Botulinum Toxins, Type A
Blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome (Brueghel's syndrome). A variant of adult-onset torsion dystonia? (1/78)Thirty-nine patients with the idiopathic blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome are described. All presented in adult life, usually in the sixth decade; women were more commonly affected than men. Thirteen had blepharospasm alone, nine had oromandibular dystonia alone, and 17 had both. Torticollis or dystonic writer's camp preceded the syndrome in two patients. Eight other patients developed toritocollis, dystonic posturing of the arms, or involvement of respiratory muscles. No cause or hereditary basis for the illness were discovered. The evidence to indicate that this syndrome is due to an abnormality of extrapyramidal function, and that it is another example of adult-onset focal dystonia akin to spasmodic torticollis and dystonic writer's cramp, is discussed. (+info)
Botulinum toxin treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm: objective response evaluation. (2/78)Twenty seven patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) and sixteen patients with blepharospasm (BS) having mean Jankovic disability rating scale score of 2.56+0.58 SD and 2.81+0.54 SD, respectively, were treated with botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections. The total number of injection sessions were ninety one with relief response in 98.91%. The mean improvement in function scale score was 3.78+0.64 SD and 3.29+1.07 SD respectively, in HFS and BS groups. The clinical benefit induced by botulinum toxin lasted for a mean of 4.46+3.11 SD (range 2 to 13) months in HFS group and 2.66+1.37 SD (range 1 to 6) months, in BS groups. Transient ptosis was seen in 4.39% of total ninety one injection sessions. These findings show that local botulinum toxin treatment provides effective, safe and long lasting relief of spasms. (+info)
Risk factors for spread of primary adult onset blepharospasm: a multicentre investigation of the Italian movement disorders study group. (3/78)OBJECTIVES: Little is known about factors influencing the spread of blepharospasm to other body parts. An investigation was carried out to deterrmine whether demographic features (sex, age at blepharospasm onset), putative risk, or protective factors for blepharospasm (family history of dystonia or tremor, previous head or face trauma with loss of consciousness, ocular diseases, and cigarette smoking), age related diseases (diabetes, hypertension), edentulousness, and neck or trunk trauma preceding the onset of blepharospasm could distinguish patients with blepharospasm who had spread of dystonia from those who did not. METHODS: 159 outpatients presenting initially with blepharospasm were selected in 16 Italian Institutions. There were 104 patients with focal blepharospasm (mean duration of disease 5.3 (SD 1.9) years) and 55 patients in whom segmental or multifocal dystonia developed (mainly in the cranial cervical area) 1.5 (1.2) years after the onset of blepharospasm. Information was obtained from a standardised questionnaire administered by medical interviewers. A Cox regression model was used to examine the relation between the investigated variables and spread. RESULTS: Previous head or face trauma with loss of consciousness, age at the onset of blepharospasm, and female sex were independently associated with an increased risk of spread. A significant association was not found between spread of dystonia and previous ocular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, neck or trunk trauma, edentulousness, cigarette smoking, and family history of dystonia or tremor. An unsatisfactory study power negatively influenced the validity and accuracy of the negative findings relative to diabetes, neck or trunk trauma, and cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this exploratory study confirm that patients presenting initially with blepharospasm are most likely to experience some spread of dystonia within a few years of the onset of blepharospasm and suggest that head or face trauma with loss of consciousness preceding the onset, age at onset, and female sex may be relevant to spread. The suggested association between edentulousness and cranial cervical dystonia may be apparent because of the confounding effect of both age at onset and head or face trauma with loss of consciousness. The lack of influence of family history of dystonia on spread is consistent with previous findings indicating that the inheritance pattern is the same for focal and segmental blepharospasm. (+info)
The effect of apomorphine on blink kinematics in subhuman primates with and without facial nerve palsy. (4/78)PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to document the effect of acutely delivered apomorphine, a dopamine receptor agonist with both D1 and D2 properties, on blink rate and the amplitude-velocity characteristics of eyelid kinematics in a group of nonhuman primates. METHODS: Three cynomolgus and two rhesus macaques underwent baseline recordings for eyelid kinematics, using the Robinson search coil technique. Next, each animal received a 0.15-mg/kg subcutaneous injection of apomorphine. Recordings were taken at 45 and 90 minutes, respectively, after injection. Blink rates per minute were obtained, and main sequence relationships were calculated for every animal. The data were pooled for each eyelid, excluding one monkey who was affected by facial nerve palsy and was analyzed separately. RESULTS: Monkeys with normal facial musculature and normal baseline blink rates showed consistently longer, faster blinks after apomorphine. The main sequence relationship, although tending to be lower, was not statistically different from baseline. One monkey, with prior facial nerve palsy and a very steep amplitude versus peak velocity relationship, showed normalization of the main sequence slope after apomorphine at both 45 and 90 minutes after injection. CONCLUSIONS: Apomorphine consistently lowers blink rate and changed blink metrics in normal monkeys and, more dramatically, in a monkey with facial nerve palsy. These findings add credence to models in which dopamine deficiency plays a role in the modulation of blink kinematics. (+info)
Botulinum toxin A treatment in patients suffering from blepharospasm and dry eye. (5/78)BACKGROUND: Many patients with essential blepharospasm also show dry eye signs and symptoms. Botulinum toxin A is an effective treatment for reducing spasms in these patients. In this investigation, the effect of botulinum toxin A injections on tear function and on the morphology of the ocular surface in patients suffering from blepharospasm in combination with a dry eye syndrome was investigated. METHODS: Botulinum toxin A injections were applied to 16 patients with blepharospasm. All patients complained of dry eye symptoms and had reduced tear break up time values. A subjective questionnaire and ocular examinations including tear break up time, Schirmer test without local anaesthesia, and rose bengal staining were evaluated before, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after injection. Impression cytology was performed before, 1 month, and 3 months after botulinum toxin A treatment. RESULTS: Although all patients were relieved of blepharospasm after botulinum toxin injections, only three noticed an improvement in dry eye symptoms. Eight patients noticed no difference and five complained of worsening. Tear break up time was found to be increased 1 week and 1 month after injections. Schirmer test measurements were reduced up to 3 months. Rose bengal staining slightly increased 1 week after injections. Impression cytology showed no definite change in conjunctival cell morphology 1 month and 3 months after botulinum toxin A injections. CONCLUSION: In the patients presented here suffering from blepharospasm and dry eye, botulinum toxin A injections were effective in relieving blepharospasm but were not successful in treating dry eye syndrome. (+info)
Botulinum toxin therapy: distant effects on neuromuscular transmission and autonomic nervous system. (6/78)To evaluate distant effects of botulinum toxin, single fibre electromyography on the extensor digitorum communis muscle and six tests of cardiovascular reflexes were performed in five patients injected with BoTox (Oculinum(R) 20-130 units) for craniocervical dystonia and hemifacial spasm. Patients underwent two sessions of treatment and the second time the dosage was doubled. Botulinum toxin injection induced an increase of mean jitter value above normal limits in all cases. An increase of fibre density was recorded six weeks after the treatment. Cardiovascular reflexes showed mild abnormalities in four patients. The data confirm distant effects of botulinum toxin on neuromuscular transmission and on autonomic function. (+info)
Treatment of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and strabismus with botulinum a toxin. (7/78)Thirty patients with blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, strabismus and entropion were treated with botulinum A toxin giving satisfactory results. Rapid spasm relief, correction of strabismus and entropion were obtained. Only mild, transient and local side-effects occurred. The patients were followed up for 4-12 weeks with no recurrence. The clinical results show that local injection of a minute dose of botulinum A toxin in treating blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, strabismus and entropion is a safe, effective and simple method of nonsurgical therapy. (+info)
Coexistent blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: overlapping pathophysiologic mechanism? (8/78)BACKGROUND/AIM: Blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) appear to be distinct disorders. Clinical characteristics of coexistent BEB and HFS have not been examined. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, and imaging features of coexistent BEB among a cohort of HFS patients and controls. RESULTS: Among 665 study subjects, nine (5.5%) of the 164 consecutive HFS patients had coexistent BEB, significantly higher than age and gender matched controls (0/501, 0%) without neurological diseases (p<0.0001). The mean age of the nine patients was 61.4 (SD 9.9) (range 51-72), consisting of 88.9% women, and 66.7% had left sided HFS, similar to HFS patients without BEB. Six (66.7%) reported BEB symptoms at a mean of 0.8 years after HFS onset, one before, and onset was undetermined in two patients. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging and angiography revealed neurovascular compression of the ipsilateral side of HFS, without any basal ganglia lesions. CONCLUSIONS: BEB occurred more frequently in HFS patients, suggesting changes in the brainstem blink reflex circuitry could play a modulatory role in certain at-risk individuals resulting in the coexistence of these movement disorders. (+info)
Blepharospasm is a type of movement disorder that affects the eyelids, causing them to twitch or spasm involuntarily. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Stress and fatigue: High levels of stress and fatigue can lead to muscle tension in the eyelids, resulting in blepharospasm.
2. Caffeine withdrawal: Suddenly stopping or reducing caffeine intake can cause withdrawal symptoms, including blepharospasm.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants and antipsychotics, can cause blepharospasm as a side effect.
4. Neurological disorders: In some cases, blepharospasm may be a symptom of an underlying neurological disorder, such as dystonia or Parkinson's disease.
5. Other causes: Blepharospasm can also be caused by other factors, such as dry eyes, allergies, or exposure to bright lights.
Treatment options for blepharospasm include:
1. Relaxation techniques: Techniques such as deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and visualization can help reduce stress and muscle tension in the eyelids.
2. Botulinum toxin injections: Injecting botulinum toxin into the eyelid muscles can weaken the muscles and reduce the frequency and severity of blepharospasm.
3. Surgery: In severe cases of blepharospasm, surgery may be necessary to remove part of the affected muscle or to alter the position of the eyelid.
4. Medications: Various medications, such as anticholinergic drugs and benzodiazepines, can help reduce the symptoms of blepharospasm.
5. Glasses or contact lenses: In some cases, wearing glasses or contact lenses may help reduce the symptoms of blepharospasm by reducing glare and improving vision.
It is important to note that the best course of treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the blepharospasm, and a healthcare professional should be consulted to determine the appropriate treatment plan.
The exact cause of Meige Syndrome is not well understood, but it is thought to be related to abnormalities in the brain's basal ganglia and cerebellum. The condition is usually benign and does not affect vision, but it can be distressing and disrupt daily activities. Treatment options for Meige Syndrome include medications such as anticholinergics and botulinum toxin injections, as well as surgical procedures such as blepharoplasty or myectomy.
It is important to note that while Meige Syndrome is a distinct condition, it can be associated with other movement disorders such as dystonia, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. A proper diagnosis by a neurologist is essential to determine the underlying cause of the condition and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
Hemifacial spasm is a relatively rare movement disorder that affects one side of the face. It is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and twitching on half of the face, which can be quite distressing for those who experience it. While there are several possible causes, including nerve compression or brain tumors, the exact cause is often difficult to determine.
One of the most common symptoms of HFS is muscle spasms and twitching on one side of the face, which can be quite pronounced and unpredictable. These spasms can occur in any of the muscles on the affected side, including those around the eyes, mouth, and jaw. In some cases, these spasms can also affect the eyelids, causing them to droop or close involuntarily.
The exact cause of hemifacial spasm is not always clear, but it is believed to be related to nerve compression or irritation of the facial nerve. This nerve runs from the brain down through the face and controls many of the muscles in the face, including those involved in eyelid movement and facial expressions. When this nerve is compressed or irritated, it can cause the muscles on one side of the face to spasm and twitch involuntarily.
There are several possible causes of HFS, including:
* Compression of the facial nerve by a blood vessel or tumor
* Trauma to the face or head
* Inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis or sarcoidosis
* Brain tumors or cysts
* Stroke or other forms of brain damage
Treatment for hemifacial spasm usually involves a combination of medications and other therapies. Botulinum toxin injections are often used to relax the affected muscles and reduce spasms. Medications such as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, or anti-anxiety drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve compression on the facial nerve.
In addition to these medical treatments, there are also several self-care techniques that can help manage hemifacial spasm. These include:
* Avoiding triggers such as stress or fatigue
* Applying warm compresses to the affected side of the face
* Practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing or meditation
* Using eye exercises to strengthen the muscles around the eyes and improve eyelid function.
It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing symptoms of hemifacial spasm, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes. With proper management, many people with HFS are able to effectively manage their symptoms and lead normal lives.
Some common types of eyelid diseases include:
1. Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids, often caused by bacterial infection or allergies.
2. Chalazion: A small, usually painless lump on the eyelid, caused by a blockage of the oil gland in the eyelid.
3. Stye: A red, tender bump on the eyelid caused by a bacterial infection.
4. Entropion: A condition in which the eyelid turns inward and the eyelashes rub against the cornea.
5. Ectropion: A condition in which the eyelid turns outward and the cornea is exposed.
6. Cancer: Malignant growths on the eyelid, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.
7. Ptosis: A condition in which the upper eyelid droops or falls, often caused by nerve damage or muscle weakness.
8. Dacryostenosis: A blockage of the tear ducts, which can cause tears to overflow and create a crusty discharge around the eyes.
9. Meibomian gland dysfunction: A condition in which the glands in the eyelids that produce the oily substance meibum become clogged or inflamed.
Eyelid diseases can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include a visual examination of the eyelids, as well as tests to assess tear production and the health of the eyelid glands. Treatment options for eyelid diseases depend on the specific condition and may include antibiotics, surgery, or other therapies.
Some common forms of dystonia include:
1. Generalized dystonia: This is the most common form of dystonia, affecting the entire body.
2. Focal dystonia: This type affects only one part of the body, such as the hand or foot.
3. Task-specific dystonia: This type is caused by a specific activity or task, such as writing or playing a musical instrument.
4. Torticollis: This is a type of dystonia that affects the neck and causes it to twist or tilts to one side.
5. Blepharospasm: This is a type of dystonia that affects the eyelids, causing them to spasm or twitch.
6. Oromandibular dystonia: This type affects the muscles of the face and jaw, causing unusual movements of the mouth and tongue.
7. Meige syndrome: This is a rare form of dystonia that affects both the eyes and the eyelids, causing them to twitch or spasm.
The symptoms of dystonia can vary depending on the type and severity of the disorder. They may include:
* Involuntary muscle contractions or spasms
* Twisting or repetitive movements of the affected body part
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Difficulty with movement or coordination
* Fatigue or weakness
* Cramps or spasms
Dystonia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Genetic mutations: Many forms of dystonia are inherited, and they can be caused by mutations in specific genes.
* Brain injury: Dystonia can be caused by a head injury or other trauma to the brain.
* Infections: Certain infections, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause dystonia.
* Stroke or other vascular conditions: A stroke or other conditions that affect blood flow to the brain can cause dystonia.
* Neurodegenerative diseases: Dystonia can be a symptom of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, or progressive supranuclear palsy.
There is no cure for dystonia, but there are several treatment options available to help manage the symptoms. These may include:
* Medications: Injectable drugs such as botulinum toxin (Botox) or oral medications such as anticholinergic agents can help relax the muscles and reduce spasms.
* Physical therapy: Physical therapy exercises can help improve movement and coordination, and reduce muscle stiffness.
* Speech therapy: For people with dystonia affecting the face or tongue, speech therapy may be helpful in improving communication and addressing swallowing difficulties.
* Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve symptoms. This can involve cutting or destroying certain muscles or nerves that are causing the dystonia.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which an electrode is implanted in the brain to deliver electrical impulses to specific areas of the brain, this can help reduce symptoms in some people with dystonia.
It's important to note that each person with dystonia is unique and may respond differently to different treatments. A healthcare professional will work with the individual to develop a personalized treatment plan that takes into account their specific needs and symptoms.
There are several different types of dystonia, including:
1. Generalized dystonia: This type of dystonia affects the entire body and is often present at birth. It can cause a variety of symptoms, including muscle spasms, tremors, and abnormal postures.
2. Focal dystonia: This type of dystonia affects a specific part of the body, such as the hand or foot. It can cause abnormal postures or movements in that area.
3. Task-specific dystonia: This type of dystonia is caused by specific activities or tasks, such as writing or playing a musical instrument.
4. Torticollis: This is a type of dystonia that affects the neck muscles and causes twisting or tilting of the head.
5. Blepharospasm: This is a type of dystonia that affects the eyelid muscles and can cause spasms or twitching of the eyes.
Dystonic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, infections, and injuries. There is no cure for dystonia, but there are several treatment options available, including medications, botulinum toxin injections, and surgery. Physical therapy and occupational therapy can also be helpful in managing the symptoms of dystonia.
Overall, dystonic disorders are a group of movement disorders that can cause abnormal postures and movements. They can affect anyone at any age and can be caused by a variety of factors. While there is no cure for dystonia, there are several treatment options available to help manage the symptoms.
1. The patient experienced a spasm in their leg while running, causing them to stumble and fall.
2. The doctor diagnosed the patient with muscle spasms caused by dehydration and recommended increased fluids and stretching exercises.
3. The athlete suffered from frequent leg spasms during their training, which affected their performance and required regular massage therapy to relieve the discomfort.
Photophobia can be caused by various factors, including:
1. Eye conditions like cataracts, glaucoma, or retinal detachment
2. Medications like tranquilizers, antidepressants, or antihistamines
3. Head injuries or brain disorders
4. Chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis or migraines
5. Vitamin deficiencies like vitamin A or B12
6. Exposure to certain chemicals or toxins
Symptoms of photophobia may include:
1. Discomfort or pain in the eyes when exposed to light
2. Blurred vision or sensitivity to glare
3. Difficulty seeing in bright environments
4. Headaches or migraines triggered by light exposure
5. Nausea or dizziness
6. Sensitivity to light that worsens over time
Diagnosis of photophobia typically involves a comprehensive eye exam to rule out any underlying eye conditions. Medical history and lifestyle factors may also be considered to identify potential causes. Treatment options for photophobia depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
1. Eyewear with tinted lenses or UV protection
2. Medications to reduce light sensitivity or alleviate symptoms
3. Adjustments to lighting environments
4. Lifestyle changes like avoiding bright lights, wearing sunglasses, or using a brimmed hat
5. Treatment of underlying conditions or diseases causing photophobia.
In summary, photophobia is a condition characterized by an excessive sensitivity to light, which can cause various discomforts and symptoms. Identifying the underlying cause through comprehensive diagnosis and implementing appropriate treatment options can help alleviate these symptoms and improve quality of life for individuals experiencing photophobia.
Some common types of facial injuries include:
1. Cuts and lacerations: These are open wounds that can be caused by sharp objects or broken glass.
2. Bruises and contusions: These are caused by blunt trauma and can lead to swelling and discoloration.
3. Fractures: Facial bones, such as the nasal bone, orbital bone, and jawbone, can be fractured due to trauma.
4. Eye injuries: The eyes can be injured due to trauma, such as blows to the head or foreign objects penetrating the eye.
5. Dental injuries: Teeth can be chipped, fractured, or knocked out due to trauma to the face.
6. Soft tissue injuries: The soft tissues of the face, including the skin, muscles, and ligaments, can be injured due to trauma.
7. Burns: Burns can occur on the face due to exposure to heat or chemicals.
8. Scars: Facial scars can be caused by burns, cuts, or other forms of trauma.
9. Nerve damage: The nerves of the face can be damaged due to trauma, leading to numbness, tingling, or weakness in the face.
10. Cosmetic injuries: Facial injuries can also affect the appearance of the face, leading to scarring, disfigurement, or loss of facial features.
Treatment for facial injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury. Mild injuries may be treated with self-care measures, such as ice packs, elevation of the head, and over-the-counter pain medications. More severe injuries may require medical attention, including stitches, casts, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, or if there are signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or pus.
There are several different types of unconsciousness, including:
1. Concussion: A mild form of traumatic brain injury that can cause temporary unconsciousness, confusion, and amnesia.
2. Coma: A more severe form of unconsciousness that can be caused by a head injury, stroke, or other medical condition. Comas can last for days, weeks, or even months.
3. Vegetative state: A condition in which a person is unaware and unresponsive, but still has some reflexes. This can be caused by a traumatic brain injury, stroke, or other medical condition.
4. Persistent vegetative state (PVS): A long-term version of the vegetative state that can last for months or years.
5. Brain death: A permanent form of unconsciousness that is caused by severe damage to the brain.
Unconsciousness can be diagnosed through a variety of medical tests, including:
1. Neurological exam: A doctor will check the patient's reflexes, muscle strength, and sensation to determine the extent of any brain damage.
2. Imaging tests: CT or MRI scans can help doctors identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be causing unconsciousness.
3. Electroencephalogram (EEG): A test that measures electrical activity in the brain to determine if there is any abnormal brain wave activity.
4. Blood tests: To rule out other medical conditions that may be causing unconsciousness, such as infections or poisoning.
Treatment for unconsciousness depends on the underlying cause and can range from simple observation to complex surgical procedures. Some common treatments include:
1. Medications: To control seizures, reduce inflammation, or regulate brain activity.
2. Surgery: To relieve pressure on the brain, repair damaged blood vessels, or remove tumors.
3. Rehabilitation: To help the patient regain lost cognitive and motor function.
4. Supportive care: To address any other medical conditions that may be contributing to the unconsciousness, such as infections or respiratory failure.
There are several different types of tic disorders, including:
1. Tourette Syndrome: This is the most common type of tic disorder, and it is characterized by both motor and vocal tics. Motor tics can include simple movements such as blinking or facial grimacing, as well as more complex movements such as head jerking or arm flapping. Vocal tics can include repeated words or phrases, or other sounds such as grunting or sniffing.
2. Chronic Tic Disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of multiple motor and/or vocal tics that occur over a period of more than 1 year, but do not meet the criteria for Tourette Syndrome.
3. Provisional Tic Disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of fewer than 5 motor and/or vocal tics that occur over a period of less than 1 year.
4. Tic-like movements: These are movements or sounds that are similar to tics, but do not meet the full criteria for a tic disorder. Examples include stereotyped movements such as hand flapping or head banging, or repetitive sounds such as throat clearing or sniffing.
Tic disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and they may also be associated with other conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and anxiety. Treatment options for tic disorders include medications such as dopamine blockers and antipsychotics, as well as behavioral therapies such as habit reversal training and exposure and response prevention.
Early diagnosis and treatment of torticollis are crucial to prevent long-term complications and improve quality of life. In children, torticollis can be treated with positioning and exercises, while adults may require more intensive physical therapy and pain management.
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- Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEB) is a neurological disorder that causes spasms, or twitching, of the eyelid. (nih.gov)
- How can I or my loved one help improve care for people with benign essential blepharospasm? (nih.gov)
- Where can I find more information about benign essential blepharospasm? (nih.gov)
- Blepharospasm (also called benign essential blepharospasm) is blinking or other eyelid movements, like twitching, that you can't control. (nih.gov)
- But people with benign essential blepharospasm can develop severe and chronic (long-term) eyelid twitching. (nih.gov)
- Benign essential blepharospasm is rare, and lots of different things can cause eyelid twitching - like stress, dry eye, too much caffeine, and lack of sleep. (nih.gov)
- Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by abnormal blinking or spasms of the eyelids. (nih.gov)
- When Do Symptoms of Benign essential blepharospasm Begin? (nih.gov)
- A novel mechanism for benign essential blepharospasm. (medscape.com)
- Changes in corneal aesthesiometry and the sub-basal nerve plexus in benign essential blepharospasm. (medscape.com)
- Hall TA, McGwin G, Searcey K. Health-related quality of life and psychosocial characteristics of patients with benign essential blepharospasm. (medscape.com)
- Hall TA, McGwin G, Searcey K. Benign essential blepharospasm: risk factors with reference to hemifacial spasm. (medscape.com)
- Malinovsky V. Benign essential blepharospasm. (medscape.com)
- Benign essential blepharospasm is different from the common, temporary eyelid twitching that can be caused by fatigue, stress, or caffeine. (medlineplus.gov)
- The signs and symptoms of benign essential blepharospasm usually appear in mid- to late adulthood and gradually worsen. (medlineplus.gov)
- In more than half of all people with benign essential blepharospasm, the symptoms of dystonia spread beyond the eyes to affect other facial muscles and muscles in other areas of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
- When people with benign essential blepharospasm also experience involuntary muscle spasms affecting the tongue and jaw (oromandibular dystonia), the combination of signs and symptoms is known as Meige syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
- Benign essential blepharospasm affects an estimated 20,000 to 50,000 people in the United States. (medlineplus.gov)
- The causes of benign essential blepharospasm are unknown, although the disorder likely results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. (medlineplus.gov)
- Researchers suspect that benign essential blepharospasm and similar forms of dystonia are associated with malfunction of the basal ganglia, which are structures deep within the brain that help start and control movement. (medlineplus.gov)
- Although genetic factors are almost certainly involved in benign essential blepharospasm, no genes have been clearly associated with the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
- Several studies have looked at the relationship between common variations (polymorphisms) in the DRD5 and TOR1A genes and the risk of developing benign essential blepharospasm. (medlineplus.gov)
- Most cases of benign essential blepharospasm are sporadic, which means that the condition occurs in people with no history of this disorder or other forms of dystonia in their family. (medlineplus.gov)
- Less commonly, benign essential blepharospasm has been found to run in families. (medlineplus.gov)
- The most common form of blepharospasm is "benign essential blepharospasm" which is represented by frequent and involuntary closing of eyelids. (noorvision.om)
- Screening Gene Mutations in Chinese Patients With Benign Essential Blepharospasm. (bvsalud.org)
- This study aimed to screen gene mutations in Chinese patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) to understand its etiology . (bvsalud.org)
- Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a rare neurological disorder in which affected individuals experience involuntary muscle spasms and contractions of the muscles around the eyes. (ericpedersen.org)
- In the early stages, benign essential blepharospasm is characterized by frequent or forced blinking and eye irritation that is often worsened by certain stimuli including bright lights, fatigue, emotional tension, and environmental factors such as wind or air pollution. (ericpedersen.org)
- The cause of benign essential blepharospasm is unknown. (ericpedersen.org)
- Benign essential blepharospasm affects women more often than men. (ericpedersen.org)
- Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to those of benign essential blepharospasm. (ericpedersen.org)
- A Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Patients With Benign Essential Blepharospasm. (foundationdystoniaresearch.org)
- BACKGROUND: Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a neurologic disorder characterized by an adult-onset focal dystonia that causes involuntary blinking and eyelid spasms. (foundationdystoniaresearch.org)
- Fahn S. Blepharospasm: A focal dystonia. (medscape.com)
- Jankovic J. Etiology and differential diagnosis of blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia. (medscape.com)
- Clinical features, differential diagnosis, and pathogenesis of blepharospasm and cranial-cervical dystonia. (medscape.com)
- Blepharospasm is in fact a kind of dystonia, which is characterized by frequent, sustained and involuntary contractions in one muscle or a group of muscles. (noorvision.om)
- Sometimes, blepharospasm or other types of dystonia occur in members of a family. (noorvision.om)
- Blepharospasm may also occur secondary to other disorders such as tardive dyskinesia or generalized dystonia, Wilson disease, and various parkinsonian syndromes. (ericpedersen.org)
- Geneva, Switzerland, April 13, 2022 - Addex Therapeutics Ltd (SIX: ADXN, Nasdaq: ADXN), a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company pioneering allosteric modulation-based drug discovery and development, announced today that patient enrollment has been completed in its Phase 2a clinical study evaluating dipraglurant as a potential treatment for blepharospasm, a type of dystonia characterized by involuntary contractions or spasms of the eyelid muscles. (addextherapeutics.com)
- Blepharospasm is a form of dystonia characterized by involuntary contractions or spasms of the eyelid muscles which can result in sustained eyelid closure causing substantial visual disturbance or functional blindness. (addextherapeutics.com)
- Addex's lead drug candidate, dipraglurant (mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator or NAM), is in a pivotal registration clinical trial for Parkinson's disease levodopa induced dyskinesia (PD-LID) and has entered a Phase 2 clinical study for the treatment of blepharospasm, a form of dystonia. (addextherapeutics.com)
- METHODS: We evaluated video recordings of a standardized clinical examination from 50 patients with blepharospasm in the Dystonia Coalition's Natural History and Biorepository study. (nih.gov)
- OBJECTIVE: Meige syndrome is the combination of blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia. (koreamed.org)
- If my eyelids twitch, do I have blepharospasm? (nih.gov)
- Blepharospasm means involuntary blinking or involuntary shutting of eyelids. (noorvision.om)
- Objective: Blepharospasm (BSP) is a disease in which the closure rate of the bilateral eyelids increases, mainly due to involuntary contraction of the orbicularis oculi, procerus, and corrugator muscles. (koreamed.org)
- Munhoz RP, Teive HA, Della Coletta MV. Frequency of obsessive and compulsive symptoms in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. (medscape.com)
- Ababneh OH, Cetinkaya A, Kulwin DR. Long-term efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin A injections to treat blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. (medscape.com)
- Sixteen patients had unoperated on essential blepharospasm, three had essential blepharospasm with residual spasm following previous surgical treatment, and three had unoperated on hemifacial spasm. (nih.gov)
- Have been diagnosed with a facial or eye disorder that can be confused with blepharospasm, including, but not limited to, hemifacial spasm, facial tics, psychogenic facial disorders, apraxia, and ptosis due to weakness. (nih.gov)
Cause of blepharospasm2
- Morrison DA, Mellington FB, Hamada S. Schwartz-Jampel syndrome: surgical management of the myotonia-induced blepharospasm and acquired ptosis after failure with botulinum toxin A injections. (medscape.com)
- The changes in corneal astigmatism after botulinum toxin-a injection in patients with blepharospasm. (medscape.com)
- Treatment of blepharospasm with botulinum toxin. (nih.gov)
- Evidence Central , evidence.unboundmedicine.com/evidence/view/EBMG/453853/all/Botulinum_toxin_type_A_for_blepharospasm. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Blepharospasm Australia Inc. gratefully acknowledges the support of Merz Australia Pty Ltd, makers of Xeomin and ConnectGroupsWA. (beb.org.au)
- Our clinical and preclinical pipeline is advancing as planned, with this blepharospasm study read out in Q2 being the first study to report data in what is set to be an active 2022 for Addex. (addextherapeutics.com)
- Dr. Fante has a great deal of experience treating blepharospasm with Botox injections. (drfante.com)
- OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical rating scales of blepharospasm severity with involuntary eye closures measured automatically from patient videos with contemporary facial expression software. (nih.gov)
- The effects on the severity and frequency of blepharospasm signs and symptoms using objective measures, clinical ratings and patient reported outcomes will also be evaluated as secondary endpoints. (addextherapeutics.com)
- In most cases, blepharospasm is generated spontaneously and without a definite cause. (noorvision.om)
- it is also a valuable therapeutic tool for the treatment of muscular disorders such as blepharospasm. (drfante.com)
- Jankovic J, Orman J. Blepharospasm: demographic and clinical survey of 250 patients. (medscape.com)
- Blepharospasm is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms. (noorvision.om)
- CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that CERT has convergent validity with conventional clinical rating scales and can be used with video recordings to measure blepharospasm symptom severity automatically and objectively. (nih.gov)
- A 52-year-old woman had a newly recognized disorder of familial hypoceruloplasminemia, blepharospasm, retinal degeneration, and high-density areas in CT of the basal ganglia and liver scan. (nih.gov)
- Currently, the best treatment for blepharospasm is Botox injection which is supplied in Iran under the brand name Dysport. (noorvision.om)
- Botox injection is a very effective method for controlling the symptoms of blepharospasm so that in more than 90 to 95% of cases, they are significantly improved. (noorvision.om)
- Blepharospasm happens when the part of the brain that controls your eyelid muscles stops working correctly. (nih.gov)
- When non-surgical treatments do not reach the objective of soothing eye-twitching (this is rare), surgery may be performed to modify or remove the muscles that are responsible for blepharospasm. (drfante.com)
- Objective, computerized video-based rating of blepharospasm severity. (nih.gov)
- Unless you are affected by blepharospasm, you may envision this condition as a mild twitch now and again, like you may have experienced during a time of fatigue. (drfante.com)
- Quartarone A, Sant'Angelo A, Battaglia F. Enhanced long-term potentiation-like plasticity of the trigeminal blink reflex circuit in blepharospasm. (medscape.com)
- After a while, eye irritation (for example, by sunlight, cool wind, noise, quick movements of head and eyes) and stress lead to the beginning of blepharospasm attacks. (noorvision.om)
- What's the treatment for blepharospasm? (nih.gov)
- Nevertheless, medical treatment is not so effective in blepharospasm. (noorvision.om)
- This phase 2 feasibility study of dipraglurant in blepharospasm patients has progressed well and, if successful, will provide an important validation of the mode of action in this debilitating condition where patients urgently need improved treatment options," said Roger Mills, MD, Chief Medical Officer of Addex. (addextherapeutics.com)
- Suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and affective temperament in patients with blepharospasm. (medscape.com)
- Bentivoglio AR, Daniele A, Albanese A. Analysis of blink rate in patients with blepharospasm. (medscape.com)
- We are excited to have achieved this important milestone and look forward to reporting data from this first ever study of an mGlu5 NAM in blepharospasm patients," added Tim Dyer, Chief Executive Officer of Addex. (addextherapeutics.com)
- In some cases, blepharospasm can be attributed to a health condition, such as Tourette's syndrome or even something as simple as dry eyes. (drfante.com)
- Blepharospasm usually bigins gradually. (noorvision.om)
- Blepharospasm is a progressive nervous disorder which mostly occurs among the elderly and middle-aged women. (noorvision.om)
- Sometimes blepharospasm runs in families, and women ages 40 to 60 are more likely to develop it. (nih.gov)
- Of course, in many people, eye dryness is a stimulating factor which initiates blepharospasm in sensitive people. (noorvision.om)
- To learn more about blepharospasm or take part in research on this condition, visit our Rare Diseases page. (nih.gov)
- May squeeze involuntarily, leading to a person to blink too much or to have difficulty opening the eyes - also called blepharospasm. (parkinson.org)
- Some cases of essential blepharospasm may be initially asymmetric. (medscape.com)
- The most common surgery used for treating blepharospasm is to remove the muscle, which is called myectomy. (noorvision.om)
- What's the latest research on blepharospasm? (nih.gov)