A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain 5-methyl-8-hydroxycoumarin. The common name of centaury is more often used for CENTAURIUM
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The root and shoots have been used for food.
A plant genus of the family PONTEDERIACEAE that is used as a biological filter for treating wastewater.
A disorder of cognition characterized by the tetrad of finger agnosia, dysgraphia, DYSCALCULIA, and right-left disorientation. The syndrome may be developmental or acquired. Acquired Gerstmann syndrome is associated with lesions in the dominant (usually left) PARIETAL LOBE which involve the angular gyrus or subjacent white matter. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p457)
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
A carbamate insecticide.
A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The bodies secrete hormones important in the regulation of metamorphosis and the development of some adult tissues.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
The physical measurements of a body.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)
Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)
Rare autosomal recessive congenital malformation syndrome characterized by cryptophthalmos, SYNDACTYLY and UROGENITAL ABNORMALITIES. Other anomalies of bone, ear, lung, and nose are common. Mutations on FRAS1 and FREM2 are associated with the syndrome.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)

Cockroach allergy and asthma in a 30-year-old man. (1/45)

A growing body of evidence has implicated allergens derived from cockroaches as an important environmental factor that may aggravate asthma in sensitized persons. We present the case of a 30-year-old man with asthma and a cockroach allergy. Allergy skin testing confirmed hypersensitivity to cockroach extract, and a home visit revealed visual evidence of infestation and the presence of Bla g 1 German cockroach allergen in vacuumed dust. As is typical of patients with a cockroach allergy and asthma, multiple factors in addition to cockroach allergen appeared to aggravate the patient's asthma. A multimodality therapeutic regimen, which included medications as well as cleaning of the home, integrated pest management, and professional application of chemical controls, resulted in substantial clinical improvement. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of cockroach-allergic asthma are reviewed, and an approach to diagnosis and management is suggested.  (+info)

Novel point mutations in the German cockroach para sodium channel gene are associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroid insecticides. (2/45)

Knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroid insecticides has been attributed to point mutations in the para sodium channel gene in more than a half dozen insect pest species. In this study, we identified two novel para mutations in five highly resistant kdr-type German cockroach strains. The two mutations, from glutamic acid (E434) to lysine (K434) and from cysteine (C764) to arginine (R764), respectively, are located in the first intracellular linker connecting domains I and II. E434K is located near the beginning of the linker (closest to domain I), whereas C764R is found toward the end of the linker (closest to domain II). Two additional mutations from aspartic acid (D58) to glycine (G58), and from proline (P1880) to leucine (L1888), respectively, were found in one of the resistant strains. The four mutations coexist with the previously identified leucine to phenylalanine (L993F) kdr mutation in IIS6, and are present only in the highly resistant individuals of a given strain. These findings suggest that these mutations might be responsible for high levels of knockdown resistance toward pyrethroid insecticides in the German cockroach.  (+info)

Novel sodium channel gene mutations in Blattella germanica reduce the sensitivity of expressed channels to deltamethrin. (3/45)

Pyrethroid insecticides alter the normal gating of voltage-gated sodium channels in the nervous system. Three sodium channel mutations (E434K, C764R, L993F) were recently identified in pyrethroid resistant German cockroach populations. In this report, we show that the L993F mutation decreased sodium channel sensitivity to the pyrethroid, deltamethrin, by five-fold in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, neither E434K nor C764R alone decreased channel sensitivity to deltamethrin. However, E434K or C764R combined with L993F reduced deltamethrin sensitivity by 100-fold. Furthermore, concomitant presence of all three mutations (KRF) reduced channel sensitivity to deltamethrin by 500-fold. None of the mutations significantly affected channel gating. However, sodium current amplitudes from the mutant sodium channel carrying either E434K or C764R alone were much reduced compared to those of the wild-type channel or the channel carrying the double or triple mutations (KF, RF and KRF). These results indicated that evolution of sodium channel insensitivity in the German cockroach is achieved by sequential selection of a primary mutation L993F and two secondary mutations E434K and C764R, and concomitant presence of all three mutations dramatically reduced sodium channel sensitivity to deltamethrin.  (+info)

Lipophorin-facilitated hydrocarbon uptake by oocytes in the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). (4/45)

Large amounts of hydrocarbons accumulate during vitellogenesis in the developing basal oocytes of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.), and all ovarian hydrocarbons are deposited into an egg case (ootheca) during oviposition. Hydrocarbons are not synthesized by the ovaries, but are delivered by hemolymph lipoproteins and accumulate within the basal oocytes. A native B. germanica hydrocarbon, [(3)H]3,11-dimethylnonacosane, injected into adult females of various ages, was taken up by the ovaries in relation to oocyte growth. Ovarian uptake of the hydrocarbon was low in day 0-1 females, increased dramatically between days 3 and 6 and declined sharply through oviposition on day 8-9; ovarian uptake of the hydrocarbon was low during a 21-day pregnancy that followed. [1-(14)C]Propionate, which becomes incorporated into methyl-branched hydrocarbons, was injected into 5-day-old vitellogenic females to monitor the de novo biosynthesis of hydrocarbons and the time course of hydrocarbon deposition in the ovary. Propionate was rapidly incorporated into hydrocarbons within 4 h. Hydrocarbon uptake by the ovaries, however, was three times higher 24 h after injection than 4 h after injection, showing that hydrocarbons are slowly and continuously deposited in oocytes. This result was confirmed with topical application of [(3)H]3,11-dimethylnonacosane: ovarian uptake was three times higher after 24 h than after 4 h. In vitro incubations of sternites, which synthesize hydrocarbons, with [(14)C]propionate and ovaries, showed that both hemolymph and purified high-density lipophorin facilitated ovarian uptake of newly synthesized hydrocarbons; maximum uptake occurred with 10 % hemolymph or 1 mg ml(-1) high-density lipophorin. These results were confirmed with sternites treated with [(3)H]3,11-dimethylnonacosane and co-incubated with ovaries. This is the first report to show that copious amounts of maternal hydrocarbons are provisioned in oocytes and to demonstrate the existence of a hydrocarbon transport pathway involving hemolymph high-density lipophorin.  (+info)

Dynamics of aggregation and emergence of cooperation. (5/45)

Aggregation is one of the most basic social phenomena, and many activities of social insects are linked to it. For instance, the selection of a valuable site and the spatial organization of the population are very often by-products of amplifications based on the local density of nestmates. The patterns of aggregation are very diverse, ranging from the gathering of all animals in a unique site to their splitting between several ones. One might question how these multiple patterns emerge. Do ants actively initiate the formation of such patterns by modulating the emission of an attracting signal such as the trail pheromone? Alternatively, do patterns result from quantitative changes in the duration of interaction between animals once they have reached the gathering site, without any active modulation of the communications? To discuss these questions, we present two empirical studies: the gregarious behavior of cockroaches (Blatella) and self-assembly in the weaver ant (Oecophylla). Through experimental and theoretical studies, we show how a single behavior-the resting time-leads to a collective choice in both species. This behavior is a response to the density of conspecifics and can also be modulated by heterogeneities in the environment. In weaver ants, it allows the colony to focus the formation of chains in a given area among several potential sites. In cockroaches, it allows the gathering of individuals in particular shelters, depending on the proximity between strains. These results are discussed with emphasis on the role of aggregation processes in the emergence of cooperativity and task allocation.  (+info)

The structural basis for water exchange between the female cockroach (Blattella germanica) and her ootheca. (6/45)

Female German cockroaches usually carry their oothecae until they hatch. The success of embryogenesis may be dependent on the water-balance relationship between females and their developing oothecae. Oothecae detached from females early in embryogenesis often fail to develop, especially in low-humidity environments. Experiments reported here using tritiated water have confirmed the transport of a significant amount of water to the ootheca from the female during embryogenesis; 18% of the tritiated water injected into gravid females was recovered in their oothecae after 24 h. We describe a structural basis of water absorption by the oothecae. An area located on the proximal end of the ootheca (adjacent to the 'escutcheon-shaped vaginal imprint') contains small pores that penetrate the oothecal covering to access regions of the chorion lying beneath these pores. Experiments using microparabiotic chambers to examine transport of tritiated water and water-soluble materials across the escutcheon region of the oothecal covering, along with dark-field birefringent microscopy of the chorion, support the hypothesis that this chorionic network is capable of conducting water throughout the interior of the ootheca. Furthermore, the structural arrangement and intimate association of the female vestibulum with the oothecal pore field contained in the region of the escutcheon-shaped vaginal imprint appear to provide an efficient conduit to the chorion. The overall structural relationship might be a means for maintaining water balance between females and their oothecae during embryonic development. Evidence presented here supports observations that this species represents an important link in the transition from oviparity to ovoviviparity by internalization of cockroach oothecae.  (+info)

Identification of the sex pheromone of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. (7/45)

The sex pheromone of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, has been characterized as gentisyl quinone isovalerate. This cockroach is a major cause of allergic disease and serves as a mechanical vector of pathogens, making it one of the most important residential and food-associated pests worldwide. The sex pheromone-producing gland in adult females was identified in 1993, but thermal instability of the pheromone made characterization difficult. Now, using a new preparative gas chromatography approach coupled with electroantennographic detection, we have isolated and characterized the pheromone, which we term blattellaquinone, and confirmed the identification by chemical synthesis. The synthetic pheromone was active in behavioral assays and highly effective in field trapping tests, which suggest that it may provide a new tool in cockroach population detection, monitoring, and control.  (+info)

Field performance of cyphenothrin: an integrated insecticide strategy against German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae). (8/45)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Resistance to organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides amongst German cockroaches is widely reported. Cyphenothrin EC, a new synthetic pyrethroid was evaluated in cookhouses in an urban area, with the aim of exploring alternate control option against the German cockroach Blatella germanica. METHODS: Three cookhouses were selected by simple random sampling method, two for treatment and one as control. The impact of treatment on cockroach infestation was monitored weekly by visual assessment sampling technique. RESULTS: Cyphenothrin brought about 95 to 97.5% reduction in cockroach infestation by the end of six weeks post-treatment. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The study reports the efficacy of cyphenothrin in the control of German cockroaches and recommends an "Integrated insecticide strategy" for the control of cockroaches in urban cookhouses.  (+info)

The German cockroach has three life stages typical of insects with incomplete metamorphosis: the egg, nymph, and adult. The entire life cycle is completed in about 100 days. However, factors such as temperature, nutritional status, and strain differences may influence the time required to complete a life cycle. German cockroaches breed continuously with many overlapping generations present at any one time. Under ideal conditions, population growth has been shown to be exponential. Actively growing field populations are comprised of 80 percent nymphs and 20 percent adults. The German cockroach is omnivorous, eating table scraps, pet food, and even book bindings. ...
Oocyte maturation in oviparous animals is characterized by a vitellogenic period during which all maternally derived yolk protein precursors are sequestered in the oocyte, usually through receptor-mediated endocytosis (Bu and Schwartz, 1994; Sappington and Raikhel, 1995, 1998; Raikhel and Snigirevskaya, 1998; Burmester and Scheller, 1999). Large amounts of maternal lipids are also sequestered (Speake and Thompson, 1999), and lipid accumulation in eggs has been reported in many insects (for reviews, see Engelmann, 1970; Kunkel and Nordin, 1985). Important egg lipids are phospholipids for membrane formation during embryogenesis, and triacylglycerol is used mainly as an energy source. Surprisingly though, there are few quantitative studies on apolar lipids in insect eggs, even though both embryos and neonates in most insects require extensive waterproofing. Nelson and Sukkestad (1970) found complex mixtures of branched HCs, including mono-, di- and trimethyl HCs in eggs of the moth Manduca sexta ...
Photo - image of German cockroach (Blattella germanica). Free use by schools, etc., paid use 30 - 60 EUR / photo. I kultur. Id 50898
Semantic Scholar extracted view of First Detection of VIM-2 Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas putida in Blattella germanica Cockroaches in an Algerian Hospital. by Lotfi Loucif et al.
Lipophorin receptors (LpRs) have been described in a number of insects, but functional studies have been reported only in locusts and mosquitoes. The aim of the present work was to characterize the LpR of the cockroach Blattella germanica, not only molecularly but also functionally using RNAi techniques, and to place LpRs in a phylogenetical context among lipoprotein receptors. We cloned a putative LpR from B. germanica (BgLpR) using RT-PCR methods. Two isoforms of BgLpR that differ from each other by an insertion/deletion of 24 amino acids were obtained from the fat body and the ovary. A phylogenetical analysis of lipoprotein receptors showed that BgLpR grouped with other sequences annotated as LpR in a cluster placed as a sister group of vertebrate low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) + lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 8 (LPR8) + vitellogenin receptors (VgR) + very low density lipoprotein receptors (VLDLR). The two BgLpR isoforms are expressed in different adult female tissues (fat body,
We are interested in the regulation of metamorphosis not only from a developmental point of view but also from an evolutionary perspective. As most information has been obtained in holometabolan species (mainly in the fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum), we focus our research on the cockroach Blattella germanica, a phylogenetically basal species showing a gradual metamorphosis that might be close to the ancestral hemimetaboly. We aim at elucidating the mechanisms that regulate metamorphosis in B. germanica and then to compare them with those operating in holometabolans. The idea is to infer the evolutionary history underlying the transition from hemimetaboly to holometaboly ...
Blattabacterium strain Bge is the primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica. It is a Gram-negative maternally inherited bacteria which lives in specialized cells in the hosts abdominal fat body. Phylogenetic analyses for the Blattabacterium-cockroach symbiosis supports the hypothesis of co-evolution between symbionts and hosts dating back to more than 140 million years ago. Cockroaches are omnivorous insects, often subsisting on a nitrogen-poor diet, and Blattabacterium have been hypothesized to participate in uric acid degradation, nitrogen assimilation, and nutrient provisioning. Genome sequencing and metabolic reconstruction shows that Blattabacterium can recycle nitrogen from urea and ammonia, which are uric acid degradation products, into glutamate, using urease and glutamate dehydrogenase, and thus would be able to provide its host with some essential amino acids, vitamins and cofactors. The bacterium relies on Pro, Gln and Asn supplied by the host. It encodes the complete ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
The ability of the Blattella germanica to respond to immunological stimulations is limited when compared to that of the mammalian system. Granulocytes are a basic blood cell type found in most animals; in humans these cells divide and differentiate into basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils, among others. These cells make up a small portion of the total blood cells found in mammals. In the German cockroach, however, the granulocyte is the most predominate blood cell type, making up 94% of the total cell count. Since this cell was overwhelmingly prevalent in the cockroach, it was studied to determine how many antigenic surface receptors it contained on its membrane. The study began by injecting New Zealand rabbits with granulocytes, isolated from the German cockroach to stimulate antibody production. Using rabbit antigranulocytes serum for Western blot analysis, seven antigenic surface determinants were identified and their molecular weights were determined.
Within Anura, direct development involves ontogenetic changes of the biphasic ancestral pattern. The recent partitioning of the genus Eleutherodactylus, along with the proposition of the unranked taxon Terrarana, has renewed an interest to the morphological and ecological diversity among direct-developing frogs. The morphological changes during embryonic development of Oreobates barituensis is similar to those of other Neotropical direct-developing species, including the reduction or absence of several larval and embryonic characters (e.g., external gills and adhesive glands), heterochronic changes (e.g., early developing limbs and late persistence of ciliated epidermal cells), and the appearance of new structures (e.g., egg tooth). The tail achieves an extraordinary peramorphic development (encloses the entire embryo), and the location of its expanded part is interpreted as a heterotopic change resulting in a novel trait. An enveloping tail with apparently non-heterotopic fins, combined with the
Lobjectiu daquest grup de recerca és entendre els mecanismes que regulen loogènesi dels insectes. Per fer-ho, utilitza com a organisme model la panerola Blattella germanica, un insecte amb els ovaris del tipus panoïstic ―el model mes primitiu entre els insectes. Al laboratori sestudia lexpressió dels gens que estan implicats en la regulació de la oogènesi, i com aquests són regulats per les hormones i modulats per ARNs no codificants. En comparar els resultats amb els daltres espècies més modificades, han trobat que algunes funcions shan preservat durant levolució, mentre que la seva regulació ha estat modificada.. Pàgina web: Insect Reproduction Lab. ...
This sale is for 10 hand-sorted seeds. Please check our store for more seeds or ask for a different quantity. Genus - Mespilus Species - Germanica
In 2015 Stena Line made history by converting one of the largest RoPax ferries in the world, the 240-meter Stena Germanica, to become the worlds first methanol powered RoPax ferry. In 2021 we take the next step on our sustainable journey by refueling the vessel with methanol recycled from residual steel gases.
Ocelli : Two types of simple eyes can be found in the class Insecta: dorsal Ocelli and lateral Ocelli (=stemmata). Although both types of Ocelli are similar in structure, they are believed to have separate phylogenetic and embryological origins. Dorsal Ocelli are commonly found in adults and in the immature stages (nymphs) of many hemimetabolous species. They are not independent visual organs and never occur in species that lack compound eyes. Whenever present, dorsal Ocelli appear as two or three small, convex swellings on the dorsal or facial regions of the head. They differ from compound eyes in having only a single corneal lens covering an array of several dozen rhabdom-like sensory rods. These simple eyes do not form an image or perceive objects in the environment, but they are sensitive to a wide range of wavelengths, react to the polarization of light, and respond quickly to changes in light intensity. No exact function has been clearly established, but many physiologists believe they ...
Ulva oxycocca Kützing 1845: 244, nom. illeg. Published in: Kützing, F.T. (1845). Phycologia germanica, d. i. Deutschlands Algen in bündigen Beschreibungen. Nebst einer Anleitung zum Untersuchen und Bestimmen dieser Gewächse für Anfänger. pp. [i]-x, [1]-340 [240]. Nordhausen: zu finden bei Wilh. Köhne ...
Illiger, J.K.W. 1811. Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium additis terminis zoographicis utriusque classis, eorumque versione germanica. C. Salfield: Berolini. xviii + 302 pp. BHL Reference page ...
Frass: The excrement of larvæ; also, the refuse left behind by boring insects.* This years huge populations of caterpillars are producing large...
Best German Cockroach Control Treatment Get a german cockroach control treatment The Best treatment for German Roaches and get rid of them now german cockroach control treatment So you have got a German cockroach infestation, what do you do? you can try spraying them with Raid or something similar. Also, you can buy
Cockroaches are terrestrial insects that strikingly eliminate waste nitrogen as ammonia instead of uric acid. Blattabacterium cuenoti (Mercier 1906) strains Bge and Pam are the obligate primary endosymbionts of the cockroaches Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana, respectively. The genomes of both bacterial endosymbionts have recently been sequenced, making possible a genome-scale constraint-based reconstruction of their metabolic networks. The mathematical expression of a metabolic network and the subsequent quantitative studies of phenotypic features by Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) represent an efficient functional approach to these uncultivable bacteria. We report the metabolic models of Blattabacterium strains Bge (iCG238) and Pam (iCG230), comprising 296 and 289 biochemical reactions, associated with 238 and 230 genes, and 364 and 358 metabolites, respectively. Both models reflect both the striking similarities and the singularities of these microorganisms. FBA was used to analyze the
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[Microdontomerus impolitus sp. n. and Liodontomerus centaureae sp. n. are described from cynipid galls on Tragopogon and Centaurea respectively. New host and distributional data are given for M. crassipes Bouček. L. papaveris (Förster), Chalcimerus borceai Steffan & Andriescu and Megastigmus dumicola Bouček, and generic characters of Microdontomerus and Liodontomerus are commented upon., A group of species belonging to the Ectobiinae is described in which the male genitalia show a reversed right-left asymmetry. The aberrant orientation can be explained by the mutation of a developmental gene regulating the right-left asymmetry of the last abdominal sternites. The hypothesis is put forward that similar mutations might also be responsible for the unique arrangement of the phallomere sclerites in the Plectopterinae and Blaberidae. The assumption of a symmetry reversal in the ancestors of these taxa is supported by the study of the muscular connections of the sclerites. As a consequence a new homology
Egg cases (oothecae) are attached to female abdomens for 28 to 30 days. The ootheca case is 1/4 to 3/8 inch long and holds 30 to 40 eggs. The female will deposit the egg case one to two days prior to the eggs hatching. Immature forms (nymphs) emerge and develop into adult forms in 1-1/2 to 4 months. Nymphs will molt approximately seven times in 60 days before becoming an adult. Females produce 4-5 oothecae during their lifetime of approximately 200 days. German cockroaches carry more eggs per case than other cockroach species. Their immatures complete growth in a shorter period of time, which makes it possible to have three to four generations per year.. ...
There are many types of cockroaches. The most popular types include; the American cockroach, the Australian cockroach, and the German cockroach. The German cockroach is the smallest and the most common species inside buildings. They are 12-15 mm and are to be found in food handling areas like the storerooms and kitchens. They cannot fly and mostly prefer areas near food, warmth, and moisture.. The Australian cockroach is larger than the German cockroach at 30-35 inches in length. It has a dark brown color and has yellow markings on the front wings and head. This type of cockroach unlike the German cockroach is to be found outdoors and prefers plant food. It is to be found among woodpiles and under the bark of trees.. The American cockroach is the largest cockroach measuring 30-45mm in length. It is red-brown in color and has a pale yellow border around the head. It can fly and prefers warm and moist conditions. It is very common in rubbish dumps, sewers, and drains.. Cockroaches carry germs on ...
There are many types of cockroaches. The most popular types include; the American cockroach, the Australian cockroach, and the German cockroach. The German cockroach is the smallest and the most common species inside buildings. They are 12-15 mm and are to be found in food handling areas like the storerooms and kitchens. They cannot fly and mostly prefer areas near food, warmth, and moisture.. The Australian cockroach is larger than the German cockroach at 30-35 inches in length. It has a dark brown color and has yellow markings on the front wings and head. This type of cockroach unlike the German cockroach is to be found outdoors and prefers plant food. It is to be found among woodpiles and under the bark of trees.. The American cockroach is the largest cockroach measuring 30-45mm in length. It is red-brown in color and has a pale yellow border around the head. It can fly and prefers warm and moist conditions. It is very common in rubbish dumps, sewers, and drains.. Cockroaches carry germs on ...
In addition to being a nuisance, the German cockroach has been implicated in outbreaks of illness and allergic reactions in many people. Cockroaches have been reported to spread at least 33 kinds of bacteria, six kinds of parasitic worms and at least seven other kinds of human pathogens. Medical studies have shown that cockroach allergens cause allergic reactions in children and can exacerbate asthma attacks.. ...
German Cockroach Control - Austin, TX Not all cockroaches are created equally, and Magic Pest and Lawns cockroach removal team specializes in both German
German cockroaches are well-known indoor cockroaches with a distribution that is world-wide. Smaller than other types of cockroaches, the pests can hide in small spaces and hitch rides in bags, boxes, and many other infested items that are brought inside the home. In multi-unit apartment buildings, they can easily move between units, using the shared plumbing and pipes as a highway. ...
Thermo Scientific ImmunoCAP Insect Allergens German Cockroach Diagnostic Tests and Clinical Products:Diagnostic Tests and Controls:Allergy, Arthritis and Immunology Testing:Whole
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Adult German cockroaches are about 17mm long and light brown except for the shield behind the head marked with two dark stripes, which run lengthwise on the
Cockroaches are incredibly successful at coexisting with humans, even though we are less than thrilled with the prospect of sharing our homes with them. Amongst their many remarkable survival tactics, Don Mullins describes their ability to reproduce, by laying eggs in a protective case called an ootheca, as `spectacular. Some species abandon the ootheca soon after laying their eggs, but female German cockroaches carry the ootheca until the young hatch almost one month later. How liquid penetrates the apparently solid surface of the ootheca has puzzled scientists for well over a century, but Mullins has finally discovered the microscopic pore structures that keep oothecae hydrated (p. 2987).. Female German cockroaches fall somewhere between the two extremes on the cockroach parental-care spectrum. Having laid their eggs in the protective ootheca, they carry the case close to their abdomens, until the young are ready to hatch. However, without a constant supply of fluid, the young cockroaches may ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imaging of transgenic cricket embryos reveals cell movements consistent with a syncytial patterning mechanism. AU - Nakamura, Taro. AU - Yoshizaki, Masato. AU - Ogawa, Shotaro. AU - Okamoto, Haruko. AU - Shinmyo, Yohei. AU - Bando, Tetsuya. AU - Ohuchi, Hideyo. AU - Noji, Sumihare. AU - Mito, Taro. PY - 2010/9/3. Y1 - 2010/9/3. N2 - The mode of insect embryogenesis varies among species, reflecting adaptations to different life history strategies [1, 2]. In holometabolous insects, which include the model systems, such as the fruit fly and the red flour beetle, a large proportion of the blastoderm produces an embryo, whereas hemimetabolous embryos generally arise from a small region of the blastoderm [3]. Despite their importance in evolutionary studies, information of early developmental dynamics of hemimetabolous insects remains limited. Here, to clarify how maternal and gap gene products act in patterning the embryo of basal hemimetabolous insects, we analyzed the dynamic ...
Bandi, C., M. Sironi, G. Damiani, L. Magrassi, C. A. Nalepa, U. Laudani, and L. Sacchi. 1995. The establishment of intracellular symbiosis in an ancestor of cockroaches and termites. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 259(1356):293-299.. Boudreaux, H. B. 1979. Arthropod Phylogeny with Special Reference to Insects. New York, J. Wiley.. Deitz, L. L., C. Nalepa, and K. D. Klass. 2003. Phylogeny of the Dictyoptera re-examined (Insecta). Entomologische Abhandlungen (Dresden) 61(1):69-91.. Desalle, R., J. Gatesy, W. Wheeler, and D. Grimaldi. 1992. DNA sequences from a fossil termite in Oligo-Miocene amber and their phylogenetic implications. Science 257(5078):1933-1936.. Eggleton, P. 2001. Termites and trees: a review of recent advances in termite phylogenetics. Insectes Sociaux 48:187-193.. Grandcolas, P. and P. Deleporte. 1996. The origin of protistan symbionts in termites and cockroaches: A phylogenetic perspective. Cladistics 12(1):93-98.. Grimaldi, D. 1997. A fossil mantis ...
Cockroach Control : Jims Pest Control Darwin Our buildings are ideal for cockroaches because they provide food, water, warmth and shelter. You will probably have a problem with the prolific German Cockroach. If you see the German Cockroach during the day or in areas where there is no food available such as bedrooms
Cockroaches live all over the world. They can exist and survive in all sorts of environments. Usually, youll find them in warmer environments such as inside
Our buildings are ideal for cockroaches because they provide food, water, warmth and shelter. You will probably have a problem with the prolific German Cockroach.. If you see the German Cockroach during the day or in areas where there is no food available such as bedrooms then you may have enormous populations. ...
The barrel teaches us that it is often combinations of stressors which lead to what we perceive of as a disease. For example, asthma can be associated with a combination of respiratory tract infection, low magnesium levels, dust mite and cockroach allergy, egg intolerance and sensitivity to chemicals.. Since frequently there is not just one thing putting load on the system, we can easily make the mistake thinking that the last thing added was the causative factor - there may however be many other things in the barrel.. Lowering the level in the barrel, so to speak, can be done by removing things from inside the barrel or by making the barrel bigger. For example, in the case of asthma mentioned above, treating the infection, adding daily magnesium supplements, putting dust covers on pillows and mattresses, desensitizing for dust mite and cockroach allergy, removing eggs from the diet and minimizing chemical exposures would be positive contributions that would either minimize the need for ...
0104 is needed to induce significant PAR-4 expression. As it is unlikely to accumulate such a high concentration of the allergens in the body, upregulated PAR-1 and PAR-4 expression should not play an important role in cockroach allergy. In contrast, Per a 1.0101-induced upregulation of expression of PAR-2 may be involved in cockroach allergy as only 100 ng/ml. of Per a 1.0101 is required to induce significant increase in PAR-2 expression. Activation of PAR-2 has been recognized to play an important role in allergic diseases. Patients with asthma express an increased amount of PAR-2 on respiratory epithelial cells [20], and PAR-2 activation in human airways is associated with contraction learn more Obeticholic Acid of human airways and contributes to the hyperplasia and hyper-responsiveness evident in the asthmatic airway [21]. Furthermore, our results indicate that Per a 1.0101 and Per a 1.0104 are not proteases. Therefore, their actions on PARs should not depend on enzymatic activity. Once ...
Abstract: While the mRNA expression patterns of homeotic genes have been examined in numerous arthropod species, data on their protein accumulation is extremely limited. To address this gap, we analyzed the protein expression pattern of the hox gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) in six hemimetabolous insects from four divergent orders (Thysanura, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera and Hemiptera). Our comparative analysis reveals that the original domain of SCR expression was likely confined to the head and then subsequently moved into the prothorax (T1) in winged insect lineages. The data also show a trend toward the posteriorization of the anterior boundary of SCR expression in the head, which starts in the mandibles (Thysanura) and then gradually shifts to the maxillary (Orthoptera) and labial segments (Dictyoptera and Hemiptera), respectively. In Thermobia (firebrat) and Oncopeltus (milkweed bug) we also identify instances where SCR protein is not detected in regions where mRNA is expressed. This finding ...
J. E. Slater*, R. James, Jacqueline A Pongracic, A. H. Liu, S. Sarpong, H. A. Sampson, S. M. Satinover, J. A. Woodfolk, H. E. Mitchell, P. J. Gergen, P. A. Eggleston ...
To View what will really flourish in his particular garden, instead of breaking his heart over plants that are quite unsuited to his soil and climate, is advice which old gardeners continually find themselves impressing upon the beginner. I am induced to say a few words upon the so-called German Irises, because they are plants so good-natured as to do well in most places - even in town gardens - if treated with a moderate amount of kindness, and, when once planted, left undisturbed. I was told when I began to cultivate these Irises that they were fond of damp, and though I doubted the truth of the statement then, I have no doubt as to its untruth now; mine, at any rate, do best in the dry part of the garden. In damp places, the so-called germanica frequently waste away (that may of course be due to something peculiar in the soil), and are very much disfigured by slugs. I was told, too, that they would grow anywhere, and this is, roughly speaking, true; but they will not flower well unless they ...
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Cockroaches are nocturnal by nature and spend the day hiding in cracks around areas like sinks, drains, cookers and the backs of service ducts. They may be seen if you come home in the dark and put the lights on. They also emit an unpleasant almond like smell - only noticeable if the infestation is large. The cockroach is a small species of cockroach, measuring about 1.3 cm to 1.6 cm (1/2″ to 5/8″) long.. It is tan to light brown, and has two dark parallel streaks running from the head to the base of the wings. Although it has wings, it is unable to sustain flight.Nymphs have a pale area centrally on the dorsal thorax. The cockroach is one of the most common and prominent household cockroaches in the world, and can be found throughout many human settlements in the world. These insects are particularly fond of inhabiting restaurants, food processing facilities, hotel rooms, and nursing homes. In colder climates, it is found only near human habitats. The German cockroach is originally from ...
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Biology: Not such a prolific breeder as the German cockroach, the female usually deposits her egg case within about 30 hours after it is formed. It is either dropped or glued to something in a warm protected area close to a food source, for example; microwaves, ovens and fridge freezers. Development time is dependent upon temperature but it takes a male 575 and a female 602 days on average at room temperature.. Once the treatment has been carried out it is advised that the areas treated cannot be cleaned for at least 2-3 weeks and any dead roaches found after the treatment are left alone as other cockroaches will eat them and ingest the insecticide and die as a result of second generation poisoning.. Habits: In many areas this cockroach can survive quite well outside but does live mostly inside. They are found most times in cellars, voids and anywhere there is readily available food source. They feed on all types of food and decaying organic matter. Cockroaches will also feed on there own ...
Size:. Adults are about 1/2-inch in length.. Color:. Male is light brown. The female may have dark brown wings. Both sexes, however, have the lighter-colored bands running across the wings directly behind the prothorax.. Behavior:. Like all cockroaches that invade buildings, this species prefers to spend much of its time resting in cracks and voids. Most of its activity will occur at night when it feels safe to move about in search of food and water. The brown banded cockroach does not seem to require as much moisture as German cockroaches, and therefore may be found in rooms other than kitchens and bathrooms. Brown banded cockroaches are omnivorous and will eat anything that possesses organic matter, even organic glues used in books and cabinets.. ...
Cockroaches Cockroaches are one of the hardest insects for a homeowner to eradicate and a troubling reoccurrence in apartment buildings. The most common cockroach in homes, apartment buildings and businesses are German Cockroaches. One female can carry an egg capsule … Continue reading →. ...
Two of the groups in our programme (Gabaldón and Guigó) have participated in the analysis of the genomic sequence of the pea aphid Acyrtosiphon pisum, published this week in PLoS Biology. This first published genome of a basal hemimetabolous insect, provides an out-group for comparison with other sequenced insects, and pavesthe way to elucidate molecular mechanisms in. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The structure of liver ribosomes. AU - Kiselev, N. A.. AU - Stelmashchuk Ya., V.. AU - Tsuprun, V. L.. AU - Lerman, M. I.. AU - Abakumova Yu, O.. PY - 1974/12/1. Y1 - 1974/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0016356866&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0016356866&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 4143299. AN - SCOPUS:0016356866. VL - 33. SP - 795. EP - 807. JO - Acta Biologica et Medica Germanica. JF - Acta Biologica et Medica Germanica. SN - 0001-5318. IS - 5-6. ER - ...
self-interest (Fondements de la Connaissance Mystique, p. 50).. [59] Par. xxxiii. 143.. [60] The Monist , July, 1901, p. 572.. [61] The Cloud of Unknowing, cap. vi.. [62] Op. cit., cap. vii.. [63] De Ornatu Spiritalium Nuptiarum, I. ii. cap. v.. [64] See below, Pt. II. Cap. VI.. [65] Plotinus, Ennead vi. 9.. [66] Theologia Germanica, cap. vii. (trans. Winkworth).. [67] Aug. Conf., bk. vii. cap. x.. [68] A. Schmölders, Essai sur les Écoles Philosophique chez les Arabes, p ...
A pretty little Argentinian field roach in the family Blattellidae. We have these guys in the US, too, but you wont find them ... A pretty little Argentinian field roach in the family Blattellidae. We have these guys in the US, too, but you wont find them ...
van Ruijven, B. J., Levy, M. A., Agrawal, A., Biermann, F., Birkmann, J., Carter, T. R., Ebi, K. L., Garschagen, M., Jones, B., Jones, R., Kemp-Benedict, E., Kok, M., Kok, K., Lemos, M. C., Lucas, P. L., Orlove, B., Pachauri, S., Parris, T. M., Patwardhan, A., Petersen, A. & 4 others, Preston, B. L., Ribot, J., Rothman, D. S. & Schweizer, V. J., Feb 2014, In: Climatic Change. 122, 3, p. 481-494 14 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
Animals (Tiere) / Europe / Arthropoda (Gliedertiere) / Hexapoda (Sechsfüßer bzw. Insekten i.w.S.) / Blattodea (Schaben) / Blaberidae
Ectobius cf lucidus Gl nzende Schabe W9 2 - Ectobius_cf__lucidus__Gl__nzende_Schabe_W9_2.jpg
Blattodea: Blattellidae, Blattella germanica.. These are the most common roaches found in houses and restaurants. Most ...
Integrated cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) management in confined swine production In W. H. Robinson, F. Rettich, & G. W ... Prevalence and magnitude of insecticide resistance in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera, Blattellidae) ...
An Balta crassivenosa in nahilalakip ha genus nga Balta, ngan familia nga Blattellidae. Ginklasipika han IUCN an species komo ...
New species of the genus Macrophyllodromia Saussure & Zehntner, 1893 (Dictyoptera: Blattina: Blattellidae) from Ecuador ...
New species of the genus Macrophyllodromia Saussure & Zehntner, 1893 (Dictyoptera: Blattina: Blattellidae) from Ecuador ...
Per luftimin furtareve, mizes se shtepise, e isopterev te ndryshem (Blattellidae, Muscidae, Isoptera), mushkonjave (larvave dhe ...
Blattellidae) extrude the ootheca estrogen receptors ERa and for a few day the load on the can compare with you. Robo arrives ... Blattellidae) extrude the ootheca large above-ground storage tanks on the river and cleaning everything from molasses media ...
Life History and Habitat Associations of the Broad Wood Cockroach, Purcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and Other Native ...
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Repellency of Milled Aromatic Eastern Red Cedar to Domiciliary Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae and Blattidae). ...
  • Introduction: German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Insecta: Blattodea: Blattellidae) is considered one of the most common household pests which can transfer pathogenic agents and also cause allergic reactions. (hmedj.com)
  • Eupelmidae), a parasitoids of Blattella ( Blattella ) germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae) in Iran. (nhm.ac.uk)
  • 1999. Estimating nutritional status of German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), in the field. (herpcenter.com)
  • H. Tunaz, M. K. Er, and A. A. Işikber, "Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils and selected monoterpenoid components against the adult german cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)," Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry , vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 211-217, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Revision of the Sylvestris group of Ectobius Stephens in Europe (Blattaria: Blattellidae). (tolweb.org)
  • Revision of the baetica -group of Phyllodromica in Spain (Blattaria: Blattellidae: Ectobiinae). (tolweb.org)
  • The Australian cockroach genus Choristima Tepper (Blattaria, Blattellidae: Ectobiinae). (tolweb.org)
  • 1997. Revision of the megerlei -group of the cockroach genus Phyllodromica Fieber (Blattaria: Blattellidae, Ectobiinae). (tolweb.org)
  • The cockroach genus Margattea Shelford, with a new species from the Krakatau Islands, and redescription of several species from the Indo-Pacific region (Dictyoptera: Blattaria: Blattellidae). (tolweb.org)
  • The cockroach genus Allacta Saussure & Zehntner (Blattaria: Blattellidae: Pseudophyllodromiinae). (tolweb.org)
  • The cockroach genera Sundablatta Hebard, Pseudophyllodromia Brunner, and Allacta Saussure & Zehntner (Blattaria: Blattellidae, Pseudophyllodromiinae). (tolweb.org)
  • Pseudobalta , a new Australian ovoviviparous cockroach genus (Dictyoptera: Blattaria: Blattellidae: Pseudophyllodromiinae. (tolweb.org)
  • The cockroach genera Shelfordina Hebard, Delosia Bolivar, and Duryodana Kirby (Blattaria: Blattellidae: Pseudophyllodromiinae). (tolweb.org)
  • Blattaria: Blattellidae: Pseudophyllodromiinae). (tolweb.org)
  • Wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae) are important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis Wilson (Piciformes: Picidae), an endangered species inhabiting pine ( Pinus spp. (usda.gov)
  • Sliferia, a new ovoviviparous cockroach genus (Blattellidae) and the evolution of ovoviviparity in Blattaria (Dictyoptera). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ectobiidae (formerly Blattellidae) is a family of the order Blattodea (cockroaches). (wikipedia.org)
  • Blattellidae, cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp. (usda.gov)
  • Sulfluramid resistance and vapor toxicity in field collected German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). (academicjournals.org)
  • Behavioral resistance of field- collected German cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to baits containing glucose. (academicjournals.org)
  • Synergism of Toxicity of N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide to German Cockroaches (Othoptera: Blattellidae) by Hydrolytic Enzyme Inhibitors. (cmaj.ca)
  • Cytochrome P450 MA Expression in Insecticide-Resistant German Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). (entsoc.org)
  • Domiciliary cockroaches include approximately 25 species from the families Blattellidae, Blattidae and Blaberidae. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Changlu Wang , Michael E. Scharf , and Gary W. Bennett "Behavioral and Physiological Resistance of the German Cockroach to Gel Baits (Blattodea: Blattellidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology 97(6), 2067-2072, (1 December 2004). (bioone.org)
  • Blattodea of Kolhapur District with the first record of Supella (Supella) Longipalpa (Blattodea: Blattellidae) for the state of Maharashtra, India. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Blattodea: Blattellidae)" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • We now show that a newly discovered wingless cockroach, Saltoblattella montistabularis (Blattodea, Blattellidae) [ 2 ] from Table Mountain, South Africa has enlarged hind legs that it uses to jump powerfully. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Population genetic structure of the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae) in apartment buildings. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cockroach genus Leuropeltis Hebard (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae: Pseudophyllodromiinae) with a new species from South America. (tolweb.org)
  • The genus Ellipsidion Saussure from New Guinea (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae: Pseudophyllodromiinae). (tolweb.org)
  • Effect of Fipronil on Bait Formulation-Based Aversion in the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). (entsoc.org)
  • The influence of adult females on within-harborage group formation of Blatellagermanica (Dictyoptera Blattellidae). (vt.edu)
  • Development of Diagnostic Insecticide Concentrations and Assessment of Insecticide Susceptibility in German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) Field Strains Collected From Public Housing. (purdue.edu)
  • The Blattellidae is the dominant family in the study area and is represented by 3 species, while the Blattelidae and Blaberidae are represented by 2 and 1 species, respectively. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Philippine cockroach genera Pachnepteryx Stal and Pachneblatta Bey-Bienko (Blattellidae: Pseudophyllodromiinae). (tolweb.org)
  • An Balta crassivenosa in nahilalakip ha genus nga Balta, ngan familia nga Blattellidae. (google-info.pl)

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