A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
An antineoplastic agent derived from BLEOMYCIN.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Water-soluble, copper-containing low molecular weight polypeptides obtained from the culture medium of Streptomyces verticillus. They are specific inhibitors of DNA synthesis in bacteria and have been found to act as antitumor agents. They have also been used against rust fungi of plants.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A treatment modality that uses pulsed electrical currents to permeabilize cell membranes (ELECTROPORATION) and thereby enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines, or genes into the body's cells.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
An enediyne that alkylates DNA and RNA like MITOMYCIN does, so it is cytotoxic.
A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.
Deoxyribose is a 5-carbon sugar (monosaccharide) that lacks one hydroxyl group at the 2' carbon position, compared to ribose, and is a key component of DNA molecules, forming part of the nucleotides along with phosphate and nitrogenous bases.

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ETH1 gene, an inducible homolog of exonuclease III that provides resistance to DNA-damaging agents and limits spontaneous mutagenesis. (1/2335)

The recently sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was searched for a gene with homology to the gene encoding the major human AP endonuclease, a component of the highly conserved DNA base excision repair pathway. An open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein (34% identical to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe eth1(+) [open reading frame SPBC3D6.10] gene product) with a 347-residue segment homologous to the exonuclease III family of AP endonucleases. Synthesis of mRNA from ETH1 in wild-type cells was induced sixfold relative to that in untreated cells after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). To investigate the function of ETH1, deletions of the open reading frame were made in a wild-type strain and a strain deficient in the known yeast AP endonuclease encoded by APN1. eth1 strains were not more sensitive to killing by MMS, hydrogen peroxide, or phleomycin D1, whereas apn1 strains were approximately 3-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 10-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than was the wild type. Double-mutant strains (apn1 eth1) were approximately 15-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and phleomycin D1 than were apn1 strains. Elimination of ETH1 in apn1 strains also increased spontaneous mutation rates 9- or 31-fold compared to the wild type as determined by reversion to adenine or lysine prototrophy, respectively. Transformation of apn1 eth1 cells with an expression vector containing ETH1 reversed the hypersensitivity to MMS and limited the rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. Expression of ETH1 in a dut-1 xthA3 Escherichia coli strain demonstrated that the gene product functionally complements the missing AP endonuclease activity. Thus, in apn1 cells where the major AP endonuclease activity is missing, ETH1 offers an alternate capacity for repair of spontaneous or induced damage to DNA that is normally repaired by Apn1 protein.  (+info)

Differential regulation of p21waf-1/cip-1 and Mdm2 by etoposide: etoposide inhibits the p53-Mdm2 autoregulatory feedback loop. (2/2335)

The Mdm2 protein is frequently overexpressed in human non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and transitional carcinoma of the bladder where it may contribute to tolerance of wtp53. Mdm2 forms an autoregulatory feedback loop with p53; the Mdm2 gene is responsive to transactivation by p53 and once synthesized the Mdm2 protein terminates the p53 response. We show here that the topoisomerase poison etoposide, like ultra violet irradiation, inhibits Mdm2 synthesis. Cytotoxic concentrations of etoposide (IC90 for > 3 h) result in inhibition of Mdm2 induction at both the RNA and protein level. Rapid apoptosis ensues. Global transcription is not inhibited: p21waf-1/cip1 and GADD45 expression increase in a dose dependent manner. Inhibition of Mdm2 synthesis depends on the continuous presence of etoposide, suggesting the DNA damage may prevent transcription. Downregulation of Mdm2 transcript occurs in cells expressing HPV16-E6 suggesting that inhibition of Mdm2 transcription is p53-independent. When cells are -treated with a pulse (1 h) of etoposide and reincubated in drug free medium, Mdm2 synthesis commences immediately after damage is repaired (3 h) and the p53 response is attenuated. Induction of apoptosis and loss of clonogenicity are 3-5-fold lower under pulse treatment conditions. This is the first observation of inhibition of Mdm2 transcription following treatment with topoisomerase (topo II) poisons, a feature that may be useful in tumour types where p53 is tolerated by overexpression of Mdm2.  (+info)

The integrin alpha v beta 6 binds and activates latent TGF beta 1: a mechanism for regulating pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. (3/2335)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family members are secreted in inactive complexes with a latency-associated peptide (LAP), a protein derived from the N-terminal region of the TGF beta gene product. Extracellular activation of these complexes is a critical but incompletely understood step in regulation of TGF beta function in vivo. We show that TGF beta 1 LAP is a ligand for the integrin alpha v beta 6 and that alpha v beta 6-expressing cells induce spatially restricted activation of TGF beta 1. This finding explains why mice lacking this integrin develop exaggerated inflammation and, as we show, are protected from pulmonary fibrosis. These data identify a novel mechanism for locally regulating TGF beta 1 function in vivo by regulating expression of the alpha v beta 6 integrin.  (+info)

Testicular cancer: an oncological success story. (4/2335)

Testicular cancer has become a model for a curable neoplasm. Our studies with cisplatin combination chemotherapy allow us to conclude that: (a) short-duration intensive induction therapy with the most active agents in optimal dosage is more important than maintenance therapy; (b) modest dose escalation increases toxicity without improving therapeutic efficacy; (c) it is possible to develop curative salvage therapy for refractory germ cell tumors; and (d) preclinical models predicting synergism, such as vinblastine + bleomycin or cisplatin + etoposide have clinical relevance. Finally, testicular cancer has also become a model for new drug development. Cisplatin was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for testis and ovarian cancer, and etoposide and ifosfamide were approved for refractory germ cell tumors. The success of these studies confirms the importance of the continued search for new investigational drugs in all solid tumors.  (+info)

Can we cure indolent lymphomas? (5/2335)

The current consensus is that indolent lymphomas are incurable disorders. There are some indications that these malignancies are potentially curable. Indeed, not all indolent lymphomas are currently incurable. For example, patients with Ann Arbor stage I-II indolent lymphomas can experience long-term disease-free survival and probable cure. Also, from the available literature data, it seems that the achievement of a molecular complete remission is a desirable objective. Patients who achieve a persistently negative PCR state seldom relapse, whereas the opposite is true for persistently positive cases. In view of its excellent correlation with disease-free survival when examined serially in multiple blood or marrow samples, the PCR technique has the potential of providing a tumor marker that can be used as an early end point for clinical trials. By serving as an early surrogate end point, PCR could play an important role in expediting the development of new treatment strategies. Whether IFN is capable of increasing the molecular complete remission rate as measured by PCR is not known. However, it is clear that from the clinical standpoint, IFN has been able to increase 2-fold the length of remission in patients with advanced indolent lymphomas. In at least two studies, this has been associated with prolongation of survival. More intensive regimens such as alternating triple therapy, when used in combination with IFN, seem to have improved the quality of remissions as judged by the PCR assay. Finally, the site where the bcl-2 breakpoint occurs seems to have clinical significance. Those follicular lymphomas with germ-line bcl-2, in our experience, have behaved more aggressively than the others, and their failure-free survival seems different from the usual indolent lymphomas and more closely resembles the large cell lymphomas. Although the biological significance of this observation is not yet understood, this group might actually constitute a prognostically different subset with a more aggressive and perhaps more curable lymphoma. Whether the plateau observed in their failure-free survival curve will be maintained with more follow-up and whether they might be a curable subset remain to be determined.  (+info)

Effects of pirfenidone on procollagen gene expression at the transcriptional level in bleomycin hamster model of lung fibrosis. (6/2335)

A time course study was carried out to elucidate the mechanisms for antifibrotic effect of pirfenidone (PD). Hamsters were intratracheally (i.t.) instilled with saline (SA) or bleomycin (BL) (7.5 units/kg/5 ml). The animals were fed a diet containing 0.5% PD or the same control diet (CD) without the drug 2 days before and throughout the study. The animals were sacrificed at various times after instillation. The lung hydroxyproline level in BL + CD groups was gradually increased and peaked at 21 days to 181% of the SA + CD control. The BL + PD-treated groups showed a gradual decrease in their lung collagen content, showing a maximum reduction of 40% at day 21. The lung malondialdehyde levels of the BL + CD groups were increased by several-fold of the corresponding SA + CD groups at various times. The lung prolyl hydroxylase (PH) activities in the BL + CD groups were also increased by several-fold of the corresponding SA + CD groups at these time points. The hamsters in the BL + PD showed a gradual decrease in the lung malondialdehyde levels from 10 to 21days compared with their corresponding BL + CD groups. Treatment with PD also reduced the lung PH activities in the BL + PD groups compared with the corresponding BL + CD groups. However, PD failed to manifest any direct inhibitory effect on PH activity in vitro. BL treatment increased the lung procollagen I and III gene expressions in the BL + CD groups by several-fold at varying times compared with the corresponding SA + CD, and treatment with PD in the BL + PD groups significantly down-regulated the BL-induced overexpression of these genes. Studies evaluating the regulation of these genes at the transcriptional level revealed PD significantly reduced the transcription of PC I at 14 days. Our results indicate that the antifibrotic effect of PD was partly due to suppression of the BL-induced inflammatory events and partly due to down-regulation of BL-induced overexpression of lung procollagen I and III genes.  (+info)

T cell independence of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. (7/2335)

The role of T cells and cytokines in bleomycin (BLM)-induced fibrosis was evaluated in susceptible and resistant strains of normal and SCID mice. Histology and hydroxyproline analysis showed that BLM induced pulmonary fibrosis in C57BL/6 and (C57BL/6 x BALB/c)F1 mice, whereas BALB/c mice were resistant to the disease. To test whether lymphocytes were required for the induction of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, SCID mice were injected intratracheally with BLM and evaluated for the development of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Similar morphological changes and increases in hydroxyproline were observed in both C57BL/6 SCID and (C57BL/6 x CB.17)F1 SCID animals compared to those seen in wild-type C57BL/6 and (C57BL/6 x BALB/c)F1 mice. In contrast, CB.17 SCID mice, which are genetically similar to BALB/c mice, were resistant to disease induction. Analysis of the cellular infiltrate in BLM-treated C57Bl/6 SCID mice confirmed a lack of T cells in the lungs of SCID mice and demonstrated a pronounced accumulation of eosinophils in areas of developing pulmonary fibrosis. NK cells were significantly elevated in untreated SCID mice and did not increase further after BLM treatment. Analysis of selected cytokines 1 day after initiation of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis indicated that the levels of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma appeared to segregate with fibrosis in both the SCID and wild-type mice. The data demonstrate that T cells are not required for the induction of fibrosis by BLM and suggest that responses by non-lymphoid cells may be sufficient for the induction of fibrosis.  (+info)

Follicular large cell lymphoma: an aggressive lymphoma that often presents with favorable prognostic features. (8/2335)

It is debated whether follicular large cell lymphoma (FLCL) has a clinical behavior that is distinct from indolent follicular lymphomas, and whether there is a subset of patients who can be potentially cured. We report here our experience with 100 FLCL patients treated at our institution since 1984 with three successive programs. We evaluated the predictive value of pretreatment clinical features, including two risk models, the Tumor Score System and the International Prognostic Index (IPI). With a median follow-up of 67 months, the 5-year survival is 72% and the failure-free survival (FFS) is 67%, with a possible plateau in the FFS curve, particularly for patients with stage I-III disease. Features associated with shorter survival included age >/=60, elevated lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) or beta-2-microglobulin (beta2M), advanced stage, and bone marrow involvement. Stage III patients had significantly better survival than stage IV patients (P <.05). By the IPI and Tumor Score System, 80% of the patients were in the lower risk groups; both systems stratified patients into prognostic groups. Patients with FLCL have clinical features and response to treatment similar to that reported for diffuse large cell lymphoma. Prognostic risk systems for aggressive lymphomas are useful for FLCL. A meaningful fraction of patients may possibly be cured when treated as aggressive lymphomas.  (+info)

Bleomycin is a type of chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma, testicular cancer, and lymphomas. It works by causing DNA damage in rapidly dividing cells, which can inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells.

Bleomycin is an antibiotic derived from Streptomyces verticillus and is often administered intravenously or intramuscularly. While it can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, it can also have serious side effects, including lung toxicity, which can lead to pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. Therefore, bleomycin should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional who is experienced in administering chemotherapy drugs.

Pulmonary fibrosis is a specific type of lung disease that results from the thickening and scarring of the lung tissues, particularly those in the alveoli (air sacs) and interstitium (the space around the air sacs). This scarring makes it harder for the lungs to properly expand and transfer oxygen into the bloodstream, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and eventually respiratory failure. The exact cause of pulmonary fibrosis can vary, with some cases being idiopathic (without a known cause) or related to environmental factors, medications, medical conditions, or genetic predisposition.

Antibiotics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth.

Antineoplastics, also known as chemotherapeutic agents, are a class of drugs used to treat cancer. These medications target and destroy rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, although they can also affect other quickly dividing cells in the body, such as those in the hair follicles or digestive tract, which can lead to side effects.

Antibiotics and antineoplastics are two different classes of drugs with distinct mechanisms of action and uses. It is important to use them appropriately and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Peplomycin" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It appears that it might be a term related to a specific type of antibiotic drug called "Pleuromutilin." Pleuromutilins are a class of antibiotics derived from certain types of fungi. Peplomycin could potentially be a specific formulation, brand name, or experimental version of a pleuromutilin antibiotic, but without more context, it is difficult to provide a precise definition. I would recommend consulting the original source or seeking additional information for clarification.

Hydroxyproline is not a medical term per se, but it is a significant component in the medical field, particularly in the study of connective tissues and collagen. Here's a scientific definition:

Hydroxyproline is a modified amino acid that is formed by the post-translational modification of the amino acid proline in collagen and some other proteins. This process involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the proline residue, which alters its chemical properties and contributes to the stability and structure of collagen fibers. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and is a crucial component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. The presence and quantity of hydroxyproline can serve as a marker for collagen turnover and degradation, making it relevant to various medical and research contexts, including the study of diseases affecting connective tissues like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Vinblastine is an alkaloid derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus) and is primarily used in cancer chemotherapy. It is classified as a vinca alkaloid, along with vincristine, vinorelbine, and others.

Medically, vinblastine is an antimicrotubule agent that binds to tubulin, a protein involved in the formation of microtubules during cell division. By binding to tubulin, vinblastine prevents the assembly of microtubules, which are essential for mitosis (cell division). This leads to the inhibition of cell division and ultimately results in the death of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

Vinblastine is used to treat various types of cancers, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, breast cancer, and others. It is often administered intravenously in a healthcare setting and may be given as part of a combination chemotherapy regimen with other anticancer drugs.

As with any medication, vinblastine can have side effects, including bone marrow suppression (leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding), neurotoxicity (resulting in peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and jaw pain), nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and mouth sores. Regular monitoring by a healthcare professional is necessary during vinblastine treatment to manage side effects and ensure the safe and effective use of this medication.

Phleomycins are a group of antibiotics produced by the fungus Streptomyces verticillus. They are known for their ability to bind to DNA and cause breaks in the double helix, which makes them useful as antitumor agents. Phleomycin D1, also known as bleomycin, is a member of this family that is commonly used in cancer chemotherapy. It can cause damage to both cancerous and normal cells, but its therapeutic effect is due to its greater toxicity towards cancer cells. The main side effects of phleomycins include lung fibrosis, hair loss, and a decrease in the number of white blood cells.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Vincristine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically a vinca alkaloid. It is derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus). Vincristine binds to tubulin, a protein found in microtubules, and inhibits their polymerization, which results in disruption of mitotic spindles leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. Common side effects include peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and alopecia.

Electrochemotherapy is a medical treatment that combines the use of certain drugs with electrical pulses to increase the permeability of cell membranes, allowing for enhanced uptake of the drugs into cells. This approach is often used in the treatment of cancer, particularly in cases where the tumor is localized and not responsive to other forms of therapy.

The drugs most commonly used in electrochemotherapy are cytotoxic agents, such as bleomycin or cisplatin, which can effectively kill cancer cells when delivered in high concentrations. However, these drugs typically have poor membrane permeability, making it difficult to achieve therapeutic levels inside the cells.

To overcome this challenge, electrochemotherapy applies short, intense electrical pulses to the tumor site, creating temporary pores in the cell membranes. This allows for increased drug uptake and improved distribution of the cytotoxic agents within the cancer cells. The electrical pulses also have a direct effect on the cancer cells, further contributing to their destruction.

The benefits of electrochemotherapy include its ability to treat tumors with minimal invasiveness, reduced side effects compared to traditional chemotherapy, and potential synergy between the electrical pulses and cytotoxic drugs for improved treatment outcomes. Electrochemotherapy is often used in palliative care or as an adjunct to other cancer treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or immunotherapy.

Etoposide is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including lung cancer, testicular cancer, and certain types of leukemia. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called topoisomerase II, which is involved in DNA replication and transcription. By doing so, etoposide can interfere with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

Etoposide is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, although it may also be given orally in some cases. The medication can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It can also have more serious side effects, such as bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, bleeding, and a weakened immune system.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, etoposide is not without risks and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider. It is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of this medication with their doctor before starting treatment.

Procarbazine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically an alkylating agent, used in the treatment of certain types of cancer such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and brain tumors. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Procarbazine is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs to increase its effectiveness.

It is important to note that procarbazine can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weakness. It can also suppress the immune system, increasing the risk of infection. Additionally, it can cause damage to cells outside of the cancerous tissue, which can result in side effects such as hair loss and mouth sores.

Procarbazine is a prescription medication that should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully when taking this medication and to report any side effects or concerns promptly.

Testicular neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the testicle that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They are a type of genitourinary cancer, which affects the reproductive and urinary systems. Testicular neoplasms can occur in men of any age but are most commonly found in young adults between the ages of 15 and 40.

Testicular neoplasms can be classified into two main categories: germ cell tumors and non-germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors, which arise from the cells that give rise to sperm, are further divided into seminomas and non-seminomas. Seminomas are typically slow-growing and have a good prognosis, while non-seminomas tend to grow more quickly and can spread to other parts of the body.

Non-germ cell tumors are less common than germ cell tumors and include Leydig cell tumors, Sertoli cell tumors, and lymphomas. These tumors can have a variety of clinical behaviors, ranging from benign to malignant.

Testicular neoplasms often present as a painless mass or swelling in the testicle. Other symptoms may include a feeling of heaviness or discomfort in the scrotum, a dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin, and breast enlargement (gynecomastia).

Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan, and blood tests to detect tumor markers. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular self-examinations of the testicles are recommended for early detection and improved outcomes.

Hodgkin disease, also known as Hodgkin lymphoma, is a type of cancer that originates in the white blood cells called lymphocytes. It typically affects the lymphatic system, which is a network of vessels and glands spread throughout the body. The disease is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal cell, known as a Reed-Sternberg cell, within the affected lymph nodes.

The symptoms of Hodgkin disease may include painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin; fever; night sweats; weight loss; and fatigue. The exact cause of Hodgkin disease is unknown, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and infectious factors.

Hodgkin disease is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, depending on the stage and extent of the disease. With appropriate treatment, the prognosis for Hodgkin disease is generally very good, with a high cure rate. However, long-term side effects of treatment may include an increased risk of secondary cancers and other health problems.

Instillation, in the context of drug administration, refers to the process of introducing a medication or therapeutic agent into a body cavity or onto a mucous membrane surface using gentle, steady pressure. This is typically done with the help of a device such as an eyedropper, pipette, or catheter. The goal is to ensure that the drug is distributed evenly over the surface or absorbed through the mucous membrane for localized or systemic effects. Instillation can be used for various routes of administration including ocular (eye), nasal, auricular (ear), vaginal, and intra-articular (joint space) among others. The choice of instillation as a route of administration depends on the drug's properties, the desired therapeutic effect, and the patient's overall health status.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Mechlorethamine is an antineoplastic agent, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of alkylating agent, which is a class of drugs that work by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Mechlorethamine is used in the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as some other types of cancer. It can be administered intravenously or topically (as a cream) to treat skin lesions caused by certain types of cancer.

Mechlorethamine is a potent drug that can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection due to suppression of the immune system. It can also cause damage to the heart, lungs, and reproductive system with long-term use. As with all chemotherapy drugs, mechlorethamine should be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, lung, and cervical cancers. It is an inorganic platinum compound that contains a central platinum atom surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in a cis configuration.

Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks between DNA strands, which disrupts the structure of DNA and prevents cancer cells from replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death and slows down or stops the growth of tumors. However, cisplatin can also cause damage to normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

"Intralesional injection" is a medical term that refers to the administration of a medication directly into a lesion or skin abnormality, such as a tumor, cyst, or blister. This technique is used to deliver the medication directly to the site of action, allowing for higher local concentrations and potentially reducing systemic side effects. Common examples include the injection of corticosteroids into inflamed tissues to reduce swelling and pain, or the injection of chemotherapeutic agents directly into tumors to shrink them.

Cobalt radioisotopes are radioactive forms of the element cobalt, which are used in various medical applications. The most commonly used cobalt radioisotope is Cobalt-60 (Co-60), which has a half-life of 5.27 years.

Co-60 emits gamma rays and beta particles, making it useful for radiation therapy to treat cancer, as well as for sterilizing medical equipment and food irradiation. In radiation therapy, Co-60 is used in teletherapy machines to deliver a focused beam of radiation to tumors, helping to destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue.

It's important to note that handling and disposal of cobalt radioisotopes require strict safety measures due to their radioactive nature, as they can pose risks to human health and the environment if not managed properly.

Dacarbazine is a medical term that refers to a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer. It is an alkylating agent, which means it works by modifying the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Dacarbazine is often used to treat malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and soft tissue sarcomas.

The drug is typically administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, and the dosage and schedule may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health and response to treatment. Common side effects of dacarbazine include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weakness or fatigue. More serious side effects, such as low white blood cell counts, anemia, and liver damage, may also occur.

It is important for patients receiving dacarbazine to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly. Regular monitoring of blood counts and other laboratory tests may be necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Neoplasms, germ cell and embryonal are types of tumors that originate from the abnormal growth of cells. Here's a brief medical definition for each:

1. Neoplasms: Neoplasms refer to abnormal tissue growths or masses, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled cell division and may invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis.
2. Germ Cell Tumors: These are rare tumors that develop from the germ cells, which give rise to sperm and eggs in the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes). They can be benign or malignant and may occur in both children and adults. Germ cell tumors can also arise outside of the reproductive organs, a condition known as extragonadal germ cell tumors.
3. Embryonal Tumors: These are a type of malignant neoplasm that primarily affects infants and young children. They develop from embryonic cells, which are immature cells present during fetal development. Embryonal tumors can occur in various organs, including the brain (medulloblastomas), nervous system (primitive neuroectodermal tumors or PNETs), and other areas like the kidneys and liver.

It is essential to note that these conditions require professional medical evaluation and treatment by healthcare professionals with expertise in oncology and related fields.

A germinoma is a type of tumor that develops in the brain or the spine, primarily in the pituitary gland or pineal gland. It is a rare form of primary central nervous system (CNS) cancer and is classified as a type of germ cell tumor. These tumors arise from cells that normally develop into sperm or eggs, which can migrate to unusual locations during embryonic development.

Germinomas are highly sensitive to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, making them generally treatable and curable with appropriate medical intervention. Symptoms of a germinoma may include headaches, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, hormonal imbalances, and neurological deficits, depending on the location and size of the tumor. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies like MRI or CT scans, followed by a biopsy to confirm the presence of malignant cells.

Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a type of corticosteroid hormone. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. Prednisone works by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands, suppressing the immune system's response and reducing the release of substances that cause inflammation.

It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken at specific times during the day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of prednisone include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and easy bruising. Long-term use or high doses can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Healthcare providers closely monitor patients taking prednisone for extended periods to minimize the risk of adverse effects. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and not discontinue the medication abruptly without medical supervision, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a rebound of the underlying condition.

Zinostatin is not a widely recognized or commonly used term in medicine. However, it appears to be a brand name for a formulation of the anti-cancer drug Neocarzinostatin (NCS). Neocarzinostatin is a protein produced by the bacterium Streptomyces carzinostaticus and has been studied for its potential to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cells.

Zinostatin is specifically used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is a type of liver cancer. It is administered via arterial infusion, where the drug is delivered directly into the hepatic artery that supplies blood to the liver. This method allows for higher concentrations of the drug to reach the tumor site while minimizing systemic exposure and potential side effects.

It's important to note that medical terminology can vary by region and context, so it's possible that "Zinostatin" may not be a term used in all medical communities or for all purposes. Always consult with a healthcare professional or trusted medical source for accurate information.

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a specific type of chronic, progressive, and irreversible fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause, characterized by scarring (fibrosis) in the lungs that thickens and stiffens the lining of the air sacs (alveoli). This makes it increasingly difficult for the lungs to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream, leading to shortness of breath, cough, decreased exercise tolerance, and, eventually, respiratory failure.

The term "idiopathic" means that the cause of the disease is unknown. The diagnosis of IPF requires a combination of clinical, radiological, and pathological findings, excluding other known causes of pulmonary fibrosis. It primarily affects middle-aged to older adults, with a higher prevalence in men than women.

The progression of IPF varies from person to person, but the prognosis is generally poor, with a median survival time of 3-5 years after diagnosis. Currently, there are two FDA-approved medications for the treatment of IPF (nintedanib and pirfenidone), which can help slow down disease progression but do not cure the condition. Lung transplantation remains an option for select patients with advanced IPF.

Deoxyribose is a type of sugar that makes up the structural backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), one of the two main types of nucleic acids in cells. The chemical formula for deoxyribose is C5H10O4, and it has a five-carbon ring structure with four hydroxyl (-OH) groups and one hydrogen atom attached to the carbons.

The key difference between deoxyribose and ribose, which makes up the structural backbone of RNA (ribonucleic acid), is that deoxyribose lacks a hydroxyl group on the second carbon atom in its ring structure. This small difference has significant implications for the structure and function of DNA compared to RNA.

Deoxyribose plays an essential role in the replication, transcription, and repair of genetic material in cells. It forms the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA by linking with phosphate groups through ester bonds between the 3' carbon atom of one deoxyribose molecule and the 5' carbon atom of another, creating a long, twisted ladder-like structure known as a double helix. The nitrogenous bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine attach to the 1' carbon atom of each deoxyribose molecule in the DNA strand, forming pairs that are complementary to each other (adenine with thymine and guanine with cytosine).

Overall, deoxyribose is a crucial component of DNA, enabling the storage and transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next.

... A5) "Bleomycin Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 9 August 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2020. "Bleomycin- bleomycin ... Bleomycin has also been found to disrupt the sense of taste. Bleomycin should not exceed a lifetime cumulative dose greater ... Bleomycin acts by induction of DNA strand breaks. Some studies suggest bleomycin also inhibits incorporation of thymidine into ... Bleomycin is used in research to induce pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Flagellate pigmentation from bleomycin Pingyangmycin ( ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BLMH gene. Bleomycin hydrolase (BMH) is a cytoplasmic ... Koldamova, R P; Lefterov I M; DiSabella M T; Almonte C; Watkins S C; Lazo J S (June 1999). "Human bleomycin hydrolase binds ... 1998). "Bleomycin hydrolase is associated with risk of sporadic Alzheimer's disease". Nat. Genet. 18 (3): 211-2. doi:10.1038/ ... Zheng W, Johnston SA, Joshua-Tor L (1998). "The unusual active site of Gal6/bleomycin hydrolase can act as a carboxypeptidase, ...
Also, the glycopeptide bleomycin is used for the treatment of several cancers including Hodgkin's lymphoma, head and neck ... "Bleomycin". US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 28 January 2015. Alvin A, Miller KI, Neilan BA (2014). "Exploring the ... Botulinum toxin (from Clostridium botulinum) and bleomycin (from Streptomyces verticillus) are two examples. Botulinum, the ...
Examples of the bleomycins in clinical use include bleomycin A2 (also known as bleomycin) and bleomycin A5 (also known as ... "Bleomycin". US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 5 March 2015. Aouida M, Ramotar D (2010). "A new twist in cellular ... resistance to the anticancer drug bleomycin-A5". Curr Drug Metab. 11 (7): 595-602. doi:10.2174/138920010792927307. PMID ...
"Bleomycin". US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 27 July 2020. Borel JF, Kis ZL, Beveridge T (1995). "The History of the ... These include the anticancer drug bleomycin (obtained from the soil bacterium Streptomyces verticillus), the immunosuppressant ...
Applications for treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors have reached clinical use by utilizing drugs such as bleomycin ... In the clinical use of electrochemotherapy, limited side effects related to bleomycin or cisplatin use are recorded. Provided ... Mir LM, Orlowski S, Belehradek J, Paoletti C (1991). "Electrochemotherapy potentiation of antitumour effect of bleomycin by ... January 2008). "Vascular disrupting action of electroporation and electrochemotherapy with bleomycin in murine sarcoma". Br. J ...
Thus, bleomycin as a combination therapy may be an option to treat tumours. Efficacy rates of bleomycin in conjunction with ... In a study of combining bleomycin and other medicinal agents in bladder cancer cells, results showed bleomycin induced DNA ... Bleomycin also acts via interfering with cell wall synthesis in the target bacteria, however the exact mechanism of action is ... Bleomycin use causes side effects ranging from nausea, vomiting, anorexia and fevers, to fatal pulmonary toxicity in 1-2% of ...
Bleomycin List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume ... 950-1. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. Ibrahimi, Omar A.; Anderson, R. Rox (2010). "Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Hyperpigmentation". ...
2004). "Bleomycin-induced scleroderma". The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. 52: 76-7. PMID 15633728. Farrant ... Bleomycin (a chemotherapeutic agent) and possibly taxane chemotherapy may cause scleroderma, and occupational exposure to ...
Bleomycin also has a different core. Its mode of action is also unrelated to the cell wall, instead causing DNA damage in tumor ... complestatin and the antitumor antibiotic bleomycin. Vancomycin is used if infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ...
... bleomycin, enediynes, and mitomycin". Chemical Reviews. 105 (2): 739-58. doi:10.1021/cr030117g. PMID 15700963. Zhang, C; ...
Allergic reactions to bleomycin can occur. A small test dose of bleomycin is often given prior to the first round of ABVD to ... Pulmonary function tests are often used to assess for bleomycin-related damage to the lungs. One study found bleomycin lung ... Canellos GP, Duggan D, Johnson J, Niedzwiecki D (April 2004). "How important is bleomycin in the adriamycin + bleomycin + ... Pulmonary toxicity, or lung damage, can occur with the use of bleomycin in ABVD, especially when radiation therapy to the chest ...
Galm, U; Hager, MH; Van Lanen, SG; Ju, J; Thorson, JS; Shen, B (Feb 2005). "Antitumor antibiotics: bleomycin, enediynes, and ...
Koldamova RP, Lefterov IM, DiSabella MT, Almonte C, Watkins SC, Lazo JS (Jun 1999). "Human bleomycin hydrolase binds ribosomal ... Koldamova RP, Lefterov IM, DiSabella MT, Almonte C, Watkins SC, Lazo JS (1999). "Human bleomycin hydrolase binds ribosomal ...
Bleomycin is one of the antitumour antibiotics and is a fermentation product of Streptomyces verticillus. It has a unique ... "Bleomycin: Ototoxicity, dermatitis and nail disorders: case report". Reactions Weekly. 1579: 84. doi:10.1007/s40278-015-11045-x ... Few case reports have identified the development of ototoxicity in some elderly patients who were administered with bleomycin. ... Such agents include cisplatin and bleomycin. Cisplatin is known as a platinum coordination complex. Carboplatin and oxaliplatin ...
Koldamova RP, Lefterov IM, DiSabella MT, Almonte C, Watkins SC, Lazo JS (1999). "Human bleomycin hydrolase binds ribosomal ... "Human bleomycin hydrolase binds ribosomal proteins". Biochemistry. 38 (22): 7111-7. doi:10.1021/bi990135l. PMID 10353821. Wool ...
No high quality evidence has evaluated the use of bleomycin in this condition. Proton therapy affords a reduction in dose to ... Zhang S, Fang Y, Cai BW, Xu JG, You C (July 2016). "Intracystic bleomycin for cystic craniopharyngiomas in children". The ... or bleomycin delivered via an external reservoir are sometimes employed, especially in young patients. The tumor, being in the ...
Bleomycin ingestion may also cause similar findings. On physical exam, one key difference between the two is that post- ... inflammatory hyperpigmentation changes are usually seen with bleomycin-induced flagellate dermatitis and are not typically ...
Other sclerosing agents include tetracycline and bleomycin. After sclerosant instillation, the patient may be moved through ...
... and other related chemicals in the bleomycin family of compounds are primarily used in molecular biology as an ... Gatignol, A., Durand, H. & Tiraby, G. (1988). "Bleomycin resistance conferred by a drug-binding protein". FEBS Lett. 230 (1-2 ... a glycopeptide antibiotic and one of the phleomycins from Streptomyces verticillus belonging to the bleomycin family of ... "Copper-dependent cleavage of DNA by bleomycin". Biochemistry. 26 (3): 931-42. doi:10.1021/bi00377a038. PMID 2436656. Chankova ...
Twohig KJ, Matthay RA (March 1990). "Pulmonary effects of cytotoxic agents other than bleomycin". Clinics in Chest Medicine. 11 ...
Certain drugs such as amiodarone, bleomycin and methotrexate. As a consequence of another disease such as rheumatoid arthritis ...
Treatment with cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin has been described. Before modern chemotherapy, this type of neoplasm was ...
Other cytotoxic antibiotics are anthracyclines, mitomycin C, bleomycin, mithramycin. Antibodies are sometimes used as a quick ...
The pulmonary fibrosis produced by paraquat and the antitumor agent bleomycin is also thought to be induced by the pro-oxidant ... These include adriamycin and other anthracyclines, bleomycin, and cisplatin. These agents may show specific toxicity towards ...
... and bleomycin); and infusional EPOCH (i.e. etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin). While the ...
Pulmonary fibrosis is a classical adverse effect of bleomycin; however, the incidence of pulmonary fibrosis in the brentuximab ... The ECHELON-1 phase 3 trial compared brentuximab vedotin with bleomycin both in combination with adriamycin, vinblastine, ... bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) versus A+AVD (a combination of brentuximab vedotin plus AVD, or doxorubicin, ... for treatment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma and found substituting brentuximab vedotin for bleomycin has both improved efficacy ...
This occurs when bleomycin binds to a metal ion, becomes chemically reduced and reacts with oxygen.: 87 Mitomycin is a ... Bleomycin, a glycopeptide isolated from Streptomyces verticillus, also intercalates DNA, but produces free radicals that damage ... Dorr RT (April 1992). "Bleomycin pharmacology: mechanism of action and resistance, and clinical pharmacokinetics". Seminars in ... bleomycin) and occasionally secondary neoplasm (e.g., MOPP therapy for Hodgkin's disease). Hand-foot syndrome is another side ...
Bleomycin - A more potent chemotherapy drug, can be injected into deep warts, destroying the viral DNA or RNA. Bleomycin is ... "Efficacy of Intralesional Bleomycin in Palmo-plantar and Periungual Warts". Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery. 4 (3): ...
Bleomycin, a more potent chemotherapy drug, can be injected into deep warts, destroying the viral DNA or RNA. Bleomycin is ... This may include salicylic acid, cryotherapy, chemo-based fluorouracil or bleomycin, and surgical removal. The skin atop the ... "Efficacy of Intralesional Bleomycin in Palmo-plantar and Periungual Warts". Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery. 4 (3): ...
Bleomycin A5) "Bleomycin Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 9 August 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2020. "Bleomycin- bleomycin ... Bleomycin has also been found to disrupt the sense of taste. Bleomycin should not exceed a lifetime cumulative dose greater ... Bleomycin acts by induction of DNA strand breaks. Some studies suggest bleomycin also inhibits incorporation of thymidine into ... Bleomycin is used in research to induce pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Flagellate pigmentation from bleomycin Pingyangmycin ( ...
Bleomycin: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking bleomycin,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to bleomycin or any of the ingredients in ... You should not become pregnant while you are receiving bleomycin injection. If you become pregnant while receiving bleomycin, ... Bleomycin is a type of antibiotic that is only used in cancer chemotherapy. It slows or stops the growth of cancer cells in ...
Hazard - P - B - T - Risk Cannot be excluded. Manufacturer has on fass.se stated that that data about the environmental impact is missing for the substance so that the environmental risk cannot be calculated. It is voluntary for manufacturers to provide information on the environmental impact on fass.se. ...
Curcumin protects bleomycin-induced lung injury in rats. ... Curcumin protects bleomycin-induced lung injury in rats. - ... Bleomycin administration also resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and ... Diseases : Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicity: Bleomycin : CK(100) : AC(47), Lung Injury: Acute : CK(321) : AC(159), Oxidative ... The present study was designed to determine the protective effects of curcumin against bleomycin (BLM)-induced inflammatory and ...
Representative lung histology on day 21 after exposure to bleomycin in T. β. RIIfl/fl. (. A. ) and T. β. RIINkx2.1-cre. (. B. ... Relative resistance to bleomycin-induced fibrosis in T. β. RIINkx2.1-cre. mice. ... Epithelium-specific deletion of TGF-β receptor type II protects mice from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. ... Epithelium-specific deletion of TGF-β receptor type II protects mice from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. ...
Crystal structure of a glyoxalase/bleomycin resistance protein/dioxygenase family enzyme from Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN ... Glyoxalase/bleomycin resistance protein/dioxygenase. A, B. 141. Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN. Mutation(s): 2 Gene Names: ... Crystal structure of a glyoxalase/bleomycin resistance protein/dioxygenase family enzyme from Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN. * ... Crystal structure of a glyoxalase/bleomycin resistance protein/dioxygenase family enzyme from Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN.. ...
BLM: bleomycin. *: p ,0.05 versus BLM group; ***: p,0.001 versus control group; #: p,0.001 versus BLM group. ... BLM: bleomycin. *: p,0.05 versus BLM group; ***: p,0.001 versus control group; #: p,0.001 versus BLM group. ... Gefitinib prevents bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 174: 550-556. ... Therapies for bleomycin induced lung fibrosis through regulation of TGF-β1 induced collagen gene expression. J Cell Physiol ...
Metformin reverses established lung fibrosis in a bleomycin model Written by Brit Blalock ...
Intervention: One cycle comprising bleomycin 30000 IU on days 1, 8, and 15, etoposide 165 mg/m2 on days 1-3, and cisplatin 50 ... The 111 Study: A Single-arm, Phase 3 Trial Evaluating One Cycle of Bleomycin, Etoposide, and Cisplatin as Adjuvant Chemotherapy ... is two cycles of adjuvant bleomycin, etoposide (360 mg/m2), and cisplatin (BE360P) chemotherapy, or surveillance. ...
Bleomycin is commonly used to treat advanced testicular cancer and can be associated with severe pulmonary toxicity. The ... That rate was substantially higher for men with greater exposure to bleomycin: 40% (24 of 60) for 10-12 doses bleomycin ... Background - Bleomycin is commonly used to treat advanced testicular cancer and can be associated with severe pulmonary ... A population-based study of pulmonary monitoring and toxicity for patients with testicular cancer treated with bleomycin. Share ...
bleomycin. PC. procollagen. PD. pirfenidone. SA. saline. CD. control diet. TGF-β. transforming growth factor-β. MDAE. ... Effects of Pirfenidone on Procollagen Gene Expression at the Transcriptional Level in Bleomycin Hamster Model of Lung Fibrosis ... Effects of Pirfenidone on Procollagen Gene Expression at the Transcriptional Level in Bleomycin Hamster Model of Lung Fibrosis ... Effects of Pirfenidone on Procollagen Gene Expression at the Transcriptional Level in Bleomycin Hamster Model of Lung Fibrosis ...
Bleomycin belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hybrid glycopeptide. read more to know Bleomycin in detail.. ... Bleomycin: Frequently Asked Questions Answered. What is Bleomycin?. Bleomycin belongs to the class of organic compounds known ... 8. Is Bleomycin carcinogenic to humans?. There are no studies of Bleomycin alone, but a few case reports suggest exposure to ... 3. Is Bleomycin a targeted therapy?. Yes, Bleomycin is a targeted therapy. Targeted therapy is a cancer treatment that targets ...
Fatal pneumothorax following bleomycin and other cytotoxic drugs. Cancer treatment reports 1985 Mar;69;344-5 1985 Mar ... Lung fibrosis 10 years after cessation of bleomycin therapy. The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine 2008 Sep;216;77-80 ... Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum and Bilateral Pneumothoraces in a Patient with Bleomycin-Induced Pneumonitis. European journal of ... Extensive pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and surgical emphysema as a complication of bleomycin therapy. Pediatric radiology ...
Treatment of a Facial Myxoma in a Goldfish (Carassius auratus) with Intralesional Bleomycin Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy ... Roughly one month after initial bleomycin injection, the owner reported that the tumor had shrunk by roughly 60% of its ... Acanthomatous ameloblastoma in dogs treated with intralesional bleomycin. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology. 2001;8(2):81-86. ... Several studies have shown promise for treatment of tumors via intralesional administration of bleomycin in veterinary patients ...
Please help us populate SUNScholar with the post print version of this article. It can be e-mailed to: [email protected] ...
MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BLEOMYCIN-MEDIATED MODIFICATION OF DNA.. ROBERT STEPHEN LLOYD, The University of Texas Graduate School of ... LLOYD, ROBERT STEPHEN, "MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BLEOMYCIN-MEDIATED MODIFICATION OF DNA." (1979). Texas Medical Center ...
Resokine Modulates Immune Cell Infiltration Into the Lung and Provides Therapeutic Activity in a Bleomycin-induced Lung ...
Bleomycin. Some doctors might inject bleomycin into the scar to stop the production of collagen at the site of the injury. Only ... Bleomycin is a treatment that doctors use in cancer treatments. It is a toxic substance, but doctors rarely report toxic side ... Some researchers have found that bleomycin may also reduce redness, itchiness, and pain associated with these scars. ... have tested the effect of injectable bleomycin on improving the appearance of hypertrophic scars and keloids. ...
Tag: Bleomycin. Bleomycin Treatment for Warts: An Effective Solution. Warts are a common skin condition caused by the human ... If youve tried over-the-counter remedies without success or are looking for a more targeted approach, bleomycin treatment ...
Manufacturer and Supplier company of Bleomycin Injection from Surat, Gujarat, India at best price ... Bleomycin Sulphate Injection is an anti-cancer medicine that is used to kill cancerous cells in various kinds of cancer such as ... Bleomycin Sulphate Injection is a medicine used for treatment of cancer in various parts of the body such as cervical, Cancer ... Bleomycin Sulphate Injection works by interfering with the growth of cancer cells, which are eventually destroyed. ...
Bleomycin. The chemotherapeutic drug bleomycin has been used in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars for decades ... Four milligrams of triamcinolone plus 0.375 IU bleomycin per cm2 led to softening of 97.3% of lesions and flattening of 64.9% ... Camacho-Martinez FM, Rey ER, Serrano FC, Wagner A. Results of a combination of bleomycin and triamcinolone acetonide in the ... Manca G, Pandolfi P, Gregorelli C, Cadossi M, de Terlizzi F. Treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars with bleomycin and ...
Blenoxane is also known by its drug name, bleomycin.. Blenoxane is an anticancer drug used in chemotherapy. Blenoxane is a ... Blenoxane (Bleomycin) for Lymphoma. 13 people have indicated they have taken Blenoxane ...
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... bleomycin), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, ... encoded search term (bleomycin (Blenoxane (bleomycin))) and bleomycin (Blenoxane (bleomycin)) What to Read Next on Medscape ... Administer test dose of 1-2 units of bleomycin before first 1-2 doses; monitor vital signs q15min; wait 1 hour minimum before ... it is recommended that nursing be discontinued by women receiving bleomycin therapy. ...
Dropshippers of Bleomycin Injection at Cheap Price in India. Buy Bleomycin Injection Online. Distributors & Wholesalers. ... Bleomycin Injection contains Bleomycin as an active ingredient.. Bleomycin Injection works by producing ions which get into DNA ... What is Bleomycin?. Bleomycin Injection is a medicine that is used for the treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of Skin, Head ... Bleomycin Injection Uses. Bleomycin Injection is used for the treatment, control, prevention, & improvement of the following ...
Home » Spot Diagnosis » Spot Diagnosis - Case Asnwers » Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Hyperpigmentation. Bleomycin-Induced ... Bleomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic commonly used for chemical pleurodesis, the treatment of cutaneous warts, and the ... The reduced concentration of bleomycin hydrolase in the skin and lung, as compared with other tissues, may explain the ... The rate of flagellate hyperpigmentation in patients who are treated with bleomycin may be as high as 20%. ...
Bleomycin belongs to the group of cancer-fighting medications known as antineoplastics, and specifically to the ... Each vial contains sterile bleomycin sulfate equivalent to 15 units of bleomycin. ... If you miss an appointment to receive bleomycin, contact your doctor as soon as possible to reschedule your appointment. ... Bleomycin is always given under the supervision of a doctor. Very careful handling of this medication is required, so it is ...
What is Bleomycin-Sulfate?. Bleomycin-Sulfate is an antibiotic drug used to treat a variety of cancers. It is a part of a group ... How Does Bleomycin-Sulfate Work?. Bleomycin-Sulfate works by stopping the growth of cancer cells. It is a type of antibiotic ... What is Bleomycin-Sulfate Used to Treat?. Bleomycin-Sulfate is used to treat a variety of cancers, including lymphomas, ... Do You Need a Prescription for Bleomycin-Sulfate?. Yes, you need a prescription from your doctor to get Bleomycin-Sulfate. It ...
Bleomycin. Injection 15 mg x 1 ml Injection 15 IU N/A Powder for injection 15 mg (as sulfate) in vial ...
used in different types of cancer, Buy Bleomycin sulfate inj at wholesale price. ... Bleomycin injection is an anti cancer drug, it is given in to muscle. ... Bleomycin and its uses:. BLEOMYCIN Sulfate should be considered a palliative treatment. It has been shown to be useful in the ... The bleomycin injection price is decent. Please contact +91 8130290915 for Bleocel price in India We take guarantee of quality ...
  • Some people who have received bleomycin injection for treatment of lymphomas had a severe allergic reaction. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to bleomycin or any of the ingredients in bleomycin injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should not become pregnant while you are receiving bleomycin injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 4. Why does Bleomycin injection hurt? (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Bleomycin Sulphate Injection is a medicine used for treatment of cancer in various parts of the body such as cervical, Cancer of the mouth, nasopharynx and paranasal sinuses, larynx, esophagus, and skin. (kdiamexim.com)
  • Bleomycin Sulphate Injection works by interfering with the growth of cancer cells, which are eventually destroyed. (kdiamexim.com)
  • Bleomycin Sulphate Injection may be used alone or with other medicines as part of combination therapy. (kdiamexim.com)
  • Bleomycin Sulphate Injection is an anti-cancer medicine that is used to kill cancerous cells in various kinds of cancer such as cervical cancer, cancer of mouth, nasopharynx and paranasal sinuses, larynx, oesophagus and skin cancer. (kdiamexim.com)
  • Initial studies of both bleomycin injection and topical application with penetration enhanced via multiple needle punctures showed therapeutic benefit [ 5 , 6 ]. (springer.com)
  • Use of a combination bleomycin and triamcinolone injection was found to be effective in a study of 35 keloids and two hypertrophic scars in 10 white patients. (springer.com)
  • Bleomycin Injection is a medicine that is used for the treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of Skin, Head And Neck Cancer, Genitourinary Tract Cancer, Esophagus Cancer, Blood Cancer, Hodgkin'S Disease and other conditions. (cbdnj.shop)
  • Bleomycin Injection contains Bleomycin as an active ingredient. (cbdnj.shop)
  • Bleomycin Injection works by producing ions which get into DNA of cancer cell and prevent its growth. (cbdnj.shop)
  • The following is a list of possible side-effects that may occur from all constituting ingredients of Bleomycin Injection. (cbdnj.shop)
  • The bleomycin injection should be avoided in patients who have demonstrated a hypersensitive or an idiosyncratic reaction to it. (theindianpharma.com)
  • Patients receiving bleomycin injection should be carefully observed and frequently during/after the therapy. (theindianpharma.com)
  • The bleomycin injection price is decent. (theindianpharma.com)
  • Objective: This case report aims to analyze the management of venous malformation therapy in the oromaxillofacial region using intralesional Bleomycin injection. (researchbib.com)
  • Case Report: A 39-year-old female patient diagnosed with simple venous malformations which carried out bleomycin injection at RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung. (researchbib.com)
  • Conclusion: Treatment of this case shows that Bleomycin Intralion Injection of venous malformations is an effective non-invasive treatment and has no side effects. (researchbib.com)
  • Bleomycin is a type of antibiotic that is only used in cancer chemotherapy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Standard management in the UK for high-risk stage 1 nonseminoma germ cell tumours of the testis (NSGCTT) is two cycles of adjuvant bleomycin, etoposide (360 mg/m 2 ), and cisplatin (BE 360 P) chemotherapy, or surveillance. (nih.gov)
  • Methods - To identify all incident cases of testicular cancer treated with bleomycin-based chemotherapy in the Canadian province of Ontario during 2005-2010, the Ontario Cancer Registry was linked with chemotherapy treat-ment records. (ices.on.ca)
  • Results - Of 394 patients treated with orchiectomy and chemotherapy who received at least 1 dose of bleomycin, 93% had complete chemotherapy records available. (ices.on.ca)
  • In the 4 weeks before, during, and within 2 years after finishing bleomycin-based chemotherapy, pfts were performed in 17%, 17%, and 29% of patients respectively. (ices.on.ca)
  • In the 2 years after bleomycin-based chemotherapy, 23% of treated patients had a physician visit for respiratory symptoms. (ices.on.ca)
  • Bleomycin-Sulfate is a chemotherapy drug used to treat a variety of cancers. (rxguide.org)
  • Bleomycin clinically and is an integral part of a number of combination chemotherapy regimens. (asu.edu)
  • Objective: To evaluate the theurapeutic response and acute toxicity of neoadjuvant chemotherapy between the combination of Platinum and Ifosfamide, and the combination of Platinum, Vincristine and Bleomycin in Cervical Carcinoma Stage IB2 and then continued with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. (ui.ac.id)
  • Method: Thirteen samples received neoadjuvant chemotherapy of Platinum and Ifosfamide and 17 samples received neoadjuvant chemotherapy of Platinum, Vincristine and Bleomycin, after receiving the neoadjuvant chemotherapy, clinically complete response samples underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (PI VS PVB = 3 VS 1). (ui.ac.id)
  • The exact mechanism of DNA strand scission is unresolved, but it has been suggested that bleomycin chelates metal ions (primarily iron), producing a pseudoenzyme that reacts with oxygen to produce superoxide and hydroxide free radicals that cleave DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Representative lung histology on day 21 after exposure to bleomycin in T β RII fl/fl ( A ) and T β RII Nkx2.1-cre ( B ) mice. (jci.org)
  • That rate was substantially higher for men with greater exposure to bleomycin: 40% (24 of 60) for 10-12 doses bleomycin compared with 21% (53 of 250) for 7-9 doses and with 14% (8 of 58) for 1-6 doses (p = 0.002). (ices.on.ca)
  • Exposure to a high FiO2 during the perioperative and postoperative period in a patient with prior exposure to bleomycin can produce occult pulmonary fibrosis. (alertdiver.eu)
  • The most serious complication of bleomycin, occurring upon increasing dosage, is pulmonary fibrosis and impaired lung function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the oxygen sensitive nature of bleomycin, and the theorised increased likelihood of developing pulmonary fibrosis following supplemental oxygen therapy, it has been questioned whether patients should take part in scuba diving following treatment with the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary toxicities, most commonly presenting as pulmonary fibrosis, are associated with doses of bleomycin greater than 400 units. (wikipedia.org)
  • and (b) the epithelial cell response to TGF-β signaling in vitro and in a bleomycin-induced, TGF-β-mediated mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. (jci.org)
  • However, TβRIINkx2.1-cre mice exhibited increased survival and resistance to bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. (jci.org)
  • Relative resistance to bleomycin-induced fibrosis in T β RII Nkx2.1-cre mice. (jci.org)
  • To elucidate the antifibrotic mechanisms of sivelestat, we examined a murine model of bleomycin-induced early-stage pulmonary fibrosis. (ersjournals.com)
  • In the bleomycin-induced early-stage pulmonary fibrosis model, the neutrophil elastase level was increased in the lungs. (ersjournals.com)
  • Sivelestat significantly inhibited the increase in lung collagen content, fibrotic changes, the numbers of total cells (including macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes), the levels of the active form of TGF-β1 and phospho-Smad2 in bleomycin-induced early-stage pulmonary fibrosis. (ersjournals.com)
  • These results suggest that sivelestat alleviated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via inhibition of both TGF-β activation and inflammatory cell recruitment in the lung. (ersjournals.com)
  • Bleomycin (BLM)-induced inflammation and fibrosis represent an experimental model for IPF as well as ALI/ARDS. (ersjournals.com)
  • Lung fibrosis 10 years after cessation of bleomycin therapy. (pneumotox.com)
  • However, in patients prior treated with bleomycin, one study showed that increased FiO2 (0.40-0.87) during the perioperative period made no significant contribution to complications of late-onset BIP or fibrosis and it was concluded that perioperative oxygen restriction was not necessary. (alertdiver.eu)
  • We examined the effect of a short course corticosteroid treatment starting 3 days after bleomycin induced lung injury on the development of pulmonary fibrosis. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • METHODS: Bleomycin (1.5 mg/kg) was instilled intratracheally into rats to induce pulmonary fibrosis. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Endogenous IFN-γ may play a proinflammatory or profibrotic role in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. (tau.ac.il)
  • Furthermore, genetic ablation of MCs failed to prevent the development of skin fibrosis upon bleomycin challenge. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Collectively, our findings strongly suggest that significant reduction of MC numbers does not affect skin wound healing and bleomycin-induced fibrosis in mice, and provide to our knowledge previously unreported insight in the long-debated contribution of MCs in skin regenerative processes. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • The effects of pharyngeal aspiration-exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticle s on pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Results: MRI scans showed increased signal (oedema) at day 3-7 and again at day 21 (fibrosis) in the lungs of Bleomycin exposed rats. (lu.se)
  • Several studies have shown promise for treatment of tumors via intralesional administration of bleomycin in veterinary patients 2-4 including fish. (vin.com)
  • Fourteen weeks after initial bleomycin administration, a second intralesional treatment was performed. (vin.com)
  • A 39-year-old woman with a long-standing vascular malformation of the posterior tongue underwent intralesional sclerotherapy with a single dose of bleomycin . (manualofmedicine.com)
  • Each vial contains sterile bleomycin sulfate equivalent to 15 units of bleomycin. (pharmachoice.com)
  • Extensive pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and surgical emphysema as a complication of bleomycin therapy. (pneumotox.com)
  • It has been suggested that bleomycin induces sensitivity to oxygen toxicity and recent studies support the role of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-18 and IL-1beta in the mechanism of bleomycin-induced lung injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curcumin protects bleomycin-induced lung injury in rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The present study was designed to determine the protective effects of curcumin against bleomycin (BLM)-induced inflammatory and oxidant lung injury. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The effect of a 3-day course of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg) initiated 3 days after bleomycin induced lung injury on cell proliferation and collagen deposition was examined by analysing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • CONCLUSIONS: A 3 day course of dexamethasone treatment initiated 3 days after bleomycin induced lung injury reduces lung cell proliferation and collagen deposition by mechanisms other than through reduction of transforming growth factor-beta(1), platelet derived growth factor-AB, and thrombin levels in BAL fluid. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • The present study characterizes the time course, cellular source, and regulation of IFN-γ expression in bleomycin-induced lung injury. (tau.ac.il)
  • To define the role of endogenous IFN-γ in the evolution of bleomycin lung injury, we compared the effect of bleomycin in mice with a targeted knockout mutation of the IFN-γ gene (IFN-γ knockout) and wild-type mice. (tau.ac.il)
  • Lung mechanics showing sex-based differences and circadian time-of-day response to bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • If you miss an appointment to receive bleomycin, call your doctor as soon as possible. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ARM II: Patients receive bleomycin sulfate IV on day 1 and etoposide phosphate* IV over 1 hour and cisplatin IV over 30 minutes on days 1-5. (clinicaltrialsgps.com)
  • One cycle comprising bleomycin 30000 IU on days 1, 8, and 15, etoposide 165 mg/m 2 on days 1-3, and cisplatin 50 mg/m 2 on days 1-2, plus antibacterial and granulocyte colony stimulating factor prophylaxis. (nih.gov)
  • This randomized phase II trial studies paclitaxel and carboplatin to see how well they work compared with bleomycin sulfate, etoposide phosphate, and cisplatin in treating patients with sex cord-ovarian stromal tumors that have spread to other places in the body and usually cannot be cured or controlled with treatment (advanced) or has returned (recurrent). (clinicaltrialsgps.com)
  • I. To assess the activity of paclitaxel and carboplatin with respect to progression free survival (using bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin [BEP] as a reference) for newly diagnosed advanced or recurrent chemonaive ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors. (clinicaltrialsgps.com)
  • I. To estimate the toxicity of paclitaxel and carboplatin, and bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin in this patient population. (clinicaltrialsgps.com)
  • Background - Bleomycin is commonly used to treat advanced testicular cancer and can be associated with severe pulmonary toxicity. (ices.on.ca)
  • and to mitigate the excess pulmonary toxicity seen with increasing expos-ure to bleomycin. (ices.on.ca)
  • However, trials from the 1960s revealed its pulmonary toxicity, termed bleomycin-induced pneumonitis (BIP). (alertdiver.eu)
  • Based on this calculation, after bleomycin treatment most clinicians would be reluctant to approve of scuba diving due to the risk of pulmonary toxicity caused by this high FiO2. (alertdiver.eu)
  • After intratracheal instillation of bleomycin, sivelestat was administered intraperitoneally once a day for 7 or 14 days. (ersjournals.com)
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung samples were examined on day 7 or day 14 after bleomycin instillation. (ersjournals.com)
  • IFN-γ mRNA in LC from bleomycin-treated mice peaked 3 days after intratracheal instillation. (tau.ac.il)
  • Some studies suggest bleomycin also inhibits incorporation of thymidine into DNA strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleomycin inhibits the uncontrolled cell division in cancer-causing cells by inhibiting DNA synthesis. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Bleomycin interacts with cancerous cells and binds with the DNA, and inhibits cell synthesis by breaking DNA strands. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Detailed information related to Bleomycin Injection's uses, composition, dosage, side effects and reviews is listed below. (cbdnj.shop)
  • Bleomycin-Sulfate is a type of antibiotic that works by stopping the growth of cancer cells. (rxguide.org)
  • Bleomycin belongs to the group of cancer-fighting medications known as antineoplastics , and specifically to the group of antineoplastics called actinomycins . (pharmachoice.com)
  • Despite being the most effective broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment, Bleomycin has limited uses due to poor drug delivery abilities and toxicity. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Bleomycin is a chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of testicular and lymphomatous cancers. (alertdiver.eu)
  • DNA cleavage by bleomycin depends on oxygen and metal ions, at least in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleomycin's primary mechanism of action is to oxidatively damage DNA by binding to metal ions, including iron, and forming metallic bleomycin complexes. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • It is believed that Bleomycin chelates metal ions to produce a pseudo-enzyme that reacts with the oxygen-producing superoxide and hydroxyl free radicals that cleave DNA. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Hamsters were intratracheally (i.t.) instilled with saline (SA) or bleomycin (BL) (7.5 units/kg/5 ml). (aspetjournals.org)
  • 5. Is Bleomycin an antibiotic? (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Most antibiotic antitumor drugs are cell-cycle nonspecific except Bleomycin which shows significant effects in G2 and M phases. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Bleomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic commonly used for chemical pleurodesis, the treatment of cutaneous warts, and the treatment of a variety of cancers. (manualofmedicine.com)
  • Bleomycin may cause nausea and vomiting, but it is important to keep using this medication even if you feel ill. (pharmachoice.com)
  • When bleomycin is used to treat pleural effusions, it is mixed with liquid and placed in the chest cavity through a chest tube (plastic tube that is placed in the chest cavity through a cut in the skin). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bleomycin-Sulfate is used to treat a variety of cancers, including lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, testicular cancer, and some types of lung cancer. (rxguide.org)
  • Bleomycin administration also resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and greater amounts of alveolar macrophage (AM) superoxide dismutase activity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • At 14 days after intratracheal bleomycin, total bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts and lung hydroxyproline were decreased in IFN-γ knockouts compared with wild-type animals. (tau.ac.il)
  • Discussion: The results from the treatment in this case report are similar to the treatment results from several case reports that use Bleomycin as a sclerotherapy agent to treat vascular malformations. (researchbib.com)
  • The high success and minimal risk of treatment with Bleomycin make it the first choice sclerotherapy agent. (researchbib.com)
  • Any previous treatment with bleomycin should therefore always be disclosed to the anaesthetist prior to undergoing a procedure requiring general anaesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary objective of the present study was to describe the use of pulmonary function tests (pfts) and chest imaging before, during, and after treatment with bleomycin. (ices.on.ca)
  • Bleomycin is approved for use in adults and can be used alone or with other drugs as palliative treatment and management of malignant neoplasms. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Bleomycin is a treatment that doctors use in cancer treatments. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If you've tried over-the-counter remedies without success or are looking for a more targeted approach, bleomycin treatment might be the solution you're seeking. (somalaser.com)
  • The chemotherapeutic drug bleomycin has been used in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars for decades owing to its antitumoral properties and potential reduction in collagen generation [ 4 ]. (springer.com)
  • You need a prescription from your doctor to get Bleomycin-Sulfate, and it is important to talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking this drug before starting treatment. (rxguide.org)
  • BLEOMYCIN Sulfate should be considered a palliative treatment. (theindianpharma.com)
  • Bleomycin sclerosant can be an effective and safe way for nonsurgical treatment options for head and neck vein malformations. (researchbib.com)
  • Bleomycin is also considered safe with minimal risk in the treatment of venous malformations. (researchbib.com)
  • Together the findings suggest that Bleomycin oil suspension may be a useful agent for treatment of lymph nodal metastases by endolymphatic infusion. (arizona.edu)
  • The first part included a general medical history, a specific medical history in relation to cancer and bleomycin treatment, documentation of dives before and (if applicable) after cancer, and extensive pulmonary function tests, including spirometry, residual volume and singlebreath diffusion capacity. (alertdiver.eu)
  • Dexamethasone treatment reduced pulmonary parenchymal cell proliferation in bleomycin exposed rats but did not influence BAL fluid mitogenic activity for lung fibroblasts or alter the BAL fluid levels of the fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor-beta(1), platelet derived growth factor-AB, and thrombin. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Medical treatment of CH consists of the administration of sclerosing agents, such as OK-432 (an inactive strain of group A Streptococcus pyogenes ), bleomycin, pure ethanol, bleomycin, sodium tetradecyl sulfate, and doxycycline. (medscape.com)
  • Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum and Bilateral Pneumothoraces in a Patient with Bleomycin-Induced Pneumonitis. (pneumotox.com)
  • Methods: Rats received Bleomycin (or Saline as control) intratraceally and were longitudinally scanned at baseline, day 3, 7, 14 and 21 and 28 after Bleomycin administration. (lu.se)
  • IFN-γ production is upregulated in lung cells (LC) of bleomycin-treated C57BL/6 mice. (tau.ac.il)
  • IL-12 mRNA levels were increased at 1 day in LC of bleomycin-treated mice. (tau.ac.il)
  • Our data show that enhanced IFN-γ production in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice is at least partly IL-12 and IL-18 dependent. (tau.ac.il)
  • We have comprehensively assessed the sex -based differences and time -of-day response (at Zeitgeber time ZT0/600 a.m. or ZT12/6 p.m.) in lung mechanics among sham (control) versus bleomycin (BLM)-challenged female and male (C57BL/6 WT) mice using Flexi-vent. (bvsalud.org)
  • How Much Does Bleomycin-Sulfate Cost? (rxguide.org)
  • Home / Drug Prices / How Much Does Bleomycin-Sulfate Cost? (rxguide.org)
  • In this article, we will discuss what Bleomycin-Sulfate is, what it is used to treat, whether you need a prescription for it, how it works, what are some common side effects, and what should you not take with it. (rxguide.org)
  • What is Bleomycin-Sulfate? (rxguide.org)
  • What is Bleomycin-Sulfate Used to Treat? (rxguide.org)
  • Do You Need a Prescription for Bleomycin-Sulfate? (rxguide.org)
  • Yes, you need a prescription from your doctor to get Bleomycin-Sulfate. (rxguide.org)
  • How Does Bleomycin-Sulfate Work? (rxguide.org)
  • What are Common Side Effects of Bleomycin-Sulfate? (rxguide.org)
  • It is important to talk to your doctor about any side effects you may experience while taking Bleomycin-Sulfate. (rxguide.org)
  • What Should You Not Take with Bleomycin-Sulfate? (rxguide.org)
  • You should not take any other medications while taking Bleomycin-Sulfate without first talking to your doctor. (rxguide.org)
  • You should also avoid drinking alcohol while taking Bleomycin-Sulfate. (rxguide.org)
  • If you have any questions or concerns about taking Bleomycin-Sulfate, talk to your doctor. (rxguide.org)
  • It (bleomycin sulfate) always should be used with caution in patients with the significant impairment of the renal function or compromised pulmonary function. (theindianpharma.com)
  • 1. What is the best price of BLEOCEL (Bleomycin Sulfate 15 IU)? (theindianpharma.com)
  • Pyrimidoblamic acid, the N-terminal metal ion binding domain of bleomycin is known to be the moiety that is responsible for O2 activation and the subsequent chemistry leading to DNA strand scission and overall antitumor activity. (asu.edu)
  • Bleomycin should not exceed a lifetime cumulative dose greater than 400 units. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction may occur immediately or several hours after the first or second dose of bleomycin is given. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The recommended dose and dosing schedule of bleomycin varies according to the specific disease being treated, the response to therapy, and other drugs or treatments being used. (pharmachoice.com)
  • 5 Bleomycin (Cardinal Health) was diluted with saline, then 2.5 U/kg was injected in grid fashion throughout the tumor, utilizing both an intra- and extra-oral approach with the patient under general anesthesia with buffered MS-222. (vin.com)
  • Bleomycin belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hybrid glycopeptide. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Some doctors might inject bleomycin into the scar to stop the production of collagen at the site of the injury. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Only a few studies have tested the effect of injectable bleomycin on improving the appearance of hypertrophic scars and keloids. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bleomycin is administered via the parenteral route and is most quickly absorbed intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intraperitoneal, or intrapleural. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Bleomycin should be given by intramuscular, subcutaneous, intrapleural or intravenous routes. (theindianpharma.com)
  • Bleomycin reaches peak plasma concentration in 60 minutes, and the terminal half-life of the drug is around 3 hours, which varies based on patients and routes of administration. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • We present here an algorithm, based on best evidence from the literature on oncology, anesthesiology and diving medicine, that can be used to evaluate patients treated with bleomycin who want to resume or start scuba diving. (alertdiver.eu)
  • An alternative hypothesis states that bleomycin may bind at specific sites in the DNA strand and induce scission by abstracting the hydrogen atom from the base, resulting in strand cleavage as the base undergoes a Criegee-type rearrangement, or forms an alkali-labile lesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleomycin is a medication used to treat cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do not use this medication if you are allergic to bleomycin or any ingredients of the medication. (pharmachoice.com)
  • By contrast, after aqueous Bleomycin infusion, only 0.05% was detected in these lymph nodes after only six hours. (arizona.edu)
  • Therefore, bleomycin is used in combination with doxorubicin in Hodgkins lymphoma, as they have additive and complementary effects on the DNA, since doxorubicin acts by intercalating between DNA strands, and also acts on topoisomerase II enzyme thus relaxing the topoisomerase complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleomycin is also used to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (cancer that begins in the cells of the immune system) in combination with other medications. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some researchers have found that bleomycin may also reduce redness, itchiness, and pain associated with these scars. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bleomycin causes the death of cancer cells by interfering with their growth and reproduction. (pharmachoice.com)
  • As well as interfering with the genetic material (DNA) of cancer cells, bleomycin can interfere with some of your normal cells. (pharmachoice.com)
  • We have used the algorithm to examine the fitness of 16 sport divers (14 males, 2 females) treated with bleomycin for either testicular germ cell cancer or Hodgkin disease. (alertdiver.eu)
  • The disaccharide moiety of bleomycin has been previously shown to be a specific tumor cell targeting element comprised of L-gulose-D-mannose, especially between MCF-7 (breast cancer cells) and MCF-10A ("normal" breast cells). (asu.edu)
  • RÉSUMÉ Afin d'atteindre les objectifs de santé fixés par le pays pour 2011-2016, une analyse qualitative de l'exposition aux facteurs de risque de cancer au Qatar a été conduite en 2013. (who.int)
  • Les risques de cancer les plus élevés pour les Qatariens proviendraient de facteurs associés aux modes de vie, en particulier l'obésité, la sédentarité et le tabagisme. (who.int)
  • la prise en charge du cancer col métastatique s'est enrichie depuis 2017 par la disponibilité des thérapies ciblées dans notre pays. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cette étude avait pour objectifs de déterminer les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques des patientes prises en charge pour cancer du col métastatique dans notre structure. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fatal pneumothorax following bleomycin and other cytotoxic drugs. (pneumotox.com)
  • Bleomycin can be injected into a vein, into a muscle, under the skin, or into the pleura (lining around the lungs). (pharmachoice.com)
  • Bleomycin induced plasma leakage in the lungs, showing significantly increased immune cells as well as proteins found in the lung lumen (assessed in BALF). (lu.se)
  • Bleomycin is also sometimes used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bleomycin is therapeutically used to treat malignant neoplasms such as sarcomas, lymphomas, melanomas, and germinal cell cancers. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Bleomycin is known to have a sclerosing effect on endothelial cells, so it can be used to treat vascular malformations. (researchbib.com)
  • The reduced concentration of bleomycin hydrolase in the skin and lung, as compared with other tissues, may explain the medication's adverse reaction profile. (manualofmedicine.com)
  • Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, it is recommended that nursing be discontinued by women receiving bleomycin therapy. (medscape.com)