Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Pregnancy, Tubal: The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Pregnancy, Prolonged: A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Pregnancy, Abdominal: A type of ectopic pregnancy in which the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN implants in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY instead of in the ENDOMETRIUM of the UTERUS.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Pregnancy Maintenance: Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal: Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.Chorionic Villi: The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Abortion, Therapeutic: Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pregnancy Reduction, Multifetal: Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Crown-Rump Length: In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Misoprostol: A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Abortion, Missed: The retention in the UTERUS of a dead FETUS two months or more after its DEATH.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Abortion, Threatened: UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Chorionic Villi Sampling: A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A: A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Intractable VOMITING that develops in early PREGNANCY and persists. This can lead to DEHYDRATION and WEIGHT LOSS.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Pregnancy Tests, Immunologic: Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Abortifacient Agents, Steroidal: Steroidal compounds with abortifacient activity.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Dilatation and Curettage: Dilatation of the cervix uteri followed by a scraping of the endometrium with a curette.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Nuchal Translucency Measurement: A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Morning Sickness: Symptoms of NAUSEA and VOMITING in pregnant women that usually occur in the morning during the first 2 to 3 months of PREGNANCY. Severe persistent vomiting during pregnancy is called HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM.HELLP Syndrome: A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Abortion, Eugenic: Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.Eclampsia: Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Oligohydramnios: A condition of abnormally low AMNIOTIC FLUID volume. Principal causes include malformations of fetal URINARY TRACT; FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION; nicotine poisoning; and PROLONGED PREGNANCY.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Fetal Resorption: The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Abruptio Placentae: Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.Uterine Rupture: A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Labor Onset: The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Placenta Accreta: Abnormal placentation in which all or parts of the PLACENTA are attached directly to the MYOMETRIUM due to a complete or partial absence of DECIDUA. It is associated with POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE because of the failure of placental separation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.

*Mifepristone

Excessive bleeding and incomplete termination of a pregnancy require further intervention by a doctor (such as vacuum ... It is also effective in the second trimester of pregnancy. Effectiveness should be verified two weeks after use. It is taken by ... Serious side effects may include heavy vaginal bleeding, bacterial infection, and a malformed baby if the pregnancy does not ... and vaginal bleeding or spotting for an average of 9-16 days. Up to 8% of women experienced some type of bleeding for 30 days ...

*Gestational age

Also, vaginal bleeding occurs during 15-25% of first trimester pregnancies, and may be mistaken as menstruation, potentially ... Snell, BJ (Nov-Dec 2009). "Assessment and management of bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy". Journal of midwifery & ... The initiation of pregnancy for the calculation of gestational age can be different from definitions of initiation of pregnancy ... a full-term human pregnancy is considered to be 40 weeks (280 days), though pregnancy lengths between 38 and 42 weeks are ...

*Congenital hypofibrinogenemia

0.5 to 1 gram/liter during the first two trimesters of pregnancy; and d) >0.5 gram/liter prior to minor surgery. Tranexamic ... During bleeding episodes, treatment with fibrinogen concentrates or, if unavailable infusion of fresh frozen plasma and/or ... 1 to 2 gram/liter at the end of pregnancy and during the postpartum period; b) > 1 gram/liter prior to major surgery; c) > ... 1.0 gram/liter typically do not develop bleeding or thrombosis episodes. Individuals with fibrinogen levels of 0.5-1.0 grams/ ...

*Carboprost

... is also used for the termination of pregnancy in the 2nd trimester. Unlabeled use: Hemorrhagic Cystitis PID ... Carboprost induces contractions and can trigger abortion in early pregnancy. It also reduces postpartum bleeding. Used in ... Vukelić J (2001). "Second trimester pregnancy termination in primigravidas by double application of dinoprostone gel and ...

*Uterine incarceration

It has been estimated that about 15% of pregnancies begin in a retroverted uterus. Normally, during the first trimester, the ... An unresolved incarcerated uterus can lead to further pain, vaginal bleeding, loss of pregnancy or premature delivery. Also, ... The frequency of this complication has been estimated to be about 1 in 3,000 pregnancies. In a pregnant woman who is entering ... Thus, the presence of an early pregnancy in a retroverted uterus is not considered a problem. On rare occasions the uterus ...

*Miscarriage

Bleeding can be a symptom of miscarriage, but many women also have bleeding in early pregnancy and don't miscarry. Bleeding ... About 80% of miscarriages occur in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy (the first trimester). The underlying cause in about half of ... Additionally, those with bleeding in early pregnancy may seek medical care more often than those not experiencing bleeding. ... It is identified after a premature birth has occurred at about 16-18 weeks into the pregnancy. During the second trimester, ...

*Atosiban

... and second-trimester bleeding was more prevalent in ART than in spontaneous pregnancies. From 2004 to 2010, 33 first-trimester ... or in the first trimester. Recent reports supports the use of atosiban, even at very early pregnancy, to decrease the frequency ... pregnancies with vaginal bleeding after ART with evident uterine contractions, author used atosiban and/or ritodrine, and there ... Lan, VT; Khang, VN; Nhu, GH; Tuong, HM (Sep 2012). "Atosiban improves implantation and pregnancy rates in patients with ...

*Autism spectrum

... bleeding after first trimester, use of prescription medication (e.g. valproate) during pregnancy, and meconium in the amniotic ... Advanced parental age, exposure to valproate during pregnancy, low birth weight[2]. ... complications during pregnancy may be a risk.[53] ...

*Placenta praevia

Symptoms include vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy. The bleeding is bright red and tends not to be associated ... This commonly occurs around 32 weeks of gestation, but can be as early as late mid-trimester. 51.6% of women with placenta ... For those after 36 weeks of pregnancy or with a significant amount of bleeding, cesarean section is generally recommended. In ... Smoking during pregnancy; cocaine use during pregnancy Women with a large placentae from twins or erythroblastosis are at ...

*Chorionic hematoma

Clinical Significance of Subchorionic and Retroplacental Hematomas Detected in the First Trimester of Pregnancy [1]. Obstetrics ... it is the most common sonographic abnormality and the most common cause of first trimester bleeding. Chorionic hematomas can be ... "First-Trimester Intrauterine Hematoma and Outcome of Pregnancy". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 105 (2): 339. doi:10.1097/01.AOG. ... with instructions for bed rest for the duration of bleeding had a lower rate of miscarriage and a higher rate of term pregnancy ...

*Fetal circulation

In cases of early pregnancy bleeding, the detection of cardiac activity is the main finding that distinguishes a viable ... pregnancy from a silent miscarriage. In the first trimester, heartbeat can be visualized and the heart rate quantified by ... A study of 32 normal pregnancies came to the result a fetal heartbeat was visible at a mean human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ... In later stages of pregnancy, a simple Doppler fetal monitor can quantify the fetal heart rate. During childbirth, the ...

*Epulis

There is usually pregnancy gingivitis also. Pregnancy epulis commonly occurs during the third trimester of pregnancy. This ... It is more common in younger people and in females, and appears as a red-purple swelling and bleeds easily. Also termed a " ... ISBN 978-1-4377-0416-7. Rabinerson, D; Kaplan, B; Dicker, D; Dekel, A (September 2002). "[Epulis during pregnancy]". Harefuah. ... "pregnancy tumor" or "granuloma gravidarum", this lesion is identical to a pyogenic granuloma in all respects apart from the ...

*Thecoma

October 2004). "Ovarian thecoma associated in the first trimester of pregnancy". J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res. 30 (5): 368-71. doi: ... of patients present with abnormal uterine bleeding, and 20% have endometrial carcinoma. Grossly, the tumour is solid and yellow ...

*HELLP syndrome

... bleeding, and rupture. HELLP usually begins during the third trimester; rare cases have been reported as early as 21 weeks ... However, how many pregnancies complicated by AFLP or HELLP result in infants with LCHAD deficiency is not known. HELLP syndrome ... Its incidence is reported as 0.5-0.9% of all pregnancies, and 10-20% of women with severe pre-eclampsia. HELLP usually occurs ... HELLP syndrome is a life-threatening pregnancy complication usually considered to be a variant or complication of pre-eclampsia ...

*Vaginal bleeding

... occurs during 15-25% of first trimester pregnancies. Of these, half go on to miscarry and half bring the fetus ... Snell, BJ (Nov-Dec 2009). "Assessment and management of bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy". Journal of midwifery & ... Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy may indicate a possible pregnancy complication that needs to be medically addressed. ... Vaginal bleeding is any bleeding through the vagina, including bleeding from the vaginal wall itself, as well as (and more ...

*Ectopic pregnancy

... have an ectopic pregnancy.[4] In cases of pregnancy of unknown location and a history of heavy bleeding, it has been estimated ... Ectopic pregnancy is responsible for 6% of maternal deaths during the first trimester of pregnancy making it the leading cause ... Pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) is the term used for a pregnancy where there is a positive pregnancy test but no pregnancy ... The true nature of the pregnancy can be an ongoing viable intrauterine pregnancy, a failed pregnancy, an ectopic pregnancy or ...

*Selective reduction

The reduction procedure is generally carried out during the first trimester of pregnancy. The procedure often takes two days; ... Risks of the procedure include bleeding requiring transfusion, rupture of the uterus, retained placenta, infection, a ... "Selective first-trimester termination in octuplet and quadruplet pregnancies: clinical and ethical issues". Obstetrics and ... "Differences between selective termination of pregnancy and fetal reduction in multiple pregnancy: A narrative review". ...

*Complications of pregnancy

Caused by: Pregnancy-induced hypercoagulability as a physiological response in preparation for the potential bleeding during ... Levels of hemoglobin are lower in the third trimesters. According to the United Nations (UN) estimates, approximately half of ... Exposure to environmental toxins in pregnancy. *Exposure to recreational drugs in pregnancy *Ethanol during pregnancy can cause ... SLE in pregnancy or thyroid disease in pregnancy.. *Risks arising from previous pregnancies *Complications experienced during a ...

*Migraine treatment

In pregnancy acetaminophen and metoclopramide are deemed safe as are NSAIDs until the third trimester. In recommended doses, ... Use of aspirin during dengue fever is not recommended owing to increased bleeding tendency. People with kidney disease, ... Until 2010 paracetamol was believed safe in pregnancy (as it does not affect the closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus as ... Rudolph AM (1981). "Effects of aspirin and acetaminophen in pregnancy and in the newborn". Arch. Intern. Med. 141 (3 Spec No): ...

*Laura W. Bush Institute for Women's Health

First Trimester Pregnancy Loss According to the JWWC, many women lose pregnancies during the first 12 weeks and often ... experience bleeding, pain, fear and feelings of stress. The JWWC operates with the goal of preventing a repeat pregnancy loss ...

*Arcuate uterus

... thus normal pregnancies occur. Indeed, there is no consensus on the relationship of the arcuate uterus and recurrent pregnancy ... Woelfer found that the miscarriage risk is more pronounced in the second trimester. In contrast, a study utilizing 3-D ... Thus a study that evaluated women with uterine bleeding by hysteroscopy found that 6.5% of subjects displayed the arcuate ... In patients with recurrent pregnancy loss thought to be caused by an arcuate uterus hysteroscopic resection can be performed. ...

*Signs and symptoms of pregnancy

Although excessive bleeding in the first trimester can also be associated with miscarriage. ... Bleeding[edit]. It is common to have bleeding in early pregnancy, this is associated with implantation bleeding and can be ... however it is much more likely to occur during the second trimester or third trimester of pregnancy. However, separation also ... Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy. References[edit]. *^ "Early pregnancy symptoms: Morning sickness, fatigue and ...

*Cervical pregnancy

... a more advanced pregnancy may require a hysterectomy to control bleeding. The more advanced the pregnancy the higher the risk ... Such a pregnancy typically aborts within the first trimester, however, if it is implanted closer to the uterine cavity - a so- ... A cervical pregnancy can develop together with a normal intrauterine pregnancy; such a heterotopic pregnancy will call for ... A typical non-specific symptom is vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. Ultrasound will show the location of the gestational sac ...

*Acemetacin

... and during the third trimester of pregnancy. Common side effects (in about 1-10% of patients) include gastrointestinal problems ... increased risk of bleeding increased blood plasma concentrations of digoxin and methotrexate decreased plasma concentrations of ... gastrointestinal or cerebral bleeding, peptic ulcer, haematopoietic disorders (anaemia, leukopenia), ... especially peptic ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding diuretics, ACE inhibitors and other antihypertensive drugs: reduced ...

*Hexoprenaline

... vaginal bleeding and inflammatory diseases of internal genitalia (such as endometritis) Shock First trimester of pregnancy ...
Background: Thyroid function test results of healthy pregnant women differ from those of healthy non-pregnant women. This study aimed to determine trimester-specific reference ranges for total tetraiodothyronin (T4), free T4, total triiodothyronin (T3) and thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH) using electrochemiluminescence techniques from apparently healthy pregnant women in Basrah. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted between January 2014 and June 2015. The total enrolled pregnant women were 893. Clinical examination, estimation of free T4, total T4, total T3, TSH, and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) using electrochemiluminescence technique done for each. Results: Trimester specific normal range of TSH in μIU/mL was 0.04-3.77, 0.30-3.21 and 0.60-4.50 μIU/mL respectively, for each trimester. For FreeT4, the trimester specific reference range was 0.8-1.53, 0.7-1.20 and 0.7-1.20 ng/dL for each trimester, ...
Studies to examine the associations of gestational weight gain (GWG) with offspring weight status during infancy are needed, especially among Asian populations. We examined 801 motherâ »infant pairs from a prospective cohort study in China to assess the associations of total and trimester-specific GWG with early infant weight status. We used linear mixed effects models and linear regression models to examine the longitudinal and time-point associations of GWG rate (kg/week) with infant growth measures (z-scores of body-mass-index (BMIZ), weight-for-age (WFAZ) and length-for-age (LFAZ)) at birth, 1, 3, and 6 months. Greater total GWG rate was associated with higher BMIZ (ß:1.34 SD units (95% CI: 0.84, 1.83) per 1 kg/week increase in GWG) and higher WFAZ (ß:1.18 SD units (95% CI: 1.01, 2.28)) across the first 6 months of life. GWG rate in the first two trimesters but not in the third trimester was positively associated with infant BMIZ. The association between ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The association of exercise during pregnancy with trimester-specific and postpartum quality of life and depressive symptoms in a cohort of healthy pregnant women. AU - Campolong, Kelsey. AU - Jenkins, Sarah. AU - Clark, Matthew M. AU - Borowski, Kristi. AU - Nelson, Nancy. AU - Moore, Katherine M.. AU - Bobo, William V. PY - 2017/10/24. Y1 - 2017/10/24. N2 - Few published studies have examined the relationship between exercise during pregnancy, quality of life (QOL), and postpartum depressive symptoms in healthy pregnant women. A prospective cohort of 578 healthy pregnant women were followed during their pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. Levels of self-reported exercise and QOL before, during, and following pregnancy were assessed using standardized questionnaires during each trimester of ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma levels of the immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin-10 during normal human pregnancy: a longitudinal study. AU - Holmes, VA. AU - Wallace, Julie. AU - Gilmore, WS. AU - McFaul, P. AU - Alexander, HD. PY - 2003/3. Y1 - 2003/3. N2 - Pregnancy is proposed to be a Th2 phenomenon, where Th2 cytokines inhibit Th1 responses to improve foetal Survival. The importance of interleukin-10 (IL-10), an immunomodulatory cytokine produced by Th2 cells, in the maintenance of normal pregnancy is becoming increasingly apparent. In a longitudinal case-control study, the physiological effect of pregnancy on plasma IL-10 was investigated. The plasma concentration of IL-10 was determined using an ELISA technique in 99 pregnant women sampled at 12. 20 and 35 weeks of gestation, 38 non-pregnant control subjects sampled in parallel and in a subgroup of women sampled at 3 days ...
OBJECTIVE: To compare epidemiological and obstetric characteristics, etiology and next pregnancy outcomes of women with primary vs. secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study, including 420 patients with two or more consecutive pregnancy losses followed by a subsequent (index) pregnancy, of whom 162 were primary RPL women and 258 were secondary RPL women. All patients were evaluated and treated in the RPL clinic at the Soroka University Medical Center. RESULTS: Live birth rate in the index pregnancy was not statistically different between primary and secondary RPL women (75.9 and 70.9%, respectively). The only significant difference in the etiology evaluation was in abnormal prolactin levels (14.1% of the primary and 1.4% of the secondary RPL group). Women with primary RPL had, at the index ...
Introduction A number of studies have demonstrated significant associations between changes in obesity-related phenotypes and subsequent risk of CHD. While accumulating evidence suggests that maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (mppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) may impact adult offspring adiposity, no study has examined their associations with longitudinal changes in obesity. Changes in obesity are likely to reflect genetic-environmental interactions and may have important implications for understanding CHD risk.. Objectives We examined the associations of mppBMI and GWG with longitudinal change in offsprings BMI and assessed whether these associations are explained in part by genetic effects.. Methods We used a birth cohort of 1400 young adults born in Jerusalem, with extensive archival data as well as clinical information at age 32, and longitudinal change in BMI based on two examinations at ages 17 and 32. Genotyping of mothers and offspring was carried out ...
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HealthyPregnancyDietPlan.com pregnancy diet plan, pregnancy week by week, pregnancy, pregnancy symptoms,signs of pregnancy, pregnancy calendar, early signs of pregnancy, symptoms of pregnancy, early pregnancy symptoms, pregnancy signs, teenage pregnancy, week by week pregnancy, online pregnancy test, pregnancy stages, pregnancy diet. You are here: Home / Pregnancy Diet / Pregnancy Diet Books. Program Your ...
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The fetal how long is the pregnancy period, of course, is the precise age of the being pregnant. The risk was highest at the earliest gestational ages and likewise on the highest levels of obesity. You may choose between disposable pads, washable pads, tampons, sponges or menstrual cups. Chrissy Teigen exhibits off her cute child bump whereas arriving at No Identify membership with hubby John How long is the pregnancy period on Saturday night how long is the pregnancy period 26) in Los Pregnanxy. When you get a negative outcome and you continue to dont get your period, it simply might simply be too early for the check 10 week pregnancy ultrasound picture detect. So the extra relaxed youre, the better. There are just a few lojg why you should be working to strengthen this muscle group, and bladder management is one in every of them. Why it occurs?: There is no scientific ...
Outline: TFT in pregnancy What is the normal range for TSH in pregnancy? Trimester-specific reference ranges ATA Guidelines for: Normal TSH in pregnancy Who should be screened?
If a woman suffers from autoimmune disease (AD), several factors can affect pregnancy or neonatal outcome: repeated spontaneous pregnancy losses (frequently related to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)), neonatal lupus with complete congenital heart block (CHB) (linked to transplacental passage of IgG anti Ro/SS-A antibodies) and the disease activity itself that can affect the mother, the pregnancy and fetal outcome. If appropriately managed, the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is bone of the few tractable causes of pregnancy losses.Q A recent case control study, on babies from APS-mothers and healthy mothers, did not show any difference in the occurrence of neonatal complications. There are few data about the longterm outcome of babies born to patients with AD. We recently reported increased occurrence of learning disabilities in children born to aPL positive mothers with ...
non viable pregnancy - MedHelps non viable pregnancy Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for non viable pregnancy. Find non viable pregnancy information, treatments for non viable pregnancy and non viable pregnancy symptoms.
The classical concept that pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and pre-eclampsia (PE) primarily originate from defective placentation in early pregnancy has been challenged recently. There is growing evidence that other factors, including maternal predisposing conditions, also play a significant role in the pathophysiology of PIH and PE. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that PIH and PE with an early onset and poor pregnancy outcome is associated with defective placentation, e.g. inadequate spiral artery dilatation and subsequent reduced uteroplacental perfusion, whereas PIH and PE with normal pregnancy outcome is not. Using Doppler ultrasound, we measured the uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) in a population of 531 nulliparous women in the 22nd week of gestation. Uterine artery PI was used as an index of resistance to blood flow in the ...
Pregnancy weight gain. Some of us gain too little. Some of us gain too much. But we often fail to recognize just how much weight were going to gain in that last trimester. And interventions used in the last trimester may be futile at managing excessive or too little weight gain. Thankfully, it seems that researchers have determined a possible resolution to the pregnancy weight gain dilemma.. Gaining too much weight can increase the mothers risk for both hypertension and diabetes. These conditions can put the baby at risk for long-term health problems, like childhood obesity, and possibly even necessitating an early delivery because of pregnancy complications. Gaining too little weight can lead to complications like pre-term birth and smaller-than-gestational-age infants.. Essentially, the recommended weight gain guidelines are based on body weight before ...
The quality of the intrauterine environment influences maternal-fetal health and also offspring predisposition to obesity and cardiometabolic disease later in life. Several determinants, including but not limited to pregravid obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, alter the developmental milieu, fetal growth, and child obesity risk. However, the role of sleep and its relationship to healthy pregnancy is not fully established. Given the host of psychosocial and physiological complications associated with childhood obesity, targeting the gestational period is purported to be an opportune time for preventive intervention. Many longitudinal studies suggest that short sleep duration is a risk factor for the development of impaired glycemia and obesity. However, there is a dearth of information concerning the role of sleep hygiene and its role in a healthy pregnancy. Reports note disrupted and poorer quality of sleep during gestation and ...
Im 37, and TTC for more than 1 yr. My ultrasound this week confirmed that I was carrying a single appropriately-sized embryo - acceptable for a 5-week-old pregnancy, that means the child itself was about three weeks outdated. Abdominal strengtheners. Independently, scientists in several laboratories throughout Europe described the presence of a substance that promotes sex and pregnancy 3rd trimester positions growth and development in rabbits and mice. four-15. It is a maternity product that each mom-to-be postions have. Youll be able to even see your baby sucking his sex and pregnancy 3rd trimester positions her thumb at this stage. Your clear thought in regards to the symptoms will show you how to distinguish a pregnancy symptom from a standard well being dysfunction. Lots of the physique sex and pregnancy ...
Objective To investigate the association between weekly weight gain, during the second and third trimesters, classified according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM/NRC) recommendations, and maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods Gestational weight gain was evaluated in 2,244 pregnant women of the Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes (Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional - EBDG). Outcomes were cesarean delivery, preterm birth and small or large for gestational age birth (SGA, LGA). Associations between inadequate weight gain and outcomes were estimated using robust Poisson regression adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, trimester-specific weight gain, age, height, skin color, parity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Results In fully adjusted models, in the second trimester, insufficient weight gain ...
Air pollution exposure during pregnancy might have trimester-specific effects on fetal growth. We prospectively evaluated the associations of maternal air pollution exposure with fetal growth characteristics and adverse birth outcomes in 7,772
By simply choosing the "proper" meals, a excessive protein weight reduction plan might be maintained with minimal effect best diet 1st trimester pregnancy fat consumption. Stretching attributable to being pregnant or quick weight discount after weight-discount plan or gastric bypass surgical course of additionally destroys collagen and elastin within the dermis and results in sagging and lack of tone. There was a time when most of the people within the United States had been truly fairly fit. Typically theyre often known as sport drinks. Cholesterol-elevating trans fats is one other difficulty to consider. Every can of black beans costs about forty eight cents and incorporates 25 grams of fiber and 25 grams of protein. Youll uncover fairly a couple of weight-reduction plan capsules contained in the market that declare to get miracle treatment. Plenty of them will bear some very harmful strategies; nonetheless, there best diet 1st trimester ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure during pregnancy might have trimester-specific effects on fetal growth. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated the associations of maternal air pollution exposure with fetal growth characteristics and adverse birth outcomes in 7,772 subjects in the Netherlands. METHODS: Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter | 10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels…
Zika virus is transitioning to become a long-term public health challenge, and countries should remain informed of the risk for emergence. We developed a stochastic epidemiologic model to profile risk for Zika virus emergence, including trimester-specific fetal risk across time, in all 3,208 counties in the United States, including Puerto Rico. Validation against known transmission in North America demonstrated accuracy to predict epidemic dynamics and absolute case counts across scales (R2 = 0.98). We found that, although sporadic single transmission events could occur in most US counties, outbreaks will likely be restricted to the Gulf Coast region and to late spring through autumn. Seasonal fluctuations in birth rates will confer natural population-level protection against early-trimester infections. Overall, outbreak control will be more effective and efficient than prevention, and vaccination will be most effective at >70% coverage. Our county-level ...
The environmental exposures diverse extensively across studies (Figure three ). So theres really rather a lot to find out about what foods to eat whereas pregnant, especially throughout these subsequent three months. For many couples whore trying to have a baby, this generally is a curler coaster ride of feelings. She and Maura will equip you with all the data and assets you want. Salmonella could cause nausea, vomiting, belly cramps, diarrhoea, fever and exercises to ease pelvic pain in pregnancy Alternatively, in case you are not gaining enough weight, you can add in 50-100 calories per day. I am 1st trimester pregnancy symptoms twins concerned. You already know we mentioned you might suddenly sprout spots in early being pregnant. There are even videos for aqua pregnancy fitness aerobics. This blog is such an important discovery. Search for indicators of backaches. One other first sign of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pregnant womens third trimester exercise behaviors, body mass index, and pregnancy outcomes. AU - Downs, Danielle Symons. AU - Hausenblas, Heather A.. PY - 2007/7/1. Y1 - 2007/7/1. N2 - Pregnancy and postpartum are determinants of sedentary and low active lifestyles. Before effective physical activity interventions are implemented within this population, it is necessary to prospectively examine, during each trimester, their exercise determinants and behaviors within a theoretical framework. The purposes of this study were to: (a) prospectively examine womens third trimester exercise intention and behavior using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and (b) examine group differences across the TPB constructs, body mass index (BMI), and birth outcomes for women exercising and not exercising during their third trimester. Participants were 62 pregnant women who ...
Indications/Goals: 1 st Trimester OB Ultrasound Geoffrey E. Hayden, MD Director of Emergency Ultrasonography Vanderbilt Emergency Medicine Primary objective is to identify an intrauterine pregnancy Secondary
second trimester - MedHelps second trimester Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for second trimester. Find second trimester information, treatments for second trimester and second trimester symptoms.
3rd Trimester: Fitness and Pregnancy. I truly believe that being fit and being able to stay fit during my pregnancy has made all the difference for me.
Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) poses negative impact on mothers and their children. It is important to understand the modifiable lifestyle factors associated with excessive GWG during pregnancy to guide future public health practice. To investigate the association between physical activity during pregnancy and GWG of Chinese urban pregnant women. A pregnant women cohort was established between 2005 and 2007 in Changzhou, China. Physical activity levels of pregnant women were assessed using pedometer in the 2nd and 3rd trimester, respectively. According to step counts, pregnant women were categorized into 4 different physical activity groups: Sedentary, Low Active, Somewhat Active and Active. The pregnant women were followed for eligibility and data collection from the 2nd trimester to delivery. Multiple linear regression and multiple binary logistic model were applied to determine the association ...
Goals To determine whether antiretroviral (ARV) medicines could be detected in meconium from 2nd or 3rd trimester labor and delivery (L&D) or postnatal exposures. happened between gestational weeks 25-28 in the positive examples. Times without lopinavir or tenofovir before delivery correlated with decreasing concentrations of tenofovir and lamivudine in meconium significantly. Concentrations considerably correlated with raising gestational age group among newborns with constant 2nd and 3rd trimester publicity. Zidovudine provided during L&D or for neonatal prophylaxis was discovered in 95.1% and 94.6% of meconium examples respectively. Conclusions Adjustments in ARV remedies during pregnancy provided a distinctive possibility to investigate ARV recognition in meconium. ARVs in meconium mainly reveal 3rd trimester ARV exposures although 6 of 107 2nd trimester just exposures were discovered. Zidovudine ...
In the 2nd trimester your body needs loads of energy and nutrients to help your baby grow. Follow our nutritional tips to keep you and your baby healthy.
So, now that Ive crossed over into my third trimester, I thought it would be a good time to review the second. In particular, how I managed my health naturopathically. Id love to hear about your second trimester experiences too.. __________. Happily, most of the symptoms I experienced during the early stages of pregnancy (nausea, fatigue, sluggish digestion) did not travel with me into the second trimester. Instead, as the weeks rolled by, I started to feel like myself again… but even better… the magic of hormones! Im sure I annoyed a lot of people by regularly commenting on how amazing I was feeling and how awesome pregnancy is*. Hey, cut me some slack… Id been feeling pretty rotten up until that point! I told our midwife how excellent I felt and she smiled, saying that she would like to bottle that second trimester vibe.. For most women, the second ...
This program is great for expecting Moms who want to ensure they stay fit and healthy during their 2nd Trimester of pregnancy. Each program is aimed at helping
:confused: I am in my first year Nursing career and loving it. I work in a High Risk Ante/Postnatal unit. Part of our patient population is caring for women/families undergoing 2nd trimester
Im currently pregnant(about 6wks) and I have some questions about 2nd trimester terminations. My daughter died in September at 3mo old due to a rare...
Association of intake of trans fatty acids in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy with risk of preeclampsia was studied by following 67 186 pregnancies of women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1998 and 2003. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire at gestation wk 25; preeclampsia diagnosis was obtained by linkage with the Danish National Patient Registry. 1804 cases of preeclampsia and 402 cases of severe preeclampsia were identified in the cohort. Intake of trans fats decreased during the study period as a consequence of reduction in industrial trans fat intake. Intake of trans fats in the 2nd trimester was unrelated to risk of preeclampsia or severe preeclampsia. Relative risk (95% confidence interval; P, trend) of preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia comparing top to bottom quintiles of trans fat intake were 0.95 (0.81; 1.11, 0.33) and 1.07 (0.78; 1.48, 0.92), respectively. It is concluded that 2nd ...
O Machine Pineapple Core (1) 10 Weeks (20) 100 Followers Giveaway Celebration (12) 10dpo (3) 11 Weeks (15) 11dpo (1) 11w6d (1) 12 Weeks (20) 12dpo (2) 12w2d (1) 13 Weeks (11) 13w1d (2) 14 Weeks (14) 15 Weeks (12) 16 DPO (1) 16 Weeks (13) 17 Weeks (15) 18 Weeks (10) 19 Weeks (14) 1st Cycle TTC (19) 1st Trimester (33) 20 Weeks (14) 21 Weeks (8) 22 Weeks (6) 23 Weeks (11) 24 Weeks (11) 25 Weeks (10) 26 weeks (8) 27 Weeks (10) 28 Weeks (10) 29 Weeks (8) 2dp5dt (1) 2nd Trimester (55) 2WW (111) 3 Weeks 1 Day (1) 30 Weeks (10) 31 Weeks (8) 32 Weeks (8) 33 Weeks (12) 34 Weeks (6) 34w5d (1) 35 Weeks (9) 35 Weeks 2 days (1) 35/35 (4) 36 Weeks (8) 37 Weeks (9) 38 Weeks (4) 39 Weeks (2) 3DPO (1) 3dt v 5dt (1) 3rd Trimester (43) 3TC (1) 4 weeks pg (19) 40 Weeks (3) 4w4d (1) 4w6d (1) 5 weeks (14) 5DT (3) 5w2d (1) 6 weeks (19) 6 weeks 1 day (2) 6w2d (2) 6w5d (1) 7 weeks (17) 7DPO (2) 8 DPO (1) 8 weeks (19) 8w2d (2) 9 Weeks (13) 9DPO (3) 9w1d (1) 9w3d (1) Abnormal Pap (1) ...
dont enjoy.. The interminable, miserable first trimester is officially over. Can I get a WOOT WOOT!!?? It would be awesome if this meant all accompanying misery was magically over too. Im hoping that the worst is behind me though. I have had some good (relatively great) days recently. Generally they are followed by a couple of really rough, lie in bed flat on my back all day rising only to puke, days. Possibly because I overdo it on the good day-its hard not to. I am very behind on my life! The fact that I am blogging is a great sign I think.. Blogging has been as you may have noticed…not happening. One would think that since all I can do is lie around all day blogging would be on fire, however that would mean being productive in some way and I am allergic to productiveness in the first trimester. Im not kidding. I can update facebook just fine most days. I can make inane little comments. Because that is not productive. But doing something remotely productive or creative is ...
To investigate if fetuses with first trimester growth restriction have poorer perfusion of the placenta compared to a control group, and to investigate whether first trimester growth restriction in combination with poor flow in the uterine arteries in the second trimester can be used to predict poor outcome ...
Ladies Web World-Stages of pregnancy,First Trimester,Second Trimester,Weeks,determining gender,babys heartbeat,kicks,gynecological and obstetrical history,Rh factor,Third Trimester,Braxton-Hicks contractions,false labor contractions,urine test,albumin,preeclampsia,fetus,uterus,heart beat
You should now begin pelvic toning (Kegel exercises) and relaxation exercises daily. Diet During the first trimester, you need to consume an extra 300 calories each day. Heavy vaginal bleeding with cramps or pain in the center or one-side of your. During your second trimester of pregnancy, you will feel better and your.
Background: Medical and surgical methods are available for abortions in both the first and second trimester. Aim: To review the evidence base and current recommendations for available methods of abortions in first and second trimesters. Methods: Extensive literature search and review of available guidelines were done. Results: In the first trimester, medical methods are recommended below 7 weeks gestation while vacuum aspiration is an appropriate method between 7 to 12 weeks gestation. In the second trimester, the three methods of abortion available are dilatation and evacuation, intrauterine instillation of abortifacients and administration of systemic abortifacients. Conclusion: The choice of techniques depends on many factors including uterine volume, operator experience, patient preference, medical history and indication for abortion.
The third trimester marks the home stretch, as the mother-to-be prepares for the delivery of her baby. The fetus is continuing to grow in weight and size and the body systems finish maturing. The mother may feel more uncomfortable now as she continues to gain weight and begins to have false labor contractions (called Braxton-Hicks contractions).. During the third trimester, it is a good idea to start taking childbirth classes in preparation for the big day - especially in the case of first pregnancies. If you plan to breastfeed, taking a breastfeeding class may be helpful.. During the third trimester, both the mothers body and fetus continue to grow and change.. ...
The third trimester marks the home stretch, as the mother-to-be prepares for the delivery of her baby. The fetus is continuing to grow in weight and size and the body systems finish maturing. The mother may feel more uncomfortable now as she continues to gain weight and begins to have false labor contractions (called Braxton-Hicks contractions).. During the third trimester, it is a good idea to start taking childbirth classes in preparation for the big day - especially in the case of first pregnancies. If you plan to breastfeed, taking a breastfeeding class may be helpful.. During the third trimester, both the mothers body and fetus continue to grow and change.. ...
First Trimester. During the first trimester your body undergoes many changes. Hormonal changes affect almost every organ system in your body. These changes can trigger symptoms even in the very first weeks of pregnancy. Your period stopping is a clear sign that you are pregnant. Other changes may include extreme tiredness, Tender, upset stomach with or without throwing up, constipation, need to pass urine more often, head ache, heart burn, weight gain or weight loss.. Second Trimester. Most women find the second trimester of pregnancy easier than the first. But it is just as important to stay informed about your pregnancy during these months. You might notice that symptoms like nausea and fatigue are going away. But other new, more noticeable changes to your body are now happening. Your abdomen will expand as the baby continues to grow. And ...
O Machine Pineapple Core (1) 10 Weeks (20) 100 Followers Giveaway Celebration (12) 10dpo (3) 11 Weeks (15) 11dpo (1) 11w6d (1) 12 Weeks (20) 12dpo (2) 12w2d (1) 13 Weeks (11) 13w1d (2) 14 Weeks (14) 15 Weeks (12) 16 DPO (1) 16 Weeks (13) 17 Weeks (15) 18 Weeks (10) 19 Weeks (14) 1st Cycle TTC (19) 1st Trimester (33) 20 Weeks (14) 21 Weeks (8) 22 Weeks (6) 23 Weeks (11) 24 Weeks (11) 25 Weeks (10) 26 weeks (8) 27 Weeks (10) 28 Weeks (10) 29 Weeks (8) 2dp5dt (1) 2nd Trimester (55) 2WW (111) 3 Weeks 1 Day (1) 30 Weeks (10) 31 Weeks (8) 32 Weeks (8) 33 Weeks (12) 34 Weeks (6) 34w5d (1) 35 Weeks (9) 35 Weeks 2 days (1) 35/35 (4) 36 Weeks (8) 37 Weeks (9) 38 Weeks (4) 39 Weeks (2) 3DPO (1) 3dt v 5dt (1) 3rd Trimester (43) 3TC (1) 4 weeks pg (19) 40 Weeks (3) 4w4d (1) 4w6d (1) 5 weeks (14) 5DT (3) 5w2d (1) 6 weeks (19) 6 weeks 1 day (2) 6w2d (2) 6w5d (1) 7 weeks (17) 7DPO (2) 8 DPO (1) 8 weeks (19) 8w2d (2) 9 Weeks (13) 9DPO (3) 9w1d (1) 9w3d (1) Abnormal Pap (1) ...
Human placenta releases specific nanovesicles (i.e. exosomes) into the maternal circulation during pregnancy, however, the presence of placenta-derived exosomes in maternal blood during early pregnancy remains to be established. The aim of this study was to characterise gestational age related changes in the concentration of placenta-derived exosomes during the first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. from 6 to 12 weeks) in plasma from women with normal pregnancies. A time-series experimental design was used to establish pregnancy-associated changes in maternal plasma exosome concentrations during the first trimester. A series of plasma were collected from normal healthy women (10 patients) at 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 weeks of gestation (n = 70). We measured the stability of these vesicles by quantifying and observing their protein and miRNA ...
The third trimester marks the home stretch, as the mother-to-be prepares for the delivery of her baby. The fetus is continuing to grow in weight and size and the body systems finish maturing. The mother may feel more uncomfortable now as she continues to gain weight and begins to have false labor contractions (called Braxton-Hicks contractions).. During the third trimester, it is a good idea to start taking childbirth classes in preparation for the big day. This is especially true in the case of first pregnancies. Breastfeeding is best for your baby. Talk with your healthcare provider about the benefits of breast milk.. During the third trimester, both the mothers body and fetus continue to grow and change.. ...
Second Trimester Exercises - The most suitable pregnancy exercises for second trimester give your body enough workout to get rid of pregnancy blues and aid in babys growth at the same time. The watchword is maintaining good fitness witho
Results Children born to mothers who gained below versus within the 2nd trimester 2009 recommendations tended to have lower IQ scores (Full-scale: 106.6 (SD 15.1) vs 110.2 (15.2), p=0.04; verbal: 102.5 (14.3) vs 105.0 (14.9), p=0.10; performance: 109.5 (15.4) vs 113.4 (14.5), p=0.03). After adjustment there were no differences in child IQ by weight gain adequacy (full-scale: βbelow=−1.1 (95% CI −5.1 to 2.9), βabove=1.5 (−3.8 to 6.8); verbal: βbelow=−0.2 (−3.1 to 2.6), βabove=1.8 (−3.6 to 7.3); performance βbelow=−1.2 (−4.6 to 2.2), βabove=1.0 (−4.6 to 6.7)). No differences were observed based on 3rd trimester adequacy. No differences were observed in IQ scores by quintile of weight gain for any trimester, particularly after adjustment for maternal IQ. ...
The first trimester is the most important and critical one in every pregnancy. A baby develops its vital organs like lungs, brain and heart, in this trimester. Care taken in this trimester really pays off during the whole pregnancy and even after delivery. You are able to have a healthy baby and keep your body healthy during the whole pregnancy and post-pregnancy period.. How Many More Calories Do You Need?. During the first trimester you will gain some weight, but you dont really need a lot of extra calories. Just increase the daily intake by 200-300 calories.. What to Eat?. You should be eating foods that are rich in folates. Folate-rich foods contain folic acid, which assists in the babys growth. Aside, from eating folate-rich foods, you should also take a daily supplement of folic acid of 400 mcg. Folic ...
trimester - MedHelps trimester Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for trimester. Find trimester information, treatments for trimester and trimester symptoms.
Im a little confused as to when the first trimester ends and the second begins. Ive always read that the first trimester is weeks 1-12 and the second...
A new opinion piece in The New England Journal of Medicine is titled A New Era in Noninvasive Prenatal Testing. It is free, so I commend you to read the whole thing. But this is the key section, "A new, noninvasive prenatal test is poised to change the standard of care for genetic screening. Cell-free fetal DNA (cfDNA) testing requires only a maternal blood sample, can be performed as early as 9 weeks of gestation, and outperforms standard screening tests for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 in high-risk populations." Nine weeks is of course still in the 1st trimester.. While 60 percent of Americans support the legality of 1st trimester abortions, only 30 percent support the legality of those in the 2nd, and it is in that trimester that the abortion of a fetus with a trisomy abnormality now occurs because the various prenatal tests are at this stage. Mind you, I understand that despite what the public says a larger share of parents who receive "positive" results in ...
The House, after hours of contentious and angry debate, approved a bill Friday to require women to have an ultrasound before getting a first trimester abortion.
This list of first-trimester must-haves can help ease those not so pleasant pregnancy symptoms. No pregnancy is alike so your first-trimester symptoms may be totally different than mine and you might not experience horrible nausea or the urge to literally sleep the whole day.. Im no expert in pregnancy but Im happy to say my first trimester is now long behind me and so far the second-trimester is much more fun. I have an appetite again, more energy, and feeling my little guy kick is the best of all!. Hopefully, some of these first trimester finds will make your pregnancy process a little more comfortable and help ease you into your second trimester.. (Click the images to shop! - This post contains affiliate links) ...
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are among the most widely prescribed drugs for hypertension. Their fetal toxicity in the second or third trimesters has been well documented; the U.S. Food and Drug Administration classifies ACE inhibitor use during second and third trimesters as a category D drug (known fetal risk). However, until recently, their teratogenic effect in the first trimester was largely unknown.. A study based on data from the Tennessee Medicaid population reported an increased risk of congenital anomalies associated with use of ACE inhibitors during the first trimester, raising the possibility of a teratogenic effect. This association seemed unique to ACE inhibitors because there was no such association with use of other antihypertensives in the same study.. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality funded a population based, retrospective cohort study linking automated clinical and pharmacy databases ...
United States Department of Defense officials and first lady Michelle Obama introduced a new obesity and nutrition awareness campaign on Thursday at the Little Rock Air Force Base, AR.
Personal Chef and Nutritionist, here to encourage individual nutrition awareness and exploration through cooking! I offer services as a personal chef and nutritionist catering to clients dietary needs and preferences as well as nutritional cooking demonstrations for classrooms, hospitals and businesses.
The heat pack draws blood into the reproductive tract infection during pregnancy area, which helps relax my period 2 days late pregnancy test says negative affected muscles. Some women also feel cravings for types of food they dont pregnancy calendar 18 weeks like. Your babys developing fast. Certain factors are common causes such as nylon and Lycra clothing that traps heat and moisture, so be aware of our clothing tips for a healthy vagina we noted earlier. it can be done. Ill tell you more. The UK has implemented new guidelines that, as a result, will save many babies. This also means that Downward Facing Dog, Standing Forward Bend and Fish pose are also inversions; although those poses are mild in comparison to a Headstand. Some may experience elevated highs and lows, whereas others alternate between states of happiness to states of depression or anxiety. Otherwise it could just be your cycle getting back ...
The more the mother drinks during pregnancy, the more the risk to the fetus. This risk is current at all time for the duration of pregnancy. But, the impairment of features of the face, the heart as well as other organs, bones and the central nervous system can happen as a result of drinking alcohol during the 1st trimester when these measures of the fetus are in key development stages. It is in the weeks very early in the 1st trimester, when many women are probably not even aware that they are pregnant. Alcohol can distress the brain of the fetus at any time throughout the pregnancy. ...
Interesting and will be so useful to many readers I am sure. Try adding a bit of Iams Savory sauce to her meal or giving her some baby food cramping in the second trimester of pregnancy no onion or garlic added. Various symptoms of menopause like- hot flashes, anxiety, mood swings etc. The heart begins to beat on or around the 25th day after conception. Trembling, collapsing, or shivering are warning signs of serious complications that could put both the bitch and the puppies at risk. The uterus is large for cramping in the second trimester of pregnancy which reflects the fact that two embryos, rather than one is present. There are over 6 million pregnancies that occur in the United States every year with almost half of them unwanted. If you have been exercising, talk with your health care provider about continuing your program. Before you read this page, let me give you the takeaway message: Unless your ...
Introduction: Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that circulates in proportion to body fat. Placenta also produces leptin suggesting a specific role during pregnancy, maybe contributing to pregnancy-induced insulin resistance.. Objective: To determine the associations between maternal levels of leptin, glucose and insulin and weight/adiposity measures in newborns.. Methods: A population-based cohort of pregnant women in the region of Sherbrooke, Canada was recruited in early pregnancy (n=1040 at 1st trimester). Maternal anthropometry was measured and blood samples were collected at the 1st and 2nd trimesters to measure glucose (hexokinase), leptin and insulin (ELISA Luminex, Millipore Canada). Birth weights were recorded from the medical records in 783 newborns (full term ,36 weeks). We measured skinfolds in 199 newborns within 72h after birth, using a standardized ...
third; trimester; fetus; foetus; baby; pregnancy; uterus; womb; fundus; placenta; amniotic; fluid; antenatal; contractions; Braxton; hicks; pain; breasts; south; australia;; During this last 3 months of pregnancy, the third trimester, you may be worried or anxious about labour and wish for the time before the birth to go quickly. You will probably gain about 5 kilograms during this stage. Much of this weight will be from your baby, but you will also gain extra weight from the amniotic fluid, the placenta, your breasts, blood and your uterus. You will need to have more frequent antenatal checkups during this time - about 4 weekly until 36 weeks, then 2 weekly after that. Your doctor or midwife will continue to monitor your progress to make sure all is going well. ...
For thousands of years midwives of old and chinese herbalists have used herbs with very good results. Most of our allopathic medicines have come from herbs. A safe, commonly used herbal tonic for pregnancy is red raspberry leaf tea.. Brewed as a tea or as an infusion, red raspberry leaf is one of the safest and commonly used tonic herbs for women wanting to get pregnant or for women who are already pregnant. Red Raspberry Leaf (Rubus idaeus) tones the uterus, improves contractions and decreases constipation.. When to use There are two basic stances on the subject. There is agreement among many clinicians that in the 3rd trimester frequent (2- 3 cups per day of tea or 1 - 2 cups per day of infusion) is beneficial to the uterine and pelvic muscles. Red Raspberry Leaf contains many minerals and vitamins, including vitamin C and calcium. It also contains an alkaloid called fragrine, which lends tone to the uterus.. The more radical stance is that drinking one ...
Common, persevering with intercourse in more likely to lead to you conceiving than a marathon session for a couple of days a month during your fruitful days. Should you expertise burning or ache during urination, contact your GP. If youre searching for signs of pregnancy before period is late on pregnancy trimester, you can check out pregnancy help week by week and pregnancy trimesters assist. Your physician should detect the level of hormones related to the pregnancy with the intention to calculate the chance of subsequent genetic illnesses. Drink plenty of fluid, especially during scorching weather. In ladies who do develop diabetes during their pregnancy, common physical exercise might help to improve the control of their diabetes. It doesnt change that you should find ...
Pregnancy - Second Trimester - 14 > 26 weeks The morning sickness has gone and the bump is growing. In the second trimester pregnancy forum you can talk to others and seek advice from maternity wear
Frequent urination is one of the most common symptoms that pregnant women experience. It is certainly a symptom no woman enjoys, especially when it disrupts your sleep during the middle of the night or when you are out traveling. These symptoms generally start early in the first trimester (around week 5), may get better in the second trimester, but then become particularly worse late in third trimester.1 When youre not pregnant, your bladder can hold up to a pint of urine.2 During the first trimester of pregnancy, your uterus enlarges and begins to push on your bladder. A compressed bladder holds much less urine. In addition, hormonal changes during pregnancy cause blood to flow more quickly through your kidneys, thus producing more urine. As a result, you may find yourself running to the bathroom more often than usual. In the second trimester, the uterus ...
For the first time, we investigated whether markers of systemic subclinical inflammation in third trimester of pregnancy may be associated with the offsprings metabolic profile many years later. It is well known that diabetes, obesity, and insulin resistance in the mother are associated with inflammation, and that these metabolic conditions affect the growth and development of the fetus to various extents, with possible consequences for the future metabolic health [14, 32, 33]. However, it is unknown whether inflammatory markers in healthy pregnant women are associated with MS in the offspring. The four markers of inflammation analyzed in this study are all considered to play some role in metabolism and vascular functions, and in particular TNF-α has been suggested as a possible central link between obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes [34]. TNF-α has furthermore been suggested as a predictor of insulin resistance in normal pregnancies ...
Nor was it the lovely, excited fluffy moment where you all jump up and down and cry completely happy tears since youve planned it for therefore lengthy. And if you havent tried charting your ovulation, be sure you try that each month. Frequent headache medicines embody ibuprofen (Motrin), aspirin (Bufferin), acetaminophen (Tylenol), or naproxen sodium (Aleve). wish to nap 4pm. Gravity and the growing uterus pregnancy rupture membranes strain on the veins in your pelvis and on the large blood vessels in the legs, causing varicose veins. Along with using being pregnant pillow, lowering stress and anxiety, taking care of your food plan and loss of appetite in the first trimester of pregnancy a nap within the afternoon will also help you will have a very good sleep. There are many ladies who usually are not even aware that they endure from the situation because they do not know thesymptoms of PCOS. When youre already displaying ...
Microwaving food affects its construction and, based on some, decreases the Qi power out there within the meals. Total sleep time increases during the first trimester of pregnancy, normalizes within the second trimester, and decreases gwon the third trimester with frequent awakening. Miscarriage: Its usually believed that the first trimester is probably pregnancy gown most essential time of pregnancy. After a couple of months you will have temperature for every pregnsncy for all these months. There are various kinds of being pregnant calendars. Nonetheless, you wont be capable to feel these pregnancy gown a couple of more weeks. I used to be freaked out like you would prgnancy imagine. It may come on over a couple of days pregnancy gown all of the sudden with none warning. ...
Amoxicillin Use In First Trimester Pregnancy: 0: Antongoagobe: 6: Mar 10 Jan - 00:46 (2017) Antongoagobe: Signatures au règlement du forum [ Aller à la page: 1, 2] 27.. like codeine and first trimester. with codeine safe while pregnant. can you take with amoxicillin. 60mg alcohol side effects.. and until I was actually about a half mile into my first run in them my opinion wasnt very positive.In pregnancy, chlamydia is associated with ectopic pregnancy,. • Amoxicillin 500 mg orally three times daily for. the first prenatal physical exam ...
According to some published data, we assume that the main reason for the good results of our Prematurity-Prevention-Program is not the early detection of existing infections, but the early detection of their precursors, namely disturbances of the vaginal milieu:. Hillier et al. [1992b] diagnosed an intermediate pattern between normal flora and Bacterial Vaginosis - see also Schröder [1921] - in 16% of the pregnant women examined, while 22% of the women suffered from Bacterial Vaginosis, and 61% had a normal flora. Of the women with such a transitional stage in the 2nd trimester, in the 3rd trimester in about 1/3 the findings were the same, in about 1/3 the findings were normal, and about 1/3 developed a Bacterial Vaginosis.. Hay et al. [1994] found in a study an increased risk for loss of pregnancy, when just an intermediate pattern was present.. Viehweg et al. [1997] reported, that an increasing pH value during the course of ...
If you would like to speak to someone about your symptoms or the possibility of being mentstral cycle and pregnancy, you may call the APA toll-free helpline at 1-800-672-2296or search locally by your zip code below. without drugs, without risky surgery, without typical Infertility treatments, and with no side effects, than the will be the biggest letter Youll ever safety of tb test in pregnancy. If you are outside SA, this component of your order will not be dispatched. Cabbage consumed in any form-raw, cooked, or juiced-can soothe the pregnancy nausea. When you are pregnant, you do not only talk about yourself but of course, you have to consider the new being that is being formed inside you. As soon why is monster bad for pregnancy you know mentstral cycle and pregnancy are pregnant, check with your GP or midwife about any medicines you ...
If you are thinking of hiring a doula to support you through labour and birth and/or after your baby is born, around 32 weeks is a good time to start making contact with the doulas in your area so that you can decide which one you feel most comfortable with. Your birth doula will ask to meet with you and your partner at least twice before your baby is due so that she can find out from you what your hopes and fears are for the birth and to talk about ways in which she can offer you help towards keeping your labour normal. If this is your second baby, you may welcome the chance to debrief a previous difficult birth experience. If you are only looking for postnatal support, your postnatal doula will ask to meet with you once before your baby is due so that you have the opportunity to discuss ways in which you feel she might be able to help you and your family during the early days with your new baby. Some doulas also facilitate or lead Blessingway ceremonies, she can also help you with your birth ...
Product descriptionv how long do side effects of macrobid last. INDICATIONS how long do side effects of macrobid last. Nitrofurantoin is used for treating and preventing urinary tract infections caused by certain bacteria. Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic for specific use in the urinary tract. It works by killing sensitive bacteria. INSTRUCTIONS how long do side…. ...
The control of vertical eye movements is thought to be located in the dorsal midbrain in the region of the posterior commissure and mesencephalic tegmentum [13-15]. The vertical gaze center lies in close vicinity to the superior colliculus, with some of the main nuclei being the interstitial nucleus of Cajal and the rostral interstitial nucleus of the MLF. Interestingly, downward gaze is often preserved. This is in distinction to progressive supranuclear palsy, which also presents with vertical gaze palsy, but one which preferentially affects downward gaze. The reasons for this difference are not entirely clear, but it has been suggested that the pathways for downward gaze are directly medially out of the rostral interstitial nucleus of the MLF, while those for upward gaze are directed laterally and decussate in the posterior commisure, making them more susceptible to external mass effect. With Parinauds syndrome, patients may have a downgaze at rest, known as the "setting sun" sign. Patients ...
Welcome to the second trimester! Learn about what happens in the second trimester, how to survive the new symptoms, and when you can expect your baby to move the first time.
Rhogam pregnancy category the pregnancy is confirmed, follow the advice of your doctor regarding health rhogam pregnancy category blood tests early pregnancy progesterone to enjoy a healthy pregnancy and spawn a healthy baby. Glutathione is the bodys master antioxidant. Hope they still feel that way when, and if, she has hers. Feel good about your self and attempt to stay away from stress as much as you may. I got a call today from my doctor saying my 2nd trimester blood work indicated a high risk of DS. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is among rhogam pregnancy category least invasive ART procedures. Buy a check strip or card system the place you gather urine in a sample cup and dip the tester into the cup - these are the most cost effective kind of testers. As of this morning, Ive gained ...
This symptom is usually common after about 8-6 weeks after your conception. The pregnant women who have the pain in the ovary during their 1st trimester teratogens list during pregnancy consult their doctor immediately as these may be the signs of impulsive abortion, septic abortion, ectopic pregnancy and uterine fibroids. So RE switched me to Antagon protocol. I am not a medical professional. Im men. Most important symptom of pregnancy. We ARE without pregnany. Each child she works with is unique, therefore there is not one specific approach when it comes to shaping their sleep habits. Its advisable that you should go for dental follow-ups regularly even before you get rash in leg during pregnancy. It can eliminate the symptoms of duriing condition. smh Sharon, Blogger I thin this was very helpful. Gums too are prone to infections, and this could lead to ...
These two dishes are my absolute favorite every time lunch rolls around. The first one is a mixture of bok choy, bell peppers, garlic, soy sauce, vinegar, water and sesame oil. Sometimes I throw in eggs or some kind of meat, but since I eat meat at least once or twice a day now, when I eat huge salads I like to substitute the meat with Boca burgers. Many people seem to hate the taste of Boca burgers but I think theyre really yummy and probably the ones with the least faux meat quality to them! Do you have a favorite vegetarian patty?. By the way, before I check out I want to quickly mention that I finally tried the Ballet Body Upper Body DVD. The verdict so far? I genuinely, absolutely loved everything about it! All I can say for now is that after 2 days of having used it I still feel sore in weird places and I feel a different kind of "strength", if you will. But Ill be giving you my detailed thoughts on the DVDs after Ive done them at least twice, which is probably early next week.. Greg ...
This is a scan done early in pregnancy before 12 weeks of gestation. It is otherwise known as dating/ viability scan. It is only natural to be curious and concerned Your midwife may recommend an early scan at between six weeks and 10 weeks if you have experienced bleeding, pain, or problems in a previous pregnancy . You may also be offered an early scan if youve had a previous miscarriage . Pregnancy Dating Scan is diagnostic test done by Dr. Colin Walsh, Most women have an ultrasound scan performed early in the 1st trimester, usually between Find out about ultrasound baby scans, including the dating scan and anomaly scan, to check for abnormalities in the baby during pregnancy. x online dating articles One of the common pregnancy scans offered by some health authorities to calculate your due date. When your ...
During the second trimester, the good news is that the frequent bathroom trips may lessen as the fetus grows and your body adapts to its presence. Still, there can be sleep challenges associated with the general stress of pregnancy, with possible heartburn and leg cramp issues, and with the babys changing positions and movement that reassert pressure on the mothers bladder in the latter stages of the second trimester.. The latter stages of the second trimester segue into the third trimester when the mothers belly enlarges and the urination problems return as the ever-growing fetus engages the bladder more and more with physical contact.. Still, even in the challenging third trimester, there are tips that can help you get a better if not perfect nights rest:. ...
Fatigue may be a constructive signal associated with an early having a baby, often geder through the 1st trimester and sometimes partly blamed with trick pregnancy test say positive dramatic boost within the level of your hormone progesterone. Though its widespread title is a bit misleading, as it could occur throughout the day, not simply within the morning. Now im 3 days past my expected interval. It is recommended that you wait until you may have missed a period to take a home check. But many ladies choose pure childbirth to feel more in contact with the delivery expertise and to take care of labor in a proactive method. Abdomen cramps in pregnancy is a really delicate situation. prior to you think. Your babys major organs have been fully developed for some time now and the lungs proceed to develop in preparation for delivery. Back pain during pregnancy prfgnancy have an effect on a ...
Second Trimester: The Kicking Fetus - The fetus grows rapidly during the second trimester. Explore the development of the fetus and learn about terms like colostrum, lanugo, the fundus and amniocentesis.
We look back on Gynaecologist Dr Etienne Horners 2014 piece on all things second trimester related. How did your body change during your second trimester?
The cause is really unknown. Examine when you get more sensitive to odors than regular. Medical doctors do not know why they cannot conceive; there arent any male OR feminine fertility problems. If it takes 10 define 2nd trimester pregnancy producing 21 kids in shooting pain down my leg during pregnancy effort to maintain the current population within the Dental during pregnancy ray x States, then what occurs if one or two of those ladies are unable to have kids. Not all anti-HIV medicine obtainable are considered suitable for use in infants. I feel that it may very well be implantation bleeding (it might occur with mucus), or it may be a sign that your period is about to start out. One other reason for vaginal bleeding is placenta previa In case you endure from dental during pregnancy ray x, it dental during ...
BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis with low-dose aspirin may reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia (PE) if introduced in first trimester. The performance of first trimester maternal serum screening for PE using free leptin index (fLI) and PAPP-A, where fLI = leptin/
Third trimester pregnancy workouts are very useful to expectant mothers. Women who exercise during pregnancy enjoy a lot of health benefits.
Shop by pregnancy stages at Thyme Maternity! Get chic maternity wear for your third trimester. Find trendy tunics or dresses for pregnancy, plus PJs & more!
TY - JOUR. T1 - False positive IgM-rubella enzyme-linked immunoassay in three first trimester pregnant patients. AU - Bellin, Eran Y.. AU - Safyer, Steven M.. AU - Braslow, Charles. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. KW - ELISA. KW - False positive. KW - IgM. KW - Pregnancy. KW - Prison. KW - Rubella. KW - Urban. KW - Women. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025146479&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025146479&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 2104524. AN - SCOPUS:0025146479. VL - 9. SP - 671. EP - 672. JO - Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. JF - Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. SN - 0891-3668. IS - 9. ER - ...
In a study to be presented on Feb. 4 at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicines annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, in Atlanta, researchers will present findings from a study titled, Short and long sleep durations in pregnancy are associated with extremes of gestational weight gain.
Regulation traditionally required that each product be classified under one of five pregnancy categories (A, B, C, D, or X, as described below), on the basis of risk of reproductive and developmental adverse effects or, for certain categories, on the basis of such risk weighted against potential benefits.. These FDA pregnancy letter categories are:. Pregnancy Category A. Adequate and well controlled studies in women fail to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester (and there is no evidence of a risk in later trimester), and the possibility of fetal harm appears remote.. Pregnancy Category B. Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women OR Animal studies have shown an adverse effect, but adequate and well-controlled studies in ...
Smoking and ingesting are the first issues to cross off your listing. I imagine she cried herself to sleep many nights, and trimrster out the good thing about a pint of rocky road ice cream. Make sure triester ask your doctor or healthcare provider for information on any medicine that is prescribed or suggested in pregnancy. If you are anticipating being pregnant, you could rush to toilet extra incessantly than ever. This last interval came somewhat later than normal (Oct 24),very little recognizing, no cramping, solely lasted 2 days, and was watery. This type of bleeding is typically extra spottier and lighter in colour than a traditional period, and would not final very long. Hypothalamic dysfunction. Although you have not missed your interval yet, you may what causes nausea in the second trimester of pregnancy to peegnancy feel the consequences of being pregnant hormones this week. Use the kickboard to ...
Morning Sickness At Night . Hi,I am new to the forum. I just found out that I am pregnant last week and its my first pregnancy. Im going into week 6. Up till this weekend Ive been feeling pretty good but now all of a sudden Im very sensitive to food smells (and many oth... ... Pregnancy Forum - First Trimester of Pregnancy
Objective: Does snoring during pregnancy influence development of pre-eclampsia?. Method: Five hundred and three pregnant women were presented a questionnaire concerning snoring, daytime sleepiness and edema. Epworth Sleepiness score (ESS) and symptoms of restless legs syndrome were also included. The questionnaire was presented in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester and blood pressure was recorded. Women snoring often-always at visit 2 and/or 3 were denoted habitual snorers, those snoring never-seldom non-snorers and there was also a category occasional snorers. Habitual snorers were offered a sleep respiratory recording (Embletta); 34 volunteered.. Results: 36/503 women (7,2%) snored habitually already at the first visit. At the end of pregnancy the fraction had increased to 19,5%. At the first visit BMI of habitual snorers was 25,3 compared to 22,9 for non-snorers (s.), but there was no difference concerning increase during ...
BACKGROUND: The initiation of metformin in early pregnancy in Gestational Diabetes mellitus(GDM) remains controversial. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of Metformin on maternal and fetal outcomes when initiated within the first trimester of pregnancy in GDM. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective analysis of 540 women with diabetes complicating pregnancy (IADPSG criteria) over five years(January 2011 to May 2016)was done. The study population comprised of patients initiated on a)metformin within the first trimester (Group A:n=186),b) metformin after the first trimester(Group B:n=203) and c)insulin at any time during their pregnancy(Group C:n=151 ...

Molar Pregnancy | Symptoms and treatment of molar pregnancyMolar Pregnancy | Symptoms and treatment of molar pregnancy

Vaginal bleeding during the first trimester of pregnancy. *Abnormal womb growth; the womb grows excessively large in about 50 ... Molar Pregnancy. Symptoms and treatment of molar pregnancy. Molar pregnancies are rare, but it is good for all women to ... Symptoms of Molar Pregnancy. The symptoms of molar pregnancy that you should watch for include:. * ... A partial molar pregnancy occurs when there is an abnormal mass or growth in the placenta along with a fetus, and a complete ...
more infohttp://www.surebaby.com/prenatal/pregnancy-complications/molar-pregnancy.php?atext=Molar+Pregnancy

Nausea or Vomiting During Pregnancy - WellSpan Health LibraryNausea or Vomiting During Pregnancy - WellSpan Health Library

Morning sickness usually goes away as a pregnancy progresses. While many women feel better after the first trimester, some ... pain or vaginal bleeding. These symptoms may be caused by an infection, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, or some other serious ... Vomiting during pregnancy is more likely to be serious if the vomiting is moderate to severe (occurs more than 2 to 3 times per ... Many women have problems with nausea and sometimes vomiting (morning sickness) during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy. For some ...
more infohttp://www.wellspan.org/health-library/Document.aspx?id=tm6615

Complete hydatidiform mole and live fetus in a singleton pregnancy with confined placental mosaicism and fetomaternal...Complete hydatidiform mole and live fetus in a singleton pregnancy with confined placental mosaicism and fetomaternal...

CASE: We present a case of a molar pregnancy with a euploid fetus who had close fetal evaluation for second trimester bleeding ... CASE: We present a case of a molar pregnancy with a euploid fetus who had close fetal evaluation for second trimester bleeding ... CASE: We present a case of a molar pregnancy with a euploid fetus who had close fetal evaluation for second trimester bleeding ... CASE: We present a case of a molar pregnancy with a euploid fetus who had close fetal evaluation for second trimester bleeding ...
more infohttps://researchexperts.utmb.edu/en/publications/complete-hydatidiform-mole-and-live-fetus-in-a-singleton-pregnanc

The Second Trimester of Pregnancy: Pain, Bleeding, and DischargeThe Second Trimester of Pregnancy: Pain, Bleeding, and Discharge

In some cases, however, these symptoms may be a sign of a serious medical problem, such as a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy. ... Learn how to tell the difference between normal pregnancy problems and serious medical concerns. ... During the second trimester, pain, bleeding, and vaginal discharge are normal symptoms. ... Bleeding. Bleeding can be a scary symptom during pregnancy. In some cases, bleeding can be harmless. It can happen when ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/health/pregnancy/second-trimester-pain-bleeding-discharge

Getting pregnant 40 day cycle race, pregnant first trimester bleeding, pregnancy week 22 what to eat, no pregnancy symptoms 3...Getting pregnant 40 day cycle race, pregnant first trimester bleeding, pregnancy week 22 what to eat, no pregnancy symptoms 3...

... pregnancy symptoms 12 weeks quote, 50 effaced at 31 weeks pregnant, food to eat in first trimester during pregnancy, can you ... pregnancy in tamil pdf, early pregnancy test reading results, ... Baby pregnancy 33 weeks kg. Pregnancy conception fever. Early ... We are now more than 23 weeks into this pregnancy and it seems like we are a world away from the first trimester. With the days ... Your first trimester discomforts are (hopefully) long gone, third trimester challenges are still a few weeks off and you have ...
more infohttp://s3.amazonaws.com/handspregnancy/pregnancy-week-22-what-to-eat.html

Understanding bleeding during the first trimester of pregnancy | Pregnancy Problems | PregnancyUnderstanding bleeding during the first trimester of pregnancy | Pregnancy Problems | Pregnancy

Bleeding during the first trimester of pregnancy could be because of a variety of reasons ranging from implantation of the egg ... Understanding bleeding during the first trimester of pregnancy. Pregnancy By Bhadra Kamalasanan , Onlymyhealth editorial team ... Bleeding in the first trimester is could be a sign that your pregnancy is as uncomplicated as can be, but if there is even an ... Bleeding during the first trimester of pregnancy could be because of a variety of reasons ranging from implantation of the egg ...
more infohttps://www.onlymyhealth.com/bleeding-during-pregnancy-first-trimester-1385979384

Bleeding second trimester during pregnancy - Pregnancy BlogBleeding second trimester during pregnancy - Pregnancy Blog

Bleeding second trimester during pregnancy. Aged bleeding second trimester during pregnancy vaginal discharge: your ... The detection of pregnancy is also possible with the help of a bleeding second trimester during pregnancy kit. 9 congratulation ... as her bleeding second trimester during pregnancy continues to enlarge are canker sores a sign of pregnancy rise. It always ... Your stomach bleeding second trimester during pregnancy start to show. I dont know what to. By week 10, a pregnant woman will ...
more infohttp://techsectorweb.com/during-pregnancy/bleeding-second-trimester-during-pregnancy.html

Bleeding during pregnancy after intercourse 2nd trimester - Pregnancy BlogBleeding during pregnancy after intercourse 2nd trimester - Pregnancy Blog

Bleeding during pregnancy after intercourse 2nd trimester. Bleeding during pregnancy after intercourse 2nd trimester you happen ... You notice your husband has put on about as a lot weight as bleeding during pregnancy after intercourse 2nd trimester and also ... Currently new oral anticoagulants should not bleeding during pregnancy after intercourse 2nd trimester to be used during ... that pregnant girls are probably tossing again one too many bleeding during pregnancy after intercourse 2nd trimester trimester ...
more infohttp://youngeyesonscience.com/after-pregnancy/bleeding-during-pregnancy-after-intercourse-2nd-trimester.html

AHA News: Blood Clots, Uncontrolled Bleeding and a Stroke - All After Giving BirthAHA News: Blood Clots, Uncontrolled Bleeding and a Stroke - All After Giving Birth

She applied pressure with a towel but couldnt fully stop the bleeding. ... Near the end of her second pregnancy, Amanda Moreland sliced open her knee. ... Stages of Pregnancy: 1st, 2nd, 3rd Trimester Images. Explore the changes a pregnant womans body goes through as you watch a ... home/pregnancy center/ pregnancy a-z list/ blood clots, uncontrolled bleeding and a stroke article ...
more infohttps://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=226228

Is bleeding during pregnancy normal in third trimester - Pregnancy BlogIs bleeding during pregnancy normal in third trimester - Pregnancy Blog

Is bleeding during pregnancy normal in third trimester. Hesitate some is bleeding during pregnancy normal in third trimester 28 ... Should youre worried about the is bleeding during pregnancy normal in third trimester of your child, consult along with your ... Why it occurs?: You get your is bleeding during pregnancy normal in third trimester every month as a result of that means your ... The fetus is is bleeding during pregnancy normal in third trimester and more sensitive to mild and sound. There are lots of the ...
more infohttp://lagaleriactiva.com/during-pregnancy/is-bleeding-during-pregnancy-normal-in-third-trimester.html

Bleeding during first trimester of pregnancy after intercourse - Pregnancy BlogBleeding during first trimester of pregnancy after intercourse - Pregnancy Blog

Bleeding during first trimester of pregnancy after intercourse. Bleeding during first trimester of pregnancy after intercourse ... during pregnancy pomegranate during pregnancy first trimester frozen fish sticks and pregnancy alcohol free beers pregnancy ... It needs to bleeding during first trimester of pregnancy after intercourse used as a guide solely and should not be relied upon ... In case you are planning to terminate a being pregnant it will be important bleeding during first trimester of pregnancy after ...
more infohttp://fschobbies.com/after-pregnancy/bleeding-during-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-after-intercourse.html

First Trimester of Pregnancy: Symptoms & More | Organic FactsFirst Trimester of Pregnancy: Symptoms & More | Organic Facts

The first trimester is made up of the first three months of your pregnancy, so from weeks 1-12, your body will be preparing for ... Bleeding. Some bleeding in the first trimester is normal, particularly in the first 5-12 days, which is when the egg will be ... What is the First Trimester?. The first trimester is made up of the first three months of your pregnancy, so from weeks 1-12, ... First Trimester of Pregnancy: Symptoms & More. by John Staughton (BASc, BFA) last updated - February 18, 2019. ✐ Evidence Based ...
more infohttps://www.organicfacts.net/first-trimester-pregnancy.html

Fetal Development Timeline: Weekly Development of the Fetus in the First Trimester of Pregnancy | HubPagesFetal Development Timeline: Weekly Development of the Fetus in the First Trimester of Pregnancy | HubPages

Follow your babys development and growth during the first trimester of pregnancy using this timeline of fetal development, ... Pregnancy First Trimester: Weeks 1-2. *At the end of the first two weeks of pregnancy, which begins officially at the beginning ... The 40-week period of a normal pregnancy is divided into three trimesters, with the first trimester covering the first fourteen ... What Does Implantation Bleeding Look Like?. by Tracy B. 18. *. Pregnancy. Early Pregnancy: Unique Ways to Find Out If Youre ...
more infohttps://hubpages.com/health/Fetal-Development-Trimester

The Common Causes of Bleeding During PregnancyThe Common Causes of Bleeding During Pregnancy

Many pregnant women experience light bleeding at some point during pregnancy. Its very common, but still scary when it happens ... First trimester. First trimester bleeding can occur in up to 20 percent of pregnancies. Here are a few of the reasons why you ... Second/Third trimester. Later in pregnancy, the fetus is more developed and bleeding causes are quite different. ... This can happen during the second and third trimesters as well. Cervical polyps and cervical cancer also can cause bleeding, ...
more infohttps://www.virtua.org/articles/the-common-causes-of-bleeding-during-pregnancy

How to Survive the Second Trimester of Pregnancy | HubPagesHow to Survive the Second Trimester of Pregnancy | HubPages

Learn about what happens in the second trimester, how to survive the new symptoms, and when you can expect your baby to move ... 2nd Trimester Bleed. *What Causes Subchorionic Hemorrhage in Pregnancy?. What Causes Subchorionic Hemorrhage in Pregnancy? 20% ... The second trimester of pregnancy is from weeks 14-27. , Source. When Does the Second Trimester Start? The second trimester ... The Second Trimester of Pregnancy. Welcome to your second trimester of pregnancy! You have survived the first three months, and ...
more infohttps://hubpages.com/health/The-Second-Trimester-of-Pregnancy-How-to-Survive

Risks in First Trimester of Pregnancy | Livestrong.comRisks in First Trimester of Pregnancy | Livestrong.com

... of pregnancy, can present many risks to the developing fetus. Because organs, facial features, skeletal tissue and limbs are ... uncontrollable bleeding may occur quickly. ... The first trimester, or three months, of pregnancy, can present ... Ectopic Pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy-pregnancy implanted outside the uterus-occurs in one in 40 to 100 pregnancies. The most ... Miscarriage is common in the first trimester; up to 20 percent of all diagnosed pregnancies end in miscarriage, most before 13 ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/74653-risks-first-trimester-pregnancy/

Vaginal bleeding or spotting during pregnancy | BabyCenterVaginal bleeding or spotting during pregnancy | BabyCenter

Find out what can cause spotting and bleeding during pregnancy, how to tell whether its normal or a sign of a problem, and why ... What causes bleeding in the second or third trimester?. As your pregnancy progresses, bleeding is more likely to be a worrisome ... Is it normal to have bleeding or spotting during pregnancy?. A little spotting or light bleeding during pregnancy is common, ... What causes bleeding in the second or third trimester?. *Can having sex or a pelvic exam cause spotting or bleeding during ...
more infohttps://www.babycenter.com/0_vaginal-bleeding-or-spotting-during-pregnancy_3081.bc

February 1950 - Volume 5 - Issue 1 : Obstetrical & Gynecological SurveyFebruary 1950 - Volume 5 - Issue 1 : Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey

BLEEDING OF THE LAST TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY. HARRIS, JOHN W. HARRIS, JOHN W. Less ... PHYSIOLOGY OF PREGNANCY, LABOR AND PUERPERIUM SERUM COPPER LEVELS IN PREGNANCY AND IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA. Thompson, R. H. S.; Watson ... THE RELIABILITY OF THE MALE NORTH AMERICAN FROG (RANA PIPIENS) IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PREGNANCY. ROBBINS, S. L.; PARKER, F. JR ... RUBELLA IN PREGNANCY AS AN AETIOLOGICAL FACTOR IN CONGENITAL MALFORMATION, STILLBIRTH, MISCARRIAGE AND ABORTION. Swan, CHABLBS ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/obgynsurvey/toc/1950/02000

Causes of Pelvic Pressure | Livestrong.comCauses of Pelvic Pressure | Livestrong.com

Causes of Vaginal Bleeding During an Ectopic Pregnancy 2 Problems During the First Trimester of Pregnancy ... Ectopic Pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening condition in which an embryo implants on a fallopian tube rather ... Pregnancy and its various related conditions is a major cause of pelvic pressure, though women who have never had children can ... Towards the end of a pregnancy, the baby usually drops deeper into the pelvis, in anticipation of birth. This is called " ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/214150-causes-of-pelvic-pressure/

First Trimester of Pregnancy: What to Expect, Baby DevelopmentFirst Trimester of Pregnancy: What to Expect, Baby Development

Youll find out what to expect during the first trimester, along with signs and symptoms to know youre pregnant. ... Bleeding. About 25% of pregnant women experience slight bleeding during their first trimester. Early in the pregnancy, light ... These could be signs of a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy (a pregnancy in which the embryo implants outside of the uterus). ... Weight gain. Pregnancy is one of the few times in a womans life when weight gain is considered a good thing, but dont overdo ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/baby/guide/first-trimester-of-pregnancy

8 Causes & Symptoms of Bleeding During Early Pregnancy8 Causes & Symptoms of Bleeding During Early Pregnancy

More serious causes are ectopic pregnancy, miscarriages, or molar pregnancies. ... Bleeding during the 1st trimester of pregnancy can be caused by implantation of the fertilized egg, changes in the cervix, ... pregnancy a-z list / pregnancy: bleeding during the first trimester center / pregnancy: bleeding during the first trimester ... Pregnancy Bleeding - Implantation Bleeding Please share your experience with implantation bleeding during pregnancy. ...
more infohttps://www.medicinenet.com/pregnancy_bleeding_during_the_first_trimester/article.htm

Progesterone and Second Trimester Bleeding - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govProgesterone and Second Trimester Bleeding - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Pregnancy Complications. Pathologic Processes. Progesterone. Progestins. Hormones. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone ... Progesterone and Second Trimester Bleeding. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... The Impact of Progesterone on the Risk of Preterm Birth Among Women With Second Trimester Bleeding. A Double Blind Placebo ... among women with 2nd trimester bleeding.. The participants will be allocated through randomization to a study or control group ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01269450?recr=Open&cond=%22Uterine+Hemorrhage%22&rank=16

Open gallbladder removal: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaOpen gallbladder removal: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Pregnancy (third trimester). *Severe liver problems. *Past surgeries in the same area of your belly ... If there were problems during your surgery, or if you have bleeding, a lot of pain, or a fever, you may need to stay in the ... and any other drugs that put you at a higher risk of bleeding during surgery. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002930.htm

First-Trimester BleedingFirst-Trimester Bleeding

Create healthcare diagrams like this example called First-Trimester Bleeding in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes ... First-Trimester Bleeding. Ectopic pregnancy. This occurs when the fertilized egg implants and starts to grow outside the uterus ... First-Trimester Bleeding. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called First-Trimester Bleeding in minutes with ... When there is prolonged early bleeding in the first trimester, whether or not accompanied by cramps, the situation is termed a ...
more infohttps://www.smartdraw.com/obgyn/examples/firsttrimester-bleeding/

Bleeding During Pregnancy | When To WorryBleeding During Pregnancy | When To Worry

There are many causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Some are fairly benign, whether others are more serious. Here, we offer a ... Bleeding During Pregnancy: Second & Third Trimesters. Bleeding later on in a pregnancy is always cause for concern, so if you ... If you are bleeding during pregnancy, whether its the first trimester or your third, the American Pregnancy Association (APA) ... Bleeding During Pregnancy: First Trimester. According to the American Pregnancy Association, about 20 to 30 percent of women ...
more infohttps://www.momtastic.com/pregnancy/699189-bleeding-during-pregnancy/
  • Talk to him or her, relax, and spend this week of pregnancy enjoying yourself and your changing body. (techsectorweb.com)
  • Technically, your first week of pregnancy begins on the first day of your last period, but if you are trying to get pregnant, prenatal vitamins are a great option for this first week. (organicfacts.net)
  • They both may suddenly disappear in the 14th week of pregnancy or they may gradually fade away. (hubpages.com)
  • If this happens much earlier than the 37th week of pregnancy, however, women should contact their obstetrician immediately. (livestrong.com)
  • It's usually just your body's way of getting ready to push out that baby, but if it's before your 37th week of pregnancy, and is accompanied by contractions and lower back ache, you could be going into premature labor. (momtastic.com)
  • If you're actively bleeding or have severe pain and can't reach your provider immediately, head to the emergency room right away. (babycenter.com)
  • If you know that your risk of delivering a preterm baby is low, you'll be able to stay calm and enjoy your pregnancy more. (amazonaws.com)
  • This new edition includes sections on obesity, late-preterm and early term delivery, and pregnancy termination. (wiley.com)
  • Your stomach may look or feel distended in the first few months of pregnancy as your abdominal cavity shifts and changes. (organicfacts.net)
  • During pregnancy, your body produces more of the progesterone hormone which relaxes smooth muscles -- including the ring of muscle in your lower esophagus that normally keeps food and acids down in your stomach . (webmd.com)
  • Learning to identify and relieve these normal discomforts will help you throughout your pregnancy. (healthline.com)
  • It tends to be more noticeable the larger the baby gets, as it requires more and more oxygen to grow and maintain what takes away heartburn during pregnancy energy demands. (lagaleriactiva.com)