The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Insulin that has been modified to contain an ASPARTIC ACID instead of a PROLINE at position 38 of the B-chain.
An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.
Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Abstaining from all food.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Glucose in blood.
Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence.
A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The consumption of edible substances.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
An insulin preparation that is designed to provide immediate and long term glycemic control in a single dosage. Biphasic insulin typically contains a mixture of REGULAR INSULIN or SHORT-ACTING INSULIN combined with a LONG-ACTING INSULIN.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
An enzyme the catalyzes the degradation of insulin, glucagon and other polypeptides. It is inhibited by bacitracin, chelating agents EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, and by thiol-blocking reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, but not phosphoramidon. (Eur J Biochem 1994;223:1-5) EC 3.4.24.56.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Reduced insulin secretion and absorption leads to high glucose content in the blood. ... or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or insulin resistance), or if the insulin itself is ... Type 1 diabetes can only be treated with insulin, typically with a combination of regular and NPH insulin, or synthetic insulin ... Type 2 DM may be treated with medications with or without insulin.[6] Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood ...
Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage ... Insulin resistance[edit]. Activation of PKC-θ by diacylglycerol may cause insulin resistance in muscle by decreasing IRS1- ... absorption, transport in the blood and storage for more detail.) Diacylglycerol is a precursor to triacylglycerol (triglyceride ... "Insulin receptor Thr1160 phosphorylation mediates lipid-induced hepatic insulin resistance". Journal of Clinical Investigation ...
Insulin absorption becomes less effective the longer the set is left in place, leading to poorer control of blood glucose. For ... Insulin absorption may vary from site to site, and therefore medical advice is required. The infusion set is replaced regularly ... An infusion set is used with devices such as an insulin pump. The purpose of an infusion set is to deliver insulin under the ... It is a complete tubing system to connect an insulin pump to the pump user and as such includes a subcutaneous cannula, ...
... lowers blood glucose by stimulating the release of insulin from the beta islet cells of the pancreas. It achieves ... Absorption: repaglinide has a 56% bioavailability when absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Bioavailability is reduced ... Repaglinide is an oral medication used in addition to diet and exercise for blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. ... The mechanism of action of repaglinide involves promoting insulin release from β-islet cells of the pancreas; like other ...
... the net decrease in blood glucose absorption reduced postprandial blood insulin concentrations, improving insulin sensitivity. ... "Oat Products and Blood Cholesterol Lowering: Summary of Assessment of a Health Claim about Oat Products and Blood Cholesterol ... blood pressure lowering and highly corroborated evidence for reduced blood serum cholesterol. Cereal β-glucans - including β- ... "Oat beta-glucan reduces the cholesterol level in the blood. The lowering of the blood cholesterol level can reduce the risk of ...
... is able to sequester advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the gut, preventing their absorption into the blood. ... AGEs contribute to oxidative stress, which can damage cells (like beta cells, which produce insulin in the pancreas). As ... When taken with meals, it binds to dietary phosphate and prevents its absorption. Sevelamer was invented and developed by ... In hypophosphatemia, sevelamer could exacerbate the condition by further lowering phosphate levels in the blood, which could be ...
This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar. Additionally, fiber, perhaps especially ... Crapo, P; Reaven, Olefsky (1977). "Postprandial plasma-glucose and -insulin responses to different complex carbohydrates". ... It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion.[1] The diet of an organism is what ... In 1925, Hart discovered that trace amounts of copper are necessary for iron absorption. In 1927, Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus ...
Red blood cells[edit]. Fetus produces megaloblastic red blood cells early in development, which become normoblastic near term. ... Insulin secretion in fetus starts around 12th week of gestation. Nutrition[edit]. The fetus passes through 3 phases of ... Absorption phase: Zygote is nourished by cellular cytoplasm and secretions in fallopian tubes and uterine cavity. ... Nicotine results in less blood flow to the fetus because it constricts the blood vessels. Carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen ...
This causes an increase of insulin secretion, predominantly in the presence of high blood glucose, and also slows down gastric ... it could conceivably increase absorption of other drugs if taken at the same time. Albiglutide acts as an agonist at the GLP-1 ... Following subcutaneous injection, albiglutide reaches highest blood concentrations after three to five days. Steady-state ... low blood glucose levels) and reactions at the injection site. Upper respiratory tract infections were also common, but only ...
Tenapanor Insulin stimulates NHE3 and thereby proximal tubule sodium absorption. Sodium-hydrogen antiporter 3 has been shown to ... It is also indirectly linked to buffering of blood pH. The NHE3 antiporter imports one sodium ion into the cytosol of a tubule ... Klisic J, Hu MC, Nief V, Reyes L, Fuster D, Moe OW, Ambühl PM (2002). "Insulin activates Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3: biphasic ... The NHE3 antiporter indirectly contributes to blood buffering capacity because hydrogen ions that are ejected are the products ...
... insulin levels rise concordantly to drive glucose into the body's tissues and maintain blood glucose levels in the normal range ... Hence, more glucose is available for absorption. It should not be misunderstood that glucose is absorbed more rapidly because, ... Insulin also can cause postprandial somnolence via another mechanism. Insulin increases the activity of Na/K ATPase, causing ... this is achieved by diversion of blood primarily from skeletal muscle tissue and by increasing the volume of blood pumped ...
Biphasic insulin A type of pharmaceutical insulin that is a mixture of intermediate- and fast-acting insulin. Blood glucose ... For a person with diabetes, this can be caused by insufficient glucose absorption (e.g. from inadequate insulin) combined with ... Ultralente insulin A type of insulin that is long acting. Medical ultrasound Unit of insulin The basic measure of insulin. U- ... Blood-sampling device Blood sugar A (misnomer) name for blood glucose. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) A measurement of a metabolic ...
Subcutaneous tissue has few blood vessels and so drugs injected here are for slow, sustained rates of absorption. It is slower ... Due to the frequency of injections required for the administration of insulin products via subcutaneous injection, insulin is ... but may also be administered subcutaneously using devices such as injector pens or insulin pumps. An insulin pump consists of a ... "Insulin Human - Drug Usage Statistics, ClinCalc DrugStats Database". clincalc.com. Lejmi H, Jen K, Olson JL, James SH, Sam R ( ...
... which triggers pancreatic cells to produce insulin. This hormone initiates the absorption of the just-digested blood glucose as ... This normally leads to insulin secretion (known as an insulin spike), which in turn initiates rapid glucose uptake by tissues, ... the effect of insulin is still prominent even if both plasma glucose and insulin levels were already low, causing a plasma ... Glucagon and insulin are among the hormones that ensure a normal range of glucose in the human body. Upon consumption of a meal ...
... prevents blood sugar levels from rising too rapidly after eating them due to the presence of those large amounts of absorption- ... which makes them a good choice for people with diabetes suffering with insulin resistance. "Phaseolus lunatus L. - The Plant ... These inhibit absorption of nutrients in animals and can cause damage to some organs. In addition to boiling, methods of ... Soluble fiber absorbs water in the stomach, forming a gel that slows down the absorption of the bean's carbohydrates. They can ...
Therefore, dapagliflozin reduces the blood glucose concentration with a mechanism that is independent of insulin secretion and ... because of the renal tubular absorption of ketone bodies. A particularly high risk period for ketoacidosis is the perioperative ... By reducing glucose blood circulation, gliflozins cause less stimulation of endogenous insulin secretion or lower dose of ... the medication was found to enhance blood sugar control as well as reduce body weight and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ...
Reduced insulin secretion and absorption leads to high glucose content in the blood. ... If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin resistance), ... Type 1 diabetes requires treatment with insulin, typically with a combination of regular and NPH insulin, or synthetic insulin ... Type 2 diabetes may be treated with medications such as insulin sensitizers with or without insulin.[15] Control of blood ...
... helping to reduce absorption of sugar molecules in the gut. This process can lower blood sugar and promote insulin secretion ... Diabetes: Early research suggests when a specific gymnema extract (GS4) is taken orally along with insulin or diabetes ... Ueno M (1993). "The bioactivity and use of the sugar absorption inhibitor "Gymnema sylvestre"". Technical Journal on Food ... medications, blood sugar reduction in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes is enhanced.[citation needed] Weight loss: In Japan ...
... delays the absorption of glucose thereby reducing the risk of macrovascular complications. Voglibose is a research ... Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) is primarily due to first phase insulin secretion. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors delay glucose ... is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor used for lowering post-prandial blood glucose levels in people with diabetes mellitus. ... absorption at the intestine level and thereby prevent sudden surge of glucose after a meal. There are three drugs which belong ...
The subsequent rate of absorption of carbohydrates in conjunction with the resultant rates of secretion of insulin and glucagon ... A postprandial glucose (PPG) test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of glucose, in the plasma after a meal. ... OGTT Postprandial dip Oxyhyperglycemia Association, American Diabetes (2001-04-01). "Postprandial Blood Glucose". Diabetes Care ... and recommends testing and management of PPG levels for those patients who maintain optimum pre-prandial blood glucose levels ...
The blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingestion of isomaltulose are lower than those due to sucrose or glucose, ... Compared with sucrose, the absorption of energy as carbohydrate from isomaltulose is prolonged. The resulting sustained energy ... different effects on insulin sensitivity after 12 weeks supplementation in sedentary adults". International Journal of Food ... supply to the body from isomaltulose is reflected in the prolonged shape of the blood glucose concentration response curve. ...
Lesinurad reduces blood uric acid levels by preventing uric acid absorption in the kidneys. It was approved in the United ... This may be partly due to its association with insulin resistance and obesity, but some of the increased risk appears to be ... Loss-of-function mutations in SLC2A9 and SLC22A12 causes low blood uric acid levels by reducing urate absorption and unopposed ... Other blood tests commonly performed are white blood cell count, electrolytes, kidney function and erythrocyte sedimentation ...
Insulin is produced and excreted to lower blood sugar to normal levels. Glucagon, another hormone produced by alpha cells, is ... which further stimulates calcium absorption in the GI tract. Adrenal glands Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla Pancreas Alpha cells ... Adrenal insufficiency is significant because it is correlated with decreased ability to maintain blood pressure and blood sugar ... insulin Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into interstitial ...
Insulin is released by the pancreas when blood sugar levels rise, and it has many effects that broadly promote the absorption ... Lipogenic gene expression in the liver via glucose and insulin is moderated by SREBP-1. The effect of glucose and insulin on ... One proposed mechanism for how the hormone works is that growth hormones affects insulin signaling thereby decreasing insulin ... Insulin affects ACC in a similar way to PDH. It leads to its dephosphorylation via activation of PP2A phosphatase whose ...
... and that Cr3+ is moved from the blood to tissues in response to increased levels of insulin. Subsequent protein isolations in ... In chromodulin isolated from bovine liver, x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have shown that the chromium (III) atoms are ... Evidence for the existence of this protein comes from the fact that the removal of 51Cr in the blood exceeds the rate of 51Cr ... It is believed to stimulate the phosphorylation of the 3 tyrosine residues of the β subunits of the insulin receptor. From ...
Heart attack, or inadequate blood flow to the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle. Heat stroke, also known as sunstroke or ... Poisoning, which can occur by injection, inhalation, absorption, or ingestion. Seizures, or a malfunction in the electrical ... Hyperglycemia (diabetic coma) and Hypoglycemia (insulin shock). Hypothermia, or Exposure, occurs when a person's core body ... Pupillary light reflexes should be evaluated and blood glucose measured. A decreased level of consciousness due to low blood ...
... lack of insulin inhibits absorption. Insulin's increase in cellular potassium uptake lowers potassium levels in blood plasma. ... But insulin is still secreted into the blood in response to the blood glucose. As a result, glucose accumulates in the blood. ... The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the blood in response to the blood glucose concentration is the primary mechanism of ... The actions of insulin (indirect and direct) on cells include: Stimulates the uptake of glucose - Insulin decreases blood ...
In addition, they slow the rate of absorption of nutrients into the blood stream by reducing gastric emptying and may directly ... after eating and augment the secretion of insulin released from pancreatic beta cells of the islets of Langerhans by a blood ... Incretins are a group of metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in blood glucose levels. Incretins are released ... which stimulates the endocrine pancreas including insulin release. He also proposed that such incretins could be used as a ...
... stabilize blood glucose levels by acting on pancreatic insulin release and liver control of glycogen breakdown stimulate gene ... During absorption, water must be absorbed at a rate commensurate with the absorption of solutes. The transport of actively and ... and reduce lipid absorption (notably shown with cholesterol absorption). Their use in food formulations is often limited to low ... The reduction in absorption rate with guar gum may be due to the increased resistance by viscous solutions to the convective ...
High levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also associated with worsened acne.[42] Both ... ductus arteriosus blood vessel.[47][150] Prolonged use of salicylic acid over significant areas of the skin or under occlusive ... It has shown no systemic absorption or associated antiandrogenic side effects.[134][135][136] In a direct head-to-head ... due to negligible systemic absorption.[47][150] Nadifloxacin and dapsone (category C) are other topical antibiotics that may be ...
There are foods and other substances that can interfere with absorption of thyroxine. Other substances that reduce absorption ... It is recommended that dosing be based on regular measurements of TSH and T4 levels in the blood.[1] Much of the effect of ... Absorption of orally administered levothyroxine from the gastrointestinal tract ranges from 40 to 80%, with the majority of the ... Grapefruit juice may delay the absorption of levothyroxine, but based on a study of 10 healthy people aged 20-30 (8 men, 2 ...
The endocrine part secretes insulin when the blood sugar becomes high; insulin moves glucose from the blood into the muscles ... 95% of absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine. Water and minerals are reabsorbed back into the blood in the ... and the pancreas with oxygenated blood. Most of the blood is returned to the liver via the portal venous system for further ... Another product is iron, which is used in the formation of new blood cells in the bone marrow.[5] Medicine treats the spleen ...
The main role of transferrin is to deliver iron from absorption centers in the duodenum and white blood cell macrophages to all ... "Transferrin binds insulin-like growth factors and affects binding properties of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3". ... Reference ranges for blood tests, comparing blood content of transferrin and other iron-related compounds (shown in brown and ... blood microparticle. • basal part of cell. • endocytic vesicle. • extracellular region. • cell surface. • basal plasma membrane ...
This insulin secretion occurs before the blood sugar level rises, lowering the blood sugar level in anticipation of a large ... Longer term regulation occurs through calcium absorption or loss from the gut. ... The beta cells respond to a rise in the blood sugar level by secreting insulin into the blood, and simultaneously inhibiting ... A fall in blood glucose, causes insulin secretion to be stopped, and glucagon to be secreted from the alpha cells into the ...
... and energy restriction on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3, insulin, and growth hormone". Metabolism ... Paulík S, Slanina L, Polácek M (January 1985). "[Lysozyme in the colostrum and blood of calves and dairy cows]". Vet Med (Praha ... Bush, L. J.; Staley, T. E. (1980). "Absorption of colostral immunoglobulins in newborn calves". J. Dairy Sci. 63 (4): 672-680. ... O'Dell SD, Day IN (July 1998). "Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 30 (7): 767-71. doi: ...
blood microparticle. • endoplasmic reticulum lumen. • chylomicron. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle. • spherical high- ... regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption. • low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling. • acute inflammatory response. ... beyond genetic associations with lipid disorders and insulin resistance". Current Opinion in Lipidology. 14 (2): 165-72. doi: ...
Common side effects include shakiness, anxiety, and sweating.[1] A fast heart rate and high blood pressure may occur.[1] ... Binding to α-adrenergic receptors inhibits insulin secretion by the pancreas, stimulates glycogenolysis in the liver and muscle ... as a vasoconstrictor to slow the absorption and, therefore, prolong the action of the anesthetic agent. Due to epinephrine's ... and blood sugar.[6][7] Epinephrine does this by its effects on alpha and beta receptors.[7] It is found in many animals and ...
광수용 (light absorption)[편집]. 이 세포는 망막에서 산란된 빛을 흡수하는 광수용(Light apbsorption) 역할을 수행한다. 광수용은 두 가지 이유에서 중요하다. [6] 첫째, 시각 시스템의 질적 향상을 ... insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)[23], ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)[24], pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF)[25] ... 망막색소상피세포는 혈액 망막 장벽 (Blood Retina Barrier, BRB)를 형성한다. 망막색소상피세포는 세포 간에 밀착연접 (tight junction)으로 연결된 상태이며, 이러한 결합을 통하여 다른 신체 조직들에 ... 광수용(light absorption), 물질 수송(epithelial transport), 시각회로 조절(visual cycle), 식세포작용(phagocytosiss), 호르몬 분비 및 면역조절 작용 등을 수행한다. ...
Vitamin D increases absorption of calcium and phosphate in the intestinal tract, leading to elevated levels of plasma calcium, ... Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone growth and remodeling in adults, and it acts via insulin-like growth factor I ... High levels of calcium in the blood, on the other hand, leads to decreased PTH release from the parathyroid gland, decreasing ... It has numerous functions involved in blood calcium levels. Recent research indicates that calcitriol leads to a reduction in ...
... of similar types of smart polymers that can detect changes in blood glucose levels and trigger production or release of insulin ... humidity and fluid content in all areas of the wound simultaneously and to automatically and reversibly switch from absorption ... An example of the latter is combined entrapment of glucose oxidase and insulin in a pH-responsive hydrogel. In the presence of ... glucose, the formation of gluconic acid by the enzyme triggers release of insulin from the hydrogel. ...
The intramuscular route is preferred over subcutaneous administration because the latter may have delayed absorption.[4][5] ... At its core is a repurposed insulin autoinjector.[111] This device has not been subject to any validation by regulatory ...
Measurement of blood electrolytes can reveal a high sodium level (hypernatremia as dehydration develops). Urinalysis ... This decreases plasma volume, thus lowering the glomerular filtration rate and enhancing the absorption of sodium and water in ... insulin receptor (Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome). *Insulin resistance. Hyperfunction. *Hypoglycemia. *beta cell (Hyperinsulinism) ... To distinguish DI from other causes of excess urination, blood glucose levels, bicarbonate levels, and calcium levels need to ...
For instance, ABC transporters such as Pgp, the MRPs and BCRP limit the absorption of many drugs from the intestine, and pump ... It is expressed primarily in the blood brain barrier and liver and is thought to be involved in protecting cells from toxins. ... The sulfonylurea receptors (SUR), involved in insulin secretion, neuronal function, and muscle function, are also part of this ... "Challenges for blood-brain barrier (BBB) screening". Xenobiotica. 37 (10-11): 1135-51. doi:10.1080/00498250701570285. PMID ...
Never by slaughter dispossess souls that are kin and nourish blood with blood![129] ... the absorption of the calcium into the body is higher.[99][101] Other foods that contain calcium include calcium-set tofu, ... both of which improve insulin sensitivity."[57] ... and its absorption can sometimes be inhibited by other dietary ... Many things have changed since the Vegetarian Society was founded way back in 1847, but fish have always been cold-blooded ...
The person may also experience seroma, a buildup of fluid; dehiscence (wound separation) and deep vein thrombosis (blood clots ... Many patients will need to take a daily multivitamin pill for life to compensate for reduced absorption of essential nutrients. ... Inappropriate insulin secretion secondary to islet cell hyperplasia, called pancreatic nesidioblastosis, might explain this ... Since the ingested food will not pass through the duodenum after a bypass procedure, calcium levels in the blood may decrease, ...
The diagnosis may be confirmed by a simple blood test for IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (which cross-react ... tTG is up-regulated after gluten absorption. cDCs endocytose tTG-modified gliadin complexes or modified gliadin alone but they ... insulin-dependent diabetes, lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, vitiligo, and alopecia areata.[37] There has ... It may cause adverse effects, especially hemolytic anemia, so regular blood monitoring is required.[4] ...
In a subcutaneous injection, the medication is delivered to the tissues between the skin and the muscle.[6] Absorption of the ... Intramuscular injections (IM injections) deliver a substance deep into a muscle, where they are quickly absorbed by blood ... Insulin injection is a common type of subcutaneous injection medicine. Certain vaccines including MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella ... Absorption takes the longest from this route compared to intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injections. Because of ...
Front and sides of thighs Upper and outer surfaces of the buttocks The most reliable and consistent absorption of insulin ... blood collection devices, or phlebotomy devices is at risk". http://www.osha.gov: OSHA. Retrieved 14 June 2011. "The Law". http ... The thinner the insulin pen needle, the less pain those receiving the injection may feel. Length of a pen needle is measured in ... supplies insulin pen needles in three lengths under the Microdot brand: 4 mm (32G), 6 mm (31G), 8 mm (31G) The smallest pen ...
... elevated blood sugar, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood triglycerides, and reduced HDL cholesterol.[medical citation ... Both insulin and leptin normally function as satiety signals to the hypothalamus in the brain; however, insulin/leptin ... In 1925 Hart discovered that iron absorption requires trace amounts of copper. In 1927 Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus synthesized ... Several lines of evidence indicate lifestyle-induced hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin function (i.e. insulin resistance) as ...
... and in the capillary endothelial cells composing the blood-brain barrier and blood-testis barrier, where it pumps them back ... Zhou G, Kuo MT (June 1997). "NF-kappaB-mediated induction of mdr1b expression by insulin in rat hepatoma cells". The Journal of ... Increased intestinal expression of P-glycoprotein can reduce the absorption of drugs that are substrates for P-glycoprotein. ... Schinkel AH (April 1999). "P-Glycoprotein, a gatekeeper in the blood-brain barrier". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 36 (2-3): ...
Another use for the procedure is the affinity purification of antibodies from blood serum. If the serum is known to contain ... A third method, expanded bed absorption, which combines the advantages of the two methods mentioned above, has also been ... "Affinity Chromatography of Native and Recombinant Proteins from Receptors for Insulin and IGF-I to Recombinant Single Chain ... growth medium or blood serum. The molecule of interest will have a well known and defined property, and can be exploited during ...
The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4), which has a longer half-life than T3.[1] In humans, the ratio ... Dietrich, J. W.; Boehm, B. O. (2008). "Resorption, Transport und Bioverfügbarkeit von Schilddrüsenhormonen" [Absorption, ... Most of the thyroid hormone circulating in the blood is bound to "transport protein"s. Only a very small fraction of the ... The thyroid hormones cross the follicular cell membrane towards the blood vessels by an unknown mechanism.[23] Text books have ...
95% of nutrient absorption occurs in the small intestine. Water and minerals are reabsorbed back into the blood in the colon ( ... Another function is to induce insulin secretion.. *Motilin - is in the duodenum and increases the migrating myoelectric complex ... Main article: Fatty acid metabolism § Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and ... In humans, Entamoeba histolytica can phagocytose red blood cells.[12]. Specialised organs and behaviours. To aid in the ...
Many patients will need to take a daily multivitamin pill for life to compensate for reduced absorption of essential nutrients. ... Since the ingested food will not pass through the duodenum after a bypass procedure, calcium levels in the blood may decrease, ... Inappropriate insulin secretion secondary to islet cell hyperplasia, called pancreatic nesidioblastosis, might explain this ... Some procedures block absorption of food, although they also reduce stomach size. ...
Blood concentrations of fatty acids. Hormone signals[edit]. The hormones insulin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from ... the GI tract during food absorption and act to suppress feeling of hunger. CCK is key in suppressing hunger because of its role ... the body takes steps to soften the impact of the homeostasis-disturbing influx of fuels by releasing insulin into the blood, ... and lowering the blood glucose levels. It is this lowering of blood glucose levels that causes premeal hunger, and not ...
... , sold under the brand name Mevacor among others, is a statin medication, to treat high blood cholesterol and reduce ... reduction of cholesterol absorption and increase of plasma cholesterol removal". Z Ernahrungswiss. 33 (1): 44-50. doi:10.1007/ ... "Effect of the oyster fungus on glycaemia and cholesterolaemia in rats with insulin-dependent diabetes". Physiol Res. 42 (3): ... Khatun K, Mahtab H, Khanam PA, Sayeed MA, Khan KA (January 2007). "Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucose and cholesterol in ...
20 minutes: Your blood sugar spikes, causing an insulin burst. Your liver responds to this by turning any sugar it can get its ... 40 minutes: Caffeine absorption is complete. Your pupils dilate, your blood pressure rises, as a response your livers dumps ...
Amino Acids Support Blood Flow And Insulin Sensitivity. The amino acid arginine, as well as citrulline, may also be very ... Citrulline is converted to arginine after absorption. Taurine has been found in a recent study to improve insulin sensitivity. ... The Insulin Factor. For insulin-resistant horses or those with Cushings disease, high insulin and cortisol levels make the ... High insulin and cortisol make the vessels more sensitive to constrictors. High insulin is also associated with higher levels ...
Biguandides help improve your bodys ability to use insulin. Improve your health with this helpful information from Discovery ... decreasing the small intestines absorption of glucose. *improving your bodys ability to use insulin, by improving your ... This weight loss can help you control your blood glucose levels even more. Biguanides can also improve your blood fat and ... But because they have similar actions, you should monitor your blood glucose levels closely. Ask your doctor what to do if you ...
"Fiber delays absorption of glucose and may improve insulin sensitivity," explains Saweres. These factors are key for improving ... When it comes to heart disease and stroke, fibers ability to lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol are the likely keys to ... In addition to these perks, people who consumed more fiber had lower body weight, systolic blood pressure, and total ... blood sugar levels, the primary concern in managing diabetes.. Finally, colon cancer may be the disease with the most obvious ...
The phytochemicals in corn kernels regulate the absorption and release of insulin, helping to reduce spikes and drops in blood ...
Inhibits white blood cells so you cant fight off disease. Interferes with protein metabolism and amino acid absorption. Is ... Increases insulin levels. Causes tissue damage. Causes bone fragility. Causes you to crave more food. Leads to cancer causing ...
Supports healthy insulin production* Supports immune system function* Supports positive mood* Supports healthy blood pressure ... Benefits Supports calcium absorption & bone health* Supports healthy cell division* ... Vitamin D is well known for its important role in promoting calcium absorption for bone health.* In fact, adequate calcium and ... Proper levels of Vitamin D have also been shown to support healthy cell division, healthy insulin production, healthy blood ...
... the body doesnt produce enough insulin or respond to insulin properly. As a result, sugars build up in the blood stream. High ... In a healthy person, insulin aids in the absorption of sugar from foods, so it can be used by the body for energy. In people ... Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed by elevated blood sugar levels. The hemoglobin A1C blood test indicates average blood sugar levels ... Physical activity helps manage blood sugar. It will also help you maintain a healthy weight, sleep better, and feel healthier. ...
Hassan found out that injecting insulin into muscle caused a quicker absorption into the blood stream and more lows. He now ... causing quicker absorption into the blood stream than it should be.. "Now I alternate different sites, but dont use the top of ... "My latest HbA1c is 7.8%. Finding out about avoiding muscles when injecting insulin is helping me. I just didnt know." ... "It wasnt until I was in hospital that an endocrinologist told me I was injecting insulin into muscle, ...
It contains key ingredients that help to control blood sugar levels and block fat and carbohydrate absorption.. Do it: Sex. Sex ... With age we gradually develop a resistance to the ability of insulin to transport glucose into the bodys energy-producing ... In order to burn fat we need to reduce the postprandial blood levels of both sugar and fat. One way to impede carbohydrate ... Women with estradiol levels below 90 pg/mL of blood are predisposed to abdominal fat accumulation and should be prescribed a ...
The strategy we need is to maintain a consistent amount of blood insulin levels and avoid trying to repress insulin production. ... It interferes with absorption of other nutrients, as your body will always process alcohol first.. When gluconeogenesis happens ... Yes insulin plays a role in moving glucose to cells to be burned as fuel, but insulin moves sugar to our muscles too. You can ... Insulin helps the body to burn glucose, low carb champions claim that carbs cause insulin to work less efficiently at burning ...
Findings revealed that a protein alteration that affected zinc absorption in the insulin cells. Thirty-two individuals did not ... The participants were asked to inject glucose during the study period, with insulin and blood sugar levels measured five ... To further understand the issue, researchers studied how insulin absorption worked in 55 individuals from the Older Order Amish ... As previous findings have examined the link between blood zinc levels and diabetes, indicating high level associations with a ...
... since fiber can slow down the absorption of sugars and help keep blood sugar levels more stable. ... For instance, high-fiber diets may reduce the risk of breast cancer by improving insulin sensitivity, ...
Further, if the treatment includes insulin, dehydration reduces blood supply to the skin and, therefore, less absorption of ... If you use insulin or if your treatment of blood sugars is inadequate, this can put you at higher risk. If a persons blood ... To help cool itself, your body sends more blood to circulate through your skin. This leaves less blood for your muscles, which ... This can lead to frequent urination, which then leads to further dehydration and even higher blood sugar levels - a kind of ...
The pancreas is an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and ... as well as digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to ... pancreatic polypeptide, all of which circulate in the blood. The pancreas is also a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice ...
Mineral Absorption Ingredients: Antibiotic-free Chicken, Organic Spinach, Organic Celery, Organic Parsley, Thyme, Organic ... Fight Cancer Help Muscles RecoverImprove Protein DigestionBlood Sugar RegulationReduce InflammationImprove Insulin ... Blood Sugar Regulation. Reduce Inflammation. Improve Insulin Sensitivity. Raise Serotonin Levels - Improve Mood. Reduce ...
This compound helps in slowing down blood sugar absorption. Methi is rich in amino acids that help in the production of insulin ... Health experts believe that consuming soaked methi seeds first thing in morning can help regulate blood sugar levels, ...
... insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates the absorption of ... Education on how daily activities affect blood glucose levels. *Appropriate food and meal planning ... Diabetes develops when your body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or when your pancreas produces some, but not ...
This reduces blood cholesterol levels, which, in turn, reduces cholesterol deposits on arterial walls that eventually choke off ... Insoluble fiber also may hamper the absorption of calorie-dense dietary fat. So, reaching for an apple instead of a bag of ... non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. In the study, cereal fiber was associated with a 28 percent decreased risk, with fiber from ... In theory, this may help prevent wide swings in blood sugar level throughout the day. Additionally, a new study from the ...
More constant levels of insulin absorption. *Reduced risk of low blood glucose (hypoglycaemia) ... Insulin pump therapy is officially known as Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII). An insulin pump is an electronic ... If ketones are present and your blood glucose is over 14 mmol/L, you will need to increase your insulin delivery. ... Check your blood glucose every 4 hours, and every 2 hours if you are unable to eat, are vomiting, have ketones or if your blood ...
3) Reduces sugar and carb absorption. (4) Supports insulin levels. (5) Supports heart health. ... Blood Sugar Ultra, 60 Capsules, curbs hunger and helps restore blood sugar to optimum levels ... Be the first to review "Blood Sugar Ultra - 60 Caps" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required fields ... HIGH POTENCY - The unique combination in this blend is crafted to help reduce glucose absorption and glucose production by your ...
Sitagliptin regulates the insulin ranges produced by the body after consuming. Metformin decreases manufacturing of sugar ... These two are diabetes medicines taken orally which help in controlling ranges of blood sugar. ... within the liver and lowers glucose absorption by the intestines. Its essential to notice that this drugs shouldnt be used to ... Most doctors prescribe Janumet treatment that is used with weight loss program and exercise to be able to lower blood sugar in ...
We deliver insulin into our subcutaneous tissue, where it absorbs into our bloodstream, the speed of absorption is determined ... Can you imagine having insulin that worked right when you bolused? A high blood sugar that was corrected within minutes rather ... If Im not mistaken, the non-diabetic body releases insulin into the bloodstream based mostly on blood sugar. Trying to dose ... I goofed it up a bit and my blood sugar was in the high 300s when I woke up the next morning. I corrected for it, but when I ...
This condition of high blood glucose and insulin deficiency is known as diabetes mellitus, or Type II diabetes. The insulin ... sugar absorption into the blood). Vitamin B12 - 1 tsp daily (= 6,000 mcg daily). (digestive support, energy, liver detox, colon ... Insulin Resistance. When a horse (or human for that matter) ingests sugar or starch the blood receives sugar very rapidly from ... Insulin Resistance/Diabetes. Pro-Colon - ¼ tsp daily. Pro-Dygest - ¼ cup daily. Blood Sugar Formula - One dose (5-10 pump ...
Bitter melon balances insulin sensitivity and reduces dietary glucose absorption. *Coconut oil powder provides lauric acid, ... Calcium supports heart muscle activity, regulates blood pressure and normalizes pH. *Vitamin C supports health of blood vessels ... regulates blood sugar, improves insulin function, immune function and digestion, builds muscles and bones, and optimizes brain ... lowers blood pressure, and protects the liver. Prostaglandins are also responsible for maintaining electrolyte balance, insulin ...
... so insulin helps in the absorption of fuel in the cell. So fat comes from the excess carbohydrates so as soon as the blood ... Insulin that connects into the cell so insulin actually will remove the sugar out of the blood to bring the sugar down. Okay ... Its roughly one and one-third gallons of blood.. Thats normal. Your your insulin needs to deal with it, so it has to get this ... Normal blood sugar is between eighty and You have one teaspoon of sugar for all of your blood, an average person. ...
Individuals whose bodies cannot produce insulin have type 1 diabetes. ... Possible physical causes of brittle diabetes is defective insulin absorption, drug interference (e.g., alcohol, antipsychotics ... How to Control Blood Sugar Spikes Many diabetics struggle to control the sudden blood sugar spikes that can occur after meals. ... How Heat And Humidity May Affect Blood Sugar Hot weather does not directly alter blood glucose levels. However, sweltering ...
... to stimulate the beta cells of the pancreas to secrete insulin; and to increase uptake of glucose from the blood via ... The polyphenols in apple decrease the absorption of glucose from the digestive tract; ... Apples control blood sugar and sugar cravings.. The phytonutrients in apples can help you regulate your blood sugar. Research ... stimulation of insulin receptors. All this triggered by apple polyphenols makes it easier to regulate your blood sugar. Ginger ...
This balanced approach can slow down the absorption of the carbs which can help to keep blood sugar levels regulated.. I wrote ... Cinnamon can also help to lower blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity. This effect can happen with even less than ... What is Blood Sugar?. ​Blood sugar is literally that: the sugar in your blood. Your blood contains all kinds of important ... The fibre, fat and protein in a food slows down the digestion and absorption of the carbohydrates, so the blood sugar rise ...
Improves insulin secretion and utilization of blood glucose.. Relieves stress on pancreas and enzyme systems of the body.. ... Improves digestion and absorption of other nutrients including vitamins, minerals, and amino acids.. ... Improves calcium and magnesium absorption and supports the development of strong bones and teeth.. Helps protect against ...

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