Blastula: An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Birthing Centers: Free-standing facilities that provide prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care and usually incorporate family-centered maternity care concepts and practices.Mobile Applications: Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.Health Facility Closure: The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Dictyosteliida: An order of protozoa characterized by their ability to aggregate to form a multicellular pseudoplasmodium, which gives rise to a multispored fruiting body. A stalk tube is present.Myxomycetes: A division of organisms that exist vegetatively as complex mobile plasmodia, reproduce by means of spores, and have complex life cycles. They are now classed as protozoa but formerly were considered fungi.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Mycetozoa: A group of AMOEBOZOA comprising two distinct groups with the ability to form fruiting bodies: DICTYOSTELIIDA (dictyostelid cellular slime molds) and MYXOMYCETES (plasmodial slime molds).Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, MedicalRare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Nuclear Physics: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)AxisMicroscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Silver Proteins: Compounds of silver and proteins used as topical anti-infective agents.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.

Distinct roles for Fgf, Wnt and retinoic acid in posteriorizing the neural ectoderm. (1/172)

Early neural patterning in vertebrates involves signals that inhibit anterior (A) and promote posterior (P) positional values within the nascent neural plate. In this study, we have investigated the contributions of, and interactions between, retinoic acid (RA), Fgf and Wnt signals in the promotion of posterior fates in the ectoderm. We analyze expression and function of cyp26/P450RAI, a gene that encodes retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase, as a tool for investigating these events. Cyp26 is first expressed in the presumptive anterior neural ectoderm and the blastoderm margin at the late blastula. When the posterior neural gene hoxb1b is expressed during gastrulation, it shows a strikingly complementary pattern to cyp26. Using these two genes, as well as otx2 and meis3 as anterior and posterior markers, we show that Fgf and Wnt signals suppress expression of anterior genes, including cyp26. Overexpression of cyp26 suppresses posterior genes, suggesting that the anterior expression of cyp26 is important for restricting the expression of posterior genes. Consistent with this, knock-down of cyp26 by morpholino oligonucleotides leads to the anterior expansion of posterior genes. We further show that Fgf- and Wnt-dependent activation of posterior genes is mediated by RA, whereas suppression of anterior genes does not depend on RA signaling. Fgf and Wnt signals suppress cyp26 expression, while Cyp26 suppresses the RA signal. Thus, cyp26 has an important role in linking the Fgf, Wnt and RA signals to regulate AP patterning of the neural ectoderm in the late blastula to gastrula embryo in zebrafish.  (+info)

Embryogenesis and development of Epimenia babai (Mollusca Neomeniomorpha). (2/172)

Neomenioid aplacophorans (= Solenogastres) constitute one of the main lineages of molluscs. Developmental data of early embryogenesis and larval development of neomenioids are available for some species based on histological sections. I used other techniques to study the development of Epimenia babai Salvini-Plawen, 1997, and here I report new data on neomenioid development. The embryos of E. babai are lecithotrophic and cleavage is spiral, unequal, and holoblastic. Two polar lobes are formed, one at the first cleavage stage and one at the second cleavage stage. No evidence of external metameric iteration is visible through scanning electron microscopy or histology at any stage. A ciliated foot, a pedal pit, and aragonitic spicules develop from the definitive ectoderm. A spicule begins as a solid tip, continues to an open-ended hollow spicule, and finally becomes a closed-ended hollow spicule. The free-swimming trochophore larvae of E. babai have been considered unusual in lacking the characteristic neomenioid cellular test, an outer locomotory structure within which the entire definitive adult body develops. However, through the use of scanning electron and light microscopy, semithin sections, Hoechst nuclear staining, and programmed cell death staining to study the ontogeny and fate of the apical cells, I show that the entire pre-oral sphere (the apical cap) of the larvae is similar to the test of the other neomenioids. The results suggest that the test of the neomenioid larvae is an enlarged pre-oral sphere of a trochophore. The test morphologies of neomenioid larvae are compared to those of pericalymma larvae of protobranch bivalves, and the homology and evolution of molluscan larval tests is discussed.  (+info)

A prospective randomized comparison of sequential versus monoculture systems for in-vitro human blastocyst development. (3/172)

BACKGROUND: Extending the period of in-vitro culture to the blastocyst stage may improve implantation rates in IVF treatment. Recognition of the dynamic nature of early embryo metabolism has led to the development of commercially available sequential culture systems. However, their improved efficacy over monoculture systems remains to be demonstrated in prospective studies. METHODS: Embryos obtained from 158 women undergoing IVF treatment were randomized by sealed envelopes to culture in one of three systems: (A) culture for 5 days in our own monoculture medium (Rotterdam medium); (B) culture for 3 days in Rotterdam medium followed by 2 days in fresh Rotterdam medium; (C) culture for 5 days using the commercially available G1/G2 sequential culture system. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in blastulation, implantation or pregnancy rates between the three tested culture systems. CONCLUSION: The employed monoculture system is as effective as the G1/G2 sequential system for the culture of blastocysts for IVF.  (+info)

Establishment of the organizing activity of the lower endodermal half of the dorsal marginal zone is a primary and necessary event for dorsal axis formation in Cynops pyrrhogaster. (4/172)

The formation of the head and trunk-tail organizers in the dorsal marginal zone (DMZ) of an amphibian embryo is thought to require spatial and temporal interactions between the Nieuwkoop center and the DMZ. Recent studies of the Xenopus embryo suggested that intra-DMZ interaction is also needed to establish the regional specificity of the DMZ. However, it is not yet clarified when and how the final pattern of the head and trunk-tail organizers is established. To analyze the intra-DMZ interactions, we injected suramin into the blastocoel of the mid-blastula of the urodele, Cynops pyrrhogaster, at 6 h prior to the onset of gastrulation. The pigmented blastopore formed normally, but the convergent extension and involution of the DMZ and dorsal axis formation of the embryo were completely inhibited. Expression of gsc, chd and Lim-1 were not maintained, but noggin was unaffected in the suramin-treated embryos. Dorsal axis formation and the expression of these genes of the suramin-treated embryos were rescued by replacing the lower endodermal half of the DMZ (LDMZ) with normal LDMZ. The present results of embryological and molecular examinations indicate that organizing activity of the early Cynops gastrula DMZ is restricted to the LDMZ, and that the organizing activity of the LDMZ is established during the late blastula stages. The results also indicate that LDMZ triggers the sequential interaction within the DMZ that establishes the final pattern of the regional specificity of the DMZ, and that the formation of the LDMZ is a primary and necessary event for dorsal axis formation.  (+info)

T-brain homologue (HpTb) is involved in the archenteron induction signals of micromere descendant cells in the sea urchin embryo. (5/172)

Signals from micromere descendants play a crucial role in sea urchin development. In this study, we demonstrate that these micromere descendants express HpTb, a T-brain homolog of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. HpTb is expressed transiently from the hatched blastula stage through the mesenchyme blastula stage to the gastrula stage. By a combination of embryo microsurgery and antisense morpholino experiments, we show that HpTb is involved in the production of archenteron induction signals. However, HpTb is not involved in the production of signals responsible for the specification of secondary mesenchyme cells, the initial specification of primary mesenchyme cells, or the specification of endoderm. HpTb expression is controlled by nuclear localization of beta-catenin, suggesting that HpTb is in a downstream component of the Wnt signaling cascade. We also propose the possibility that HpTb is involved in the cascade responsible for the production of signals required for the spicule formation as well as signals from the vegetal hemisphere required for the differentiation of aboral ectoderm.  (+info)

Experimental analysis of gravitational effects on amphibian gastrulation. (6/172)

The effects of simulated microgravity on blastopore (Bp) formation were analysed in Xenopus laevis and Cynops pyrrhogaster embryos. Simulated microgravity produced by clinostat rotation shifted the Bp-forming region toward the vegetal pole, more markedly in Cynops embryos than in Xenopus embryos. The simulated microgravity induced aggregation of endoderm cells at the center of the embryo and separation between the endoderm and presumptive mesoderm (PM). These findings suggest that clinostat treatment disrupts cell-to-cell interaction between endoderm and PM by increasing the separation between them and, as a result, Bp formation may be shifted towards the vegetal pole.  (+info)

Beta-catenin/Tcf-regulated transcription prior to the midblastula transition. (7/172)

Following fertilization, the zygotic genome in many organisms is quiescent until the midblastula transition (MBT), when large-scale transcription begins. In Xenopus embryos, for example, transcription is believed to be repressed until the twelfth cell division. Thus, although dorsal-ventral patterning begins during the first cell cycle, little attention has been given to transcriptional regulation in pre-MBT development. We present evidence that regulated transcription begins during early cleavage stages and that the beta-catenin-Tcf complex is required for the transcription of the Xenopus nodal genes Xnr5 and Xnr6 as early as the 256-cell stage. Moreover, inhibition of beta-catenin/Tcf function can block dorsal development, but only if the inhibition begins early and is maintained throughout pre-MBT stages. Dorsal development can be rescued in ventralized embryos if Tcf-dependent transcription is activated prior to MBT, but activation of Tcf after MBT cannot rescue ventralized embryos, suggesting that beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent transcription is required prior to MBT for dorsal-ventral patterning in Xenopus.  (+info)

Activin A induces craniofacial cartilage from undifferentiated Xenopus ectoderm in vitro. (8/172)

Activin A has potent mesoderm-inducing activity in amphibian embryos and induces various mesodermal tissues in vitro from the isolated presumptive ectoderm. By using a sandwich culture method established to examine activin A activity, we previously demonstrated that activin-treated ectoderm can function as both a head and trunk-tail organizer, depending on the concentration of activin A. By using activin A and undifferentiated presumptive ectoderm, it is theoretically possible to reproduce embryonic induction. Here, we test this hypothesis by studying the induction of cartilage tissue by using the sandwich-culture method. In the sandwiched explants, the mesenchymal cell condensation expressed type II collagen and cartilage homeoprotein-1 mRNA, and subsequently, cartilage were induced as they are in vivo. goosecoid (gsc) mRNA was prominently expressed in the cartilage in the explants. Xenopus distal-less 4 (X-dll4) mRNA was expressed throughout the explants. In Xenopus embryos, gsc expression is restricted to the cartilage of the lower jaw, and X-dll4 is widely expressed in the ventral head region, including craniofacial cartilage. These finding suggest that the craniofacial cartilage, especially lower jaw cartilage, was induced in the activin-treated sandwiched explants. In addition, a normal developmental pattern was recapitulated at the histological and genetic level. This work also suggests that the craniofacial cartilage-induction pathway is downstream of activin A. This study presents a model system suitable for the in vitro analysis of craniofacial cartilage induction in vertebrates.  (+info)

*Blastula

... cell implantation could serve to eliminate infertility. The blastula stage of early embryo development begins with the ... Only when the blastocoele is formed does the early embryo become a blastula. The blastula precedes the formation of the ... In mammals the blastula is referred to as a blastocyst. The blastocyst contains an embryoblast (or inner cell mass) that will ... A blastula is a sphere of cells surrounding a blastocoele. The blastocoele is a fluid filled cavity which contains amino acids ...

*Cleavage (embryo)

Cleavage ends with the formation of the blastula. Depending mostly on the amount of yolk in the egg, the cleavage can be ... Embryogenesis Blastocyst Forgács, G.; Newman, Stuart A. (2005). "Cleavage and blastula formation". Biological physics of the ...

*Human embryogenesis

In animals other than mammals, this is called the blastula.) The trophoblasts secrete fluid into the blastocoel. The resulting ... Forgács, G.; Newman, Stuart A. (2005). "Cleavage and blastula formation". Biological physics of the developing embryo. ...

*FGF and mesoderm formation

Patterning the Xenopus blastula. Development 124:4179-91. 4. Heasman J. 2006. Patterning the early Xenopus embryo. Development ... During the blastula and gastrula stages, vegetal cells (the presumptive endoderm), release signals to marginal zone cells ...

*Gastrulation

Note that the blastopore is not an opening into the blastocoel, the space within the blastula, but represents a new inpocketing ... Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is ... Gastrulation takes place after cleavage and the formation of the blastula. Gastrulation is followed by organogenesis, when ... ISBN 978-0-8160-7008-4. Forgács, G. & Newman, Stuart A. (2005). "Cleavage and blastula formation". Biological physics of the ...

*Morula

Cleavage (embryo) Blastula Boklage, Charles E. (2009). How New Humans Are Made: Cells and Embryos, Twins and Chimeras, Left and ...

*Blastocoel

After the blastula hatches from the fertilization envelope, the vegetal side of the blastula begins to flatten and thicken as a ... Embryo Blastula Gilbert 2010, p. [page needed]. Senn et al. 2007. Borland 1977. Kalt 1971. Heasman et al. 1994. Nieuwkoop 1973 ... Even as the blastomeres continue to divide, the blastula remains one-cell thick and thins out as the embryo expands outward. ... At the 120- cell stage, the sea urchin embryo is considered a blastula because of its developed blastocoel, which every ...

*CUB domain

Sea urchin blastula proteins BP10 and SpAN. C. elegans hypothetical proteins F42A10.8 and R151.5. Neuropilin (A5 antigen), a ...

*Starfish

Most starfish embryos hatch at the blastula stage. The original ball of cells develops a lateral pouch, the archenteron. The ...

*Hyalin

Invagination of the blastula occurs when the endoderm loses its affinity towards hyalin, while the ectoderm retains it. This ... Zinc, then, causes an animalizing effect since the binding of the blastula cells would be stronger, while the weaker attachment ... Timourian, H; Watchmaker, G (1975). "The Sea-Urchin Blastula: Extent of Cellular Determination". American Zoologist. 15 (3): ...

*Ectoderm specification

In the early blastula stage of the embryo, Ectodermin mRNA and protein forms a gradient that goes from the animal pole (highest ... The mRNA was then injected into several Xenopus embryos at a four-cell stage and looked in early blastula embryos for an ... A cDNA library from the blastula stage of a frog embryo was cloned into RNA expression plasmids to generate synthetic mRNA. ... It has been proposed that Notch and/or NODAL, expressed in the vegetal/mesoderm region of the early blastula embryo, could ...

*Embryogenesis

After the 7th cleavage has produced 128 cells, the embryo is called a blastula. The blastula is usually a spherical layer of ... The different cells derived from cleavage, up to the blastula stage, are called blastomeres. Depending mostly on the amount of ... The blastocyst must not be confused with the blastula; even though they are similar in structure, their cells have different ... During gastrulation cells migrate to the interior of the blastula, subsequently forming two (in diploblastic animals) or three ...

*Triploblasty

The germ layers form during gastrulation of the blastula. Additionally, the term may refer to any ovum in which the blastoderm ... Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm ...

*Ectoderm

Once this lip has been established, the bottle cells will extend inward and migrate along the inner wall of the blastula known ... It is the animal hemisphere of the blastula that will eventually become the ectoderm. Like the other two germ layers, mesoderm ... Baer also received credit for the discovery of the blastula. Baer published his findings, including his germ layer theory, in a ... a special type of cells called bottle cells invaginates a hole on the surface of the blastula which is called the dorsal lip of ...

*Blastocyst

The morula then develops by cavitation to become the blastula. Cellular differentiation then develops the blastula's cells into ... During human embryogenesis, the blastomeres of the morula continue mitosis and compaction to form the blastula - a hollow ... Approximately 5-6 days after fertilization the blastomeres of the blastula begin to undergo cell differentiation and its ...

*Animal

In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location and develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes ... and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, ... In most animals, embryos pass through a blastula stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals, and which allows for ... A zygote initially develops into a hollow sphere, called a blastula, which undergoes rearrangement and differentiation. ...

*List of animals that have been cloned

This was an important extension of work of Briggs and King in 1952 on transplanting nuclei from embryonic blastula cells. Five ... Robert Briggs & Thomas J. King (May 1952). "Transplantation of Living Nuclei From Blastula Cells into Enucleated Frogs' Eggs". ...

*Regional differentiation

... during late blastula and enriched in the presumptive endodermal cells in late blastula. Notch is both necessary and sufficient ... By the late blastula stage, the Xenopus embryos have a clear dorsal/ventral axis. In the early gastrula, most of the tissue in ... It was observed that β-catenin was present in the nuclei at the vegetal pole of the blastula. Through a series of experiments, ... There are many different developmental potentials throughout the blastula stage embryos. The vegetal cap can give rise to only ...

*Embryoid body

Briggs, R.; King, T. J. (1952). "Transplantation of Living Nuclei from Blastula Cells into Enucleated Frogs' Eggs". Proceedings ...

*Reproductive isolation

... normal segmentation occurs in the blastula but gastrulation fails. Finally, in other crosses, the initial stages are normal but ...

*Glossary of biology

blastocyst A mammalian blastula in which some differentiation of cells has occurred. blood The red liquid that circulates in ...

*Maternal to zygotic transition

"Coupling of zygotic transcription to mitotic control at the Drosophila mid-blastula transition". Development. 136 (12): 2101- ...

*Xenopus

Shared regulatory programs suggest retention of blastula-stage potential in neural crest cells". Science. 348 (6241): 1332-1335 ... morphogenesis Contact inhibition and neural crest cell migration and the generation of neural crest from pluripotent blastula ...

*Mottled anemone

After fertilization, a solid and ciliated blastula is created due to superficial cleavage. Six days following fertilization, a ...

*Pharyngula

Named by William Ballard, the pharyngula stage follows the blastula, gastrula and neurula stages. At the pharyngula stage, all ...
Massive zygotic transcription begins in many organisms during the midblastula transition when the cell cycle of the dividing egg slows down. A few genes are transcribed before this stage but how this differential activation is accomplished is still an open question. We have performed ChIP-seq experiments on tightly staged Drosophila embryos and show that massive recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with widespread pausing occurs de novo during the midblastula transition. However, ∼100 genes are strongly occupied by Pol II before this timepoint and most of them do not show Pol II pausing, consistent with a requirement for rapid transcription during the fast nuclear cycles. This global change in Pol II pausing correlates with distinct core promoter elements and associates a TATA-enriched promoter with the rapid early transcription. This suggests that promoters are differentially used during the zygotic genome activation, presumably because they have distinct dynamic properties. DOI: ...
The midblastula transition (MBT) in Xenopus can be initiated prematurely by blocking the fundamental cell-cycle oscillator with cycloheximide, in which case motility and transcription are quickly initiated. Using various inhibitors of specific events of the cell cycle that do not inhibit the autonomous oscillator, we have shown that transcription is activated when DNA synthesis is interrupted and motility is activated when cell cleavage is inhibited. Furthermore, very low levels of transcription are found to occur before the MBT. These results demonstrate that the pre-MBT egg is fully competent for transcription and motility and suggest that different features of the rapid early cell cycle normally suppress these events ...
mNanog and ventx1/2 overexpression cause similar effects in Xenopus embryos.(A) Four-cell stage embryos (NF3) were injected in both dorsal blastomeres, with a 1
Blastula: Blastula,, hollow sphere of cells, or blastomeres, produced during the development of an embryo by repeated cleavage of a fertilized egg. The cells of the blastula form an
P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) + P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) + P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) + P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) + P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) + P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) + P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) = -p^4 + 2p^ ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant SMARCD3. SMARCD3 (NP_001003801, 385 a.a. ~ 483 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00006604-M01A) - Products - Abnova
blastula definition: An early embryonic form created by cleavage of a fertilized ovum and comprising a spherical layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled hole. Also called blastosphere.; An early type…
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The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate tra
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Difficult TOC samples are no longer a problem with Analytik Jenas multi N/C® series. This series is equipped with special digestion and detection technology. Their robust high-temperature reactor means that no matrix is too extreme and no salt content is too high for the multi N/C® series. These all-rounders are also extremely economical with maintenance-free, sensitive and robust Focus Radiation NDIR detectors and low running costs.
The flexibility, efficiency, and ease of use of the multi N/C ® series from Analytik Jena make it suitable for a wide range of applications. Watch this video to learn how the multi N/C can be used for the simultaneous analysis of the parameters TOC, NPOC, POC, TC, TIC and TN b in solid and liquid samples.
Formula: C32H41N5O5MW: 575. 71CAS: 511-09-1TNP NUMBER: TNP00320MDL NUMBER: MFCD02185004Smiles: O[[email protected]@]12N([[email protected]@H](CC(C)C)C(N3[[email protected]]1(CCC3))=O)C([C](O2)(NC(=O)[[email protected]@H]1C=C2c3c4c(C[[email protected]]2(N(C1)C))c[nH]c4ccc3)C(C)C)=OTHERAPEUTIC CATEGORY: VasoconstrictorVET THERAP CATEGORY: Has been used as an oxytoxicREFERENCE: Larson, B....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nuclear accumulation of Smad complexes occurs only after the midblastula transition in Xenopus. AU - Saka, Yasushi. AU - Hagemann, Anja I.. AU - Piepenburg, Olaf. AU - Smith, James C.. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - Activin and the Nodal-related proteins induce mesendodermal tissues during Xenopus development. These signals act through specific receptors to cause the phosphorylation, at their carboxyl termini, of Smad2 and Smad3. The phosphorylated Smad proteins form heteromeric complexes with Smad4 and translocate into the nucleus to activate the transcription, after the midblastula transition, of target genes such as Xbra and goosecoid (gsc). In this paper we use bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) to study complex formation between Smad proteins both in vivo and in response to exogenous proteins. The technique has allowed us to detect Smad2-Smad4 heteromeric interactions during normal Xenopus development and Smad2 and Smad4 homo- and heteromers in isolated ...
In most organisms, control of the developmental program involves a regulated transition from maternally supplied mRNAs and proteins to newly synthesized zygotically encoded factors. This phenomena, known as the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT), is observed in a wide range of embryos in the animal and plant kingdoms; in chordates, the MZT typically occurs during midblastula stages, and therefore is often referred to as the midblastula transition (MBT). Early development of most organisms is exclusively maternally controlled, and the zygotic genome of the embryo remains transcriptionally silent until after the MBT, when the transition to zygotic control culminates. Recent work in a number of organisms has identified several genes that are activated prior to the MBT, but whether precocious expression of specific mRNAs is important for later development has not been examined in detail. In this work, I characterize the role of a maternal transcription factor in preMBT transcription, and identify a
Transvection. Zygotic Gene Activity in Development. The differentiation of cell types and the formation of organs depend on genes being activated in particular spatial and temporal patterns. Zygotic Gene Expression. Slideshow 6856931 by rose-dudley
Complete information for SMARCD3 gene (Protein Coding), SWI/SNF Related, Matrix Associated, Actin Dependent Regulator Of Chromatin, Subfamily D, Member 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Slovenská národná knižnica si Vás dovoľuje pozvať na celoslovenský seminár Benchmarking verejných knižníc 15. októbra 2019 od 13.00 hod. v konferenčnej sále sídelnej budovy SNK Celoslovenský seminár je určený pre zriaďovateľov a riadiacich pracovníkov knižníc, pre výskumných pracovníkov, metodikov a pre širokú odbornú knihovnícku verejnosť so záujmom o vývoj slovenských verejných knižníc a aktivity Knihovníckeho institutu NK ČR na podporu knižníc. Program 13.00 Prezentácia účastníkov 13.30 - 13.40 Privítanie účastníkov Mgr. Zuzana Prachárová, riaditeľka Knižničného inštitútu SNK 13.40 - 14.40 Benchmarking knihoven a jiné aktivity Knihovnického institutu NK ČR na podporu veřejných knihoven v roku 2019PhDr. Vít Richter, riaditeľ Knihovníckeho institutu NK Praha                 14.40 - 15.50 Analýza podmienok a výkonov slovenských verejných
Coeloblastula n. pl. -lae Gr. koilos, hollow blastos, bud 1. A hollow blastula a blastula without qualification. 2. (PO-RIF Calcarea) The simple type of
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For many organisms, the first goal of embryogenesis is to accumulate a large cell population to accommodate gastrulation. To achieve this quickly, embryos employ specialized cell cycles called cleavages that consist of continuous rounds of DNA replication and division. Cell proliferation occurs rapidly because cleavage cycles lack the gap phases and cell cycle checkpoints found in canonical cell cycles. Further, the genetic materials required to sustain cleavage cycles are preloaded during oogenesis, aiding efficient cell cycle progression. After a constant, organism-specific number of cleavages, many metazoan embryos undergo the mid-blastula transition (MBT), which initiates extensive cell cycle remodeling. Cell cycles lengthen, gap phases appear and checkpoint function is acquired. At the same time, the nearly quiescent zygotic genome is activated and transcriptional activity dramatically increases. This dissertation describes how these simultaneous MBT events are regulated. Chapter 2 addresses how
Nanos is expressed in multipotent cells, stem cells, and primordial germ cells (PGCs) of organisms as diverse as jellyfish and humans. It functions together with Pumilio to translationally repress targeted mRNAs. Here we show by loss-of-function experiments that Xenopus Nanos1 is required to preserve PGC fate. Morpholino knockdown of maternal Nanos1 resulted in a striking decrease in PGCs and loss of germ cells from the gonads. Lineage tracing and TUNEL staining reveals that Nanos1 deficient PGCs fail to migrate out of the endoderm. They appear to undergo apoptosis rather than convert to normal endoderm. Whereas normal PGCs do not become transcriptionally active until neurula, Nanos1 depleted PGCs prematurely express a hyperphosphorylated RNA Pol II-CTD at the mid-blastula transition. Furthermore, they now inappropriately express somatic genes characteristic of endoderm regulated by maternal VegT including Xsox17-alpha, Bix4, Mixer, GATA4, and Edd. We further demonstrate that Pumilio specifically
Vertebrate development requires that cell proliferation be properly coordinated with morphogenesis, the process by which an embryo acquires form, and cell specification, the process by which unique cellular characteristics arise. My work has focused on the investigation of specific genetic networks that we have found to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation during zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. We have identified two genes, wee1 and lmo4b, that are involved in two distinct, proliferative regulatory mechanisms during development. My work demonstrates that wee1 is required for the progression of the cell cycle after the midblastula transition (MBT). Loss of wee1 abolishes a temporally acquired G2/M checkpoint resulting in widespread cell death. We also found that the wee1-dependent G2/M checkpoint is required for a developmentally programmed deceleration of the cell cycle. In addition, my work shows that lmo4b functions in a spatial manner by restricting the expression of the ...
In animals, the development of the zygote into an embryo proceeds through specific recognizable stages of blastula, gastrula, and organogenesis. The blastula stage typically features a fluid-filled cavity, the blastocoel, surrounded by a sphere or sheet of cells, also called blastomeres. In a placental mammal, an ovum is fertilized in a fallopian tube through which it travels into the uterus. An embryo is called a fetus at a more advanced stage of development and up until birth or hatching. In humans, this is from the eleventh week of gestation. However, animals which develop in eggs outside the mothers body, are usually referred to as embryos throughout development; e.g. one would refer to a chick embryo, not a "chick fetus," even at later stages.. During gastrulation the cells of the blastula undergo coordinated processes of cell division, invasion, and/or migration to form two (diploblastic) or three (triploblastic) tissue layers. In triploblastic organisms, the three germ layers are called ...
1. Animals are [ heterotrophs / autotrophs ]. 2. [ All / Most ] animals are multicellular.. 3. The cells in the skin of your hand are [ bigger than / the same size as ] the cells in your heart.. 4. Organisms that have 2 copies of each chromosome are [mobile / diploid ]. 5. The absence of a cell wall allows animals [ mobility / diploidy ]. 6. A hollow ball of cells that forms after fertilization is called a [ blastula / mesoderm ]. 7. In all animals except [ humans / sponges ] a zygote undergoes divisions to become a blastula.. 8. The cells of animals are organized into functional units called [ blastula / tissues ]. Match the tissue layer to the part of the body it ...
Bảo quản cá tra philê bằng cách rửa trong dung dịch acid lactic và ướp trong nước đá - Đối với thí nghiệm khảo sát số lần tái sử dụng nước rửa kết hợp...
Pháp lý thương mại luật đà̂u tư trong nước va đà̂u tư nước ngoài của Indonesia by Indonesia.; 1 edition; First published in 1990; Subjects: Foreign Investments, Investments, Investments, Foreign, Law and legislation; Places: Vietnam
Năm 1950, Glenn T. Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso và Stanley G. Thompson thực hiện việc tấn công các nguyên tử Am241 bằng các ion hêli, tạo ra các nguyên tử có số nguyên tử bằng 97 và là tương tự với terbi trong nhóm Lantan. Do terbi được đặt tên theo làng Ytterby, nơi nó và một vài nguyên tố khác được phát hiện, nên nguyên tố mới này được đặt tên là berkeli theo thành phố (Berkeley) nơi nó được tổng hợp. Tuy nhiên, khi nhóm nghiên cứu tổng hợp nguyên tố số 98, họ không thể nghĩ ra một tên tương ứng với dysprosi, và thay vì thế đặt tên nguyên tố là californi để vinh danh bang nơi nó được tổng hợp. Nhóm nghiên cứu đi tới kết luận là "chỉ ra rằng, để thừa nhận thực tế rằng dysprosi được đặt tên trên cơ sở của từ trong tiếng Hy Lạp nghĩa là khó thu được, rằng các nhà nghiên cứu của nguyên ...
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今日は昼休み中にRDKitのMMPAスクリプトをいじってました。 kzfmさんのブログを拝見させていただいたのがきっかけです。 RDKit_2013_03_2/Contrib/mmpa配下のrfag.pyの切断ルールをRECAP風にアレンジしてみました。 209行目以降 を とします。 これでエーテル、アミド、環状アミン、エステル、芳香環−芳香環、芳香族n−芳香環、スルフォンアミド、芳香環−N−芳香環(buchwald_amination)のボンドのサーチをかけてマッチした部分の結合に関わるアトムインデックスをゲッツします。 エーテルは飽和炭素ー酸素ー飽和炭素のインデックスをとるのでインデックスは前のペアと 後ろのペアを返すようにしました。 同様に芳香環−N−芳香環も同じです。 アミドやエステルはC(=O)N, C(=O
I was reading an article (I forget where) and it stated that the BBers of old ala Schwarzenegger and Mentzer, et al.never used Clomid or Nolva or
Hi all [smile] Im learning loads from the Maybies discussions, but wanted to ask a few dim questions without taking hijacking their thread! Im 16
TY - JOUR. T1 - Undamaged DNA transmits and enhances DNA damage checkpoint signals in early embryos. AU - Peng, Aimin. AU - Lewellyn, Andrea L.. AU - Maller, James L.. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - In Xenopus laevis embryos, the midblastula transition (MBT) at the 12th cell division marks initiation of critical developmental events, including zygotic transcription and the abrupt inclusion of gap phases into the cell cycle. Interestingly, although an ionizing radiation-induced checkpoint response is absent in pre-MBT embryos, introduction of a threshold amount of undamaged plasmid or sperm DNA allows a DNA damage checkpoint response to be activated. We show here that undamaged threshold DNA directly participates in checkpoint signaling, as judged by several dynamic changes, including H2AX phosphorylation, ATM phosphorylation and loading onto chromatin, and Chk1, Chk2 phosphorylation and release from nuclear DNA. These responses on physically separate threshold DNA require γ-H2AX and are ...
Transmembrane signaling of the CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is mediated by CXCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor initially identified in leukocytes and shown to serve as a coreceptor for the entry of HIV into lymphocytes. Characterization of SDF-1- and CXCR4-deficient mice has revealed that SDF-1 and CXCR4 are of vital developmental importance. To study the role of the SDF-1/CXCR4-chemokine/receptor system as a regulator of vertebrate development, we isolated and characterized a cDNA encoding SDF-1 of the lower vertebrate Xenopus laevis (xSDF-1). Recombinant xSDF-1 was produced in insect cells, purified, and functionally characterized. Although xSDF-1 is only 64-66% identical with its mammalian counterparts, it is indistinguishable from human (h)SDF-1alpha in terms of activating both X. laevis CXCR4 and hCXCR4. Thus, both xSDF-1 and hSDF-1alpha promoted CXCR4-mediated activation of heterotrimeric G(i2) in a cell-free system and induced release of intracellular calcium ions ...
Membrane potential and resistance were measured in eggs, cleavage stages and blastulae of the South African toad Xenopus laevis, using intracellular microelectrodes.. The membrane potential increased from −6·5 ± 2mV in eggs to −57 ± 8·0mV at the mid-blastula stage.. The input resistance of fertile eggs ranged from 0·5 MΩ to 5·0 MΩ corresponding to a specific resistance of 20-200kΩcm2. During the first two or three division cycles the input resistance usually decreased by a factor of 2-10 and then subsequently rose during the blastula stages from a mean value of 600 ± 100kΩ at stage 5 to 2·0 ± 0·5 MΩ at stage 8.. At all developmental stages examined, point polarization of a surface cell in the embryo by rectangular current pulses of 0·5−6 × 10−8 A produced voltage deflexions in other surface cells. This was seen even when several (7-8) cell junctions intervened between the current passing and voltage recording microelectrodes at distances of more than 1 mm. These ...
Taken together, these studies will reveal how the transcriptional machinery competes with chromatin assembly to regulate transcription, not only during genome activation but potentially also during differentiation and reprogramming.. 2. The role of chromatin structure and nuclear architecture in genome activation. Chromatin regulates the accessibility of the genome for DNA binding proteins. Changes in chromatin structure and nuclear organization are thus critical to understanding how regions of the genome become transcriptionally competent. We have previously shown that dramatic changes in chromatin structure accompany the onset of zygotic gene expression (Vastenhouw et al., Nature 2010 PMID: 20336069; Zhang et al., GR 2014 PMID: 24285721). Thus, the onset of transcription during genome activation provides a powerful system to study the relationship between chromatin structure and transcriptional activity.. We have recently found that transcriptional activity and accumulation of the produced RNA ...
Introduction to Animals Worksheet Circle the correct response. 1. Animals are [ heterotrophs / autotrophs ] 2. [ All / Most ] animals are multicellular. 3. The cells in the skin of your hand are [ bigger than / the same size as ] the cells in your heart. 4. Organisms that have 2 copies of each chromosome are [mobile / diploid ] 5. The absence of a cell wall allows animals [ mobility / diploidy ] 6. A hollow ball of cells that forms after fertilization is called a [ blastula / mesoderm ] 7. In all animals except [ humans / sponges ] a zygote undergoes divisions to become a blastula. 8. The cells of animals are organized into functional units called [ blastula / tissues ] Matching: ...
was studied in under laboratory conditions at a water temperature of 25-26 ℃, salinity of 30, and pH of 7.8-8.4. The embryogenesis of Portunus pelagicus was divided into six stages: cleavage, blastula, gastrula, nauplius, metanauplius, and protozoea. Embryogenesis lasted about 300 h post spawning. Eggs began superficial cleavage about 28 h after spawning when the nucleus appeared at the surface of the egg till the egg divided into 16 cells. The blastula stage was observed about 40 h post spawning and gastrula stage appeared when the presumptive endoderm and other cells near them invaginated. The fourth-stage of embryogenesis, nauplius, was characterized by three pairs of appendages appearing about 90 h post spawning, while metanauplius, the fifth-stage of embryogenesis, was characterized by five pairs of appendages, which appeared about 110 h post spawning. The sixth stage of embryogenesis was protozoea, which was characterized by seven pairs of appendages appearing about 140 h post spawning. ...
Standard protocols were used (Sambrook et al., 1989).. Hsp83-lacZ transgenes. The following approach was taken to generate the series of lacZ-Hsp83 3′‐UTR constructs that include the 5′‐Hsp83 enhancer sequences and promoter (Figure 3B). Previous reports (Kim‐Ha et al., 1993) suggested that a full‐length lacZ ORF might not be completely transcribed in vivo. Therefore, we inserted the Hsp83 3′‐UTR fragments downstream of a truncated lacZ tag. We accomplished this by constructing pB83Z, a Bluescript subclone that contains all of the Hsp83 5′ upstream region, the first exon, the intron and the first 111 codons of the ORF fused to 603 bp of lacZ sequence (Halsell, 1995). At the 3′ end of the lacZ sequence are AatII, HindIII and KpnI cloning sites for inserting the Hsp83 3′‐UTR fragments. The template for the PCR was Eco9, an 8 kb EcoRI fragment subcloned in Bluescript that contains the full‐length Hsp83 transcription unit. 5′ Fragments of the 3′‐UTR were PCR amplified ...
Common Atom functions. module Language.Atom.Common ( -- * Timers Timer , timer , startTimer , startTimerIf , timerDone -- * One Shots , oneShotRise , oneShotFall -- * Debouncing , debounce -- * Lookup Tables , lookupTable -- * Hysteresis , hysteresis ) where import Data.Word import Language.Atom.Language -- , A Timer. data Timer = Timer (V Word64) -- , Creates a new timer. timer :: Name -, Atom Timer timer name = do timer ,- word64 name 0 return $ Timer timer -- , Starts a Timer. A timer can be restarted at any time. startTimer :: Timer -, E Word64 -, Atom () startTimer t = startTimerIf t true -- , Conditionally start a Timer. startTimerIf :: Timer -, E Bool -, E Word64 -, Atom () startTimerIf (Timer t) a time = t ,== mux a (clock + time) (value t) -- , True when a timer has completed. timerDone :: Timer -, E Bool timerDone (Timer t) = value t ,=. clock -- , One-shot on a rising transition. oneShotRise :: E Bool -, Atom (E Bool) oneShotRise a = do last ,- bool "last" False last ,== a return $ ...
Pham, M N; Kolb, H; Battelino, T; Ludvigsson, J; Pozzilli, P; Zivehe, F; Roden, M; Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Schloot, N C (2013). Fasting and meal-stimulated residual beta cell function is positively associated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and negatively associated with anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines in patients with longer term type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia, 56(6):1356-1363.. Kaas, A; Pfleger, C; Hansen, L; Buschard, K; Schloot, N C; Roep, B O; Mortensen, H B; Schoenle, E J (2010). Association of adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-1ra, inducible protein 10, IL-6 and number of islet autoantibodies with progression patterns of type 1 diabetes the first year after diagnosis. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 161(3):444-452.. Burkart, V; Siegenthaler, R K; Blasius, E; Vandenbroeck, K; Alloza, I; Fingberg, W; Schloot, N C; Christen, P; Kolb, H (2010). High affinity binding of hydrophobic and autoantigenic regions of proinsulin to the 70 kDa chaperone DnaK. BMC ...
Obtain a slide of a whitefish blastula for observation of the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Since early embryogenesis involves rapid cellular division, the whitefish blastula has long served as a model of mitotic division in animals. It also has the advantage of demonstrating clear spindle formation in the cytoplasm. ...
Looking for endodermic? Find out information about endodermic. in biology, inner layer of tissue formed in the gastrula stage of the developing embryo. At the end of the blastula stage, cells of the embryo are arranged... Explanation of endodermic
Thông tin Thống đốc Ngân hàng Nhà nước Lê Minh Hưng đưa ra khi trả lời chất vấn của đại biểu Quốc hội cuối tuần qua cho thấy, một lượng vốn lớn của dân cư trú ẩn trong vàng, ngoại tệ trước đây quả thực đã chuyển hóa. Theo đó, không nhất thiết phải huy động nguồn lực vàng, ngoại tệ trong dân cư bằng huy động và cho vay mà có thể dẫn tới nhiều bất ổn như trước đây. Thay vào đó, với tác động của chính sách tiền tệ, thị trường chứng khoán cũng đang kích thích nguồn lực tưởng như nằm im đó.
Gastrulation: | | ||| | Gastrulation occurs when a blastula, made up of one la... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Biology Assignment Help, Emboly - mechanism of gastrulation, EMBO L Y - The embolic morphogenetic movements are concerned with the inward migration of prospective endodermal and mesodermal blastomeres from the external surface of blastula. The movement of mesodermal and endodermal blastomers may take
VITAMÍN C 1000 STAR Vitamín C 1000 Star je vitamínový doplnok, ktorý obsah výťažok z rastliny ruže šípovej (Rosa canina), ktorá obsahuje 10 násobne viac vitamínu C ako citróny. Patrí .. popis produktu >> ...
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:babydust1:Why does it take 50 million sperm to fertilize one egg?:babydust1: Because they wont ask for directions either! August 1st - AnnieJ 2nd - page 76
The gastric avoid is actually completed through separating the actual belly right into a scaled-down top part along with a bigger reduce part as well as
The first 12 cell divisions of Xenopus laevis embryos do not require gene transcription. This means that the regulation of gene expression during this period is controlled at post transcriptional levels and makes Xenopus early development a potentially interesting biological system with which to study the mechanisms involved. We describe here the stability characteristics of several maternal Xenopus mRNAs which are deadenylated soon after fertilisation (J. Paris and M. Philippe, Dev. Biol., in press). We show that these mRNAs were only degraded in the embryo after the midblastula transition (MBT), when gene transcription was initiated. The kinetics with which the deadenylated maternal mRNAs decreased in the post-MBT embryos showed sequence specificity. The degradation of these mRNAs after the MBT was inhibited by cycloheximide but was not affected by dactinomycin. Therefore, the destabilization of these mRNAs does not appear to be initiated by new embryonic gene transcripts. Sequence comparisons ...
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a well-recognized model for the study of vertebrate developmental genetics, yet at the same time little is known about the transcriptional events that underlie zebrafish embryogenesis. Here we have employed microarray analysis to study the temporal activity of developmentally regulated genes during zebrafish embryogenesis. Transcriptome analysis at 12 different embryonic time points covering five different developmental stages (maternal, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, and pharyngula) revealed a highly dynamic transcriptional profile. Hierarchical clustering, stage-specific clustering, and algorithms to detect onset and peak of gene expression revealed clearly demarcated transcript clusters with maximum gene activity at distinct developmental stages as well as co-regulated expression of gene groups involved in dedicated functions such as organogenesis. Our study also revealed a previously unidentified cohort of genes that are transcribed prior to the mid-blastula transition,
In animals, the blastula develops in one of two ways that divides the whole animal kingdom into two halves. If in the blastula the first pore (blastopore) becomes the mouth of the animal, it is a protostome; if the first pore becomes the anus then it is a deuterostome. The protostomes include most invertebrate animals, such as insects, worms and molluscs, while the deuterostomes includes more advanced animals including the vertebrates. In due course, the blastula changes into a more differentiated structure called the gastrula.. ...
immune Adenylyl Cyclase 1166393-85-6, Rabbit polyclonal to smad7 Ocean urchin mesenchyme is composed of the huge micromere-derived spiculogenetic main mesenchyme cells (PMC), vegetables2-rate macromere-derived non-spiculogenetic mesenchyme cells, the little micromere-derived bacteria cells, and the macro- and mesomere-derived neuronal mesenchyme cells. Number 2. Schematic procedure of EMT in main 1166393-85-6 mesenchyme cell (PMC) development at the vegetal dish of going swimming blastula centered on transmitting electron microscope pictures. (1) Presumptive PMC (blue; G) in the vegetal ectoderm have an apical cilium (C) that lengthen … The ocean urchin embryos are encapsulated in 2 organizations of extracellular matrices (ECM): the extra-embryonic matrix (hyaline coating and apical Rabbit polyclonal to smad7 lamina) and the blastocoelar matrix (basal lamina and blastocoelar matrix). The matrices collection the embryonic epithelium and possess been well recorded along with their molecular ...
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Biology Assignment Help, Gastrulation, Gastrulation The end of cleavage of the unicellular zygote results in the creation of multicellular blastula, which may be a solid structure with no a cavity (stereoblastula), or its cells might be arranged in the form of a one cell or several
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Looking for Periblastula? Find out information about Periblastula. The blastula of a centrolecithal egg, formed by superficial segmentation. a stage in the embryonic development of most arthropods having centrolecithal... Explanation of Periblastula
The ultra compact Type-0 timer uses a red back light LCD display in a black control unit case. Set a time anywhere from 10 seconds to 10 minutes and dont worry about your car getting stolen; the timer has an easy to hook up kill switch function. You ...
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在很多地方,莧屬植物的一些種類也被作為蔬菜來種植和食用。其中至少包括:三色莧、凹頭莧和反枝莧。[5]. 在印度尼西亞和馬來西亞,莧菜的葉子被稱為bayam,而在菲律賓的塔加洛語中,這類植物叫作kulitis或者callaloo。成熟的莧菜的根也是很好的蔬菜,常常和西紅柿或者羅望子做的滷汁一起烹製。在中國,莧菜的葉子和莖常被用於炒著吃或者入湯。在越南,莧屬植物被稱為rau dền,主要用於做湯。其中有兩個種類最為常見,分別叫作dền đỏ(三色莧)和dền cơm(或者dền trắng)(皺果莧)。. 在東非,莧的葉子在齊切瓦語中被稱為Bonongwe,在斯瓦希里語中叫mchicha,在卡姆巴語中叫Telele,在使用班圖語支的烏干達地區被稱作Doodo。[6] ...
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Cu o activitate de aproape 15 ani în Câmpina, căutăm mereu se ne îmbunătățim și să ne lărgim gamă de servicii medicale oferite, să oferim pacienților un mediu modern și sigur pentru desfășurarea actului medical.... Citește în continuare ...
Thông tư 10/2001/TT-BYT của Bộ Y tế về việc hướng dẫn việc đầu tư của nước ngoài trong lĩnh vực khám, chữa bệnh tại Việt Nam
Peter McCluskey , caffeine O CH3 [email protected] , ,, , http://www.rahul.net/pcm , H3C C N , \ / \ / \ , N C C , ,, ,, C C---N // \ / O N , CH3 ...
Treatments that enhance oral or aboral specification are carried out in embryos in which normal vegetal specification occurs and there is a background of endogenous signaling. To isolate the effects of treatments, we have produced embryos in which vegetal signaling is blocked by co-injection ofΔ -cadherin RNA. Embryos in which Antivin or BMP is co-expressed withΔ -cadherin form permanent blastulae with a thickened animal plate. These embryos are like the Δ-cadherin-only controls; SpNK2.1 is expressed in the thickened ectoderm and up to 50 serotonergic neurons differentiate (Fig. 5A-C; Antivin, 82% of 106 embryos; BMP, 90% of 104 embryos with phenotype). Co-expression of Nodal withΔ -cadherin produces permanent blastulae that have a broad, thickened animal plate. The animal plate ectoderm expresses SpNK2.1 and SpHnf6, as in embryos injected with Δ-cadherin alone (Fig. 5D,E). However, there are only a few serotonergic cells that differentiate (Fig. 5F; 99% of 156 embryos with this phenotype). ...
Initiation of motile cell behavior in embryonic development occurs during late blastula stages when gastrulation begins. At this stage, the strong adhesion of blastomeres has to be modulated to enable dynamic behavior, similar to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions. We show that, in zebrafish maternal and zygotic (MZ)spg embryos mutant for the stem cell transcription factor Pou5f1/Oct4, which are severely delayed in the epiboly gastrulation movement, all blastomeres are defective in E-cadherin (E-cad) endosomal trafficking, and E-cad accumulates at the plasma membrane. We find that Pou5f1-dependent control of EGF expression regulates endosomal E-cad trafficking. EGF receptor may act via modulation of p120 activity. Loss of E-cad dynamics reduces cohesion of cells in reaggregation assays. Quantitative analysis of cell behavior indicates that dynamic E-cad endosomal trafficking is required for epiboly cell movements. We hypothesize that dynamic control of E-cad trafficking is essential to ...
Hỏi: Chào bác sĩ, em có dự định đi độn cằm. Theo tìm hiểu, em được biết độn cằm bằng sụn tự thân là một dịch vụ thẩm mỹ làm đẹp được nhiều người quan tâm. Nhưng em còn khá băn khoăn, về độ an toàn cũng cách thực hiện của phương pháp này. Bác sĩ tư vấn giúp em với. Cảm ơn bác sĩ! (Phương - Quận 2). Trả lời:Đầu tiên, Thẩm mỹ viện Bác sĩ Ngô Mộng Hùng cảm ơn bạn đã tin tưởng và gửi câu hỏi về chuyên mục độn cằm. Với thắc mắc của bạn, chúng tôi gửi đến bạn một số thông tin xoay quanh
I have been informed by a reliable source - via the BBC - that the Docu-drama The Sinking of the Laconia is going to reach our screens on 6 and 7 of January 2011. It will be on BBC at 9pm each night.
Differential association of chromatin proteins identifies BAF60a/SMARCD1 as a regulator of embryonic stem cell differentiation ...
Rabbit polyclonal SMARCD3 antibody validated for WB and tested in Mouse. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
A series of [(R′‐C^N^C‐R′′)Pt(L)] complexes with doubly deprotonated cyclometalated R′‐C^N^C‐R′′ ligands (R′‐C^N^C‐R′′=2,6‐diphenylpyridine derivatives ...
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Đặt sự an toàn và thoải mái của khách hàng lên trên hết". Chúng tôi mang đến cho bạn những mẫu khuyên cao cấp nhất, cùng đội ngũ piercer có kĩ thuật cao, nhiều năm kinh nghiệm trong nghề.. ...
Bài viết tông cúc Heliantheae này vẫn còn sơ khai. Bạn có thể giúp Wikipedia bằng cách mở rộng nội dung để bài được hoàn chỉnh hơn. ...
Formula: C22H25ClN2O9MW: 496. 9CAS: 2058-46-0TNP NUMBER: TNP00363MDL NUMBER: MFCD00135815IUPAC: (4S,5S,6S,12aS,4aR,5aR)-4-(dimethylamino)-3,5,6,10,12,12a-hexahydroxy-6-methyl -1,11-dioxo-4,5,6,12a,4a,5a-hexahydronaphthacene-2-carboxamide, chlorideSmiles: C1(C(=O)N)=C([[email protected]]([[email protected]]2([C](C(O)=C3C(c4c(O)cccc4[[email protected]]([[email protected]@H]3([[email protected]@H]2O))(O)C)=O)(O)C1=O))N(C)C)O....
hnyplraU. v" .<-nIt U 1 UNtv.J! all! Mill i e... ..fi. arid ,,v I It...*rct .\It..m.y Jf.ro. I II Ip II. r..-;. am.! ..11 rv II:11I:1rnrrl..n: : ,. In i n C.MM, d!. aT! of nail and thf nfft. A wirerklnie; train was at one ...
Vanden Brande, P., Lucas, S., Winand, R., Weymeersch, A. & Renard, L., 6 déc. 1995, CIB n ° C23C 14/ 56 A I, Brevet n ° EP0685571, Date de priorité 2 juin 1994, Numéro de priorité BE19940000552. Résultats de recherche: brevet › Brevet ...
While it may be an old timer in the tuner world, the Dodge Challenger is still getting plenty of 2009 SEMA show limelight. The Challenger package as a whole works well and as you can see, a few notable SEMA tuners tend to agree.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mesenchyme cells can function to induce epithelial cell proliferation in starfish embryos. AU - Hamanaka, Gen. AU - Matsumoto, Midori. AU - Imoto, Masaya. AU - Kaneko, Hiroyuki. PY - 2010/3. Y1 - 2010/3. N2 - Here, we show that mesenchyme cells have a novel morphogenetic function in epithelial cell proliferation in starfish embryos. Blastula embryos were injected with pure populations of mesenchyme cells and the total cell numbers in the treated embryos were subsequently determined at different developmental stages. When a total of 40-50 mesenchyme cells was injected, total cells numbers in mid-gastrula embryos and 3-day-old bipinnaria larvae increased significantly (by 1.3-fold) compared with controls, with no indication of any mitotic activity in the injected mesenchyme cells. However, injection of more than 150 mesenchyme cells failed to induce proliferation of the epithelial cells and, moreover, interfered with normal morphogenesis. These developmental abnormalities occurred ...
Another major clue we have is that between generations in mammals, DNA methylation patterns, including many imprinting and X-inactivation marks, are largely erased and then re-created to various levels of fidelity at several key stages. The first is a genetic reboot consisting of deliberate demethylation and remethylation during gametogenesis. The next two happen first in pre-implantation period of the zygote and then in the blastula stage where the CpG islands are shielding from a bulk methylation wave so that a global repression phase allows housekeeping genes to be deployed through the entire blastula. After that, methylation patterns become tissue and cell type specific to permit stable differentiation. ...
Isolated animal halves of a germ will produce a larva with a large apical tuft, but without gut and skeleton; isolated vegetative halves will grow into a larva with a large gut, and an irregular skeleton, but without either apical tuft or band of cilia (Fig. 15). Evidently, the potency 50 POLARITY AND SYMMETRY; for the formation of a gut decreases from the vegetative to- wards the animal pole, whereas that for the formation of an apical tuft decreases in the opposite direction. When cell groups from different parts of the germ are brought together, more or less normal larvae will result even from highly abnormal combinations of blastomeres, so long as cells with animal and cells with vegetative potencies are present in balanced proportions. Such a disturb- ance can be caused by centrifuging the egg. Under the in- fluence of the centrifugal force, the materials of the egg are arranged according to their specific gravity. The lighter substances (especially the fats) are accumulated at the centri- ...
Đây là một trong những cách dưỡng da tốt nhất cho làn da bị mụn và bị hao tổn do môi trường. Bạn có thể sử dụng nhiều loại mặt nạ đắp mặt từ thiên nhiên khác nhau, tuy nhiên bạn chỉ nên lựa chọn các loại mặt nạ phù hợp nhất với làn da của mình. Hãy xuy sét cẩn thận khi lựa chọn loại mặt nạ vì nó có thể gây kích ứng da khi bạn sử dụng đấy.. Thời gian tốt nhất để đắp mặt nạ là khoảng 15 phút, đừng để mặt nạ đắp mặt quá lâu vì nó có thể sẽ gây biến chất các loại vitamin và chất dưỡng da có trong mặt nạ. Bạn cũng có thể tận dụng khoảng thời gian đắp mặt nạ để thư giãn hoặc xem phim giải trí.. Một số loại mặt nạ đắp mặt tốt cho làn da như dưa leo, ngọc trai, bùn …có thể phù hợp với đại đa số làn da của bạn. Một số nhãn hiệu mặt nạ tốt ...
Đây là một trong những cách dưỡng da tốt nhất cho làn da bị mụn và bị hao tổn do môi trường. Bạn có thể sử dụng nhiều loại mặt nạ đắp mặt từ thiên nhiên khác nhau, tuy nhiên bạn chỉ nên lựa chọn các loại mặt nạ phù hợp nhất với làn da của mình. Hãy xuy sét cẩn thận khi lựa chọn loại mặt nạ vì nó có thể gây kích ứng da khi bạn sử dụng đấy.. Thời gian tốt nhất để đắp mặt nạ là khoảng 15 phút, đừng để mặt nạ đắp mặt quá lâu vì nó có thể sẽ gây biến chất các loại vitamin và chất dưỡng da có trong mặt nạ. Bạn cũng có thể tận dụng khoảng thời gian đắp mặt nạ để thư giãn hoặc xem phim giải trí.. Một số loại mặt nạ đắp mặt tốt cho làn da như dưa leo, ngọc trai, bùn …có thể phù hợp với đại đa số làn da của bạn. Một số nhãn hiệu mặt nạ tốt ...
Saroj Clinic in Roop Nagar, Delhi. Book Appointment, Consult Doctors Online, View Doctor Fees, Contact Number, Address for Saroj Clinic - Dr. N C Gupta | Lybrate
I am not sure if this is even a valid bug; my brother killed another player in Stendhal 1.05 (private server) some time ago and he was waiting for the 2-week-expiration. He told me that apparently the timer has been reset to 2 weeks whenever he bought an outfit ( http://stendhalgame.org/wiki/Stendhal_Games#Hiring_special_outfits ) and that outfit expired. It might also have been a server restart which resetted the timer. Whatever it was: if he is right and didnt attack anyone, there seems to be a bug which resets the timer.. I know that bug reports like this one are not as helpful as others, but if this is a valid bug, the report might help anyway. ;-). ToBeFree ...
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After a dozen years of use, our washing machine no longer works during what should be the spin cycle. The timer will need replacement, but can be given a...
im 36 yrs old. been working out hard for over 7 years. only anabolic ive ever taken was megaplexx. im about to start my first true anabolic. deca/250
Antoine Peters is Group Leader at the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research in Basel. His group is interested in the epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the heritability of cell identity of stem cells and during cellular differentiation and that safeguard genome stability. In particular, his group aims at understanding the role of and molecular interplay between histone methyltransferases, Polycomb group proteins and DNA methyltransferases in epigenetic (re)programming in mouse in-vitro systems as well as in pre-implantation and early post-implantation embryos. Towards these goals, his group performs gain- and loss-of-function studies in stem cells, in germ cells in which gene deficiency is induced at specific stages of their development, as well as in pre- and post-implantation embryos conditionally deficient for maternal and/or zygotic gene expression of epigenetic regulators. As functional readouts, the group analyzes the formation and function of heterochromatin, gene ...
Embryonic Stage **[[Stage 1]] **Cleavage ***[[Stage 2]] ***[[Stage 3]] ***[[Stage 4]] ***[[Stage 5]] ***[[Stage 6]] **Blastula ***[[Stage 7]] ***[[Stage 8]] ***[[Stage 9]] **Gastrula ***[[Stage 10]] ***[[Stage 11]] ***[[Stage 12]] **Neurula ***[[Stage 13]] ***[[Stage 14]] ***[[Stage 15]] ***[[Stage 16]] ***[[Stage 17]] ***[[Stage 18]] ***[[Stage 19]] ***[[Stage 20]] ***[[Stage 21]] **Tailbud ***Early tailbud ****[[Stage 22]] ****[[Stage 23]] ****[[Stage 24]] ****[[Stage 25]] ****[[Stage 26]] ****[[Stage 27]] ****[[Stage 28]] ***Late tailbud ****[[Stage 29/30,Stage 29 and 30]] ****[[Stage 31]] ****[[Stage 32]] ****[[Stage 33/34,Stage 33 and 34]] ****[[Stage 35/36,Stage 35 and 36]] ****[[Stage 37/38,Stage 37 and 38]] ****[[Stage 39]] ****[[Stage 40]] ****[[Stage 41]] ****[[Stage 42]] ****[[Stage 43]] ****[[Stage 44]] **Tadpole ***Premetamorphosis ****[[Stage 45]] ****[[Stage 46]] ****[[Stage 47]] ****[[Stage 48]] ****[[Stage 49]] ****[[Stage 50]] Digitized images and developmental data from ...
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Next, we examined corticocortical input from secondary motor cortex (M2, located in the anterior frontal cortex). For this, we injected M2 with AAV-ChR2-Venus and spinal cord with retrograde tracer. Subsequently, in M1 slices, we recorded from labeled CSPs and obtained sCRACM maps of input from the ChR2-expressing M2 axons. On average, and again similar to S2, M2 provided strong perisomatic input (Fig. 6D). Unlike S2, M2 axons provided input to the apical tufts of CSPs in a depth-dependent manner (Fig. 6E). Specifically, the relative amplitude of M2 input to the distal-most apical tuft (0-275 μm below the pia; see Fig. 6E, arrows) fell as a function of soma depth (Fig. 6F). The data points were fit by a straight line with negative slope (R2 = 0.55; −7.6 mm−1 [−10.9 to −4.3, 95% CI]; p = 0.00013). Applying this analysis to S2 inputs showed no depth dependence (R2 = 0.12; −1.5 mm−1 [−6.6 to 3.7, 95% CI]; p = 0.57). These results suggest that, whereas CSPs at different depths receive ...
The levels of trehalose and the activity of trehalase during the development of Ascaris suum eggs were investigated. The level of trehalose in the zygote was high (2.96 ± 0.07 mg/g). During cleavage of eggs, it decreased (0.91 ± 0.35 mg/g). A higher concentration of the sugar was recorded at the blastula and during gastrulation, but it did not reach the uncleaved eggs level. In the early motile larvae, the concentration of trehalose was high (4.58 ± 2.01 mg/g). It decreased with development of L1 larvae (3.10 ± 1.47 mg/g). A rapid increase in trehalose reserves was observed between the L1 and L2 stages. The highest content of trehalose was found in invasive L2 larvae (5.78 ± 1.39 mg/g).. The activity of trehalase at the zygote stage was high (560.22 ± 322.31 U/mg). It decreased at the beginning of cleavage. It was the lowest at the 4-6-cell stage (189.76 ± 114.97 U/mg). An increase in the enzyme activity occurred after reaching the blastula stage (348.44 ± 343.34 U/mg). The highest ...
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Blastula | biology | Britannica.comBlastula | biology | Britannica.com

Blastula,, hollow sphere of cells, or blastomeres, produced during the development of an embryo by repeated cleavage of a ... a hollow ball called a blastula. In most mammals the blastula attaches itself to the uterine lining, thus stimulating the ... More About Blastula. 4 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *embryonic development* In embryo ... Blastula, hollow sphere of cells, or blastomeres, produced during the development of an embryo by repeated cleavage of a ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/blastula

Blastula - WikipediaBlastula - Wikipedia

Blastula cell implantation could serve to eliminate infertility. The blastula stage of early embryo development begins with the ... Only when the blastocoele is formed does the early embryo become a blastula. The blastula precedes the formation of the ... In mammals the blastula is referred to as a blastocyst. The blastocyst contains an embryoblast (or inner cell mass) that will ... A blastula is a sphere of cells surrounding a blastocoele. The blastocoele is a fluid filled cavity which contains amino acids ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blastula

Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs eggs | PNASTransplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs' eggs | PNAS

Some of these blastulae were fixed. The remainder developed as shown in table 2. Of the complete blastulae the majority (74%) ... Development of Blastulae Derived from Enucleated Eggs Injected with Blastula Cell Nuclei ... A blastula or early gastrula (St. 8 to 10, Shumway11), placed in the same dish, is then opened up and one of the subsurface ... The total volume of the donor blastula cell is about 2 ×10−4 cu. mm., while the average volume of the pipiens egg is about 3.4 ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/38/5/455.full

Definition for blastulaDefinition for blastula

blastula definition: An early embryonic form created by cleavage of a fertilized ovum and comprising a spherical layer of cells ... Definition for "blastula"*An early embryonic form created by cleavage of… ... How would you define blastula?. All the definitions on AZdictionary were written by people just like you. Nows your chance to ... Urban Dictionary for "blastula"*Early phase of fetal development composed… ...
more infohttps://www.azdictionary.com/definition/blastula

Xenopus Anatomy Ontology: Summary for blastula stage 
	Xenopus Anatomy Ontology: Summary for blastula stage

Name: blastula stage XAO Id: 1000003 Definition: Embryonic stage during which the solid morula acquires an internal cavity, ...
more infohttp://www.xenbase.org/anatomy/showstage.do?method=displayStageSummary&stageId=5

Shared regulatory programs suggest retention of blastula-stage potential in neural crest cells | ScienceShared regulatory programs suggest retention of blastula-stage potential in neural crest cells | Science

From blastula to neural crest, do not pass go. During vertebrate development, neural crest cells give rise to an unusual ... We suggest that neural crest cells may have evolved as a consequence of a subset of blastula cells retaining activity of the ... Here, we describe shared molecular underpinnings of potency in neural crest and blastula cells. We show that in Xenopus, key ... Buitrago-Delgado et al. now show that neural crest cells have components of the molecular programs characteristic of blastula ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/348/6241/1332

Generation of Ectopic Morphogen Gradients in the Zebrafish Blastula | Springer for Research & DevelopmentGeneration of Ectopic Morphogen Gradients in the Zebrafish Blastula | Springer for Research & Development

... cells of the early blastula animal pole are all equivalent and are fully pluripotent until the midblastula transition that ... Morphogen Gradient Zebrafish Blastula Injection Cell transplantation Bead implantation Embryoid bodies This is a preview of ... Fauny JD, Thisse B, Thisse C (2009) The entire zebrafish blastula-gastrula margin acts as an organizer dependent on the ratio ... In the zebrafish embryo, cells of the early blastula animal pole are all equivalent and are fully pluripotent until the ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-8772-6_7

Blastula definitionBlastula definition

... the early developmental stage of an animal, following the morula stage and consisting of a single, ... blastula. (blāschə-lə). Plural blastulas or blastulae (blāschə-lē). An animal embryo at the stage immediately following the ... Definithing > Dictionary > b > Blastula. Blastula. the early developmental stage of an animal, following the morula stage and ... blastula [(blas-chuh-luh)]. Note: This is the stage of development where embryonic stems cells can be harvested for medical ...
more infohttps://definithing.com/define-dictionary/blastula/

A transition from SoxB1 to SoxE transcription factors is essential for progression from pluripotent blastula cells to neural...A transition from SoxB1 to SoxE transcription factors is essential for progression from pluripotent blastula cells to neural...

Neural crest cells and blastula cells have similar gene expression profiles *Buitrago-Delgado E., Nordin K., Rao A., Geary L ... A transition from SoxB1 to SoxE transcription factors is essential for progression from pluripotent blastula cells to neural ... A transition from SoxB1 to SoxE transcription factors is essential for progression from pluripotent blastula cells to neural ... B) In situ hybridization examining Sox8, Sox9, and Sox10 expression in wildtype Xenopus embryos collected between blastula and ...
more infohttps://prelights.biologists.com/highlights/transition-soxb1-soxe-transcription-factors-essential-progression-pluripotent-blastula-cells-neural-crest-cells/

Animal Reproduction and Development - Vocabulary - Course HeroAnimal Reproduction and Development - Vocabulary - Course Hero

blastula. the stage of animal embryo development that consists of a hollow ball of cells surrounding a central cavity ... the structure formed from the blastula that has three distinct layers of cells and body axes ...
more infohttps://www.coursehero.com/sg/introduction-to-biology/animal-reproduction-and-development/vocabulary/

Gap junctions composed of connexins 41.8 and 39.4 are essential for colour pattern formation in zebrafish | eLifeGap junctions composed of connexins 41.8 and 39.4 are essential for colour pattern formation in zebrafish | eLife

At a minimum, this needs to be provided for the blastula transplant experiments, which are often somewhat noisy, yet many of ... differentiation defect? Were the chimeric transplants (i.e. nac;pfe;leo-tk3) done with GFP labelled blastula cells, which could ... differentiation defect? Were the chimeric transplants (i.e. nac;pfe;leo-tk3) done with GFP labelled blastula cells, which could ... Blastula transplantations. Request a detailed protocol Chimeric animals were generated by transplantations of cells during ...
more infohttps://elifesciences.org/articles/05125

Embryonic development - WikipediaEmbryonic development - Wikipedia

Formation of the blastulaEdit. After the 7th cleavage has produced 128 cells, the embryo is called a blastula.[2] The blastula ... The different cells derived from cleavage, up to the blastula stage, are called blastomeres. Depending mostly on the amount of ... The blastocyst must not be confused with the blastula; even though they are similar in structure, their cells have different ... During gastrulation cells migrate to the interior of the blastula, subsequently forming two (in diploblastic animals) or three ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embryogenesis

Maturation and spawning in fish | The Fish SiteMaturation and spawning in fish | The Fish Site

In the fish blastula, the areas which are destinied to give rise to the organs of the dorsal region of the animal, tends to be ... Cleavage and the Formation of Blastula. The development of an egg begins soon after it is fertilized by a sperm. The egg of ... It is possible to identify various regions of the blastula wall that are destined to give rise to specific organs in the embryo ... The space between the blastoderm and periblast is the blastocoel and the embryo now is in the blastula stage. The blastoderm ...
more infohttps://thefishsite.com/articles/maturation-and-spawning-in-fish

The 8 Main Characteristics of AnimalsThe 8 Main Characteristics of Animals

Only true animals experience the next stage: the formation of a blastula, a hollow sphere of multiple cells surrounding an ... Its only when cells are enclosed in a blastula that they start differentiating into different tissue types, as described in ... a blastula stage of development, motility, heterotrophy and possession of an advanced nervous system. ...
more infohttps://www.thoughtco.com/the-main-animal-characteristics-4086505

The maternal-to-zygotic transition: a play in two acts | DevelopmentThe maternal-to-zygotic transition: a play in two acts | Development

The early mitoses eventually produce a blastula or `ball of cells (in most amphibians and echinoderms) or a peripheral layer ... Early cleavage divisions and the mid-blastula transition. In most metazoans, following the completion of meiosis and the fusion ... mid-blastula transition (MBT; see Box 2). In D. melanogaster, the MBT also involves the introduction of a gap phase, which ... the early blastula stage, the early gastrula stage and beyond (Wei et al., 2006). Interestingly, in the sea urchin, although ...
more infohttp://dev.biologists.org/content/136/18/3033

Advances in sea cucumber aquaculture and managementAdvances in sea cucumber aquaculture and management

The development of A. japonicus includes six major phases: fertilized oocytes, early development (including cleavage, blastula ... The blastula is ciliated and rotates actively. After about 2 to 3 h, the hatched embryo gradually elongates and moves to the ... C the fertilized eggs require about 45 minutes to begin to divide themselves and finally develop into a blastula (Table 1). ...
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Search | The Embryo Project EncyclopediaSearch | The Embryo Project Encyclopedia

Frog Embryo in the Blastula Stage. Illustration of the animal-vegetal gradient in Xenopus laevis ( African clawed frog) eggs ...
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Blastula (biology) - Image Blastula. biology. Media (1 Image). blastula. VIEW MORE in these related Britannica articles: Three ... Blastula (biology) Blastula, hollow sphere of cells, or blastomeres, produced during the development of an embryo by repeated ... Other articles where Blastocoel is discussed: blastula: …enclosing a fluid-filled cavity, the blastocoel. After the blastula ... In addition, protein synthesis up to the blastula stage (up to a much earlier stage in the mammalian embryo) is directed by the ...
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Evolutionary plasticity of developmental gene regulatory network architecture | PNASEvolutionary plasticity of developmental gene regulatory network architecture | PNAS

D) Early blastula. (E) Blastula. Gcm is not expressed within the vegetal plate, but rather in cells scattered within the ... A-C) delta. (A) Blastula stage. (B) Early gastrula stage. (C) Larval stage. Delta is expressed in the central vegetal plate in ... C) Vegetal pole view of foxa expression in a blastula-stage embryo in which one of two blastomeres of the two-cell embryo was ... A and B) Vegetal views of blastula-stage embryos in which one of the first two blastomeres had been injected with a MASO ...
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Dachsous1b cadherin regulates actin and microtubule cytoskeleton during early zebrafish embryogenesis | DevelopmentDachsous1b cadherin regulates actin and microtubule cytoskeleton during early zebrafish embryogenesis | Development

Abnormal Nodal signaling in MZdchs1b mutant blastulae. The YSL is a source of signals that induce and pattern germ layers ( ... Whereas MZdchs2stl1/stl1 mutants progressed through cleavage and blastula stages normally, compared with time-matched WT ... Vertebrate embryogenesis is initiated by egg activation and fertilization, followed by cell cleavages generating the blastula, ... epiboly WT blastulae (Chen and Schier, 2001; Erter et al., 1998; Feldman et al., 1998; Sampath et al., 1998), and discontinuous ...
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Difference between revisions of B - EmbryologyDifference between revisions of "B" - Embryology

morula -, blastula -, gastrula. (More? blastocyst , Week 1). blighted ovum. (missed abortion, early fetal loss) A historic term ... blastula. (Greek, blastos = sprout = little sprout) A stage of an animal embryo that consists of a fluid-filled sphere of cells ... The opening formed by the gastrulating cell migration in early blastula to gastrula development.. (More? Week 2 , Week 3 , frog ... The blastocyst contains an inner embryoblast (inner cell mass), which is homologous to the blastula. However, it also includes ...
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  • When the water temperature ranges from 21 to 24 °C the fertilized eggs require about 45 minutes to begin to divide themselves and finally develop into a blastula (Table 1). (fao.org)
  • Disclaimer: Blastula definition / meaning should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. (definithing.com)
  • The mid-blastula transition is also characterised by a marked increase in transcription of new, non-maternal mRNA transcribed from the genome of the organism. (wikipedia.org)