air-blood barrier by 3D bioprinting *Lenke Horváth ...
Blood-Air Barrier / physiopathology* * Bronchoalveolar Lavage * Capillaries / physiopathology* * Capillary Permeability * Cell ... Influenza Causes Prolonged Disruption of the Alveolar-Capillary Barrier in Mice Unresponsive to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy ... We report that influenza induces marked, long-lasting dysfunction of the alveolar-capillary barrier peaking at 1 wk but lasting ...
... an index of air-blood barrier permeability; and activities of three enzymes: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; an indicator of cell ...
Architecture and cellular composition of the air-blood barrier. Authors. Pinkerton-KE; Gehr-P; Crapo-JD ...
Calcium signaling-related proteins regulate epithelial differentiation and development of the air-blood barrier. SFTP-A2 has ... In order to form the blood gas barrier, the epithelium starts thinning and becomes surrounded by a network of capillaries. ... Biomarkers in Blood. As indicated in Table 2, the vast majority of biomarkers identified in blood are of protein nature, and ... Airway and blood vessel interaction during lung development. J Anat (2002) 201:325-34. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00097.x ...
Figure 2. In this in vitro model of the air-blood barrier in the lungs, two types of cells - epithelial cells and endothelial ... Figure 2 illustrates an example of a microfluidic platform - the air-blood barrier where gas exchange occurs. Two types of ... Nemmar, A., et al., "Passage of Inhaled Particles into Blood Circulation in Humans," Circulation,105 (4), pp. 411-414 (Jan. ... Air, water, and land quality are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Founded in 1970, the EPA consolidated ...
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the complete process of cell injuries in the blood-air barrier after perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) ... Cell injuries of the blood-air barrier in acute lung injury caused by ... ... In the past, TI cells were believed to serve only passive barrier functions, with no active functional properties in ... ... epithelial cells isolated from septic animals develop tight junctions with different protein composition and reduced barrier ...
... and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms ... In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke ... In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well ... It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the ...
The air-blood barrier is mainly formed by two epithelial cell types: alveolar type I (ATI) and alveolar type II (ATII) cells.. ...
It is now known that particulates in air pollution can cross the blood-brain barrier and also reach the placenta. The aim of ... Two databases available on the Internet were used in the analysis: the bank of measurement data on air quality in Poland (the ... Now the effects of air pollutants on tumors in the airways, kidneys, bladder, breast, and colon have been investigated and are ... The results of the analyses indicate a high correlation of air pollution with the incidence of selected types of cancer. ...
This results in disruption of the blood-air barrier, eventually causing pulmonary edema. The extent of damage in the alveoli ... doi:10.1016/0022-2852(80)90314-8. Singh, Hanwant Bir (December 1976). "Phosgene in the ambient air". Nature. 264 (5585): 428- ... a pulmonary edema often develops which can detected by X-ray imaging and regressive blood oxygen concentration. Inhalation of ... does not primarily depend on phosgene concentration in the inhaled air, with the dose (amount of inhaled phosgene) being the ...
  • The blood-air barrier (alveolar-capillary barrier or membrane) exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • By applying these methods to three rat lungs the arithmetic mean thickness of the barrier was found to measure 1.25 µ, the harmonic mean thickness, 0.57 µ. (rupress.org)
  • Transfer of gases between the air and the blood requires two anatomical structures: the conducting airways, which distribute the inspired air within the lungs, and the alveoli, which are the site of 0 2 and C0 2 diffusion between the gas phase and the pulmonary capillary blood. (springer.com)
  • True lungs occur in humans and in air-breathing vertebrates. (doccheck.com)
  • Not surprisingly, our lungs carry the heaviest burden of air pollution with WHO reports demonstrating that people from high air pollution areas have a higher incidence of respiratory conditions, such as asthma or lung cancer. (j-alz.com)
  • The pulmonary air-blood barrier of human shock lungs (a clinical, ultrastructural and morphometric study). (medigraphic.com)
  • Your lungs have an area known as the blood-gas barrier or blood-air barrier, where gas and air are exchanged. (livestrong.com)
  • During times of intense physical activity, pressure increases to a point that breaks this barrier and allows blood to enter the lungs and causes the taste of blood in the mouth. (livestrong.com)
  • When a horse inhales, the air travels down the trachea, which divides into the tubes known as the right and left bronchi, then into the smaller airways called bronchioles in the lungs. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Low oxygen levels can be caused by reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood cells, reduced blood flow through the lungs and body, insufficient movement of gases in and out of the lungs, or inability of tissues to use available oxygen (a condition caused by some poisons). (merckvetmanual.com)
  • These extremely small particles can overcome the blood-air barrier and penetrate the body: The bronchial mucosa in the lungs doesn't filter out the particles. (uni-duesseldorf.de)
  • Just like a blood-brain-barrier, there is a barrier between the air in the lungs and the blood system," Lehr explains. (dw.com)
  • The air-blood barrier inside the lungs, with a size of 0.1-0.2 µm, is comprised of epithelial and endothelial tissue sharing the basement membrane ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The thin barrier and high permeability of this membrane make the lungs an optimal site for systemic and local delivery of drugs. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In early tetrapods , air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles via buccal pumping , a mechanism still seen in amphibians . (wikipedia.org)
  • The lungs are part of the lower respiratory tract that begins at the trachea and branches into the bronchi and bronchioles , and which receive air breathed in via the conducting zone . (wikipedia.org)
  • The lungs have a unique blood supply, receiving deoxygenated blood from the heart in the pulmonary circulation for the purposes of receiving oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide, and a separate supply of oxygenated blood to the tissue of the lungs, in the bronchial circulation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood is also diverted from the lungs through the ductus arteriosus . (wikipedia.org)
  • At birth however, air begins to pass through the lungs, and the diversionary duct closes, so that the lungs can begin to respire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pollutants don't only harm children's developing lungs, they can actually cross the blood-brain barrier and permanently damage their developing brains, and, thus, their futures. (cnn.com)
  • The intestinal wall, the skin, the air-blood barrier in the lungs or even biofilms: They all stand in the way of the active substance,' says the head of the department 'Drug Delivery' at the Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS). (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Ultrafine particulates are believed to have even more aggressive health implications than larger particulates, because they can enter the lungs, causing lung cancer, and can further penetrate the air-blood barrier, invading the circulation system and resulting in respiratory illness and even organ dysfunction. (pku.edu.cn)
  • In the lungs, oxygen is obtained from the air and delivered to the blood while CO2 is removed from the peripheral blood circulation into the lungs. (lecturio.com)
  • Children are more susceptible than adults to both indoor and outdoor air pollution as their lungs, brains and immune systems are still developing and their respiratory tracts are more permeable. (unicef.org)
  • The relative contribution of mineral versus the exhaust particles for the adverse effects of the different fractions will be assessed in mono-cultures of lung epithelial cells and/or complex co-cultures of the air-blood barrier consisting of lung epithelial cells, macrophages, and vascular endothelial cells. (uio.no)
  • The data provide the first evidence in humans to support the hypothesis that active ion transport across the alveolar epithelial barrier is the primary mechanism for clearance of edema fluid from the air spaces of the lung. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore we hypothesized that alveolar epithelial cells isolated from septic animals develop tight junctions with different protein composition and reduced barrier function relative to alveolar epithelial cells from healthy animals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The air-blood barrier is mainly formed by two epithelial cell types: alveolar type I (ATI) and alveolar type II (ATII) cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thicknesses of the endothelial and type I epithelial cellular compartments of the air-blood barrier were unchanged. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gas exchange occurs primarily across the attenuated blood-air barrier that is formed by the juxtaposition of alveolar type I (ATI) epithelial cells and microcapillary endothelial cells. (jci.org)
  • Differentiation of alveolar surface epithelial cells and formation of blood-air barrier are the morphological markers of lung development. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Oxygenation of circulating blood and removal of carbon dioxide take place through the alveolar membrane, a thin (0.6-2 mm) and sophisticated barrier structure that is composed of alveolar epithelial cells, intermediate basement membrane (BM) and capillary endothelial cells (ECs) in the lung. (frontiersin.org)
  • The human respiratory tract provides a vast epithelial surface area for air conduction and gas-exchange with a combined surface area that is about 150 m 2 . (springer.com)
  • AT2 cells can differentiate into alveolar type I (AT1) epithelial cells and can promote the formation of alveolar structure and the air-blood barrier, promoting normal alveolar development ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • During the normal repair process that occurs in response to pulmonary epithelial injury, AT2 cells differentiate into AT1 cells and proliferate to rebuild the air-blood barrier ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Model a realistic air-blood barrier using our expandable and functional human alveolar epithelial cells - the functional alternative to A549 cells. (inscreenex.de)
  • A reliable knowledge of the thickness of the alveolo-capillary "membrane" or air-blood barrier is of physiologic interest since it is intimately related to a quantitative estimation of such functional events as gas diffusion or tissue metabolism in the lung. (rupress.org)
  • The characteristic thickness of the air-blood barrier with respect to gas diffusion is its harmonic mean thickness, while the arithmetic mean thickness is related to the mass of tissue building the barrier and consuming oxygen in the lung. (rupress.org)
  • The project will include a human panel study, in vivo studies in sensitized animal models and in vitro studies in advanced cell models mimicking lung tissue with blood vessels in the airways. (uio.no)
  • We propose that episodic release of biologic microparticles from pollution-induced lung inflammation causes secondary inflammation in the blood-brain barrier and cerebral microbleeds, culminating over time in cognitive impairment. (mdpi.com)
  • The respiratory epithelium forms a continuous layer of cells that separates air from liquid throughout the lung. (springer.com)
  • Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with marked increases in cardiovascular disease morbidity and deaths resulting from myocardial ischemia, arrhythmia, heart failure, and respiratory diseases such as lung cancer and asthma [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Research published by "American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine" in 1997 supports this theory that intense exercise can cause mechanical failure of this barrier when athletes have a history of lung bleeding. (livestrong.com)
  • Smaller particulates and less-water-soluble agents can, in contrast, reach deeper into the lung, where they encounter a much larger combined surface area and lower rates of air flow that favor deposition by diffusion. (jci.org)
  • This rare genetic disorder is characterized by a malformation of the air-blood diffusion barrier in the newborn lung, and is often associated with a misalignment of pulmonary veins. (rarediseases.org)
  • While Sznitman in Israel investigates the transport of substances into the lung, Lehr is interested in the transport of substances from the lung into the blood system. (dw.com)
  • With his lung-on-a-membrane, Lehr mimics this barrier and is trying to find out how to overcome it. (dw.com)
  • Superficial contact cryoablation attenuates experimentally created lung air leakage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previously, we, and others found that cryoablation on normal lung produced localized pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, causing obliteration of air space. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that lung air leakage may be diminished by this procedure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the present study, we examined if cryoablation can attenuate experimentally created lung air leakage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The lung was resected approximately 5 mm in diameter and 1mm in depth to create air leakage lesions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This procedure may provide a useful adjunct to surgical resection for spontaneous pneumothorax, and the control of air leakage from dissected raw lung surfaces during lung resection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The findings highlight the importance of identifying CAP patients prior to lung barrier failure and systemic inflammation and of handling CAP as a medical emergency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesized that antibiotic treatment decelerates exaggerated immune responses, but does not relevantly reduce established lung barrier dysfunction and lung edema. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The thinness of the air-blood barrier, the large absorption area of the lung, and the relatively low inactivation by enzymes provide fast entry to the systemic blood circulation at high drug concentrations. (intechopen.com)
  • The respiratory system is a marvellous, efficient pump for passing air over the capillary bed of the lung, where oxygen moves into the blood and CO 2 is removed from the blood. (anaesthetist.com)
  • this causes air trapping or hyperinflation, increases in the expiratory reserve volume, and other parameters such as the residual volume and the end expiratory lung volume [2] . (cureus.com)
  • The abnormal development of the lung blood vessels. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • [email protected]#To comparatively study the toxicity of four metal-containing nanoparticles (MNPs) and their chemical counterparts to the air-blood barrier (ABB) permeability using an in vitro model. (bvsalud.org)
  • The increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) induced by ischemia/hypoxia is generally correlated with alteration of tight junctions (TJs). (bioportfolio.com)
  • To investigate the effect of retigabine on the blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and its mechanism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These conduct the capillaries , thereby ensuring the integrity of the blood-air barrier . (doccheck.com)
  • It is now known that particulates in air pollution can cross the blood-brain barrier and also reach the placenta. (mdpi.com)
  • Manganese transport rates were compared with those of sucrose and dextran, which do not easily cross the blood-brain barrier. (healtheffects.org)
  • Specifically, air pollution particles which are less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (so-called PM2.5, particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers) can in fact cross the blood-brain barrier. (j-alz.com)
  • in comparison, a human hair has on average a diameter of 70 micrometers, so PM2.5 are nearly 30 times smaller in diameter than our hair, and they can cross the blood-brain barrier in addition to being invisible as well as odorless to our senses. (j-alz.com)
  • But the insight that it might also cross the blood-brain barrier only emerged in the 2000s and was first discovered not in humans but in dogs. (j-alz.com)
  • The researchers argued that the dogs spend most of their lives along busy streets in Mexico City at the height of the car exhausts, making it more likely that the PM2.5 air pollution caused by the combustion engines was responsible for their brain changes since PM2.5 can cross the blood-brain barrier. (j-alz.com)
  • Particles like these are easily inhaled and can pass into the bloodstream, and some can even cross the blood-brain barrier. (infowars.com)
  • Retigabine protects the blood-brain barrier by regulating tight junctions between cerebral vascular endothelial cells in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats. (bioportfolio.com)
  • BBB strictly limits transport into the brain through both physical (tight junctions) and metabolic (enzymes) barriers. (nanowerk.com)
  • In conclusion, disruption of systemic iron homeostasis affects the ultrastructure of interalveolar septa which is characterized by membrane-bound iron storage in AE1 cells, thickening of the air-blood barrier and hyperplasia and hypotrophy of AE2 cells despite normal total intracellular surfactant pools. (springer.com)
  • On the basis of these measurements a geometric model of the barrier in the form of a corrugated membrane was derived. (rupress.org)
  • This analysis suggested furthermore that the gas conductance of the barrier is nearly optimal if one considers the mass of tissue and the minimal barrier thickness as fixed properties which are determined by other functional requirements on the alveolo-capillary membrane. (rupress.org)
  • blood-air barrier alveolocapillary membrane . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The bronchioles end in the small sacs called alveoli, where the barrier between the air and the blood is a thin membrane. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • An adult human breathes ~5-8 liters of air per minute (about 10,000 liters per day) to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide through the alveolar membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • These membranes are continuously exposed to various toxins or pathogens in the air, and consequently the alveolar membrane is vulnerable to the outer gaseous environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • But the 2 leading mechanistic hypotheses are only at odds over the flimsiest of barriers - the pulmonary air/blood barrier. (semanticscholar.org)
  • blood-testis barrier a barrier separating the blood from the seminiferous tubules, consisting of special junctional complexes between adjacent Sertoli cells near the base of the seminiferous epithelium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha-synuclein in children and young adults. (nih.gov)
  • particulate air pollution has recently been shown to be associated with their release into the blood. (mdpi.com)
  • Air pollution collectively describes the presence of a diverse and complex mixture of chemicals, particulate matter (PM), or of biological material in the ambient air which can cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. (hindawi.com)
  • RATIONALE: Increased exposure to particulate air pollution (PM(10)) is a risk factor for death and hospitalization with cardiovascular disease. (openrepository.com)
  • Increased hospitalization (a measure of morbidity) among the elderly for specific causes has also been associated with PM. These studies have raised concerns about public health effects of particulate air pollution and have contributed to regulatory decisions in the United States. (epa.gov)
  • The global environment is suffering from air pollution due to excess particulate matters, resulting in huge societal and economic costs. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Air quality is usually characterized by the mass concentration of fine particulate matters with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), which is mainly contributed by micron-sized particles, whereas the hazard induced by ultrafine particulates (with diameters smaller than hundreds of nanometers) remains seriously underestimated. (pku.edu.cn)
  • A breakdown in the blood-brain barrier allows not only particulate matter from air pollution but also the harmful neurotoxins like carbon and sulphur to enter the brain and cause long-lasting damage. (ibtimes.co.uk)
  • placental barrier the tissue layers of the placenta which regulate the exchange of substances between the fetal and maternal circulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Passage of inhaled particles into the blood circulation in humans. (openrepository.com)
  • The animal's body attempts to compensate for low oxygen in the blood by increasing the depth and rate of breathing, increasing contraction of the spleen (to force more red blood cells into circulation), and increasing blood flow and heart rate. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • This barrier - a tight seal of endothelial cells that lines the blood vessels in the brain - is a physiological checkpoint that selectively allows the entry of certain molecules from blood circulation into the brain. (nanowerk.com)
  • The purpose of the present review is to give a short overview of how engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) can translocate from the respiratory tract to the circulation, pass the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), affect the brain, and to discuss possible adverse health effects and associated risks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most important function of the respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The respiratory system protects its own delicate airways by warming and humidifying inhaled air and by filtering out particles. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • When the level of oxygen in the blood is too low (called hypoxia or anoxia), the animal will show signs of respiratory distress. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • With the rise in air pollution levels, rapid changes in lifestyle and frequent outbreaks of microbial infections, the morbidity of respiratory diseases is increasing, particularly among children and the elderly population with weakened immune systems ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The NRDC determined most air fresheners contain phthalates, noxious chemicals known to disrupt hormone function in babies and children, interfere with reproductive development, and aggravate respiratory ailments such as asthma. (infowars.com)
  • [ 2 ] A recent study found the terpenes released by air fresheners interact with ozone to form compounds like formaldehyde and acetone at concentrations which can cause respiratory sensitivity and airflow limitation. (infowars.com)
  • These trends are matched by an increasing incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular problems-consequences of the inflammation and tissue damage provoked by multiple components of air pollution. (the-scientist.com)
  • To date, most researchers have focused on evaluating air pollution's effects on mortality or respiratory health. (the-scientist.com)
  • Together, outdoor and indoor air pollution are directly linked to pneumonia and other respiratory diseases that account for almost one in 10 under-five deaths, making air pollution one of the leading dangers to children's health. (unicef.org)
  • Respiratory ailments and cardio-vascular diseases are the most common fall-outs of long-term air pollution. (ibtimes.co.uk)
  • Animal experiments have shown that investigated ENPs (metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes) can translocate to the brain from different entry points (skin, blood, respiratory pathways). (biomedcentral.com)
  • After inhalation or instillation into parts of the respiratory tract a very small fraction of the inhaled or instilled ENPs reaches the blood and subsequently secondary organs, including the CNS, at a low translocation rate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Now the effects of air pollutants on tumors in the airways, kidneys, bladder, breast, and colon have been investigated and are better understood. (mdpi.com)
  • A new study found cyclists in Ottawa, Ontario, had heart irregularities in the hours after their exposure to a variety of air pollutants on busy roads. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Using epidemiologic approaches to determine the health risks of exposure to air pollutants is challenging: it is difficult to measure exposure to the relatively low levels of pollutants to which people are generally exposed, and to find populations with different degrees of pollutant exposure but comparable exposure to potentially confounding factors. (epa.gov)
  • In the early 1990s the Health Effects Institute (HEI) supported an Environmental Epidemiology Planning Project to identify the methodological issues that needed to be addressed in future studies of the health effects of air pollutants (HEI Communications Number 3, 1994). (epa.gov)
  • One important feature of this study was that the investigators were able to test the statistical models they developed using data from the University of Southern California Children's Health Study of the long-term effects of air pollutants on children. (epa.gov)
  • Second, because measurement error (the difference between true and measured exposures) can have a substantial impact on the accuracy of estimated health effects, Navidi constructed a model to evaluate the reliability of two approaches to estimating cumulative exposure to air pollutants. (epa.gov)
  • These individual studies were also not able to account for the effects of gaseous air pollutants in a systematic manner. (epa.gov)
  • HEI funded the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) to characterize the effects of airborne particles less than 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) alone and in combination with gaseous air pollutants in a consistent way in a large number of cities. (epa.gov)
  • the 90 largest cities were analyzed for possible modification of PM10 effects among cities by factors other than air pollutants. (epa.gov)
  • The mortality analysis used one analytic approach to examine the PM10 effect in many cities that cover a wide geographic area and have varying levels of different air pollutants. (epa.gov)
  • Here's 10 facts everyone should know about indoor air pollutants and how to protect children, the elderly, and everyone else from the serious health dangers they cause. (infowars.com)
  • EPA studies found indoor air pollutants were generally 2 to 5 times greater than outdoor pollution levels. (infowars.com)
  • Developed countries have made great strides in reducing outdoor air pollution and protecting children from indoor pollutants," Lake said. (cnn.com)
  • Endothelial cells (ECs) constitute small capillary blood vessels and contribute to delivery of nutrients, oxygen and cellular components to the local tissues, as well as to removal of carbon dioxide and waste products from the tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • Professor Claus-Michael Lehr has been researching biological barriers for decades. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Epidemiological studies of air pollution have shown associations between exposure to particles and dementia. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. (hindawi.com)
  • Air pollution is a very generic term, encompassing many different particles in the air-ranging from naturally occurring air pollution by non-man-made forest fires and sea spray to man-made coal fires, combustion engine exhausts, and industry by-products. (j-alz.com)
  • The blood-brain barrier blocks, therefore, most air pollution particles-most but not all. (j-alz.com)
  • Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continue to be a growing public health concern worldwide. (hindawi.com)
  • The barrier is permeable to molecular oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and many other gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood distributes oxygen to the body and collects carbon dioxide, the waste product of cell metabolism. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Red blood cells take on oxygen and release carbon dioxide at the alveolus. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Prosjektet omfatter en human eksponeringsstudie, in vivo studier i sensitive dyremodeller, samt in vitro studier i avanserte cellemodeller som etterlikner lungevev med blodsystem i luftveiene. (uio.no)
  • It exists to prevent air bubbles from forming in the blood, and from blood entering the alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The branched structure of the human airways allows for efficient bidirectional transfer of approximately six liters of air per minute between the external environment and the alveoli. (jci.org)
  • During that time, she's discovered many links between exposure to air pollution and signs of neural damage in animals and humans. (the-scientist.com)
  • Only in the last few years, however, have researchers begun raising the alarm about links between humans' exposure to air pollution and brain function. (the-scientist.com)
  • The polygonal, air-filled spaces (diameter 250 microns) have a capillary network around them and are separated from one another by interalveolar septa composed of connective tissue. (doccheck.com)
  • Serial MRI studies, including GRE and DWI in patients with cerebral air embolism, may broaden our understanding of the natural history of air emboli and its impact on tissue injury. (bmj.com)
  • In control animals, mean± sd P ip , air/tissue volume ratio and capillary vascularity index in the air-blood barrier were -12±2.03 cmH 2 O, 3.9 and 0.43, respectively. (ersjournals.com)
  • Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The thickness of the air-blood barrier was greater in the mutated than in the WT mice. (springer.com)
  • Thickness of the interstitial compartmemt of the air-blood barrier was substantially increased and this, in turn, caused an overall increase in mean thickness of the barrier. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) New research findings ( ACS Nano , 'Evolution of Nanoparticle Protein Corona across the Blood-Brain Barrier' ) demonstrate that the protein corona formed on engineered nanoparticles is dramatically affected by interaction with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and is more stable after it crosses the barrier. (nanowerk.com)
  • The use of nanoparticles is an interesting approach to overcome the problem of delivering therapeutic and/or diagnostic molecules through the blood-brain barrier to the brain, particularly due to the possibility of multifunctionalization. (nanowerk.com)
  • In this work, using a cellular model of the BBB and gold nanoparticles, a European team of scientists shows that the composition of the protein corona undergoes dramatic quantitative and qualitative molecular modifications during passage from the blood to the brain side, while it is stable once beyond the BBB. (nanowerk.com)
  • We report that influenza induces marked, long-lasting dysfunction of the alveolar-capillary barrier peaking at 1 wk but lasting longer than 3 wk postinfection. (nih.gov)
  • However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. (hindawi.com)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate protects against brain microvascular endothelial junctional protein disorganization and barrier dysfunction caused by alcohol. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Indeed, the volume of the extravascular water ought to be kept at minimum [ 1 ] in order to assure the maximum efficiency of the air-blood barrier in the gas diffusion mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Cerebral air embolism can sometimes be identified on brain CT, 1 and subsequent multiple infarcts can be observed on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). (bmj.com)
  • Diffusion-weighted imaging performed 5 days later showed multiple infarcts in the cortex area nearby the air (C). (bmj.com)
  • Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ul. (nih.gov)
  • Oxidative stress in the choroid plexus contributes to blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier disruption during sepsis development. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Since our original proposal, it has become apparent that inflammation may be carried by blood from organ to organ by biologic microparticles derived from cell membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • Our data show that only early antibiotic therapy, administered prior to breakdown of the alveolar-capillary barrier and systemic inflammation, led to restored fitness and rescued mice from fatal streptococcal pneumonia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The choroid plexus (CP), main component of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), protects the brain from peripheral inflammation similar to the blood-brain barrier. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We postulate an interplay between postoperative inflammation leading to blood aqueous barrier breakdown and IOL surface changes due to air to account for the clinical and ultrastructural findings. (escrs.org)
  • This abnormal barrier causes developmental problems in the infant's pulmonary vasculature and heart, leading to a lack of oxygen (hypoxemia). (rarediseases.org)
  • A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The inefficiency with which this occurs can be seen if we look at the oxygen cascade , which documents the changes in partial pressure of oxygen from inspired air down to the mitochondrion where the oxygen is actually used. (anaesthetist.com)
  • blood-aqueous barrier the physiologic mechanism that prevents exchange of materials between the chambers of the eye and the blood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Possible consequences of rupture of the blood-air barrier include arterial gas embolism and hemoptysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • En la gasometría arterial efectuada al trabajador se encontró hipoxemia en posición de decúbito supino. (nih.gov)
  • A restrictive pattern pure atypical was observed, and arterial blood gas with hipoxemia. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure to air pollution causes neuroinflammation, an altered brain innate immune response, and accumulation of Abeta42 and alpha-synuclein starting in childhood. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure to air pollution should be considered a risk factor for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and carriers of the APOE 4 allele could have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease if they reside in a polluted environment. (nih.gov)
  • Instruments on the bikes' panniers measured exposure to air pollution. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Minimize children's exposure to air pollution by keeping schools away from factories and other pollution sources and using cleaner cookstoves in homes. (cnn.com)
  • Monitor air pollution: Better monitoring has been proven to help children, youth, families and communities to reduce their exposure to air pollution, become more informed about its causes, and advocate for changes that make the air safer to breathe. (unicef.org)
  • In the trachea and the bronchi, the air-conducting cavities are kept open by cartilaginous bracing. (doccheck.com)
  • UNICEF said its air pollution report uses satellite imagery to show the global scope of the air pollution problem. (cnn.com)
  • Clear the Air for Children uses satellite imagery to show for the first time how many children are exposed to outdoor pollution that exceeds global guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO), and where they live across the globe. (unicef.org)
  • 4 The entrapped air bubbles can obstruct local blood flow, breakdown the blood-brain barrier, activate inflammatory reactions and then lead to infarcts. (bmj.com)
  • Early treatment protected from barrier breakdown, and reduced levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and perivascular and alveolar edema formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In many countries around the world (including the United States, Canada, and Spain), research is being conducted into the impact of air pollution on the formation of various types of cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Until recently, the brain was suspected to be exempted from the direct impact of air pollution, due its blood-brain barrier, which effectively filters any foreign molecule before they enter the brain. (j-alz.com)
  • The higher velocity and turbulent flow of air in proximal airways creates conditions for the impaction of larger particulates and the "scrubbing" of water-soluble contaminants from inspired air. (jci.org)
  • In addition to their mass distribution, the size distributions of airborne particulates are becoming increasingly important for the evaluation of air hazards. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Although her findings are observational, and the pathology of proteins such as amyloid-ß is not fully understood, Calderón-Garcidueñas argues that air pollution is the most likely culprit behind the development of the abnormalities she saw in her postmortem samples-plus many other detrimental changes to the brains of Mexico City's residents. (the-scientist.com)
  • As these seem unlikely in terms of the very small dose likely to reach the brain in usual Western urban circumstances, we extend our 1995 hypothetical explanation of the association of air pollution with cardiac deaths as a plausible alternative explanation of its associations with dementia. (mdpi.com)
  • the barrier separating the blood from the brain parenchyma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mechanistically, air pollution may affect the nervous system through a variety of cellular, molecular, and inflammatory pathways that either directly damage brain structures or lead to a predisposition to neurological diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Drs. Yokel and Crossgrove at the University of Kentucky Medical Center studied the mechanisms by which manganese enters and leaves the brain across the blood-brain barrier and, in particular, whether transporter molecules are involved. (healtheffects.org)
  • Individuals with higher blood lead levels as children had less gray matter in some brain areas. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • A brain CT and GRE revealed multiple lesions, apparently representing air, in the bi-hemispheric corticomedullary junctional area (fig 1A, B). DWI showed multiple infarctions restricted to the cortex nearby the air (fig 1C). (bmj.com)
  • Brain CT performed 30 min after symptom onset revealed multiple low density lesions (A). A T2-weighted gradient-echo image (GRE) obtained 5 h later showed multiple hypointense lesions in the bi-hemispheric corticomedullary junction (B) consistent with air (arrows). (bmj.com)
  • Microbleeds in the areas with injury to the blood-brain barrier caused by air embolism should also be considered as a differential diagnosis. (bmj.com)
  • I think they might be onto something but I do have one major complaint, how the hell do we assume that burning something and releasing some smells into the air will get this incensole acetate through the blood brain barrier? (scienceblogs.com)
  • Quote: how the hell do we assume that burning something and releasing some smells into the air will get this incensole acetate through the blood brain barrier? (scienceblogs.com)
  • Once controversial, the theory that air pollution damages the brain is gaining traction in the research community. (the-scientist.com)
  • Yale School of Public Health economist Xi Chen got interested in how poor air quality can affect the brain years ago as he started thinking about pollution's cost to human society. (the-scientist.com)
  • DL-3-n-butylphthalide protects the blood-brain barrier against ischemia/hypoxia injury via upregulation of tight junction proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Blood-brain barrier pericytes as a target for HIV-1 infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has known endothelial barrier protective properties, but whether this extends to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is unclear. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this research study is to determine if sunitinib can get past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain tumor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the ExAblate® Model 4000 Type 2.0 system as a tool to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with probable Alzh. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Nanowerk Spotlight ) The challenge in treating most brain disorders is overcoming the difficulty of delivering therapeutic agents to specific regions of the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (nanowerk.com)
  • This indicates damage to the blood-brain barrier that keeps antigens and neurotoxins away from the brain. (ibtimes.co.uk)
  • These experimental results demonstrated that freeze- and spray-dried powders have the potential for pulmonary sustained release, and they also have the potential to be used as a novel treatment for the delivery of drugs that pass through the air-blood barrier and enter the brain and are efficient carriers for the treatment of brain metastasis. (dovepress.com)
  • Third, the investigators adapted a multilevel analytic design to air pollution epidemiology. (epa.gov)
  • An acute version of this condition found in swimmers, called swimming-induced pulmonary edema, is accompanied by hemoptysis, or coughing up blood. (livestrong.com)
  • We believe that this patient experienced cerebral air embolism as a complication of a central venous catheter. (bmj.com)
  • This case report suggests that the differential diagnosis of multiple small foci of marked hypointensity on GRE should include cerebral air embolism, particularly in patients who have sudden cardiopulmonary or neurological findings in the presence of a central venous catheter. (bmj.com)
  • Voorhies R M , Fraser R A R. Cerebral air embolism occurring at angiography and diagnosed by computerized tomography. (bmj.com)
  • MRI characteristics of cerebral air embolism from a venous source. (bmj.com)
  • They also collected blood and urine from male administrative workers at the plant who had no direct occupational exposure to butadiene and served as control subjects. (healtheffects.org)
  • barrier methods contraceptive methods such as condoms and diaphragms in which a plastic or rubber barrier blocks passage of spermatozoa through the vagina or cervix. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • above the soft palate, AIR PASSAGE. (freezingblue.com)
  • A patient of biliary atresia, Zuana with O positive blood group underwent a successful liver transplant from her grandmother Naseem who is A positive, he said. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Researchers in Mexico City, which in the 2000s was considered one of the most polluted cities by the United Nations, published a series of studies investigating how air pollution affected the brains of stray dogs in Mexico City [1]. (j-alz.com)
  • Epidemiologists, psychologists, and neuroscientists are now working to fill in the gaps in knowledge of how air pollution might contribute to these less visible effects on human health, both by documenting the cognitive changes occurring in human populations exposed to air pollution, and by looking inside human and animal brains to try to decipher the underlying mechanisms. (the-scientist.com)
  • an occluding barrier formed by Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis, which separates the more mature cells of spermatogenesis in the adlumenal compartment of the tubule from blood-derived products in the basal compartment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Air pollution ranks eighth among the leading risk factors for mortality and accounts for 2.5% of all deaths in developed countries [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution is responsible for over 3 million premature deaths each year [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hospitals may want to evaluate their protocol of taking post-mortem blood samples from infant deaths for DNA banking, especially for infants to be subject to an autopsy, to ensure the quality of the DNA for prompt and comprehensive results, and to provide a wider sample base for research into rare diseases such as ACD. (rarediseases.org)
  • UNICEF is calling on world leaders to reduce air pollution, saying it leads to the deaths of more children yearly than malaria and HIV/AIDS combined. (cnn.com)
  • At the World Health Organization's inaugural conference on air pollution last fall, health officials gathered to discuss data showing that dirty air is implicated in more than 7 million deaths per year, with the organization's directorgeneral, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, declaring the situation a "silent public health emergency. (the-scientist.com)
  • Air pollution is a major contributing factor in the deaths of around 600,000 children under five every year - and it threatens the lives and futures of millions more every day," said UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake. (unicef.org)
  • Polluted outdoor air caused 620,000 premature deaths in India in 2010, up from the 100,000 deaths in 2000 according to Global Burden of Disease 2013. (ibtimes.co.uk)
  • Air pollution killed 7 million people in 2012, causing one in eight of the total deaths globally, says the World Health Organisation. (ibtimes.co.uk)
  • Around 600,000 children under age 5 die every year from diseases caused by or exacerbated by outdoor and indoor air pollution, especially in poor nations, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake said in the introduction to a report titled "Clear the Air for Children. (cnn.com)
  • The nasal conchae increase air turbulence, moisten, and warm air. (freezingblue.com)
  • Compare pre- and post-treatment whole-cell HDAC-activity levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is a physical barrier with many chemical and immunological properties. (ersjournals.com)
  • It is an efficient physical barrier, but also represents the first line of defence against microorganisms, airborne irritants and allergens [ 2 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • The Ristas learned that DNA testing of the FOXF1 gene on a blood sample may have enabled quicker and more conclusive results. (rarediseases.org)