An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
Members of the transforming growth factor superfamily that play a role in pattern formation and differentiation during the pregastrulation and GASTRULATION stages of chordate development. Several nodal signaling ligands are specifically involved in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during development. The protein group is named after a critical region of the vertebrate embryo PRIMITIVE STREAK referred to as HENSEN'S NODE.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.
A species of SEA URCHINS in the family Strongylocentrotidae found on the Pacific coastline from Alaska to Mexico. This species serves as a major research model for molecular developmental biology and other fields.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Strongylocentrotidae with a hemicyclic apical disk and short spines.
A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
A genus of aquatic newts belonging to the family Salamandridae and sometimes referred to as "spiny" tritons. There are two species P. waltlii and P. poireti. P. waltlii is commonly used in the laboratory. Since this genus adapts to aquarium living, it is easy to maintain in laboratories.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A chromogenic substrate that permits direct measurement of peptide hydrolase activity, e.g., papain and trypsin, by colorimetry. The substrate liberates p-nitroaniline as a chromogenic product.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Echinidae found primarily on the western coasts of Ireland.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subclass are expressed in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and may play a role in vasculogenesis.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A family of VERTEBRATE homeodomain proteins that share homology with orthodenticle protein, Drosophila. They regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and play an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the BRAIN.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)

Distinct roles for Fgf, Wnt and retinoic acid in posteriorizing the neural ectoderm. (1/172)

Early neural patterning in vertebrates involves signals that inhibit anterior (A) and promote posterior (P) positional values within the nascent neural plate. In this study, we have investigated the contributions of, and interactions between, retinoic acid (RA), Fgf and Wnt signals in the promotion of posterior fates in the ectoderm. We analyze expression and function of cyp26/P450RAI, a gene that encodes retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase, as a tool for investigating these events. Cyp26 is first expressed in the presumptive anterior neural ectoderm and the blastoderm margin at the late blastula. When the posterior neural gene hoxb1b is expressed during gastrulation, it shows a strikingly complementary pattern to cyp26. Using these two genes, as well as otx2 and meis3 as anterior and posterior markers, we show that Fgf and Wnt signals suppress expression of anterior genes, including cyp26. Overexpression of cyp26 suppresses posterior genes, suggesting that the anterior expression of cyp26 is important for restricting the expression of posterior genes. Consistent with this, knock-down of cyp26 by morpholino oligonucleotides leads to the anterior expansion of posterior genes. We further show that Fgf- and Wnt-dependent activation of posterior genes is mediated by RA, whereas suppression of anterior genes does not depend on RA signaling. Fgf and Wnt signals suppress cyp26 expression, while Cyp26 suppresses the RA signal. Thus, cyp26 has an important role in linking the Fgf, Wnt and RA signals to regulate AP patterning of the neural ectoderm in the late blastula to gastrula embryo in zebrafish.  (+info)

Embryogenesis and development of Epimenia babai (Mollusca Neomeniomorpha). (2/172)

Neomenioid aplacophorans (= Solenogastres) constitute one of the main lineages of molluscs. Developmental data of early embryogenesis and larval development of neomenioids are available for some species based on histological sections. I used other techniques to study the development of Epimenia babai Salvini-Plawen, 1997, and here I report new data on neomenioid development. The embryos of E. babai are lecithotrophic and cleavage is spiral, unequal, and holoblastic. Two polar lobes are formed, one at the first cleavage stage and one at the second cleavage stage. No evidence of external metameric iteration is visible through scanning electron microscopy or histology at any stage. A ciliated foot, a pedal pit, and aragonitic spicules develop from the definitive ectoderm. A spicule begins as a solid tip, continues to an open-ended hollow spicule, and finally becomes a closed-ended hollow spicule. The free-swimming trochophore larvae of E. babai have been considered unusual in lacking the characteristic neomenioid cellular test, an outer locomotory structure within which the entire definitive adult body develops. However, through the use of scanning electron and light microscopy, semithin sections, Hoechst nuclear staining, and programmed cell death staining to study the ontogeny and fate of the apical cells, I show that the entire pre-oral sphere (the apical cap) of the larvae is similar to the test of the other neomenioids. The results suggest that the test of the neomenioid larvae is an enlarged pre-oral sphere of a trochophore. The test morphologies of neomenioid larvae are compared to those of pericalymma larvae of protobranch bivalves, and the homology and evolution of molluscan larval tests is discussed.  (+info)

A prospective randomized comparison of sequential versus monoculture systems for in-vitro human blastocyst development. (3/172)

BACKGROUND: Extending the period of in-vitro culture to the blastocyst stage may improve implantation rates in IVF treatment. Recognition of the dynamic nature of early embryo metabolism has led to the development of commercially available sequential culture systems. However, their improved efficacy over monoculture systems remains to be demonstrated in prospective studies. METHODS: Embryos obtained from 158 women undergoing IVF treatment were randomized by sealed envelopes to culture in one of three systems: (A) culture for 5 days in our own monoculture medium (Rotterdam medium); (B) culture for 3 days in Rotterdam medium followed by 2 days in fresh Rotterdam medium; (C) culture for 5 days using the commercially available G1/G2 sequential culture system. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in blastulation, implantation or pregnancy rates between the three tested culture systems. CONCLUSION: The employed monoculture system is as effective as the G1/G2 sequential system for the culture of blastocysts for IVF.  (+info)

Establishment of the organizing activity of the lower endodermal half of the dorsal marginal zone is a primary and necessary event for dorsal axis formation in Cynops pyrrhogaster. (4/172)

The formation of the head and trunk-tail organizers in the dorsal marginal zone (DMZ) of an amphibian embryo is thought to require spatial and temporal interactions between the Nieuwkoop center and the DMZ. Recent studies of the Xenopus embryo suggested that intra-DMZ interaction is also needed to establish the regional specificity of the DMZ. However, it is not yet clarified when and how the final pattern of the head and trunk-tail organizers is established. To analyze the intra-DMZ interactions, we injected suramin into the blastocoel of the mid-blastula of the urodele, Cynops pyrrhogaster, at 6 h prior to the onset of gastrulation. The pigmented blastopore formed normally, but the convergent extension and involution of the DMZ and dorsal axis formation of the embryo were completely inhibited. Expression of gsc, chd and Lim-1 were not maintained, but noggin was unaffected in the suramin-treated embryos. Dorsal axis formation and the expression of these genes of the suramin-treated embryos were rescued by replacing the lower endodermal half of the DMZ (LDMZ) with normal LDMZ. The present results of embryological and molecular examinations indicate that organizing activity of the early Cynops gastrula DMZ is restricted to the LDMZ, and that the organizing activity of the LDMZ is established during the late blastula stages. The results also indicate that LDMZ triggers the sequential interaction within the DMZ that establishes the final pattern of the regional specificity of the DMZ, and that the formation of the LDMZ is a primary and necessary event for dorsal axis formation.  (+info)

T-brain homologue (HpTb) is involved in the archenteron induction signals of micromere descendant cells in the sea urchin embryo. (5/172)

Signals from micromere descendants play a crucial role in sea urchin development. In this study, we demonstrate that these micromere descendants express HpTb, a T-brain homolog of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. HpTb is expressed transiently from the hatched blastula stage through the mesenchyme blastula stage to the gastrula stage. By a combination of embryo microsurgery and antisense morpholino experiments, we show that HpTb is involved in the production of archenteron induction signals. However, HpTb is not involved in the production of signals responsible for the specification of secondary mesenchyme cells, the initial specification of primary mesenchyme cells, or the specification of endoderm. HpTb expression is controlled by nuclear localization of beta-catenin, suggesting that HpTb is in a downstream component of the Wnt signaling cascade. We also propose the possibility that HpTb is involved in the cascade responsible for the production of signals required for the spicule formation as well as signals from the vegetal hemisphere required for the differentiation of aboral ectoderm.  (+info)

Experimental analysis of gravitational effects on amphibian gastrulation. (6/172)

The effects of simulated microgravity on blastopore (Bp) formation were analysed in Xenopus laevis and Cynops pyrrhogaster embryos. Simulated microgravity produced by clinostat rotation shifted the Bp-forming region toward the vegetal pole, more markedly in Cynops embryos than in Xenopus embryos. The simulated microgravity induced aggregation of endoderm cells at the center of the embryo and separation between the endoderm and presumptive mesoderm (PM). These findings suggest that clinostat treatment disrupts cell-to-cell interaction between endoderm and PM by increasing the separation between them and, as a result, Bp formation may be shifted towards the vegetal pole.  (+info)

Beta-catenin/Tcf-regulated transcription prior to the midblastula transition. (7/172)

Following fertilization, the zygotic genome in many organisms is quiescent until the midblastula transition (MBT), when large-scale transcription begins. In Xenopus embryos, for example, transcription is believed to be repressed until the twelfth cell division. Thus, although dorsal-ventral patterning begins during the first cell cycle, little attention has been given to transcriptional regulation in pre-MBT development. We present evidence that regulated transcription begins during early cleavage stages and that the beta-catenin-Tcf complex is required for the transcription of the Xenopus nodal genes Xnr5 and Xnr6 as early as the 256-cell stage. Moreover, inhibition of beta-catenin/Tcf function can block dorsal development, but only if the inhibition begins early and is maintained throughout pre-MBT stages. Dorsal development can be rescued in ventralized embryos if Tcf-dependent transcription is activated prior to MBT, but activation of Tcf after MBT cannot rescue ventralized embryos, suggesting that beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent transcription is required prior to MBT for dorsal-ventral patterning in Xenopus.  (+info)

Activin A induces craniofacial cartilage from undifferentiated Xenopus ectoderm in vitro. (8/172)

Activin A has potent mesoderm-inducing activity in amphibian embryos and induces various mesodermal tissues in vitro from the isolated presumptive ectoderm. By using a sandwich culture method established to examine activin A activity, we previously demonstrated that activin-treated ectoderm can function as both a head and trunk-tail organizer, depending on the concentration of activin A. By using activin A and undifferentiated presumptive ectoderm, it is theoretically possible to reproduce embryonic induction. Here, we test this hypothesis by studying the induction of cartilage tissue by using the sandwich-culture method. In the sandwiched explants, the mesenchymal cell condensation expressed type II collagen and cartilage homeoprotein-1 mRNA, and subsequently, cartilage were induced as they are in vivo. goosecoid (gsc) mRNA was prominently expressed in the cartilage in the explants. Xenopus distal-less 4 (X-dll4) mRNA was expressed throughout the explants. In Xenopus embryos, gsc expression is restricted to the cartilage of the lower jaw, and X-dll4 is widely expressed in the ventral head region, including craniofacial cartilage. These finding suggest that the craniofacial cartilage, especially lower jaw cartilage, was induced in the activin-treated sandwiched explants. In addition, a normal developmental pattern was recapitulated at the histological and genetic level. This work also suggests that the craniofacial cartilage-induction pathway is downstream of activin A. This study presents a model system suitable for the in vitro analysis of craniofacial cartilage induction in vertebrates.  (+info)

Massive zygotic transcription begins in many organisms during the midblastula transition when the cell cycle of the dividing egg slows down. A few genes are transcribed before this stage but how this differential activation is accomplished is still an open question. We have performed ChIP-seq experiments on tightly staged Drosophila embryos and show that massive recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with widespread pausing occurs de novo during the midblastula transition. However, ∼100 genes are strongly occupied by Pol II before this timepoint and most of them do not show Pol II pausing, consistent with a requirement for rapid transcription during the fast nuclear cycles. This global change in Pol II pausing correlates with distinct core promoter elements and associates a TATA-enriched promoter with the rapid early transcription. This suggests that promoters are differentially used during the zygotic genome activation, presumably because they have distinct dynamic properties. DOI: ...
The midblastula transition (MBT) in Xenopus can be initiated prematurely by blocking the fundamental cell-cycle oscillator with cycloheximide, in which case motility and transcription are quickly initiated. Using various inhibitors of specific events of the cell cycle that do not inhibit the autonomous oscillator, we have shown that transcription is activated when DNA synthesis is interrupted and motility is activated when cell cleavage is inhibited. Furthermore, very low levels of transcription are found to occur before the MBT. These results demonstrate that the pre-MBT egg is fully competent for transcription and motility and suggest that different features of the rapid early cell cycle normally suppress these events ...
mNanog and ventx1/2 overexpression cause similar effects in Xenopus embryos.(A) Four-cell stage embryos (NF3) were injected in both dorsal blastomeres, with a 1
Blastula: Blastula,, hollow sphere of cells, or blastomeres, produced during the development of an embryo by repeated cleavage of a fertilized egg. The cells of the blastula form an
Hmm, not sure I should keep checking back here. I didnt say I didnt like the arguments in the CCC and Ive quoted them earlier in the comments.. I have argued this based on the merits. There is a difference between a kid and a few cells together in a human life blastula-unless that blastula is ensouled.. If you believe the blastula is ensouled, then it follows correctly for you that the blastula is a kid.. If you arent sure when the blastula is ensouled, and the fact that there are fertilized embryos that fall through without implantation leads a person considering IVF to doubt that the blastula is a kid because makes you wonder why God would co-create a soul into a blastula that wasnt willed by him to implant, then it follow that person considering IVF would not agree with you that the blastula is a kid.. If a person considers obedience to Church teaching as paramount to obeying Christ, then whether that person has doubts or not as to the blastula being a person, the person would obey and ...
P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) + P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) + P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) + P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) + P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) + P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) + P(C1 n C2 n C3 n C4) = -p^4 + 2p^ ...
The development of multi-cellular organisms begins from a single-celled zygote, which undergoes rapid cell division to form the blastula. The rapid, multiple rounds of cell division are termed cleavage. After the cleavage has produced over 100 cells, the embryo is called a blastula. The blastula is usually a spherical layer of cells (the blastoderm) surrounding a fluid-filled or yolk-filled cavity (the blastocoel). Mammals at this stage form a structure called the blastocyst, characterized by an inner cell mass that is distinct from the surrounding blastula. During cleavage, the cells divide without an increase in mass; that is, one large single-celled zygote divides into multiple smaller cells. Each cell within the blastula is called a blastomere.. Cleavage can take place in two ways: holoblastic (total) cleavage or meroblastic (partial) cleavage. The type of cleavage depends on the amount of yolk in the eggs. In placental mammals (including humans) where nourishment is provided by the mothers ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant SMARCD3. SMARCD3 (NP_001003801, 385 a.a. ~ 483 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00006604-M01A) - Products - Abnova
blastula definition: An early embryonic form created by cleavage of a fertilized ovum and comprising a spherical layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled hole. Also called blastosphere.; An early type…
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The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate tra
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Formula: C32H41N5O5MW: 575. 71CAS: 511-09-1TNP NUMBER: TNP00320MDL NUMBER: MFCD02185004Smiles: O[[email protected]@]12N([[email protected]@H](CC(C)C)C(N3[[email protected]]1(CCC3))=O)C([C](O2)(NC(=O)[[email protected]@H]1C=C2c3c4c(C[[email protected]]2(N(C1)C))c[nH]c4ccc3)C(C)C)=OTHERAPEUTIC CATEGORY: VasoconstrictorVET THERAP CATEGORY: Has been used as an oxytoxicREFERENCE: Larson, B....
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Nuclear accumulation of Smad complexes occurs only after the midblastula transition in Xenopus. AU - Saka, Yasushi. AU - Hagemann, Anja I.. AU - Piepenburg, Olaf. AU - Smith, James C.. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - Activin and the Nodal-related proteins induce mesendodermal tissues during Xenopus development. These signals act through specific receptors to cause the phosphorylation, at their carboxyl termini, of Smad2 and Smad3. The phosphorylated Smad proteins form heteromeric complexes with Smad4 and translocate into the nucleus to activate the transcription, after the midblastula transition, of target genes such as Xbra and goosecoid (gsc). In this paper we use bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) to study complex formation between Smad proteins both in vivo and in response to exogenous proteins. The technique has allowed us to detect Smad2-Smad4 heteromeric interactions during normal Xenopus development and Smad2 and Smad4 homo- and heteromers in isolated ...
Modified from: Kimmel et al., 1995. Developmental Dynamics 203:253-310. Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Reprinted only by permission of Wiley-Liss, a subsidiary of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. We use the term blastula to refer to the period when the blastodisc begins to look ball-like, at the 128-cell stage, or 8th zygotic cell cycle, and until the time of onset of gastrulation, ca. cycle 14. Important processes occur during this blastula period; the embryo enters midblastula transition (MBT), the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) forms, and epiboly begins. Epiboly continues during the gastrulation period. Stereoblastula would be more a appropriate term than blastula to describe the period, for it means no blastocoele is present, which is the case (Fig. 8). Only small irregular extracellular spaces exist between the deep cells of the blastodisc. The orientation of the cleavage planes is indeterminate, and they are much less regularly arranged than they were during the cleavage period. The daughter ...
In most organisms, control of the developmental program involves a regulated transition from maternally supplied mRNAs and proteins to newly synthesized zygotically encoded factors. This phenomena, known as the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT), is observed in a wide range of embryos in the animal and plant kingdoms; in chordates, the MZT typically occurs during midblastula stages, and therefore is often referred to as the midblastula transition (MBT). Early development of most organisms is exclusively maternally controlled, and the zygotic genome of the embryo remains transcriptionally silent until after the MBT, when the transition to zygotic control culminates. Recent work in a number of organisms has identified several genes that are activated prior to the MBT, but whether precocious expression of specific mRNAs is important for later development has not been examined in detail. In this work, I characterize the role of a maternal transcription factor in preMBT transcription, and identify a
Transvection. Zygotic Gene Activity in Development. The differentiation of cell types and the formation of organs depend on genes being activated in particular spatial and temporal patterns. Zygotic Gene Expression. Slideshow 6856931 by rose-dudley
mouse SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 1 SMARCD1 antibody validated for Immunoprecipitation,Microarray
Complete information for SMARCD3 gene (Protein Coding), SWI/SNF Related, Matrix Associated, Actin Dependent Regulator Of Chromatin, Subfamily D, Member 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Slovenská národná knižnica si Vás dovoľuje pozvať na celoslovenský seminár Benchmarking verejných knižníc 15. októbra 2019 od 13.00 hod. v konferenčnej sále sídelnej budovy SNK Celoslovenský seminár je určený pre zriaďovateľov a riadiacich pracovníkov knižníc, pre výskumných pracovníkov, metodikov a pre širokú odbornú knihovnícku verejnosť so záujmom o vývoj slovenských verejných knižníc a aktivity Knihovníckeho institutu NK ČR na podporu knižníc. Program 13.00 Prezentácia účastníkov 13.30 - 13.40 Privítanie účastníkov Mgr. Zuzana Prachárová, riaditeľka Knižničného inštitútu SNK 13.40 - 14.40 Benchmarking knihoven a jiné aktivity Knihovnického institutu NK ČR na podporu veřejných knihoven v roku 2019PhDr. Vít Richter, riaditeľ Knihovníckeho institutu NK Praha                 14.40 - 15.50 Analýza podmienok a výkonov slovenských verejných
Coeloblastula n. pl. -lae Gr. koilos, hollow blastos, bud 1. A hollow blastula a blastula without qualification. 2. (PO-RIF Calcarea) The simple type of
Resumen Introducci n: Reportes en la literatura muestran que los Hijos de Padres con Trastorno Bipolar tipo I (HPTB) manifiestan un amplio rango de trastornos psiqui tricos. La comparaci n entre los HPTB y los Hijos de Padres Control (HPC) permite establecer cu les hallazgos psicopatol gicos son espec ficos de este grupo de alto riesgo. Objetivo: Comparar las caracter sticas psicopatol gicas entre un grupo de HPTB tipo I y un grupo de HPC, mediante la identificaci n de la presencia de trastornos psiqui tricos seg n el DSM-IV-TR. Metodolog a: Se realiz un estudio descriptivo-correlacional, comparativo de corte transversal con 127 Hijos de Padres con TAB tipo I (HPTB-I) dentro de un programa de intervenci n multimodal (PRISMA) y 150 HPC, con edades entre los seis y 30 a os. Los sujetos fueron evaluados con entrevistas diagn sticas validados (K-SADS-PL y DIGS). Resultados: El grupo de HPTB mostr mayor frecuencias de trastorno bipolar (Raz n de Prevalencia [RP] = 17,70; Intervalo de Confianza [IC] ...
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For many organisms, the first goal of embryogenesis is to accumulate a large cell population to accommodate gastrulation. To achieve this quickly, embryos employ specialized cell cycles called cleavages that consist of continuous rounds of DNA replication and division. Cell proliferation occurs rapidly because cleavage cycles lack the gap phases and cell cycle checkpoints found in canonical cell cycles. Further, the genetic materials required to sustain cleavage cycles are preloaded during oogenesis, aiding efficient cell cycle progression. After a constant, organism-specific number of cleavages, many metazoan embryos undergo the mid-blastula transition (MBT), which initiates extensive cell cycle remodeling. Cell cycles lengthen, gap phases appear and checkpoint function is acquired. At the same time, the nearly quiescent zygotic genome is activated and transcriptional activity dramatically increases. This dissertation describes how these simultaneous MBT events are regulated. Chapter 2 addresses how
goosecoid is an immediate early gene expressed at the dorsal blastoporal lip of the Xenopus gastrula. Microinjection experiments have suggested a direct role for goosecoid in organizing the dorsoventral axis of the frog embryo. Here we characterize the zebrafish homologue of goosecoid (gsc) and compare its expression to that of Brachyury or no tail (ntl), another immediate early gene required in developing mesoderm. We show that gsc exhibits two independent phases of expression: an early one in cells anterior to the presumptive notochord, but not in cells of the notochord itself, and a later one in neural crest derivatives in the larval head. Zygotic gsc transcripts are detected soon after the midblastula transition, and at the blastula stage form a gradient with a maximum at the dorsal side. Use of gsc as a dorsal marker allowed us to demonstrate that ntl expression is initially activated at the dorsal side of the blastula. At this early stage, gsc and ntl show overlapping domains of expression ...
Nanos is expressed in multipotent cells, stem cells, and primordial germ cells (PGCs) of organisms as diverse as jellyfish and humans. It functions together with Pumilio to translationally repress targeted mRNAs. Here we show by loss-of-function experiments that Xenopus Nanos1 is required to preserve PGC fate. Morpholino knockdown of maternal Nanos1 resulted in a striking decrease in PGCs and loss of germ cells from the gonads. Lineage tracing and TUNEL staining reveals that Nanos1 deficient PGCs fail to migrate out of the endoderm. They appear to undergo apoptosis rather than convert to normal endoderm. Whereas normal PGCs do not become transcriptionally active until neurula, Nanos1 depleted PGCs prematurely express a hyperphosphorylated RNA Pol II-CTD at the mid-blastula transition. Furthermore, they now inappropriately express somatic genes characteristic of endoderm regulated by maternal VegT including Xsox17-alpha, Bix4, Mixer, GATA4, and Edd. We further demonstrate that Pumilio specifically
Vertebrate development requires that cell proliferation be properly coordinated with morphogenesis, the process by which an embryo acquires form, and cell specification, the process by which unique cellular characteristics arise. My work has focused on the investigation of specific genetic networks that we have found to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation during zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. We have identified two genes, wee1 and lmo4b, that are involved in two distinct, proliferative regulatory mechanisms during development. My work demonstrates that wee1 is required for the progression of the cell cycle after the midblastula transition (MBT). Loss of wee1 abolishes a temporally acquired G2/M checkpoint resulting in widespread cell death. We also found that the wee1-dependent G2/M checkpoint is required for a developmentally programmed deceleration of the cell cycle. In addition, my work shows that lmo4b functions in a spatial manner by restricting the expression of the ...
In animals, the development of the zygote into an embryo proceeds through specific recognizable stages of blastula, gastrula, and organogenesis. The blastula stage typically features a fluid-filled cavity, the blastocoel, surrounded by a sphere or sheet of cells, also called blastomeres. In a placental mammal, an ovum is fertilized in a fallopian tube through which it travels into the uterus. An embryo is called a fetus at a more advanced stage of development and up until birth or hatching. In humans, this is from the eleventh week of gestation. However, animals which develop in eggs outside the mothers body, are usually referred to as embryos throughout development; e.g. one would refer to a chick embryo, not a chick fetus, even at later stages.. During gastrulation the cells of the blastula undergo coordinated processes of cell division, invasion, and/or migration to form two (diploblastic) or three (triploblastic) tissue layers. In triploblastic organisms, the three germ layers are called ...
1. Animals are [ heterotrophs / autotrophs ]. 2. [ All / Most ] animals are multicellular.. 3. The cells in the skin of your hand are [ bigger than / the same size as ] the cells in your heart.. 4. Organisms that have 2 copies of each chromosome are [mobile / diploid ]. 5. The absence of a cell wall allows animals [ mobility / diploidy ]. 6. A hollow ball of cells that forms after fertilization is called a [ blastula / mesoderm ]. 7. In all animals except [ humans / sponges ] a zygote undergoes divisions to become a blastula.. 8. The cells of animals are organized into functional units called [ blastula / tissues ]. Match the tissue layer to the part of the body it ...
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今日は昼休み中にRDKitのMMPAスクリプトをいじってました。 kzfmさんのブログを拝見させていただいたのがきっかけです。 RDKit_2013_03_2/Contrib/mmpa配下のrfag.pyの切断ルールをRECAP風にアレンジしてみました。 209行目以降 を とします。 これでエーテル、アミド、環状アミン、エステル、芳香環−芳香環、芳香族n−芳香環、スルフォンアミド、芳香環−N−芳香環(buchwald_amination)のボンドのサーチをかけてマッチした部分の結合に関わるアトムインデックスをゲッツします。 エーテルは飽和炭素ー酸素ー飽和炭素のインデックスをとるのでインデックスは前のペアと 後ろのペアを返すようにしました。 同様に芳香環−N−芳香環も同じです。 アミドやエステルはC(=O)N, C(=O
În conformitate cu gusturile, în continuă dezvoltare, și cerințele clienților fideli, industria jucăriilor sexuale este în continuă expansiune și în căutare de idei noi. Prin ...
I was reading an article (I forget where) and it stated that the BBers of old ala Schwarzenegger and Mentzer, et al.never used Clomid or Nolva or
Hi all [smile] Im learning loads from the Maybies discussions, but wanted to ask a few dim questions without taking hijacking their thread! Im 16
After the 7th cleavage has produced 128 cells, the morula becomes a blastula. The blastula is usually a spherical layer of ... The morula develops into a structure called a blastula through a process called blastulation. The blastula develops into a ... "Blastula". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 October 2020. Hackett JA, Sengupta R, Zylicz JJ, Murakami K, Lee C, Down TA, ... The different cells derived from cleavage, up to the blastula stage, are called blastomeres. Depending mostly on the amount of ...
Only when the blastocoel is formed does the early embryo become a blastula. The blastula precedes the formation of the gastrula ... The blastula stage of early embryo development begins with the appearance of the blastocoel. The origin of the blastocoel in ... Blastula-stage cells can behave as pluripotent stem cells in many species. Pluripotent stem cells are the starting point to ... The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos meaning sprout)) is a hollow sphere of cells known as blastomeres surrounding an ...
After the zygote has become an embryo, it continues dividing into a hollow sphere of cells, which is a blastula. These outer ... "blastula , biology , Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 8 April 2022. "Blastulation , Cleavage and Early Development , ... After blastulation, the single-layered blastula expands and reorganizes into multiple layers, a gastrula (seen in the figure to ... the eight-cell stage embryo forms into a slightly different type of blastula, called a blastocyst. Other species such as sea ...
Cleavage ends with the formation of the blastula, or of the blastocyst in mammals. Depending mostly on the concentration of ... Forgács, G.; Newman, Stuart A. (2005). "Cleavage and blastula formation". Biological physics of the developing embryo. ...
Patterning the Xenopus blastula. Development 124:4179-91. 4. Heasman J. 2006. Patterning the early Xenopus embryo. Development ... During the blastula and gastrula stages, vegetal cells (the presumptive endoderm), release signals to marginal zone cells ...
In animals other than mammals, this is called the blastula). The trophoblasts secrete fluid into the blastocoel. The resulting ... Forgács, G.; Newman, Stuart A. (2005). "Cleavage and blastula formation". Biological physics of the developing embryo. ...
Note that the blastopore is not an opening into the blastocoel, the space within the blastula, but represents a new inpocketing ... Gastrulation is the stage in the early embryonic development of most animals, during which the blastula (a single-layered ... Gastrulation takes place after cleavage and the formation of the blastula, or blastocyst. Gastrulation is followed by ... ISBN 978-0-8160-7008-4. Forgács, G. & Newman, Stuart A. (2005). "Cleavage and blastula formation". Biological physics of the ...
Cleavage results in a blastula. Depending on the species, a blastula or blastocyst stage embryo can appear as a ball of cells ... The structure is then termed a blastula, or a blastocyst in mammals. The mammalian blastocyst hatches before implantating into ... blastula, gastrulation, and organogenesis. Cleavage is the period of rapid mitotic cell divisions that occur after ...
Sea urchin blastula proteins BP10 and SpAN. C. elegans hypothetical proteins F42A10.8 and R151.5. Neuropilin (A5 antigen), a ...
After the blastula hatches from the fertilization envelope, the vegetal side of the blastula begins to flatten and thicken as a ... Even as the blastomeres continue to divide, the blastula remains one-cell thick and thins out as the embryo expands outward. ... An amphibian embryo in the 128- cell stage is considered a blastula as the blastocoel in the embryo becomes apparent during ... At this stage in mammals the blastula develops into the blastocyst containing an inner cell mass, and outer trophectoderm. It ...
Most starfish embryos hatch at the blastula stage. The original ball of cells develops a lateral pouch, the archenteron. The ...
Invagination of the blastula occurs when the endoderm loses its affinity towards hyalin, while the ectoderm retains it. This ... Zinc, then, causes an animalizing effect since the binding of the blastula cells would be stronger, while the weaker attachment ... Timourian, H; Watchmaker, G (1975). "The Sea-Urchin Blastula: Extent of Cellular Determination". American Zoologist. 15 (3): ...
Clonal analyses of the blastula and gastrula stages". Developmental Biology. 108 (1): 94-101. doi:10.1016/0012-1606(85)90012-0 ...
In the early blastula stage of the embryo, Ectodermin mRNA and protein forms a gradient that goes from the animal pole (highest ... The mRNA was then injected into several Xenopus embryos at a four-cell stage and looked in early blastula embryos for an ... A cDNA library from the blastula stage of a frog embryo was cloned into RNA expression plasmids to generate synthetic mRNA. ... It has been proposed that Notch and/or NODAL, expressed in the vegetal/mesoderm region of the early blastula embryo, could ...
Twenty hours after fertilization, a blastula with an invaginated pore at the vegetal pole forms. The blastula then rotates ... Fourteen hours after fertilization, a wrinkled blastula is formed. ...
Growth and accretion are started with blastula and gastrula. Gamow then explores entropy, genetics, and cosmology. The book is ...
Germ cells are set aside in the embryo at the blastula stage, which are incorporated into the gonads during organogenesis. The ... germ layers form during gastrulation of the blastula. The term triploblast may refer to any egg cell in which the blastoderm ...
The blastula is polar, and its two halves are called the animal hemisphere and vegetal hemisphere. It is the animal hemisphere ... The cells continue to extend inward and migrate along the inner wall of the blastula to form a fluid-filled cavity called the ... At the start of this process, the developing embryo has divided into many cells, forming a hollow ball called the blastula. ... Baer also received credit for the discovery of the blastula. Baer published his findings, including his germ layer theory, in a ...
The blastula of the tunicates is a little flattened in the vegetal pole making a change of shape from a columnar to a wedge ... During gastrulation, the blastula will be transformed by the invagination. The endoderm will fold towards the inner part and ... Invagination consists of the folding of an area of the exterior sheet of cells towards the inside of the blastula. In each ... the blastula, into a multi-layered organism, with differentiated germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. More localized ...
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim ... In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement. It first invaginates to form a gastrula with a ... the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described-of which around 1 ... whereby a cavity called a blastopore is formed from the indentation of a blastula. In protostomes, the blastopore gives rise to ...
It is specifically expressed during late blastula and gastrula stages. During gastrulation, it is critical in promoting the ...
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim ... The blastula is a stage in embryonic development that is unique to animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into ... In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement. It first invaginates to form a gastrula with a ... the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described-of which around 1 ...
During this stage, the embryo is referred to as a blastula. The series of changes to the blastula that characterize the ... In developmental biology, midblastula or midblastula transition (MBT) occurs during the blastula stage of embryonic development ...
This was an important extension of work of Briggs and King in 1952 on transplanting nuclei from embryonic blastula cells. Five ... Robert Briggs & Thomas J. King (May 1952). "Transplantation of Living Nuclei From Blastula Cells into Enucleated Frogs' Eggs". ...
This work was an important extension of work of Briggs and King in 1952 on transplanting nuclei from embryonic blastula cells ... Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King (May 1952). "Transplantation of Living Nuclei From Blastula Cells into Enucleated Frogs' Eggs ...
The BCNE center is the Blastula Chordin and Noggin Expressing center. The BCNE center is located in the dorsal region of the ... This center predisposes cells in the blastula stage to become neural tissue. The cells of the BCNE region give rise to the ... Even with the BCNE center removed from the blastula, the Nieuwkoop Center is able to induce formation of the Spemann-Mangold ... It appears after the mid-blastula stage and is triggered by the expression of beta-catenin like the Nieuwkoop center. This ...
... during late blastula and enriched in the presumptive endodermal cells in late blastula. Notch is both necessary and sufficient ... By the late blastula stage, the Xenopus embryos have a clear dorsal/ventral axis. In the early gastrula, most of the tissue in ... It was observed that β-catenin was present in the nuclei at the vegetal pole of the blastula. Through a series of experiments, ... There are many different developmental potentials throughout the blastula stage embryos. The vegetal cap can give rise to only ...
Briggs, R.; King, T. J. (1952). "Transplantation of Living Nuclei from Blastula Cells into Enucleated Frogs' Eggs". Proceedings ...
... normal segmentation occurs in the blastula but gastrulation fails. Finally, in other crosses, the initial stages are normal but ...
The development of trichimella start with cleavage, blastula, morphogenesis, and, lastly, larva. The cleavage is the first ...
Blastula!. Totally Laime #122 June 1, 2012 Emily Gordon is maybe our most educational guest yet. She teaches us how to tame out ...
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Arti dan makna apa itu blastula adalah dalam istilah Kimia, kimia SMP. Kamus, arti dan daftar istilah Kimia, kimia SMP lengkap ... blastula. Bagikan: Apa itu blastula ?. blastula adalah tahapan perkembangan embrio di mana pada tahap ini sel-sel mengalami ...
The blastula package has the add_image(). function which allows one to add images to an email message. What add_image. does is ... When using blastula, we dont have to worry much about either view since the API is designed to make emails look their best in ... blastula is built for R Markdown, an ecosystem of packages for creating computational documents in R. Learn more at rmarkdown. ... The blastula package internally uses the commonmark R package to perform the conversion from Markdown to HTML. ...
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A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells ... "Blastula" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Blastula" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Blastula" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. ...
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After the 7th cleavage has produced 128 cells, the morula becomes a blastula. The blastula is usually a spherical layer of ... The morula develops into a structure called a blastula through a process called blastulation. The blastula develops into a ... "Blastula". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 October 2020. Hackett JA, Sengupta R, Zylicz JJ, Murakami K, Lee C, Down TA, ... The different cells derived from cleavage, up to the blastula stage, are called blastomeres. Depending mostly on the amount of ...
Blastula is a term used in biology to describe microcolonies, which are collections of single-celled organisms. Blastula are ... Blastula - The Secret Life of All Animal Species. Animals are multicellular, living organisms in the microbial kingdom Animalia ... Blastulas are not unique to animals including humans, however. In fact, it has been discovered that some of the eukaryotes and ... Blastula is therefore a kind of recycling of organismic materials, which is very important for the continued existence of all ...
blastula said: Binger trying anything probably at this point. KR had a convincing bawling fit breakdown on stand while first ... blastula said: Looking again, I couldnt see any tears so who knows. Probably unnecessary at this point though, unless ...
1. The Blastula. 2. Gastrulation. 3. The Blastopore. 4. The Ectoderm. 5. The Endoderm. 6. The Mesoderm. 7. The Larval ...
print.blastula_message: Print the email object to the Viewer. *render_email: R Markdown render functions for the blastula_ ... blastula documentation built on July 1, 2020, 6:10 p.m. Related to block_social_links in blastula.... ... delete_all_credential_keys: Delete all *blastula* credential keys. *delete_credential_key: Delete a single *blastula* ... blastula_template: Default template for compose_email(). *block_articles: A block of one, two, or three articles with a ...
print.blastula_message: Print the email object to the Viewer. *render_email: R Markdown render functions for the blastula_ ... blastula documentation built on July 1, 2020, 6:10 p.m. Related to add_attachment in blastula.... ... delete_all_credential_keys: Delete all *blastula* credential keys. *delete_credential_key: Delete a single *blastula* ... blastula_template: Default template for compose_email(). *block_articles: A block of one, two, or three articles with a ...
Blastula - Scarnoduo (Amirani, 2010) **** Saturday, March 13, 2010 Avant-Garde, Percussion-Vocals Duo, Vocal 1 comment ...
Whitefish blastula:. The developing embryo of any organism is a good tissue to examine for mitosis, since cells must divide at ... Relate your model to the images of mitosis in Allium root tip meristem and whitefish blastula. ... ANIMAL CELL DIVISION Embryonic blastula stage of whitefish. ...
Cute IVF Fertility Digital Images ~ Clip Art kawaii in-vitro fertilization petri dish sperm egg uterus hormones blastula morula ... Cute IVF Fertility Sticker Set ~ Science Kawaii In-vitro Fertilization Sperm Egg Blastula Blood Test Hormones Petri Dish Morula ...
Frog Embryo in the Blastula Stage. Illustration of the animal-vegetal gradient in Xenopus laevis ( African clawed frog) eggs ... During gastrulation, a hollow cluster of cells called a blastula reorganizes into two primary germ layers: an inner layer, ...
Cells were taken up by gentle suction directly at the blastula surface and released by injecting into the blastula of the ... Blastula mitfa:HRAS; β-actin:GFP cells were injected into the same stage embryos resulting from an incross of tert+/−; Casper. ... Donor cells are transplanted from a Tg(mitfa:HRASG12V; β-actin:GFP) embryo at the blastula stage into embryos resulting from an ... E) Scheme for generating chimeras in which G2 tert−/− blastula cells are transplanted into WT embryos (G2 tert−/−→WT). SA-β-Gal ...
It continues mitosis about once every seven hours, forming a blastula, which imbeds in the uterine lining. The blastula then ... blastula/ blastocyst*zygote*gastrula*embryo*fetus*germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)*amniotic sac*amniotic fluid* ...
Next word: blastula. Definition of: blastosphere. (blas′tə·sfir) noun Biol. 1. The blastodermic vesicle of the mammalian egg. 2 ...
Spe-mann and his group focused on embryos in the blastula stage, when they form a hollow ball of cells, but before gastrulation ... Other cells on the blastula surface followed the bottle cells into the interior as the result of a coating that bound surface ... Mangold used Spemanns technique of transplanting groups of cells from one part of the blastula to another in order to ... He killed organizers with heat, cold, and desiccation and then transplanted them into blastula in his solution. The killed ...
You assume that every fetus and blastula in the womb is a child. You also assume that there are not conditions in which the ...
Spam] Directory of radiologists and many more Lance blastula *MD Contact List in the USA ample Jean Datum posledn ho p sp vku: ...
Preceded By: blastula stage Succeeded By: neurula stage Component Stages: NF stage 10, NF stage 11, NF stage 12, NF stage 10.25 ...
An amorphous bunch of cells form a blastula via mitosis.. That is not a child. That is not a person. That is a bunch of cells. ... Blastula implants on uterine wall, angiogenesis, placental development. Still not a child or person. ...
Blastula. 1 oz. Cream 0.5 oz. Triple Sec 1 Egg Yolk ...» blending instructions ...
A functional test for maternally inherited cadherin in Xenopus shows its importance in cell adhesion at the blastula stage. ...
Chk1 inhibition of the replication factor Drf1 guarantees cell-cycle elongation at the Xenopus laevis mid-blastula transition. ...
  • In addition, we transferred second generation tert blastula cells into WT to produce embryo chimeras. (biorxiv.org)
  • Scanning electron microscope image of Strongylocentrotus drobachiensus embryo at the primary mesenchyme blastula stage. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • blastula, embryo, gastrula. (freezingblue.com)
  • After the cleavage has produced over 100 cells, the embryo is called a blastula. (umn.edu)
  • Outermost monolayer of cells surrounding the embryo that become very flattened in the blastula and give rise to the periderm. (zfin.org)
  • During Xenopus laevis gastrulation, the basic body plan of the embryo is generated by movement of the marginal zone cells of the blastula into the blastocoel cavity. (rupress.org)
  • Kingdom Protoctista is defined by exclusion: its members are neither animals (which develop from a blastula), plants (which develop from an embryo), fungi (which lack undulipodia and develop from spores), nor prokaryotes. (species-identification.org)
  • by transplanting the nuclei of embryo (blastula) cells. (therapieassisteeparlanimal.org)
  • Adult stem cells are cells present in the body after birth, whereas embryonic stem cells are retrieved from the very early embryo (blastula). (kalyagen.com)
  • Its members are not animals (which develop from a blastula), plants (which develop from an embryo), or fungi (which lack undulipodia and develop from spores). (virtualzoo.org)
  • Sera cells are separated from the inner cell mass of blastula-stage embryos and retain the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers of the embryo appropriate when cultured in the absence of pluripotent factors. (nu7026.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor has been identified in chick embryo from day 11 of incubation and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for fibroblast growth factor has been located in the Xenopus blastula.4 Messenger RNA encoding a transforming growth factor fi like peptide is found in the vegetal pole ectoderm of the early Xenopus embryo and is transcribed by a maternally derived gene designated Vgl. (documentde.com)
  • 5. Embryology The ingrowth and curling inward of a group of cells, as in the formation of a gastrula from a blastula. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The blastula follows the morula and precedes the gastrula in the developmental sequence. (rulesareforrobots.com)
  • Module 10 drives endomesoderm expression in the blastula, while module 24 activates gut expression in the gastrula and pluteus. (caltech.edu)
  • Nor do they see the next set of events -- the cell divisions that lead to a ball of cells called a blastula, the formation of a structure known as a gastrula, or the event called the formation of the notochord. (citywatchla.com)
  • The process of gastrulation converts the blastula into a spherical, bi-laterally symmetrical, triploblastic gastrula. (brainkart.com)
  • Early asymmetric cell divisions at blastula and gastrula stages give rise to the superficial (apical) and the deep (basal) cell layers of epidermal ectoderm. (mssm.edu)
  • In developmental biology, gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula. (ihappysci.com)
  • Of a total of 840 ovigerous females captured, only 160 were used for fecundity analysis, i.e., we selected hermit crabs with embryos in developmental stages from late blastula to early gastrula (according to the methodology of Mantelatto and Garcia, 1999, modified from Boolootian et al. (amaderkuakata.com)
  • The first cleavage of eggs has occurred within 1.3-2.5 h at 27.0 ± 1.0 °C. The development of the embryos of Gobi occurred about 15 h post-fertilization at 27.0-29.0 °C. The stages of embryonic development were observed with cleavage, followed by morula, blastula, gastrula, yolk plug stage, organogenesis and until hatching of non-pigmented larvae. (onlinejbs.com)
  • The morula develops into a structure called a blastula through a process called blastulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the 7th cleavage has produced 128 cells, the morula becomes a blastula. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cleavage is the repeated mitotic division of zygote to form a solid ball of cells called morula which later changes into a hollow ball of cells called blastula. (tutordale.com)
  • Spe-mann and his group focused on embryos in the blastula stage, when they form a hollow ball of cells, but before gastrulation, when cells move inward through the blasto-pore to create different germ layers and the basis for the body axis and nervous system . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Similarity of hnRNA sequences in blastula and pluteus stage sea urchin embryos. (xenbase.org)
  • Embryos pass through a blastula stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals. (keywen.com)
  • Treated embryos retain the late blastula morphology with the vegetal plate. (elsevier.com)
  • The most severely affected embryos arrested at a developmental stage resembling mesenchyme blastula. (elsevier.com)
  • The E-EM/En-GRNs (up to 17 h postfertilization) integrate the regulatory functions of maternal and zygotic core factors that drive the earliest steps of endomesoderm progenitor specification in sea urchin embryos. (echinobase.org)
  • Our studies revealed that dissociated cells from medaka (the fresh-water fish, Oryzias latipes) blastula-stage embryos differentiate into many rhythmically contracting cells when incubated with a conditioned medium from a cell line. (elsevier.com)
  • Couldn't this be explained by the fusion of two blastula-stage embryos? (whyevolutionistrue.com)
  • Muscle cells are formed from mesoderm, which itself is generated by an inductive interaction of cells in the equatorial region of blastula embryos in Xenopus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Naïve ectoderm cells from blastula embryos change their fate to mesodermal one when juxtaposed to the endodermal tissue that produces the mesoderm-inducing signalling molecules Activin and Xnr ( X enopus n odal- r elated) proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The different cells derived from cleavage, up to the blastula stage, are called blastomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present decade saw the emergence of the " morulas ," works made of many layers of fabrics, reproducing the image of masses of cells resulting from the cleavage of the ovum before the formation of a blastula. (artforum.com)
  • Uses time-lapse photography to show cleavage to the blastula stage, gastrulation, and neurulation. (indiana.edu)
  • During gastrulation, a hollow cluster of cells called a blastula reorganizes into two primary germ layers: an inner layer, called endoderm, and an outer layer, called ectoderm. (asu.edu)
  • At gastrulation temporal patterns of maternal degradation and embryonic expression intersect indicating a mid-blastula. (wormbase.org)
  • The development of multi-cellular organisms begins from a single-celled zygote, which undergoes rapid cell division to form the blastula. (umn.edu)
  • gatae is expressed throughout embryogenesis, beginning in the 15 h blastula in presumptive mesoderm cells, and at mesenchyme blastula, in endoderm and mesoderm cells of the veg2 lineage. (caltech.edu)
  • In amniote embryonic development, the epiblast (also known as the primitive ectoderm) is one of two distinct cell layers arising from the inner cell mass in the mammalian blastocyst, or from the blastula in reptiles and birds. (translatum.gr)
  • Occupation, Business & Technology Education, Human Disease Socially Significant Drugs Abuse, Human Disease Socially Significant Alcoholism, Human Disease Socially Significant Smoking, Diseases Of Circulation And Bloods Production, Animal pole of blastula represents the presumptive ectoderm This can further be presumption epidermis and neural plate, close to notochord lies the presumptive mesoderm. (mintcanvas.com)
  • Mammals at this stage form a structure called the blastocyst, characterized by an inner cell mass that is distinct from the surrounding blastula, shown in Figure 2b . (umn.edu)
  • In mammals, the blastula forms the blastocyst in the next stage of development. (umn.edu)
  • The rearrangement of the cells in the mammalian blastula to two layers-the inner cell mass and the trophoblast-results in the formation of the blastocyst. (umn.edu)
  • A deepening of the invagination results in a cavity called the archenteron or gastrocoel .The opening of the archenteron on the surface of the blastula is called the blastopore . (brainkart.com)
  • A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). (uams.edu)
  • The cells rearrange themselves to form a hollow ball with a fluid-filled or yolk-filled cavity called the blastula. (umn.edu)
  • I ) Chimeras, obtained from transplantation of sbr blastomeres into nac recipient blastulas, show clonal rescue. (zfin.org)
  • its mRNA and protein were abundant in the maternal pool and increased after the mid-blastula transition (MBT). (elsevier.com)
  • The blastula is usually a spherical layer of cells (the blastoderm) surrounding a fluid-filled or yolk-filled cavity (the blastocoel). (umn.edu)
  • During this movement at one region on the blastula, the cells wander inside and occupy the blastocoelic cavity. (brainkart.com)
  • Blastula occurs frequently in marine animals, including fish, some crustaceans, marine reptiles and snails and in certain insects, such as bees and wasps. (twstechnology.com)
  • Sea urchin blastula proteins BP10 and SpAN. (embl.de)
  • Blastula is a term used in biology to describe microcolonies, which are collections of single-celled organisms. (twstechnology.com)
  • When using blastula , we don't have to worry much about either view since the API is designed to make emails look their best in both of them. (rstudio.com)
  • Mangold used Spemann's technique of transplanting groups of cells from one part of the blastula to another in order to determine the developmental potential of those groups of cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Blastula" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uams.edu)
  • Here the cells in the blastula arrange themselves in two layers: the inner cell mass , and an outer layer called the trophoblast . (umn.edu)
  • Blastula are found in the cysts and plasms of the human lymphatic system, as well as in some other eukaryotic (a living cell with no intercellular elements) bacteria and in some eukaryotic (a living cell with intercellular elements) worms. (twstechnology.com)
  • Clade 1: The Metazoa: Development from a blastula. (scienceoxygen.com)
  • The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is an early stage of embryonic development in animals. (rulesareforrobots.com)
  • A Blastula Stage of Development. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • Meaning none of the students walking today were even in the blastula stage of cellular development, taking up a pinprick of space in their mommy's womb. (louderwithcrowder.com)
  • Berdasarkan hasil penelitian hrGFP terekspresi pada fase blastula hingga larva. (ub.ac.id)
  • Deletion of module 10 from a gatae GFP BAC resulted in a complete loss of blastula stage expression, demonstrating its necessity and sufficiency for early activity. (caltech.edu)
  • 5, Early blastula stage of egg of Frog sec. (ihappysci.com)
  • The typical blastula is a ball of cells. (umn.edu)
  • To this end we tested the ability of segments of the neural plate (NP), isolated from different axial levels, to induce the otic marker Pax8 when recombined with blastula stage animal caps. (nyu.edu)
  • Before we get to the process of creating an HTML email message, it's a good idea to learn about the model of such a message in blastula . (rstudio.com)
  • Blastulas are not unique to animals including humans, however. (twstechnology.com)
  • Blastula is therefore a kind of recycling of organismic materials, which is very important for the continued existence of all animals including humans. (twstechnology.com)
  • Blastula is therefore a very important factor in the lives of all animals including humans. (twstechnology.com)
  • sbr recipient blastulas, show clonal rescue. (zfin.org)
  • Axl Joy Mendoza's angelic face does not show her struggle with retina blastula or cancer of the eye. (atriev.org)
  • The cells in the blastula rearrange themselves spatially to form three layers of cells. (umn.edu)