Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Disorders of Excessive Somnolence: Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Occlusal Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic: Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Actigraphy: The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Hypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Sleep Arousal Disorders: Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Fluid Shifts: Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mouth Breathing: Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Rhinomanometry: Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Restless Legs Syndrome: A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sleep Bruxism: A sleep disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth and forceful lateral or protrusive jaw movements. Sleep bruxism may be associated with TOOTH INJURIES; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; sleep disturbances; and other conditions.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Dreams: A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Velopharyngeal Insufficiency: Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: Back flow of gastric contents to the LARYNGOPHARYNX where it comes in contact with tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract. Laryngopharyngeal reflux is an extraesophageal manifestation of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Glossectomy: Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, obstruction of the airway during sleep, causing lack of sufficient deep sleep, often ... Other forms of sleep apnea are less common. When air is blocked from entering into the lungs, the individual unconsciously ... classifies as apnea. Other forms of sleep apnea include central sleep apnea and sleep-related hypoventilation. Sleep paralysis ... Some common sleep disorders include sleep apnea (stops in breathing during sleep), narcolepsy and hypersomnia (excessive ...
Usually, any medical condition where the airway is blocked during sleeping, like obstructive sleep apnea, may give rise to ... and is not associated with sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is apnea either as the result of obstruction of the air ... Sleep apnea (or sleep apnoea in British English; /æpˈniːə/) is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or ... Apart from the specific condition of obstructive sleep apnea, other causes of snoring include alcohol intake prior to sleeping ...
Obstructive sleep apnea is more common among overweight patients, and occurs when the airway is fully or partially blocked at ... Treating obstructive sleep apnea is much easier than central sleep apnea, and the treatment plan may include things such as ... Any air that does sneak by the blocked passage can cause loud snoring. The second type of sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, is ... However, the researchers had no plausible explanation for a cause-and-effect relationship Sleep apnea Sleep apnea is a sleep ...
... causing the airway to collapse and block the intake of oxygen. Obstructive sleep apnea is more common than central sleep apnea ... "What is Sleep Apnoea? (Sleep Apnea)". britishsnoring.co.uk. http://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-disorders-problems/sleep-apnea> ... Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition in which major pauses in breathing occur during sleep, disrupting the normal progression ... Diagnosing sleep apnea usually requires a professional sleep study performed in a sleep clinic, because the episodes of ...
... sleep apnea. It has been found that obstructive sleep apnea usually involves multiple sites where tissue obstructs the airway; ... it will no longer be able to block the airway. Success is much better for Phase 2 than for Phase 1 - approximately 90 percent ... As explained above, sleep apnea is often caused by multiple co-existing obstructions at various locations of the airway such as ... In the US, UPPP is the most commonly performed procedure for obstructive sleep apnea, with approximately 33,000 procedures per ...
Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on apnea-hypopnea index in obstructive sleep apnea based on long-term compliance ... in which the pressure from CPAP prevents the airway from collapsing or becoming blocked. A mandibular advancement device or ... Obstructive sleep apnea or sleep apnea is defined as either cessation of breathing (apnea) for 10 seconds, or a decrease in ... In obstructive sleep apnea, affected individuals are categorized based on how many apneas or hypopneas (apnea-hypopnea index or ...
CPAP is the most effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea, in which the mild pressure from the CPAP prevents the airway ... from collapsing or becoming blocked. Although delivery of CPAP through a nasal mask is the most common modality of treatment, ... "Effect of a High-Flow Open Nasal Cannula System on Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children". Pediatrics. 124 (1): 179-188. doi: ... "A Nasal Cannula Can Be Used to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 176 ...
... blocking ports of airflow and hindering effective respiration. There have been documented instances of severe airway ... Some use the terms obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome to refer to OSA which is ... Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the ... February 2011). "Management of obstructive sleep apnea in Europe". Sleep Med. 12 (2): 190-7. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.10.003. ...
... causing the airway to collapse and block the intake of oxygen.[93] Obstructive sleep apnea is more common than central sleep ... Obstructive sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition in which major pauses in breathing occur during sleep, ... "What is Sleep Apnoea? (Sleep Apnea)". britishsnoring.co.uk. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2019. ... Diagnosing sleep apnea usually requires a professional sleep study performed in a sleep clinic, because the episodes of ...
Recurring respiratory infections are common, as are obstructive airway disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Many affected ... Communicating hydrocephalus-in which the normal reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid is blocked and causes increased pressure ... Some affected individuals also have obstructive airway disease and sleep apnea. Persons with Scheie syndrome can live into ... remove tonsils and adenoids may improve breathing among affected individuals with obstructive airway disorders and sleep apnea ...
CPAP is the most effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea, in which the mild pressure from the CPAP prevents the airway ... from collapsing or becoming blocked.[3]. Although delivery of CPAP through a nasal mask is the most common modality of ... Continuous positive airway pressure. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a form of positive airway pressure ... "A Nasal Cannula Can Be Used to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 176 ...
The machine utilizes the air pressure as an "air splint" to keep the airway open. In obstructive sleep apnea, the airway at the ... which in turn narrow the airways) and sleep on their side (to prevent the tongue from blocking the throat). A number of other ... Obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep deprivation. Relaxants such as alcohol or other drugs relaxing throat muscles. Sleeping on one's ... Snoring during sleep may be a sign, or first alarm, of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Research suggests that snoring is one of ...
... frequency that patients who have both obstructive sleep apnea and asthma often improve tremendously when the sleep apnea is ... In essence, asthma is the result of an immune response in the bronchial airways. The airways of asthma patients are " ... In 1995 Szentivanyi and colleagues demonstrated that IgE blocks beta-2 receptors. Since overproduction of IgE is central to all ... Basner RC (July 25, 2006). "Asthma and OSA". American Sleep Apnea Association. Archived from the original on 2011-06-15. ...
Mechanical regulation of airflow and/or airway pressure: For individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, one of the more common ... thus reducing unpleasant symptoms such as a sore throat or blocked nose that can result from inhaling cold, dry air. BiPap ... central sleep apnea was significantly higher than the prevalence among patients with obstructive sleep apnea or no sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea (CSA) or central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breathe is ...
Apnea is traditionally classified as either obstructive, central, or mixed. Obstructive apnea may occur when the infant's neck ... and reflux associated apnea with an infant pneumogram or infant apnea/sleep study. Methylxanthines (theophylline and caffeine) ... CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) is sometimes used for apnea when medications and supplemental oxygen are not ... It may also occur due to low pharyngeal muscle tone or to inflammation of the soft tissues, which can block the flow of air ...
Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, obstruction of the airway during sleep, causing lack of sufficient deep sleep, often ... Other forms of sleep apnea are less common.[8] When air is blocked from entering into the lungs, the individual unconsciously ... Obstructive Sleep Apnea[edit]. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects around 4% of men and 2% of women in the United States.[47] ... classifies as apnea. Other forms of sleep apnea include central sleep apnea and sleep-related hypoventilation.[9] ...
... it was found that the Captain in fact suffered from a sleep disorder known as severe obstructive sleep apnea. This is a ... On May 14, 2009, he blocked Mesa from rebranding Go! as Aloha. In October 2009, Mesa Air Group and Republic Airways Holdings ... "FAA suspends sleeping airline pilots". msnbc.com. Associated Press. 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2010-10-05. "Go! Fleet of CRJ (Active ... On March 3, 2009, bankruptcy judge Lloyd King blocked the sale of Aloha's name and brand on the grounds that the auction was ...
... sleep apnea exacerbated by or related to any of these conditions New occurrence or aggravation of these pre-existing conditions ... new-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) chronic cough syndrome upper airway hyperreactivity chronic ... The New York City Disaster Area includes the area of Manhattan south of Houston Street, as well as any block of Brooklyn either ... Hernandez, Raymond (December 10, 2010). "Republicans Block U.S. Health Aid for 9/11 Workers". The New York Times. pp. A28. ...
The machine utilizes the air pressure as an "air splint" to keep the airway open. In obstructive sleep apnea, the airway at the ... which in turn narrow the airways)[16] and sleep on their side (to prevent the tongue from blocking the throat). ... Snoring during sleep may be a sign, or first alarm, of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Research suggests that snoring is one of ... "Quality of life in mild obstructive sleep apnea". Gall, R., Isaac, L., Kryger, M. (1993) Sleep, 16, S59 S61. 1993.. ...
Contributing to the incident were the captain's undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea and the flight crew's recent work schedules ... It operated under a code share agreement with US Airways and was a US Airways Express carrier. It started with a Tampa hub, ... Block or better. Line guarantee and increased minimum guarantee. Long layover credit. 200% junior assignment pay. PBS on trial ... The captain suffered from an undiagnosed severe sleep apnea. The National Transportation Safety Board determined the probable ...
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation can be used in an outpatient setting for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Crash ... An oropharyngeal airway is used during bag-valve-mask ventilation to prevent oropharynx soft tissues from blocking the airway. ... Airway obstruction: Obstruction may occur in the upper and lower airway. Upper airway obstruction is common in infants less ... In bilevel positive airway pressure, both expiratory positive airway pressure and inspiratory positive airway pressure are set ...
2013). "Tissue fatty acid composition in obstructive sleep apnea and recurrent tonsillitis". Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 77 ... Complications may rarely include dehydration and kidney failure due to difficulty swallowing, blocked airways due to ... 2012). "Circulating phospholipase-A2 activity in obstructive sleep apnea and recurrent tonsillitis". Int J Pediatr ... in the neck pain in the ears or neck weight loss difficulty ingesting and swallowing meal/liquid intake difficulty sleeping ...
Obstructive sleep apnea (a condition of sleep wherein disordered breathing overlaps with obesity, hypertension, and/or diabetes ... Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta blockers) also form part of the first line of treatment, adding to the improvement in ... This entails ensuring that airway, breathing, and circulation are adequate. Immediate treatments usually involve some ... Heart failure is much higher in African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and recent immigrants from the eastern bloc ...
... healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/sleep-apnea, a resource from the Harvard Division of Sleep Medicine on Obstructive Sleep Apnea ... Depending on how blocked the airways are (patency), there may or may not be a flow of gas between the lungs and the environment ... information about Apnea and the apnea-calculator for clinical treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea http://www.freedivers.co.uk ... During sleep in patients who are suffering from sleep apnea, these events can occur up to 20-30 times per hour, every night. ...
In obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea, leptin level is increased, but decreased after the administration of continuous ... positive airway pressure. In non-obese individuals, however, restful sleep (i.e., 8-12 hours of unbroken sleep) can increase ... The PI3K pathway may also be involved in leptin resistance, as has been demonstrated in mice by artificial blocking of PI3K ... "Leptin and ghrelin levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea: effect of CPAP treatment". Eur. Respir. J. 22 (2): 251-57 ...
... blocking ports of airflow and hindering effective respiration.[13][14] There have been documented instances of severe airway ... Some use the terms obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome to refer to OSA which is ... Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the ... February 2011). "Management of obstructive sleep apnea in Europe". Sleep Med. 12 (2): 190-7. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.10.003. ...
... your childs airway collapses or gets blocked during sleep. In rare cases, a child may have OHS but not obstructive sleep apnea ... Obstructive sleep apnea may also cause the disease.. What are the symptoms of OHS in a child?. Symptoms of OHS and sleep apnea ... OHS often occurs with obstructive sleep apnea. This is a related issue. In this condition, ... A machine that gives positive airway pressure. This will help keep your childs airways open. ...
... this may be a contributing factor to a condition called obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. See separate leaflet called ... For example, if a child regularly has difficulty sleeping or disrupted night-time sleep due to a blocked nose. Also, some ... If you have large tonsils that are partially obstructing your airway, ... In severe cases sleep may be disrupted by the blocked nose and there is difficulty with breathing. ...
Large tonsils block the airway, making snoring or sleep apnea more likely ... In some cases, your doctor may recommend removing obstructive adenoid tissue along with the tonsils. Current research indicates ... Chronically enlarged tonsils can cause airway obstructions, which can lead to sleep apnea. In children, the effects of sleep ... A sleep study, or polysomnogram, to help decide whether sleep apnea is present and if sleep disturbance may be due to enlarged ...
The differences between OHS and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are that the former has:[2] ... Upper airway obstruction is certainly known to play a prominent role. It may be associated with rapid eye movement (REM) atonia ... ECG - arrhythmias and right bundle branch block have been recorded.. *Pulmonary function tests:*Flow volume loop - expiratory ... Associated sleep-related breathing disorder (sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome or sleep hypoventilation, or both). ...
2000) Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on sleep apnea and ventricular irritability in patients with heart failure ... 2001) Evaluation of a portable recording device (Somnocheck) for use in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea. ... and left bundle branch block (QRS duration 173 ± 22 ms) received a CRT device. The number of apneas and hypopneas per hour ( ... 2003) Sleep apnea and heart failure. Part II: Central sleep apnea. Circulation 107:1822-1826. ...
Blocked or narrowed airways in your nose, mouth, or throat can cause sleep apnea. Your airway can become blocked when your ... Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Blocked Upper Airway Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Blocked Upper Airway. ...
Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Blocked Upper Airway. Blocked or narrowed airways in your nose, mouth, or throat can cause sleep apnea ... Your airway can become blocked when your throat muscles and tongue relax during sleep. ...
Learn the signs that point to this common and potentially serious sleep disorder and find out the treatments that can help you ... This type of apnea occurs when your throat muscles intermittently relax and block your airway during sleep. A noticeable sign ... Obstructive sleep apnea Open pop-up dialog box Close Obstructive sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea ... relax your upper airway and may worsen your obstructive sleep apnea.. If you have obstructive sleep apnea, you may experience ...
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a severe form of snoring. It occurs when throat muscles relax and block the airway during ... A common but dangerous sleep disorder, Obstructive Sleep Apnea causes an increased risk for left ventricular and, more rarely, ... A common but dangerous sleep disorder, Obstructive Sleep Apnea causes an increased risk for left ventricular and, more rarely, ... Obstructive sleep apnea linked to heart disease, especially in women The study found OSA was associated with worse heart ...
Brief pauses in breathing during sleep can be normal. But when breathing stops often or for longer periods, it can be a cause ... which can fall back and block the airway during sleep. What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea?. When ... How Is Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treated?. When obstructive sleep apnea is mild, doctors might check a childs sleep for a while ... This is called obstructive sleep apnea (AP-nee-uh).. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can make the bodys oxygen levels fall and ...
The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). With OSA, the airway becomes completely blocked during sleep. OSA can ... About Sleep Apnea. Sleep apnea is a common breathing disorder that causes you to stop breathing for short periods of time while ... Please tell us if you have sleep apnea or if you think you might have it. ... How should I sleep after my surgery?. You will need to keep the head of your bed elevated with a wedge pillow after your ...
The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). With OSA, the airway becomes completely blocked during sleep. It can ... About Sleep Apnea. Sleep apnea is a common breathing disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods while ... Please tell us if you have sleep apnea or if you think you might have it. If you use a breathing machine (such as a CPAP) for ... Your breathing machine for sleep apnea (such as your CPAP), if you have one. ...
... is a problem in which your breathing pauses during sleep. This occurs because of narrowed or blocked airways. ... Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA ... Treatment of adult obstructive sleep apnea with positive airway pressure: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical ... Large tonsils and adenoids that can block the airway Sleeping on your back can also cause your airway to become blocked or ...
... intermittent positive airway pressure system for treating sleep apnea, snoring, and other respiratory disorders. The systems ... Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) occurs when tissue blocks the upper airway during sleep. This will cause a drop in blood oxygen ... SLEEP abstract 2008; Rosenthal L, Dolan D C, Massie C A , Kram J. A novel expiratory pressure device to obstructive sleep apnea ... Self-contained, intermittent positive airway pressure systems and methods for treating sleep apnea, snoring, and other ...
The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or become blocked during sleep. Normal ... The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or become blocked during sleep. Normal ... Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing pauses can last ... However, not everyone who snores has sleep apnea.. You are more at risk for sleep apnea if you are overweight, male, or have a ...
Sleep apnea treatment may reverse changes in brain stem activity associated with increased risk of heart disease, a new study ... In obstructive sleep apnea, muscles in the airway collapse during sleep and block breathing. A CPAP device keeps airways open ... CPAP stands for continuous positive airway pressure. Previous research suggests that people with obstructive sleep apnea have ... home / sleep center / sleep a-z list / sleep apnea treatment may reverse brain changes article ...
An improved apparatus for and method of providing feedback to an implantable pulse generator to treat obstructive sleep apnea. ... The second condition is known as obstructive sleep apnea. It is discussed at some length in "Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Diagnosis ... 4 is a block diagram of an implantable pulse generator; and, FIG. 5 and 6 are graphical representations of the key signals of ... Airway feedback measurement system responsive to detected inspiration and obstructive apnea event ...
... called Monday for large-scale medical studies to determine the link between heart disease and the different forms of sleep ... Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when the upper airway is blocked. This reduces oxygen in the blood and causes arousal from sleep ... Obesity is a major cause of sleep apnea, "but it is more than that, too," said Call, a registered nurse. She said sleep apnea ... A continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine is used by patients for the treatment of sleep apnea at home. ...
Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when the airway is blocked during sleep. This can be caused by the small upper airway, large ... AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION AND SLEEP APNEA. Airway obstruction is common in children with Down syndrome, with some studies suggesting ... Obstructive sleep apnea is often overlooked by caregivers and medical professionals, as sleep disturbances often occur ... Loss of sleep due to apnea and poor quality sleep due to sleep disordered breathing can result in sleepiness and disturbances ...
Subtypes of sleep apnea *Obstructive (most common, block airways). *Central (lack of signals during sleep to breathe) ... Constriction of airways wheezing. *Strong links with anxiety. *Not just because of medication ...
Central sleep apnea is a sleep disorder in which breathing stops over and over during sleep. ... With obstructive sleep apnea, breathing stops and starts because the airway is narrowed or blocked. But a person can have both ... Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea is not the same as obstructive sleep apnea. ... Central sleep apnea is a sleep disorder in which breathing ...
... periods of interrupted breathing during sleep. Its caused by a persons tongue collapsing and blocking their airway. It may ... Nor do the estimated 22 million Americans believed to have obstructive sleep apnea, which can cause other health problems if ... the answer for sleep apnea is a CPAP machine, a patient wears to bed and it forces air in to clear the airway. ... Test shows KMBC news anchor has severe sleep apnea. Nighttime breathing interruptions can lead to serious health problems. ...
In people without obstructive sleep apnea, the throat muscles relax but do not block the airways. In patients with obstructive ... Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder. It occurs when tissues in the upper airways come ... Obstructive sleep apnea is defined as five or more episodes of apnea or hypopnea per hour of sleep (called apnea-hypopnea index ... Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs when tissues in the upper throat relax and come together during ...
It happens because of a blockage in the upper airway. The pause in breathing may occur many times in a night, disrupting the ... Obstructive sleep apnea is when a child briefly stops breathing while sleeping. ... They may then briefly block the airway during sleep.. Obstructive sleep apnea may also be caused by:. * Being overweight ... Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children. What is obstructive sleep apnea in children?. Obstructive sleep apnea is when a child ...
Here are 6 signs you may have a sleep disorder. ... of Americans suffer from some sort of sleeping disorder, and ... Snoring is one of the most common symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea or OSA. OSA occurs when a persons airway is blocked ... Scientists estimate that nearly 80 percent of people who suffer from Obstructive Sleep Apnea are unaware that they developed ... This can be caused by a number of sleep disorders including all three types of sleep apnea, PLMD and various forms of clinical ...
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