The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.
The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
Total loss of vision in all or part of the visual field due to bilateral OCCIPITAL LOBE (i.e., VISUAL CORTEX) damage or dysfunction. Anton syndrome is characterized by the psychic denial of true, organic cortical blindness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p460)
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Glial cell derived tumors arising from the optic nerve, usually presenting in childhood.
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.
Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
A maternally linked genetic disorder that presents in mid-life as acute or subacute central vision loss leading to central scotoma and blindness. The disease has been associated with missense mutations in the mtDNA, in genes for Complex I, III, and IV polypeptides, that can act autonomously or in association with each other to cause the disease. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim/, MIM#535000 (April 17, 2001))
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Optic disk bodies composed primarily of acid mucopolysaccharides that may produce pseudopapilledema (elevation of the optic disk without associated INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION) and visual field deficits. Drusen may also occur in the retina (see RETINAL DRUSEN). (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p355)
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
Dominant optic atrophy is a hereditary optic neuropathy causing decreased visual acuity, color vision deficits, a centrocecal scotoma, and optic nerve pallor (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Mutations leading to this condition have been mapped to the OPA1 gene at chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 codes for a dynamin-related GTPase that localizes to mitochondria.
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Diseases of the cornea.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Three groups of arteries found in the eye which supply the iris, pupil, sclera, conjunctiva, and the muscles of the iris.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.
Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.
Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.
Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
A species of parasitic nematodes widely distributed throughout central Africa and also found in northern South America, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. Its intermediate host and vector is the blackfly or buffalo gnat.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Tumors or cancer of the RETINA.
Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.
Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Congenital, often bilateral, retinal abnormality characterized by the arrangement of outer nuclear retinal cells in a palisading or radiating pattern surrounding a central ocular space. This disorder is sometimes hereditary.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).
Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X CHROMOSOME in humans (X CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the X CHROMOSOME in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases.
Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
Congenital absence of the eye or eyes.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Atrophy of the optic nerve can also cause blindness in fetal warfarin syndrome. Inhibition of coagulation and resultant ... The more extreme symptoms such as severe mental retardation, blindness and deafness occur more often when warfarin is used ...
Alternating current stimulation for vision restoration after optic nerve damage: a randomized clinical trial. PLoS One 11: ... Based on this work with animal models of vision loss and his clinical work, he discovered that low vision and blindness must ... optic neuropathy and stroke. Sobel has given over 500 lectures at national and international conferences. Since 1997 Sobel has ... Computer-based training for the treatment of partial blindness. Nature medicine 4: 1083-1087. Sabel, B.A., Engelmann, R. and ...
This caused permanent damage of his optic nerve that later led to his total blindness. Maas was special advisor to the House ... He had been stricken with total blindness in August 1951. Maas was a resident of Chevy Chase, Maryland, until his death in ...
In severe cases, however, the surgery becomes urgent to prevent blindness from optic nerve compression. Because the eye socket ... The orbital fat or the stretching of the nerve due to increased orbital volume may also lead to optic nerve damage. The patient ... which may lead to blindness. Thus, CT scan or MRI is necessary when optic nerve involvement is suspected. On neuroimaging, the ... About 3-5% have severe disease with intense pain, and sight-threatening corneal ulceration or compression of the optic nerve. ...
... optic nerve, ears, muzzle and other facial areas. The results are often blindness; walking in circles or poor coordination ( ... and optic nerves; lack of coordination (ataxia); facial or lower limb dermatitis; horn deformities; blindness; and death. ... blindness in elk) is a nematode which infests several mammalian hosts in North America. It is transmitted by horse-flies. ...
Local ocular complications include hematoma formation, optic nerve damage and perforation of the globe with possible blindness ... Cranial nerve IV lies outside the muscle cone, and therefore is not affected by the local anesthesia. As a result, intorsion of ... A retrobulbar block is a regional anesthetic nerve block in the retrobulbar space, the area located behind the globe of the eye ... It also provides sensory anesthesia of the conjunctiva, cornea and uvea by blocking the ciliary nerves. This block is most ...
Lesions in optic nerve causes visual field defects and blindness. Causes of optic nerve lesions include optic atrophy, optic ... The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, extends from the optic disc to the optic chiasma. ... The optic chiasm, or optic chiasma is the part of the brain where both optic nerves cross. It is located at the bottom of the ... Lesions involving the whole optic nerve cause complete blindness on the affected side, that means damage at the right optic ...
Moreover, the methanol it contains can cause permanent blindness by destruction of the optic nerves. Bluesman Tommy Johnson ...
... and blindness. Blindness is the single most serious complication of FESS, and results from damage to the optic nerve during ... Hopkins' rod optic system is widely credited with being a turning point for nasal endoscopy. Utilizing Hopkins' rod optic ... and decompression of eye sockets/optic nerve in Graves ophthalmopathy. In the surgery, an otolaryngologist removes the uncinate ... Serious complications such as blindness occur in only 0.44% of cases, as determined by a study performed in the United Kingdom ...
Further complications from tabes dorsalis include optic nerve damage, blindness, shooting pains, urinary incontinence, and ... Failure to treat syphilis leads to progressive degeneration of the nerve roots and posterior columns. The bacteria Treponema ...
Tumours arose from the optic nerve accounting for the blindness and from both eighth cranial nerves accounting for the deafness ... In addition he had a long-standing blindness in one eye. Examination showed a small palpable tumour on the occipital region. ... At post mortem there were multiple small tumours arising from the dura mater and also from the cranial nerves. ...
If the fluid is not reduced, the pressure causes permanent damage to the retina and optic nerve. Loss of eyesight can happen as ... It is a leading cause of blindness in dogs, and is where there is increased fluid pressure within the eye. ...
Patients experience optic atrophy due to progressive cranial nerve compression, which may lead to nystagmus or even blindness ... Patients also experience cranial nerve damage resulting from progressive cranial pressure. DSS is classified as an autosomal ... narrow optic canal and other cranial foramina. The ribs are sclerotic, truncated, expanded, and featureless. Sclerosis is also ...
This includes impairment of one or more component of the visual system (eye structure, receptors, optic nerve pathway, and ... to total blindness. ...
This includes impairment of one or more component of the visual system (eye structure, receptors, optic nerve pathway, and ... This includes athletes with mobility disabilities, amputations, blindness, and cerebral palsy. Paralympic sports refers to ...
... refers to a group of diseases in dogs that affect the optic nerve and involve a loss of retinal ganglion cells ... which can progress to blindness. The group of multifactorial diseases which cause glaucoma in dogs can be divided roughly into ... Direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy is necessary to evaluate the retina and particularly the optic nerve. There is no cure for ... Untreated glaucoma in dogs leads to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, ...
... visual prosthetic implants find the procedure most successful if the optic nerve was developed prior to the onset of blindness ... Persons born with blindness may lack a fully developed optical nerve, which typically develops prior to birth, though ... Designed by Claude Veraart at the University of Louvain, this is a spiral cuff electrode around the optic nerve at the back of ... This information was then passed on to the optic nerve and the vision processing centres of the brain. On 2 January 2019, BVT ...
The process that is causing the displacement of the eye may also compress the optic nerve or ophthalmic artery, leading to ... leading to proptosis and can also cause blindness if not treated promptly. Cushing's syndrome (due to fat in the orbital cave) ... Rupture of more than two rectus muscles usually requires the eye to be removed, because significant blood vessel and nerve ... blindness. Inflammatory/Infection: Graves' ophthalmopathy due to Graves' disease, usually causes bilateral proptosis. Orbital ...
Glaucoma is a combination of diseases that cause damage to the optic nerve and may result in vision loss and blindness. ...
... cause progressive optic neuropathy that leads to optic nerve damage, visual field defects and blindness. Sometimes glaucoma may ... Optic neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve from infection or multiple sclerosis may cause blurring of vision. There may be ... Bleeding into the eye Temporal arteritis: Inflammation of an artery in the brain that supplies blood to the optic nerve. ... Macular degeneration is the third main cause of blindness worldwide, and is the main cause of blindness in industrialised ...
Ingesting as little as 10 mL (0.34 US fl oz) of pure methanol can cause permanent blindness by destruction of the optic nerve. ... Schep LJ, Slaughter RJ, Vale JA, Beasley DM (2009). "A seaman with blindness and confusion". BMJ. 339: b3929. doi:10.1136/bmj. ...
Optic nerve gliomas and associated blindness. Astrocytoma Another CNS manifestation of NF-1 is the so-called "unidentified ... Optic gliomas along one or both optic nerves or the optic chiasm can cause bulging of the eyes, involuntary eye movement, ... Nerve Tumours UK. Nerve Tumours UK. Retrieved 2021-04-27. GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Neurofibromatosis 1 GeneReviews/NIH/ ... whereas resection of a neurofibroma requires the sacrifice of the underlying nerve. Nerve root neurofibroma. Bones, especially ...
... the formic acid and formaldehyde produced as metabolites of methanol are responsible for the optic nerve damage, causing ... blindness, seen in methanol poisoning. Some chronic effects of formic acid exposure have been documented. Some experiments on ... Sadun, A. A (2002). "Mitochondrial optic neuropathies". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 72 (4): 423-5. doi: ...
Complete crossing of the optic nerve[edit]. Complete crossing (decussation) of the nerves at the optic chiasm in birds has also ... Some evidence indicates that this alone is not enough as blindness would theoretically prevent USWS if retinal nerve stimuli ... Complete decussation of the optic tract has been seen as a method of ensuring the open eye strictly activates the contralateral ...
The ultimate release of the vitreous around the optic nerve head sometimes makes a large floater appear, usually in the shape ... Retinal detachment requires immediate medical attention, as it can easily cause blindness. Consequently, both the appearance of ... the second is a fiber optic light source, and the third is a vitrector. The vitrector has a reciprocating cutting tip attached ...
The consumption of these adulterated drinks causes headaches, tremors, blindness due to optic nerve damage and death in ...
The optic nerve then carries these pulses through the optic canal. Upon reaching the optic chiasm the nerve fibers decussate ( ... Prosopagnosia, or face blindness, is a brain disorder that produces an inability to recognize faces. This disorder often arises ... The eye, especially the retina The optic nerve The optic chiasma The optic tract The lateral geniculate body The optic ... The optic nerves from both eyes meet and cross at the optic chiasm, at the base of the hypothalamus of the brain. At this point ...
"Long-term outcome of optic nerve encasement and optic nerve decompression in patients with fibrous dysplasia: risk factors for ... In particular untreated growth hormone excess may worsen craniofacial fibrous dysplasia and increase the risk of blindness. ... In rare cases, patients may develop vision and/or hearing loss due to compromise of the optic nerves and/or auditory canals, ... Prophylactic optic nerve decompression increases the risk of vision loss and is contraindicated. Managing endocrinopathies is a ...
"Long-term outcome of optic nerve encasement and optic nerve decompression in patients with fibrous dysplasia: risk factors for ... blindness and safety of observation". Neurosurgery. 59 (5): 1011-1017, discussion 1017-1018. doi:10.1227/01.NEU. ...
... or optic nerve. Of patients with ocular JXG, 92% are younger than the age of two. Although cutaneous JXG usually disappear ... The presence of JXG in the eye can cause spontaneous hyphema, secondary glaucoma or even blindness. It is most often seen in ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ... If left untreated it can cause blindness. ... Optic neuropathy. *Ischemic *anterior (AION). *posterior (PION) ...
No photoreceptors are found at the blind spot, the area where ganglion cell fibers are collected into the optic nerve and leave ... The receptor could be instrumental in understanding many diseases including major causes of blindness worldwide like glaucoma, ... The axons of ganglion cells form the two optic nerves. Photoreceptor cells are typically arranged in an irregular but ... ultimately leads to either the transmittance or inhibition of a neural signal that will be fed to the brain via the optic nerve ...
Injuries and cataracts affect the eye itself, while abnormalities such as optic nerve hypoplasia affect the nerve bundle that ... Blindness at Curlie. *. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Blindness" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University ... "Blindness" redirects here. For other uses, see Blindness (disambiguation).. Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment ... Poet John Milton, who went blind in mid-life, composed On His Blindness, a sonnet about coping with blindness. The work posits ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ... ইংরেজিতে এর আরেক নাম night-blindness। এই রোগে অপেক্ষাকৃত স্বল্প আলোয় দেখা কঠিন বা প্রায় অসম্ভব। এটা আসলে কতিপয় চোখের রোগের ...
Sensory cranial and spinal nerves. *Optic (II). *Vestibulocochlear (VIII). *Olfactory (I). *Facial (VII) ... The Merkel nerve endings (also known as Merkel discs) detect sustained pressure. The lamellar corpuscles (also known as ... Mechanosensory free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, stretching, as well as the tickle and itch sensations. Itch ... They are all innervated by Aβ fibers, except the mechanorecepting free nerve endings, which are innervated by Aδ fibers. ...
More rare ocular side effects include blurred vision, decreased night vision (which may be permanent), colour blindness, ... It is also used for treatment of neuroblastoma, a form of nerve cancer. ... development of corneal opacities, inflammation of the cornea (keratitis), swelling of the optic disk (papilloedema, associated ...
Haldane was also the first to construct human gene maps for haemophilia and colour blindness on the X chromosome and he was one ... Rapport, Richard L. Nerve Endings: The Discovery of the Synapse. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005. Print. ... Together with Otto Schott and Carl Zeiss, he laid the foundation of modern optics. Abbe developed numerous optical instruments ... Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896): German physician and physiologist, the discoverer of nerve action potential, and the father ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ... Color blindness *Achromatopsia. *Dichromacy. *Monochromacy. *Nyctalopia *Oguchi disease. *Blindness / Vision loss / Visual ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ... Color blindness *Achromatopsia. *Dichromacy. *Monochromacy. *Nyctalopia *Oguchi disease. *Blindness / Vision loss / Visual ...
... whose axons form the optic nerve, are at the front of the retina; therefore the optic nerve must cross through the retina en ... Night Blindness : Night blindness occurs in any person with severe vitamin A deficiency. The reason for this is that without ... It has three layers of nerve cells and two of synapses, including the unique ribbon synapse. The optic nerve carries the ... Nerve fiber layer (NFL) Ganglion cell axons travelling towards the optic nerve ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ... This tends to lead to progressive night blindness and visual field constriction. ...
The increased pressure leads to papilledema, which is swelling of the optic disc, the spot where the optic nerve enters the ... The primary goal in treatment of IIH is the prevention of visual loss and blindness, as well as symptom control.[9] IIH is ... More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... Most commonly, the abducens nerve (sixth nerve) is involved. This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. Those ...
... can also result from physical or chemical damage to the eye, optic nerve or parts of the brain.[2] Diagnosis is ... color-blindness.com *^ Deuteranopia - Red-Green Color Blindness Archived 2015-04-07 at the Wayback Machine. color-blindness.com ... Red-green color blindness is the most common form, followed by blue-yellow color blindness and total color blindness.[2] Red- ... Total color blindness is much less common than partial color blindness.[5] There are two major types of color blindness: ...
722- This scheme shows the flow of information from the eyes to the central connections of the optic nerves and optic tracts, ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... The central mechanisms include the convergence of olfactory nerve axons into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where the signal ... The peripheral mechanisms involve olfactory receptor neurons which transduce a chemical signal along the olfactory nerve, which ...
Treatments are also in clinical trials to repair and regenerate peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves are more likely to be ... Blindness and vision impairment[edit]. Since 2003, researchers have successfully transplanted corneal stem cells into damaged ... Stem cells induced to a neural fate injected in to a severed nerve. Within four weeks, regeneration of previously damaged stem ... Park BW, Kang DH, Kang EJ, Byun JH, Lee JS, Maeng GH, Rho GJ (2012). "Peripheral nerve regeneration using autologous porcine ...
Going back as far as 1995, there were arguments that laser dazzlers could potentially cause permanent blindness in targets, and ... the Air Force announced that the Directorate had developed a method of using fabric made of fiber optic material in a friend or ... where the nerve endings are located.[44] ... to concerns that even low-powered lasers could cause blindness ...
Optic neuritis-Inflammation of the optic nerve from infection or multiple sclerosis. You may have pain when you move your eye ... A major cause of blindness. Glaucoma can happen gradually or suddenly-if sudden, it is a medical emergency. ... Temporal arteritis-Inflammation of an artery in the brain that supplies blood to the optic nerve. ...
Optic nerve (5%). *Uvea (2%). Mechanism[edit]. Childhood blindness has many causes, and each cause has its own method of ... Childhood blindness is an important cause contributing to the burden of blindness.[4] Blindness in children can be defined as a ... There are many causes of blindness in children. Blindness may be due to genetic mutations, birth defects, premature birth, ... Whether blindness is treatable depends upon the cause.[15] Surgical intervention can be performed in PCG which is childhood ...
The optic canal contains the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) and the ophthalmic artery, and sits at the junction of the sphenoid ... and even blindness if not promptly corrected.[9] The orbits also protect the eye from mechanical injury.[5] ... In addition, there is the optic canal, which contains the optic nerve, or cranial nerve II, and is formed entirely by the ... Tumors (e.g. glioma and meningioma of the optic nerve) within the cone formed by the horizontal rectus muscles produce axial ...
The retina is composed of light-sensitive cells which fire a signal down the optic nerve when light hits the cell. The optic ... Color blindness. *Achromatopsia. References[change , change source]. *↑ Gregory R.L. 1966. Eye and Brain: the psychology of ... It travels along the optic chiasma until it reaches the optic cortex at the rear of the brain. The information is then ... nerve is a bundle of nerve fibres from all over the retina. ...
... optic nerve hyperemia and papillitis, and multiple exudative bullous serous retinal detachments.[2][5][6] ... Cranial nerve palsies and optic neuritis are uncommon.[6]. The acute uveitic phase occurs a few days later and typically lasts ... cranial nerve palsies, hemiparesis, transverse myelitis and ciliary ganglionitis[6]), and cutaneous manifestations, including ... and optic atrophy can occur.[6] Skin changes usually persist despite therapy.[6] ...
In 1704, in his treatise on optics, Isaac Newton devised a circle showing a spectrum of seven colors. In this work and in an ... Young was also the first to propose that the retina of the eye contained nerve fibers which were sensitive to three different ...
Blindness may result from damage to the eyeball, especially to the retina, damage to the optic nerve that connects each eye to ... Cranial nerve(s) Cerebral cortex Primary associated perception(s) Name Light Eyes Photoreceptor Visual system Optic (II) Visual ... For example, in the case of the eye, it does not matter whether light or something else stimulates the optic nerve, that ... Every nerve, sensory or motor, has its own signal transmission speed. For example, nerves in the frog's legs have a 90 ft/s (99 ...
... however a similar study to that presented above was performed on cats whose optic nerves had been severed. These cats displayed ... Touch and blindness : psychology and neuroscience. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 9780805847260. . OCLC ... Complementing this, afferent nerve fibres have been found that project to early visual areas such as the lingual gyrus from ... The superior colliculus (SC) or optic tectum (OT) is part of the tectum, located in the midbrain, superior to the brainstem and ...
Optic chiasmEdit. Main article: Optic chiasm. The optic nerves from both eyes meet and cross at the optic chiasm,[31][32] at ... Glaucoma is a type of blindness that begins at the edge of the visual field and progresses inward. It may result in tunnel ... The optic nerve then carries these pulses through the optic canal. Upon reaching the optic chiasm the nerve fibers decussate ( ... Optic radiationEdit. Main article: Optic radiation. The optic radiations, one on each side of the brain, carry information from ...
In ischemic optic neuropathies, there is insufficient blood flow (ischemia) to the optic nerve. The anterior optic nerve is ... Blindness can occur with drinking as little as an ounce of methanol, but this can be counteracted by concurrent drinking of ... Medical examination of the optic nerve with an ophthalmoscope may reveal a swollen optic nerve, but the nerve may also appear ... Optic neuropathy is often called optic atrophy, to describe the loss of some or most of the fibers of the optic nerve. In ...
... which can cause permanent blindness by destruction of the optic nerve. 15 mL is potentially fatal,[1] although the median ... Physical examination may show tachypnea, and ophthalmologic examination may show dilated pupils with hyperemia of the optic ... Long-term outcomes may include blindness and kidney failure.[1] Toxicity and death may occur even after drinking a small amount ... "A seaman with blindness and confusion". BMJ. 339: b3929. doi:10.1136/bmj.b3929. PMID 19793790. Archived from the original on ...
... primarily at the optic nerve head, in the absence of elevated IOP. While the excavation of the optic nerve head and the ... Without treatment, NTG leads to progressive visual field loss and in the last consequence to blindness. The mainstay of ... like optic nerve head excavation and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, while these patients had an IOP that would ... Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is an eye disease, a neuropathy of the optic nerve, that shows all the characteristics of " ...
If the tumor continues to grow and push on the optic nerve, all vision will be lost in that eye as the nerve atrophies. ... though most suffered unilateral blindness as well as paresis of extraocular movements. Higher grade tumors have been shown to ... Cranial nerve VI is often the first affected, leading to diplopia with lateral gaze. If cranial nerve V-1 is damaged, the ... The differential diagnosis for sphenoid wing meningioma includes other types of tumors such as optic nerve sheath meningioma, ...
... a waxy appearance of the optic nerve, and (3) the attenuation of blood vessels in the retina.[3] ... Eventual blindness. Causes[edit]. RP may be: (1) Non-syndromic, that is, it occurs alone, without any other clinical findings ... While complete blindness is rare, the person's visual acuity and visual field will continue to decline as initial rod ... Lok, Corie (2014). "Curing blindness: Vision quest". Nature News & Comment. 513 (7517): 160-162. Bibcode:2014Natur.513..160L. ...
Now the doctors are telling ,b,you have glaucoma and the optic nerves are damaged,/b, and eye sight will have no improvement. ... Can glaucoma damage the optic nerve leading to blindness?. Answered by: Dr Rishi Mohan , Consultant Ophthalmologist, ... Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » Can glaucoma damage the optic nerve leading to blindness? ... Now the doctors are telling you have glaucoma and the optic nerves are damaged and eye sight will have no improvement. Is there ...
Home / News / Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness that damages the eyes optic nerve. Those at risk include ... Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness that damages the eyes optic nerve. Those at risk include individuals ... Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness that damages the eyes optic nerve. Those at risk include individuals ... Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The highest incidence of glaucoma in the world is in West ...
"Sudden blindness as an initial manifestation of localized fusariosis in ethmoid sinus and optic nerve, Annals of Hematology" on ... Sudden blindness as an initial manifestation of localized fusariosis in ethmoid sinus and optic nerve. Sudden blindness as an ... ethmoid sinus and optic nerve. moid sinus and optic nerve. The patient was orally ad- A 75-year-old female with MDS had been ... ethmoid sinus and optic nerve. moid sinus and optic nerve. The patient was orally ad- A 75-year-old female with MDS had been ...
We describe a case of a calcium channel blocker overdose that led to bilateral cortical blindness, a presentation that has not ... the setting of a calcium channel blocker overdose can lead to worsening optic atrophy resulting in bilateral cortical blindness ... A 49-year-old white woman with known bilateral early optic atrophy presented to our hospital with hypotension and obtundation ... An ophthalmologic examination revealed that this was due to bilateral optic atrophy from prolonged hypotension during the first ...
There is now more light at the end of the tunnel for patients with low vision or blindness following glaucoma and optic nerve ... or Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy. Eight patients had more than one cause of optic nerve atrophy. The groups were ... 33 with visual deficits caused by glaucoma and 32 with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy caused by inflammation, optic nerve ... This can partially restore vision in patients with stable vision loss caused by optic nerve damage." Source: Newswise ...
Protracted postsurgical blindness with visual recovery following optic nerve sheath fenestration. Michael C. Brodsky, Garrick A ... Protracted postsurgical blindness with visual recovery following optic nerve sheath fenestration. / Brodsky, Michael C.; ... Protracted postsurgical blindness with visual recovery following optic nerve sheath fenestration. Archives of ophthalmology. ... Brodsky, M. C., & Rettele, G. A. (1998). Protracted postsurgical blindness with visual recovery following optic nerve sheath ...
Researchers Have A Vision: Cure Blindness By Regrowing Retinas And Optic Nerves. The governments National Eye Institute is ... which destroy the retina-the image sensor of the eye-or the optic nerve that connects eyes to the brain. But some laws of human ... they might be able to reverse not only blindness but also diseases of the brain and other nerves. The NEI is funding research ... a buildup of fluid pressure that crushes the optic nerve. Rare genetic diseases like retinitis pigmentosa can also wipe out ...
Optic nerve (5%). *Uvea (2%). Mechanism[edit]. Childhood blindness has many causes, and each cause has its own method of ... Childhood blindness is an important cause contributing to the burden of blindness.[4] Blindness in children can be defined as a ... There are many causes of blindness in children. Blindness may be due to genetic mutations, birth defects, premature birth, ... Whether blindness is treatable depends upon the cause.[15] Surgical intervention can be performed in PCG which is childhood ...
... optic nerve damage (blindness); dermatitis ...
If he decides not to have the operation and the tumour spreads to the optic nerve would blindness come gradually or instantly? ... If a pituitary tumour spreads to the optic nerve does it cause instant blindness?. Follow ... The tumour will press on the optic nerve and impair vision.. The vision loss is gradual, and in my case the effect was not ... It was left untreated for a year due to misdiagnosis and wrapped around the optic nerve and lost all peripheral vision an has ...
Macular and optic nerve head nerve layer typically thickened.. Patients pay about USD $20,000 to join and participate in the ... SCOTS Eye Stem Cell Study Reports Vision Recovery in Optic Nerve Stroke (NAION); Other Blindness. By ... for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a case report of improvement in relapsing auto-immune optic neuropathy. Neural Regen Res ... NAION can be described as a stroke in the optic nerve that typically causes severe visual loss. This is the first approach that ...
ON, optic nerve.. Optimized Allotopic Expression of the Human Mitochondrial ND4 Prevents Blindness in a Rat Model of ... To create an animal model of Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON), we introduced the human ND4 gene harboring the G11778A ... Optimized allotopic expression of the human mitochondrial ND4 prevents blindness in a rat model of mitochondrial dysfunction.. ... Optimized Allotopic Expression of the Human Mitochondrial ND4 Prevents Blindness in a Rat Model of Mitochondrial Dysfunction ...
5 Methanol damages the optic nerve; drinking it causes blindness. The effects of these additives were well known. In January ... 1927, Time magazine reported, "Three ordinary drinks of this [denatured alcohol] may cause blindness."6 ...
... optic nerve; ischemic complication; cadaver; in virto; experimental; nerves; dural sheath; treatment; artery; central retinal ... Treatment for Filler-Induced Blindness-Video Discussion by Steven Fagien, MD, FACS ... This Video demonstrates the procedure for harvest of the sural nerve, nerve mapping and placing of the cross face nerve graft ... This Video demonstrates single stage gracilis muscle transplantation for coaptation to the motor nerve to masseter. Facial ...
The goal of the program is to eliminate preventable blindness throughout the world, and create eye-disease-free communities. ... Jennifer Staple on how to prevent blindness and graduate from med school at the same time A week ago, Jennifer Staple, 25, was ... The pressure is on the optic nerve. Medicated eyedrops usually keep it in check. With eye care, 80 percent of all blindness ... Jennifer Staple on how to prevent blindness and graduate from med school at the same time. By Sam Whiting ...
... damage to the optic nerve. *tachycardia (increased heart rate). *prolonged priapism. *blindness ... In very rare cases, Viagra use can lead to nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, or damage to the optic nerve. ... papilledema - swelling in the optic nerve. *optic neuropathy - ... Viagra can decrease blood supply to the optic nerve, causing ...
Read our vets advice on blindness in dogs, including how to recognise if your dog is going blind, what causes it and how to ... Optic nerve disease. A problem with the nerve that connects the brain to the eye. ... Blindness can develop suddenly or gradually depending the cause.. Gradual loss of vision.. It can be surprisingly difficult to ... Tumours in and around the eye can cause blindness.. Breed specific causes. Some breeds of dog are prone to developing certain ...
Blindness (if the optic nerve is involved). *Clotting or blockage of brain or lung blood vessels ... and then lead to the swelling of the nerves that stem from the brain. It may also cause blood clots that block vessels to the ...
blindness if the optic nerve is compressed. *difficulty in moving eyes, as the eye muscles are affected ... Rarely, some people may experience compression of the optic nerve or ophthalmic artery, which can eventually affect the ... MS causes nerve cells to lose their insulating coating. A new study finds that the cells that construct this coat may also be ... Popular in: Eye Health / Blindness. * What causes a buildup of pressure behind the eyes? ...
... we present the results of a single patient with optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study ( ... Keywords: blindness; bone marrow-derived stem cells; ophthalmology; optic nerve; optic neuropathy; stem cells; visual loss. ... Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a preliminary report Neural Regen Res. ... SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. Pre- and post- ...
... the power of machine learning to detect vision impairments faster and earlier than ever before to help prevent blindness. ... Theres diabetic retinopathy, blood vessel damage arising from complications with diabetes; glaucoma, damage to the optic nerve ... With blindness, all that information is lost, a persons world forever changed. ... Thats one step closer to a world in which preventable cases of blindness are just that - prevented. ...
Night Blindness. *Nystagmus. *Ocular Hypertension. *Ophthalmoplegia. *Optic Nerve Disorder. *Poor Color Vision ...
Increase your knowledge about the factors that affect the optic nerve. 5/10/2018 Free View in iTunes ... Mission to cure blindness. 39 million people around the world are blind and 80% of those affected have preventable or treatable ... Some Mistakes can lead to blindness! What are the dangers of common treatments? Learn safe alternative solutions 1/15/2018 Free ... On a mission to end preventable blindness His name is Dr. Travis Zigler, he and his wife Jenna have been actively involved with ...
... and other cranial nerves involvement. All patients except five underwent CSF examination which was normal in 1 patient, ... i,Materials and Methods,/i,. We report the case of a 52-year old lady with optic neuritis as isolated manifestation of ... Sequential optic nerve involvement was observed in 5 patients. Three patients had sudden onset of blindness. Visual loss was ... it was associated with focal optic nerve enhancement. In one patient (12%) contrast-enhanced MRI revealed isolated optic nerve ...
Bensinger on optic nerve drusen symptoms: Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve often caused by multiple ... Optic Nerve (Definition) The optic nerve receives input from the retina and transmits information to the optic chasm and ... Optic neuritis: Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve often caused by multiple sclerosis. The symptoms are a ... Optic neuritis: Neuropathy is damage to the nerve, i.e. Vascular oclusion or trauma. Neuritis is inflamation to the optic nerve ...
... the compression to the optic nerve axons decreases, thus improving perfusion of the optic nerve head. The paper presents young ... which is a form of calcium degeneration of optic nerve head axons. They are initially asymptomatic but may causes progressive ... and neovascularization adjacent to the optic nerve head. Useful diagnostic tools ophthalmoscopy, angiography, standard ... female patient with bilateral optic nerve drusen and progressive visual field defects (scotomas), which implies topical ...
The most serious complication is blindness. This can occur if the optic nerve is seriously damaged. ... Surgery to remove the tumor is often needed, especially if the tumor is pressing on the nerves that control vision (optic ... nerves).. Most of the time, pituitary tumors can be surgically removed through the nose and sinuses. If the tumor cannot be ...
Optic neuritis or inflammation of the optic nerve. *Sickle cell anemia. Other causes of color vision deficiency. Certain ... Inheritance patterns of color blindness. Studies have shown that at least 19 different chromosomes and many different gene ... What Causes Color Blindness?. News-Medical. 05 April 2020. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-Causes-Color-Blindness. ... What Causes Color Blindness?. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-Causes-Color-Blindness.aspx. (accessed ...
Has a history of severe glaucoma, uveitis, optic neuropathy or any confirmed damage to the optic nerve and/or visual cortex ... Has active cancer or a history of intraocular, optic nerve or brain cancer and metastasis, ... Compensation for Blindness With the Intelligent Retinal Implant System (IRIS V2) in Patients With Retinal Dystrophy (IRIS 2). ... Compensation for Blindness With the Intelligent Retinal Implant System (IRIS V2) in Patients With Retinal Dystrophy. ...
Dysfunctional OPA1 mutations cause atrophy of the optic nerve leading to blindness. Here, we show that OPA1 has an important ... Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is known to be important for mitochondrial fusion and structural integrity. Here, using OPA1 knockout ... Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that has an important role in mitochondrial fusion and ... Dysfunctional OPA1 mutations cause atrophy of the optic nerve leading to blindness. Here, we show that OPA1 has an important ...
  • Can glaucoma damage the optic nerve leading to blindness? (ndtv.com)
  • Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » Can glaucoma damage the optic nerve leading to blindness? (ndtv.com)
  • Now the doctors are telling you have glaucoma and the optic nerves are damaged and eye sight will have no improvement. (ndtv.com)
  • Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness that damages the eye's optic nerve. (unc.edu)
  • Earlier, vision loss due to glaucoma or optic nerve damage was considered irreversible. (medindia.net)
  • There is now more light at the end of the tunnel for patients with low vision or blindness following glaucoma and optic nerve damage. (medindia.net)
  • In a study conducted at three German clinical centers (University of Göttingen, Charité Berlin, and University of Magdeburg), 82 patients were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial, 33 with visual deficits caused by glaucoma and 32 with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy caused by inflammation, optic nerve compression (due to tumors or intracranial hemorrhage), congenital anomalies, or Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. (medindia.net)
  • That's the painful truth for people who lose their vision to diseases like macular degeneration or glaucoma, which destroy the retina-the image sensor of the eye-or the optic nerve that connects eyes to the brain. (fastcompany.com)
  • and glaucoma, a buildup of fluid pressure that crushes the optic nerve. (fastcompany.com)
  • Glaucoma is one of the most prevalent causes of blindness worldwide. (hindawi.com)
  • The finding, published this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), presents a new theory on why the most common form of glaucoma may develop and provides potential new ways to treat a leading cause of blindness in American adults. (umaryland.edu)
  • Without these cells, the fibers may lose their resistance to stress, and begin to deteriorate, causing damage to the optic nerve, which may ultimately lead to glaucoma. (umaryland.edu)
  • More than 3 million Americans have glaucoma, which results from damage to the optic nerve, causing blindness in 120,000 U.S. patients. (umaryland.edu)
  • Without these cells, the nerve is unable to repair itself from damage caused by glaucoma or other conditions. (umaryland.edu)
  • Glaucoma is an eye condition that is characterized by damage to the optic nerve. (medicineshoppe.com)
  • Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. (medicineshoppe.com)
  • Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, which is vital to good vision. (medicineshoppe.com)
  • Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in the United States. (medicineshoppe.com)
  • If left untreated, glaucoma will eventually cause blindness. (medicineshoppe.com)
  • The five leading causes of impaired vision and blindness in the United States are age-related macular degeneration , cataract , glaucoma , diabetic retinopathy , and atrophy of the optic nerve . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Night blindness sometimes accompanies glaucoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • it is either congenital and stationary with myopia and degeneration of the disc-eg, retinitis pigmentosa, hereditary optic atrophy or progressive and acquired with retinal, choroidal or vitrioretinal degeneration-eg, cataract, glaucoma, optic atrophy, retinal degeneration and, the 'classic' cause of nyctalopia, vitamin A deficiency. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The leading causes of blindness in the U.S. are age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Primary open angle glaucoma, the most common type of glaucoma, can be characterized by the slow and irreversible apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells, a unique optic nerve neuropathy and loss of visual function ( 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • In glaucoma, the retina and optic nerve experience neurodegeneration that causes blindness. (livescience.com)
  • Primary open angle glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, and is the most common form of glaucoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Causes of blindness include severe corneal disease, anterior and/or posterior uveitis, cataracts (white opacity of the lens), retinal inflammation and infection, retinal detachment, glaucoma (sustained elevated pressure within the eye), disease of the optic nerve (nerve that connects the eye to the brain) and visual pathways, and diseases of the occipital cortex (visual center of the brain). (petplace.com)
  • Optic nerve degeneration caused by glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. (plos.org)
  • Patients affected by the normal-pressure form of glaucoma are more likely to harbor risk alleles for glaucoma-related optic nerve disease. (plos.org)
  • Loss of vision from glaucoma, a common cause of blindness worldwide, is due to irreversible damage to the optic nerve. (plos.org)
  • Current therapies cannot prevent glaucoma-related optic nerve disease and very little is known about the underlying responsible molecular events. (plos.org)
  • Glaucoma patients affected by the "normal-pressure" subtype of glaucoma (NPG) have increased susceptibility to optic nerve degeneration. (plos.org)
  • We found that SNPs in the CDKN2BAS gene region on 9p21 and a highly conserved region with a probable regulatory function on 8q22 were associated with NPG and with optic nerve disease in a second type of glaucoma, exfoliation glaucoma. (plos.org)
  • These results reveal new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of optic nerve disease in glaucoma and are an important step toward the development of preventative and protective therapies. (plos.org)
  • To evaluate sensitivity of two multifocal electrophysiological tests, mfONHC and mfVEP, in early diagnosis of glaucomatous optic nerve damage in glaucoma suspects and early glaucoma. (arvojournals.org)
  • While atrophy of over 50% of the optic nerve fibers is necessary to show glaucomatous visual filed losses, mfONHC and mfVEP are highly sensitive tools in earlier detection of glaucomatous damage of the optic nerve in glaucoma suspects. (arvojournals.org)
  • Glaucoma occurs when increased fluid pressure in the eyes damages the optic nerve. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Vision loss from glaucoma occurs when the optic nerve is damaged. (nih.gov)
  • Glaucoma has no early symptoms, and by the time people experience problems with their vision, they usually have a significant amount of optic nerve damage. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Glaucoma - is a disease that damages the fibers of the Optic Nerve blocking transmission to the brain. (bellaonline.com)
  • Glaucoma damages the optic nerve and causes vision loss and blindness. (savannahnow.com)
  • In glaucoma, the optic nerve is often damaged by increased intraocular pressure. (newsmax.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization, glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness around the world, after cataracts. (newsmax.com)
  • There is prior data from the early nineties, suggesting that in patients with glaucoma who sleep on their sides, the eye in the dependent position tends to have greater damage of the optic nerve,' Dr. Jeffrey Schultz told Reuters Health in an email. (newsmax.com)
  • He was not involved in the study, but said it is 'important in letting us know that there is potential for behavior changes in lessening the risk of blindness from glaucoma. (newsmax.com)
  • Glaucoma refers to different eye conditions that can damage your optic nerve , which carries visual information from your eyes to your brain. (healthline.com)
  • Doctors don't know exactly how glaucoma damages the optic nerve. (preventblindness.org)
  • For others, glaucoma damages the optic nerve without increased pressure. (preventblindness.org)
  • Other vision problems, glaucoma and cataracts, for example, are degenerative and can cause blindness if not treated by an optometrist or another medical professional. (wisegeek.com)
  • Glaucoma is a condition where damage occurs to the optic nerve. (wisegeek.com)
  • Glaucoma worsens as optic nerve damage leads to irreversible blindness. (wisegeek.com)
  • Glaucoma is the term used to describe a group diseases characterised by a specific type of damage to the optic nerve head (ONH) known as cupping and a characteristic type of visual field loss. (bl.uk)
  • This project was aimed at investigating olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), a population of radial glia proven to be neuroprotective in central and peripheral nerve injury models, and their potential to protect the retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma. (bl.uk)
  • Glaucoma is a disease which, if untreated, causes blindness. (botanical-online.com)
  • Several diseases, such as glaucoma , can damage the optic nerve and cause permanent blindness. (wisegeek.com)
  • At the center of the image is an optic nerve with glaucoma damage, signified by loss of color and a round rim of pink tissue within the nerve. (eurekalert.org)
  • Glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide, most often is diagnosed during a routine eye exam. (eurekalert.org)
  • Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting more than 60 million people. (eurekalert.org)
  • Studying mouse models of glaucoma, Ban, Apte and their colleagues identified a molecule in the eye called growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), noting that the levels of the molecule increased as the animals aged and developed optic nerve damage. (eurekalert.org)
  • Glaucoma refers to a group of optic neuropathies that cause progressive damage to retinal ganglion cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Glaucoma, a disease that damages the optic nerve, can cause blindness. (thedoctorstv.com)
  • Glaucoma is one of the problems associating with the eye, which causes blurry vision and might result to total blindness if not detected and treated on time. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • Experts have described glaucoma as a condition that damages one's eye's optic nerve. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • If the damage worsens, glaucoma can cause permanent vision loss or even total blindness within a few years. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • Glaucoma damages the optic nerve fibres. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • Glaucoma is devastating because it is the commonest cause of irreversible blindness. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • A 49-year-old white woman with known bilateral early optic atrophy presented to our hospital with hypotension and obtundation following a known ingestion of 150 mg of amlodipine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An ophthalmologic examination revealed that this was due to bilateral optic atrophy from prolonged hypotension during the first 24 hours after the overdose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Persistent hypotension in the setting of a calcium channel blocker overdose can lead to worsening optic atrophy resulting in bilateral cortical blindness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • She was also seen by the ophthalmology service in 2007 with regards to declining visual acuity, secondary to early optic atrophy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eight patients had more than one cause of optic nerve atrophy. (medindia.net)
  • The first patient, a 32 year-old female with a 5 year history of visual loss secondary to idiopathic optic atrophy was followed at the Wilmer Eye Institute at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. (lifepulsehealth.com)
  • Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that has an important role in mitochondrial fusion and structural integrity. (nature.com)
  • Dysfunctional OPA1 mutations cause atrophy of the optic nerve leading to blindness. (nature.com)
  • Five members of the GTPase dynamin family, namely mitofusin-1 (MFN1), mitofusin-2 (MFN2), optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), mitochondrial fission 1 (FIS1), and dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) are known as the "mitochondria-shaping" proteins which regulate the fusion and fission of mitochondria 8 . (nature.com)
  • Optic atrophy is a condition that affects the optic nerve, which carries impulses from the eye to the brain. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • What is optic atrophy? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Optic atrophy is not a disease, but rather a sign of a potentially more serious condition. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Optic atrophy results from damage to the optic nerve from many different kinds of pathologies. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • In the case of optic atrophy, something is interfering with the optic nerve's ability to transmit these impulses. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • What can people with diabetes do to prevent blindness? (baltimoresun.com)
  • Orbital compartment syndrome is an ocular emergency that requires expedient diagnosis and management to prevent blindness. (medscape.com)
  • We report the case of a 52-year old lady with optic neuritis as isolated manifestation of neoplastic meningitis and a review of ocular involvement in neoplastic meningitis. (hindawi.com)
  • Describe optic neuritis? (healthtap.com)
  • Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve often caused by multiple sclerosis . (healthtap.com)
  • How does optic neuropathy differ from optic neuritis? (healthtap.com)
  • Neuritis is inflamation to the optic nerve. (healthtap.com)
  • Could uv/sunlight cause optic neuritis? (healthtap.com)
  • Sunlight does not cause optic neuritis . (healthtap.com)
  • What causes optic neuritis? (healthtap.com)
  • Optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerves that presents with vision loss , pain with eye movement & "fading vision" when a person gets hot (like in the shower). (healthtap.com)
  • Multiple Sclerosis , and drugs such as Ethambutol, Methanol, can all cause optic neuritis and gradual blindness. (kumc.edu)
  • We performed a retrospective, observational study to examine optic nerve head (ONH) perfusion, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness using 1050-nm swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in multiple sclerosis (MS), with and without history of acute optic neuritis (ON). (arvojournals.org)
  • Optic neuritis is inflammation that can cause temporary or permanent vision loss. (healthline.com)
  • It contains over 1.2 million fibers as well as supporting elements.A truly amazing nerve. (healthtap.com)
  • We believe these cells, called neural progenitor cells, are present in the optic nerve tissue at birth and remain for decades, helping to nourish the nerve fibers that form the optic nerve," said study leader Steven Bernstein, MD, PhD , Professor and Vice Chair of the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. (umaryland.edu)
  • The long nerve cell fibers extend from the retina through the lamina, into the optic nerve. (umaryland.edu)
  • What the researchers discovered is that the lamina progenitor cells may be responsible for insulating the fibers immediately after they leave the eye, supporting the connections between nerve cells on the pathway to the brain. (umaryland.edu)
  • The image features nerve fibers (blue) and their attendant microglia (green), the cells responsible for immune defense in the central nervous system, as the fibers converge to form the optic nerve in a mouse retina. (livescience.com)
  • In some instances, ONH includes the absence or abnormal development of the corpus callosum (a thick band of nerve fibers that connect the two hemispheres of the brain) and septum pellucidum (a thin membrane of connective tissue between the brain's lateral ventricles). (chla.org)
  • As a consequence, the fibers of the optic nerve are covered with myelin produced by oligodendrocytes, rather than Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system, and are encased within the meninges. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fibers from the retina run along the optic nerve to nine primary visual nuclei in the brain, from which a major relay inputs into the primary visual cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each human optic nerve contains between 770,000 and 1.7 million nerve fibers, which are axons of the retinal ganglion cells of one retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optic nerve leaves the orbit (eye socket) via the optic canal, running postero-medially towards the optic chiasm, where there is a partial decussation (crossing) of fibers from the temporal visual fields (the nasal hemi-retina) of both eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There, partial decussation occurs, and about 53% of the fibers cross to form the optic tracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the lateral geniculate body, fibers of the optic radiation pass to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slowly, the nerve fibers that are essential for vision die. (preventblindness.org)
  • These nerves are important because they contain the fibers that send images to your brain, and if damaged, they could prevent you from having clear vision. (medicinenet.com)
  • The optic nerve is composed of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to the brain. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Therefore, in most mammals, optic nerve damage results in irreversible blindness. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the first approach that is showing statistical significance improvement in this second most common blinding optic neuropathy. (lifepulsehealth.com)
  • The second patient, a 54 year-old female with optic neuropathy was followed at the Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University. (lifepulsehealth.com)
  • There was also publication on 5 patients with Lebers Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) treated in SCOTS with visual acuity gains on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) of up to 35 letters with Snellen acuity improvements from hand motion to 20/200 and from counting fingers to 20/100. (lifepulsehealth.com)
  • In this report, we present the results of a single patient with optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS). (nih.gov)
  • To create an animal model of Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON), we introduced the human ND4 gene harboring the G11778A mutation, responsible of 60% of LHON cases, to rat eyes by in vivo electroporation. (nih.gov)
  • Neuropathy is damage to the nerve, i.e. (healthtap.com)
  • They are initially asymptomatic but may causes progressive optic neuropathy. (intechopen.com)
  • Frequent complications: progressive visual field scotoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, central retinal artery or vein occlusion, and neovascularization adjacent to the optic nerve head. (intechopen.com)
  • Thus, they are also considered to be one of the causes of the progressive type of optic neuropathy with genetic etiology [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • An essential step in identification of glaucomatous optic neuropathy is assessment of the optic nerve head (ONH) for structural changes. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy had visual acuity gains on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) of up to 35 letters and Snellen acuity improvements from hand motion to 20/200 and from counting fingers to 20/100. (nih.gov)
  • The increases in visual acuity obtained in our study were encouraging and suggest that the use of autologous BMSCs as provided in SCOTS for ophthalmologic mitochondrial diseases including Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy may be a viable treatment option. (nih.gov)
  • We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. (mcponline.org)
  • The pathways included transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor, caspase 3, and tumor protein p53, which have all been implicated in the activation of astrocytes and are believed to play a role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. (mcponline.org)
  • Swelling of the optic nerves in the absence of raised ICP is termed disc edema (Parsons JH, Miller NR). Causes of disc edema are extensive and include ischemic optic neuropathy, malignant hypertension, diabetic papillopathy, uremia, intracranial hypotension (CSF leak). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The first human disease that was linked to a mutation in mitochondrial DNA was Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON). (rochester.edu)
  • What is Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)? (rochester.edu)
  • Stroke of the optic nerve, known as anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • A hereditary condition in which the person experiences loss of vision first in one eye, and then in the other (known as Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy). (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Leber hereditary optic neuropathy Accessed 3/18/2015. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • night blindness failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Night blindness occurs when the rods lack rhodopsin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One cause of night blindness is a deficiency of vitamin A-the primary source of rhodopsin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the elderly, there is sometimes a diminution of rhodopsin, with resulting night blindness. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is called night blindness (eye doctors call it nyctalopia). (aao.org)
  • Night blindness doesn't mean you are completely unable to see at night, but that your vision is poorer then. (aao.org)
  • If these cells are affected by a disease or condition, night blindness occurs. (aao.org)
  • Treating night blindness depends solely on its cause. (aao.org)
  • Your ophthalmologist can explain what is causing your night blindness and suggest how to brighten your outlook. (aao.org)
  • SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. (nih.gov)
  • SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) to treat optic nerve and retinal diseases. (nih.gov)
  • By reducing intraocular pressure, the compression to the optic nerve axons decreases, thus improving perfusion of the optic nerve head. (intechopen.com)
  • The increased pressure in one's eye, called intraocular pressure, can damage your optic nerve, which sends images to your brain. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • It leads to blindness only in rare cases. (healthline.com)
  • It leads to blindness in young adults, typically between 12 and 30 years of age. (rochester.edu)
  • You can't feel it, but this disease damages your optic nerve. (webmd.com)
  • One of the vision issues developed is diabetic retinopathy a disease that damages the blood vessels supplying oxygen and nutrients to the eyes in and around the retinal nerve. (bellaonline.com)
  • Over time, elevated pressure inside the eye damages the optic nerve, leading to vision loss. (eurekalert.org)
  • The optic nerve has been classified as the second of twelve paired cranial nerves but it is technically part of the central nervous system, rather than the peripheral nervous system because it is derived from an out-pouching of the diencephalon (optic stalks) during embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, most typically the optic nerve is grouped with the other eleven cranial nerves and is considered to be part of the peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Teams at Stanford, Harvard, and the Scripps Research Institute, meanwhile, will look for genes and proteins that regenerate the retinal ganglion cells' axons, the wires that form the optic nerve. (fastcompany.com)
  • If left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness. (aoa.org)
  • Diabetic Retinopathy tops the causes of blindness in the Hispanic and working aged individuals in the USA. (bellaonline.com)
  • Childhood blindness is an important cause contributing to the burden of blindness . (wikipedia.org)
  • Childhood blindness has many causes, and each cause has its own method of damaging the eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of childhood blindness is done via methods to ascertain the degree of visual impairment in the affected child doing so via dilating eye drops and the proceeding eye exam. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin A supplementation plays an important role, [3] specifically vitamin A deficiency is a top causes of preventable childhood blindness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twenty years of childhood blindness: what have we learnt? (wikipedia.org)
  • A patient has a tumour arising from the right cavernous sinus and invading medially towards the optic chiasm. (brainscape.com)
  • It is also the second leading cause of blindness worldwide ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • If a pituitary tumour spreads to the optic nerve does it cause instant blindness? (patient.info)
  • A pituitary adenoma can compress the optic chiasm. (brainscape.com)
  • Neurons of the supra-optic nucleus (projecting into the posterior pituitary), which release The pituitary (hypophysis) is a small (500-1000 mg), ADH. (slideshare.net)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral cortical blindness following a severe CCB overdose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NAION can be described as a stroke in the optic nerve that typically causes severe visual loss. (lifepulsehealth.com)
  • It indicates either severe macular disease or optic nerve disease in the affected eye. (kumc.edu)
  • Coloboma of optic nerve, is a rare defect of the optic nerve that causes moderate to severe visual field defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the U.S., blindness due to infection is rare, but worldwide diseases like trachoma and onchocerciasis are relatively common causes of severe visual impairment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Injecting vitamin B12 into the muscle is better than taking it by mouth if vitamin B12 deficiency is severe or nerve damage is present. (webmd.com)
  • All can cause severe vision loss or even blindness. (smartdraw.com)
  • Lateral canthotomy may also be considered in patients with retrobulbar hemorrhage along with any of the following: ophthalmoplegia, cherry-red macula, optic nerve head pallor, and severe eye pain. (medscape.com)
  • it tugs on the retina and optic nerve, reports Perret Opticiens. (ehow.co.uk)
  • If researchers can coax the same process in humans, they might be able to reverse not only blindness but also diseases of the brain and other nerves. (fastcompany.com)
  • Their stem cell approach continues to prove beneficial across different blinding optic nerve and retinal diseases. (lifepulsehealth.com)
  • Diseases in another part of the body can sometimes cause blindness e.g. diabetes . (pdsa.org.uk)
  • Although both optic nerve colobomas and morning glory disc anomaly (MGDA) involve mutations of the PAX6 gene, these two separate diseases represent two distinct causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery may prove to be game-changing for the treatment of eye diseases that affect the optic nerve. (umaryland.edu)
  • Black History Month is a great time to meet a less familiar African-American scientist whose genius helped save millions of people from blindness, crippling due to arthritis, and other diseases. (toledoblade.com)
  • This anomaly must be confirmed through pupillary dilation and examination of the optic disc, as the symptoms alone do not constitute a diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the symptoms of blindness? (healthline.com)
  • We believe it holds great promise for the treatment of other genetic causes of blindness such as retinitis pigmentosa. (healthcanal.com)
  • Andrew Lotery, a professor of ophthalmology at the University of Southampton and consultant ophthalmologist at Southampton General Hospital, also said genetic testing for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) - the leading cause of blindness in the western world - could help cut the number of smokers. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, the leading cause of blindness in the United States is macular degeneration, which is a deterioration of a portion of the retina. (thedoctorstv.com)
  • Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) represent congenital anomaly, which is a form of calcium degeneration of optic nerve head axons. (intechopen.com)
  • Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) represent the congenital, developmental anomaly of the second cranial nerve. (intechopen.com)
  • Coloboma of the optic nerve is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc in which there is a defect of the inferior aspect of the optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Improper formation of the optic nerve, which is a congenital problem (the person is born with it). (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Once characteristics damage to the optic nerve occurs, the loss of vision and visual field is irreversible [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Acute (sudden) blindness occurs when vision is lost in both eyes simultaneously. (petplace.com)
  • Responsible for half of the reported cases of world blindness, a cataract is a cloudiness that occurs in the lens. (wisegeek.com)
  • It was left untreated for a year due to misdiagnosis and wrapped around the optic nerve and lost all peripheral vision an has double vision. (patient.info)
  • citation needed] Peripheral neuropathies like Guillain-Barré syndrome do not affect the optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optic nerve is ensheathed in all three meningeal layers (dura, arachnoid, and pia mater) rather than the epineurium, perineurium, and endoneurium found in peripheral nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rats, grafting or transplanting peripheral nerve cells onto an injured optic nerve promoted nerve regeneration, a technique which may work in humans as well. (wisegeek.com)
  • Researchers are working on a man-made gel or polymer, based on the peripheral nerve grafts, which could be placed on an injured optic nerve to act as scaffolding or a guide for the axons to harness for regeneration. (wisegeek.com)
  • Flashing lights, floating halos, and blurry vision before the blindness is indicative of retinal detachment. (kumc.edu)
  • Retinal detachment can lead to blindness. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Like most other eye conditions, a diagnosis of optic nerve coloboma precludes a person from certain occupations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A diagnosis of neuroblastoma usually requires blood and urine tests to investigate the nature and quantity of chemicals (neurotransmitters) released by the nerve cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We describe a case of a calcium channel blocker overdose that led to bilateral cortical blindness, a presentation that has not previously been reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [22] A 2014 review indicated that an estimated of 238,500 children with bilateral blindness (rate 1.2/1,000) in the Eastern Mediterranean region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paper presents young female patient with bilateral optic nerve drusen and progressive visual field defects (scotomas), which implies topical hypotensive therapy. (intechopen.com)
  • This can partially restore vision in patients with stable vision loss caused by optic nerve damage. (medindia.net)
  • Papilledema is defined as swelling of the optic nerves often due to increased intracranial pressure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In papilledema, the intracranial fluid that normally surrounds your brain increases in volume and puts a lot of pressure on the optic nerves. (medicinenet.com)
  • Infarct of the Occipital Lobe can lead to cortical blindness. (kumc.edu)
  • The goal of the program is to eliminate preventable blindness throughout the world, and create eye-disease-free communities. (sfgate.com)
  • That's one step closer to a world in which preventable cases of blindness are just that - prevented. (lenovo.com)
  • Most dogs are very good at adapting to gradual blindness and as a result, it can be surprisingly difficult to notice. (pdsa.org.uk)
  • Optic chiasm → visual field defects, notably Important examples include: bitemporal haemianopia. (slideshare.net)
  • Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults 20 to 74 years old. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Who's at risk for blindness? (healthline.com)
  • Both alcohol and tobacco use are associated with an increased risk for blindness in carriers of the mutation. (rochester.edu)
  • VISION 2020 is a program launched by the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) and is supported by the WHO in 1999 that has made controlling blindness in children a high priority. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was funded by The Foundation for the Prevention of Blindness. (bmj.com)
  • These included personal risk factors, such as older age and African descent, as well as ocular risk factors, such as higher eye pressure, certain characteristics in the anatomy of the optic nerve, and thinness of the cornea. (nih.gov)
  • Can optic nerve head drusen cause vision loss? (healthtap.com)
  • Genetically, optic nerve head drusen are inherited in autosomal dominant (AD) type of inheritance with variable penetration. (intechopen.com)
  • The optic nerve component lengths are 1 mm in the globe, 24 mm in the orbit, 9 mm in the optic canal, and 16 mm in the cranial space before joining the optic chiasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • cranial part (the part within the cranial cavity, which ends at the optic chiasm). (wikipedia.org)
  • What would be the consequence of compression of the right optic tract? (brainscape.com)
  • Because of excessive compression, optic nerve becomes damaged. (botanical-online.com)
  • Untreated, orbital compartment syndrome results in ischemia of the optic nerve and retina. (medscape.com)
  • Secondary to Diabetes, and expected to cause visual blindness. (kumc.edu)
  • Why is blindness from diabetes becoming so prevalent? (baltimoresun.com)
  • What does diabetes do to the body that causes blindness? (baltimoresun.com)
  • The same survey found that more than one-third of Americans didn't know a comprehensive eye exam is the only way to determine if a person's diabetes will cause blindness, which is why the AOA recommends that everyone with diabetes have a comprehensive dilated eye examination at least once a year. (aoa.org)
  • Blindness is a potential complication if you have diabetes or have a stroke . (healthline.com)
  • SCOTS has previously reported the treatment of 2 patients with optic nerve disease. (lifepulsehealth.com)
  • Certain activities, however, may be more difficult for patients with optic nerve colobomas due to a compromised view of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors that affect the retina or optic nerve can also cause blindness. (healthline.com)
  • Both benign and malignant brain tumors can cause pressure that later affects the connected optic nerve. (medicinenet.com)
  • ACS treatment is a safe and effective means to partially restore vision after optic nerve damage probably by modulating brain plasticity, re-synchronizing brain networks, which were desynchronized by vision loss. (medindia.net)
  • The optic nerve , the head of which is described in the back of the eye by your ophthalmologist as the disc, is the cable carrying visual information into the brain where it ends up in the occipital lobe and interpreted as vision . (healthtap.com)
  • It may start as a sinus infection, and then lead to the swelling of the nerves that stem from the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A problem with the nerve that connects the brain to the eye. (pdsa.org.uk)
  • Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) have for the first time identified stem cells in the region of the optic nerve, which transmits signals from the eye to the brain. (umaryland.edu)
  • This change causes nerve impulses to travel to the brain, where they register as visual impressions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This sensitive membrane lines the back of the eye (seen in yellow) and sends signals to the brain through the optic nerve. (webmd.com)
  • Vitamin B12 is required for the proper function and development of the brain, nerves, blood cells, and many other parts of the body. (webmd.com)
  • Optic Nerve Hypoplasia (ONH) is the under-development or absence of the optic nerve combined with possible brain and endocrine abnormalities. (chla.org)
  • The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, or simply as CN II, is a paired cranial nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optic nerve is a large cable composed of ganglion cell axons, which acts as a viaduct conducting visual information from the retina to the brain. (wisegeek.com)
  • There are no nerves in the central nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord , and retina, that regenerate. (wisegeek.com)
  • The puzzle of optic nerve regeneration will probably be solved, at least in part, by manipulating molecular pathways in the body, and several promising ideas in this area involve the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, and a growth factor called oncomodulin. (wisegeek.com)
  • Once researchers are able to get the axons to regenerate, they will need to then make them grow to the right spots and make the right connection in order for the visual information to be transferred to the brain, so getting the axons to grow is just one part of the very complex puzzle of optic nerve regeneration. (wisegeek.com)
  • Papilledema is a condition in which your optic nerves swell because of high brain pressure. (medicinenet.com)
  • The optic nerves connect your retina to the visual cortex in your brain, and they're considered an extension of brain tissue. (medicinenet.com)
  • Bleeding in the brain, also known as a hemorrhage, can increase the pressure on the optic nerve . (medicinenet.com)
  • Optimized allotopic expression of the human mitochondrial ND4 prevents blindness in a rat model of mitochondrial dysfunction. (nih.gov)