Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Nodal Signaling Ligands
Transcription Factor 3
T-Box Domain Proteins
In Situ Hybridization
Molecular Sequence Data
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
SOXF Transcription Factors
Amino Acid Sequence
Otx Transcription Factors
Fibroblast Growth Factors
Cleavage Stage, Ovum
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Central Nervous System
Distinct roles for Fgf, Wnt and retinoic acid in posteriorizing the neural ectoderm. (1/172)Early neural patterning in vertebrates involves signals that inhibit anterior (A) and promote posterior (P) positional values within the nascent neural plate. In this study, we have investigated the contributions of, and interactions between, retinoic acid (RA), Fgf and Wnt signals in the promotion of posterior fates in the ectoderm. We analyze expression and function of cyp26/P450RAI, a gene that encodes retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase, as a tool for investigating these events. Cyp26 is first expressed in the presumptive anterior neural ectoderm and the blastoderm margin at the late blastula. When the posterior neural gene hoxb1b is expressed during gastrulation, it shows a strikingly complementary pattern to cyp26. Using these two genes, as well as otx2 and meis3 as anterior and posterior markers, we show that Fgf and Wnt signals suppress expression of anterior genes, including cyp26. Overexpression of cyp26 suppresses posterior genes, suggesting that the anterior expression of cyp26 is important for restricting the expression of posterior genes. Consistent with this, knock-down of cyp26 by morpholino oligonucleotides leads to the anterior expansion of posterior genes. We further show that Fgf- and Wnt-dependent activation of posterior genes is mediated by RA, whereas suppression of anterior genes does not depend on RA signaling. Fgf and Wnt signals suppress cyp26 expression, while Cyp26 suppresses the RA signal. Thus, cyp26 has an important role in linking the Fgf, Wnt and RA signals to regulate AP patterning of the neural ectoderm in the late blastula to gastrula embryo in zebrafish. (+info)
Embryogenesis and development of Epimenia babai (Mollusca Neomeniomorpha). (2/172)Neomenioid aplacophorans (= Solenogastres) constitute one of the main lineages of molluscs. Developmental data of early embryogenesis and larval development of neomenioids are available for some species based on histological sections. I used other techniques to study the development of Epimenia babai Salvini-Plawen, 1997, and here I report new data on neomenioid development. The embryos of E. babai are lecithotrophic and cleavage is spiral, unequal, and holoblastic. Two polar lobes are formed, one at the first cleavage stage and one at the second cleavage stage. No evidence of external metameric iteration is visible through scanning electron microscopy or histology at any stage. A ciliated foot, a pedal pit, and aragonitic spicules develop from the definitive ectoderm. A spicule begins as a solid tip, continues to an open-ended hollow spicule, and finally becomes a closed-ended hollow spicule. The free-swimming trochophore larvae of E. babai have been considered unusual in lacking the characteristic neomenioid cellular test, an outer locomotory structure within which the entire definitive adult body develops. However, through the use of scanning electron and light microscopy, semithin sections, Hoechst nuclear staining, and programmed cell death staining to study the ontogeny and fate of the apical cells, I show that the entire pre-oral sphere (the apical cap) of the larvae is similar to the test of the other neomenioids. The results suggest that the test of the neomenioid larvae is an enlarged pre-oral sphere of a trochophore. The test morphologies of neomenioid larvae are compared to those of pericalymma larvae of protobranch bivalves, and the homology and evolution of molluscan larval tests is discussed. (+info)
A prospective randomized comparison of sequential versus monoculture systems for in-vitro human blastocyst development. (3/172)BACKGROUND: Extending the period of in-vitro culture to the blastocyst stage may improve implantation rates in IVF treatment. Recognition of the dynamic nature of early embryo metabolism has led to the development of commercially available sequential culture systems. However, their improved efficacy over monoculture systems remains to be demonstrated in prospective studies. METHODS: Embryos obtained from 158 women undergoing IVF treatment were randomized by sealed envelopes to culture in one of three systems: (A) culture for 5 days in our own monoculture medium (Rotterdam medium); (B) culture for 3 days in Rotterdam medium followed by 2 days in fresh Rotterdam medium; (C) culture for 5 days using the commercially available G1/G2 sequential culture system. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in blastulation, implantation or pregnancy rates between the three tested culture systems. CONCLUSION: The employed monoculture system is as effective as the G1/G2 sequential system for the culture of blastocysts for IVF. (+info)
Establishment of the organizing activity of the lower endodermal half of the dorsal marginal zone is a primary and necessary event for dorsal axis formation in Cynops pyrrhogaster. (4/172)The formation of the head and trunk-tail organizers in the dorsal marginal zone (DMZ) of an amphibian embryo is thought to require spatial and temporal interactions between the Nieuwkoop center and the DMZ. Recent studies of the Xenopus embryo suggested that intra-DMZ interaction is also needed to establish the regional specificity of the DMZ. However, it is not yet clarified when and how the final pattern of the head and trunk-tail organizers is established. To analyze the intra-DMZ interactions, we injected suramin into the blastocoel of the mid-blastula of the urodele, Cynops pyrrhogaster, at 6 h prior to the onset of gastrulation. The pigmented blastopore formed normally, but the convergent extension and involution of the DMZ and dorsal axis formation of the embryo were completely inhibited. Expression of gsc, chd and Lim-1 were not maintained, but noggin was unaffected in the suramin-treated embryos. Dorsal axis formation and the expression of these genes of the suramin-treated embryos were rescued by replacing the lower endodermal half of the DMZ (LDMZ) with normal LDMZ. The present results of embryological and molecular examinations indicate that organizing activity of the early Cynops gastrula DMZ is restricted to the LDMZ, and that the organizing activity of the LDMZ is established during the late blastula stages. The results also indicate that LDMZ triggers the sequential interaction within the DMZ that establishes the final pattern of the regional specificity of the DMZ, and that the formation of the LDMZ is a primary and necessary event for dorsal axis formation. (+info)
T-brain homologue (HpTb) is involved in the archenteron induction signals of micromere descendant cells in the sea urchin embryo. (5/172)Signals from micromere descendants play a crucial role in sea urchin development. In this study, we demonstrate that these micromere descendants express HpTb, a T-brain homolog of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. HpTb is expressed transiently from the hatched blastula stage through the mesenchyme blastula stage to the gastrula stage. By a combination of embryo microsurgery and antisense morpholino experiments, we show that HpTb is involved in the production of archenteron induction signals. However, HpTb is not involved in the production of signals responsible for the specification of secondary mesenchyme cells, the initial specification of primary mesenchyme cells, or the specification of endoderm. HpTb expression is controlled by nuclear localization of beta-catenin, suggesting that HpTb is in a downstream component of the Wnt signaling cascade. We also propose the possibility that HpTb is involved in the cascade responsible for the production of signals required for the spicule formation as well as signals from the vegetal hemisphere required for the differentiation of aboral ectoderm. (+info)
Experimental analysis of gravitational effects on amphibian gastrulation. (6/172)The effects of simulated microgravity on blastopore (Bp) formation were analysed in Xenopus laevis and Cynops pyrrhogaster embryos. Simulated microgravity produced by clinostat rotation shifted the Bp-forming region toward the vegetal pole, more markedly in Cynops embryos than in Xenopus embryos. The simulated microgravity induced aggregation of endoderm cells at the center of the embryo and separation between the endoderm and presumptive mesoderm (PM). These findings suggest that clinostat treatment disrupts cell-to-cell interaction between endoderm and PM by increasing the separation between them and, as a result, Bp formation may be shifted towards the vegetal pole. (+info)
Beta-catenin/Tcf-regulated transcription prior to the midblastula transition. (7/172)Following fertilization, the zygotic genome in many organisms is quiescent until the midblastula transition (MBT), when large-scale transcription begins. In Xenopus embryos, for example, transcription is believed to be repressed until the twelfth cell division. Thus, although dorsal-ventral patterning begins during the first cell cycle, little attention has been given to transcriptional regulation in pre-MBT development. We present evidence that regulated transcription begins during early cleavage stages and that the beta-catenin-Tcf complex is required for the transcription of the Xenopus nodal genes Xnr5 and Xnr6 as early as the 256-cell stage. Moreover, inhibition of beta-catenin/Tcf function can block dorsal development, but only if the inhibition begins early and is maintained throughout pre-MBT stages. Dorsal development can be rescued in ventralized embryos if Tcf-dependent transcription is activated prior to MBT, but activation of Tcf after MBT cannot rescue ventralized embryos, suggesting that beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent transcription is required prior to MBT for dorsal-ventral patterning in Xenopus. (+info)
Activin A induces craniofacial cartilage from undifferentiated Xenopus ectoderm in vitro. (8/172)Activin A has potent mesoderm-inducing activity in amphibian embryos and induces various mesodermal tissues in vitro from the isolated presumptive ectoderm. By using a sandwich culture method established to examine activin A activity, we previously demonstrated that activin-treated ectoderm can function as both a head and trunk-tail organizer, depending on the concentration of activin A. By using activin A and undifferentiated presumptive ectoderm, it is theoretically possible to reproduce embryonic induction. Here, we test this hypothesis by studying the induction of cartilage tissue by using the sandwich-culture method. In the sandwiched explants, the mesenchymal cell condensation expressed type II collagen and cartilage homeoprotein-1 mRNA, and subsequently, cartilage were induced as they are in vivo. goosecoid (gsc) mRNA was prominently expressed in the cartilage in the explants. Xenopus distal-less 4 (X-dll4) mRNA was expressed throughout the explants. In Xenopus embryos, gsc expression is restricted to the cartilage of the lower jaw, and X-dll4 is widely expressed in the ventral head region, including craniofacial cartilage. These finding suggest that the craniofacial cartilage, especially lower jaw cartilage, was induced in the activin-treated sandwiched explants. In addition, a normal developmental pattern was recapitulated at the histological and genetic level. This work also suggests that the craniofacial cartilage-induction pathway is downstream of activin A. This study presents a model system suitable for the in vitro analysis of craniofacial cartilage induction in vertebrates. (+info)
In the medical field, a blastula is an early stage of embryonic development that occurs during the first few days after fertilization. It is a hollow ball of cells that is formed when the fertilized egg (zygote) begins to divide and multiply. The blastula is characterized by the presence of a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel, which is surrounded by a layer of cells called the blastoderm. The blastoderm is further divided into two layers: the inner cell mass, which will eventually give rise to the embryo, and the trophoblast, which will develop into the placenta. The blastula stage is a critical period of development, as it marks the beginning of gastrulation, the process by which the embryo develops into a three-dimensional structure with distinct regions. The blastula stage is also important for the formation of the primitive streak, which will eventually give rise to the embryo's primitive gut and other structures.
In the medical field, a blastocyst is an early stage of human development that occurs about 5-6 days after fertilization. It is a hollow ball of cells that is about 0.1-0.2 millimeters in diameter. The blastocyst consists of three main layers of cells: the inner cell mass, the trophoblast, and the zona pellucida. The inner cell mass is a cluster of cells that will eventually develop into the embryo and placenta. The trophoblast is a layer of cells that will develop into the placenta and nourish the developing embryo. The zona pellucida is a protective layer that surrounds the blastocyst and prevents it from being absorbed by the mother's body. The blastocyst is a critical stage in human development because it is the time when the embryo implants itself into the lining of the uterus. If the blastocyst successfully implants, it will continue to develop into a fetus. If it does not implant, it will be shed from the uterus during menstruation.
Xenopus proteins are proteins that are found in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. These proteins have been widely used in the field of molecular biology and genetics as model systems for studying gene expression, development, and other biological processes. Xenopus proteins have been used in a variety of research applications, including the study of gene regulation, cell signaling, and the development of new drugs. They have also been used to study the mechanisms of diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. In the medical field, Xenopus proteins have been used to develop new treatments for a variety of diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders. They have also been used to study the effects of drugs and other compounds on biological processes, which can help to identify potential new treatments for diseases. Overall, Xenopus proteins are important tools in the field of molecular biology and genetics, and have contributed significantly to our understanding of many biological processes and diseases.
Blastomeres are the cells that divide during early stages of embryonic development. They are the building blocks of the embryo and eventually give rise to all the different tissues and organs of the body. Blastomeres are characterized by their rapid cell division and their ability to differentiate into different cell types as the embryo develops. In medical research, blastomeres are often used to study the early stages of embryonic development and to generate stem cells for therapeutic purposes.
Nodal signaling ligands are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in embryonic development and tissue regeneration. They are also known as Nodal proteins or TGF-beta superfamily members. Nodal signaling ligands are secreted by cells and bind to specific receptors on the surface of neighboring cells, triggering a signaling cascade that regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration. They are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including embryonic patterning, organogenesis, and tissue repair. In the medical field, Nodal signaling ligands have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, they have been shown to promote the regeneration of damaged tissues, such as the heart and spinal cord, and to play a role in the development of certain cancers. Additionally, Nodal signaling ligands have been used as targets for the development of new drugs to treat various diseases, including cancer and autoimmune disorders.
Goosecoid Protein is a type of transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the development of various tissues and organs in the human body. It is encoded by the "GOSE1" gene and is primarily expressed in the developing limbs, heart, and brain. In the developing limbs, Goosecoid Protein is involved in the formation of the digits and the development of the skeletal system. It also plays a role in the development of the heart, where it helps to regulate the formation of the cardiac muscle and the conduction system. Goosecoid Protein is also involved in the development of the brain, where it helps to regulate the formation of the neural tube and the development of the spinal cord. In the medical field, Goosecoid Protein is studied as a potential target for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. It is also being studied as a potential biomarker for the early detection of certain diseases.
Zebrafish proteins refer to proteins that are expressed in the zebrafish, a small freshwater fish that is commonly used as a model organism in biomedical research. These proteins can be studied to gain insights into the function and regulation of proteins in humans and other organisms. Zebrafish are particularly useful as a model organism because they have a similar genetic makeup to humans and other vertebrates, and they develop externally, making it easy to observe and manipulate their development. Additionally, zebrafish embryos are transparent, allowing researchers to visualize the development of their organs and tissues in real-time. Zebrafish proteins have been studied in a variety of contexts, including the development of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. By studying zebrafish proteins, researchers can identify potential therapeutic targets and develop new treatments for these diseases.
In the medical field, "body patterning" refers to the study of the distribution and arrangement of body structures, such as bones, muscles, and organs, within an individual's body. This can include the analysis of the shape, size, and orientation of these structures, as well as their relationships to one another. Body patterning is an important aspect of medical diagnosis and treatment, as it can provide valuable information about an individual's overall health and the potential causes of any health problems they may be experiencing. For example, a doctor may use body patterning to identify structural abnormalities or imbalances that may be contributing to a patient's pain or other symptoms. Body patterning can be studied using a variety of techniques, including medical imaging, physical examination, and anthropological analysis. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws on knowledge from a range of medical and scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, genetics, and biomechanics.
Transcription factor 3 (TF3) is a protein that plays a role in regulating gene expression in the cell. It is a member of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) family of transcription factors, which are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and control the transcription of genes. TF3 is involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is also involved in the regulation of the immune response and the inflammatory response. In the medical field, TF3 is of interest because it has been implicated in the development and progression of a number of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory diseases. For example, TF3 has been shown to be overexpressed in certain types of cancer, and it may play a role in the development and progression of these diseases. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases.
Activins are a family of signaling proteins that play important roles in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, and tissue repair. They are composed of two chains, alpha and beta, that are encoded by different genes and can form either homodimers or heterodimers. Activins are secreted by cells and bind to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, triggering a signaling cascade that regulates gene expression and cellular activity. In the medical field, activins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in a variety of diseases, including infertility, cancer, and autoimmune disorders.
In the medical field, a nodal protein is a type of signaling protein that plays a crucial role in the development and differentiation of cells. Nodal proteins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily and are involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Nodal proteins are particularly important during embryonic development, where they help to establish the body plan and determine the fate of different cell types. They are also involved in the development of various organs and tissues, including the heart, lungs, and limbs. In the context of cancer, nodal proteins have been implicated in the development and progression of various types of tumors. For example, overexpression of nodal proteins has been associated with the development of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and other types of cancer. Overall, nodal proteins are important signaling molecules that play a critical role in the development and function of various tissues and organs in the body.
T-Box Domain Proteins are a family of transcription factors that play important roles in the development and differentiation of various cell types in the body. They are characterized by the presence of a conserved T-box DNA binding domain, which allows them to interact with specific DNA sequences and regulate gene expression. T-Box Domain Proteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. They have been implicated in the development and progression of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. In the medical field, T-Box Domain Proteins are the subject of ongoing research, with the goal of understanding their roles in disease pathogenesis and developing targeted therapies for the treatment of these conditions.
Benzoylarginine Nitroanilide (BAN) is a synthetic peptide that is used as a substrate for the measurement of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. ACE is an enzyme that plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. In medical research and clinical practice, BAN is often used to assess ACE activity in various tissues and fluids, including blood, urine, and tissue extracts. This information can be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and kidney disease. BAN is typically administered as a solution or suspension, and its effects are measured by monitoring changes in the absorbance of light at a specific wavelength. The rate of absorption is proportional to the amount of ACE activity present in the sample, allowing researchers and clinicians to quantify ACE activity and assess its role in various physiological and pathological processes.
Inhibins are a group of hormones produced by the ovaries and testes in humans and other animals. They play a role in regulating the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the pituitary gland. Inhibins are primarily produced by the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles and the Sertoli cells of the testes. Inhibins act as negative feedback regulators of FSH and LH production. When the levels of FSH and LH are high, inhibins are produced and released into the bloodstream, which then inhibits the production of FSH and LH by the pituitary gland. This feedback mechanism helps to maintain a balance between the production of FSH and LH and the development of ovarian follicles and sperm production. Inhibins are also involved in the regulation of pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, the levels of inhibins increase, which helps to suppress the production of FSH and LH, preventing the development of additional ovarian follicles and ovulation. In lactating women, inhibins help to suppress the production of FSH and LH, preventing the return of the menstrual cycle until after lactation has ended. Abnormal levels of inhibins can be associated with various medical conditions, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and testicular cancer.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of signaling proteins that play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of bone tissue. They are secreted by various cells in the body, including bone-forming cells called osteoblasts, and are involved in processes such as bone growth, repair, and remodeling. BMPs are also used in medical treatments to promote bone growth and healing. For example, they are sometimes used in orthopedic surgeries to help repair fractures or to stimulate the growth of new bone in areas where bone has been lost, such as in spinal fusion procedures. They may also be used in dental procedures to help promote the growth of new bone in areas where teeth have been lost. BMPs are also being studied for their potential use in other medical applications, such as in the treatment of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, and in the repair of damaged or diseased tissues in other parts of the body.
In the medical field, blastoderm refers to the early stage of development of an embryo in which the cells are arranged in a single layer and are undergoing rapid cell division. The blastoderm is the first visible structure that forms after fertilization and is composed of two distinct layers: the inner cell mass (ICM) and the trophectoderm. The ICM is the layer of cells that will eventually give rise to all the internal organs and tissues of the developing embryo, while the trophectoderm will develop into the placenta and other structures that support the growth and development of the embryo. The blastoderm stage is a critical period of development, as it sets the stage for the formation of all the major organs and tissues of the body. Any abnormalities or disruptions during this stage can have serious consequences for the health and development of the embryo.
SOXF transcription factors are a family of transcription factors that play a crucial role in the development and differentiation of various tissues and organs in the body. The SOXF transcription factors include SOX9, SOX10, and SOX11, which are encoded by the SOX9, SOX10, and SOX11 genes, respectively. SOXF transcription factors are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. They are particularly important in the development of the nervous system, where they regulate the differentiation of neural crest cells, which give rise to many different cell types, including neurons, glia, and Schwann cells. In addition to their role in development, SOXF transcription factors have also been implicated in various diseases and disorders, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and developmental disorders such as congenital heart defects and cleft palate. Overall, SOXF transcription factors are an important class of transcription factors that play a critical role in the development and function of many different tissues and organs in the body.
Fetal proteins are proteins that are produced by the developing fetus and are present in the mother's blood during pregnancy. These proteins are not normally present in the mother's blood before pregnancy and are not produced by the mother's body. They are produced by the fetus as it grows and develops, and they can be used to monitor the health and development of the fetus. There are several different types of fetal proteins, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconjugated estriol (uE3). These proteins are typically measured in the mother's blood through a blood test called a pregnancy test or a pregnancy screening test. The levels of these proteins can provide information about the health of the fetus and can be used to detect certain conditions, such as neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities, and fetal tumors. It is important to note that the levels of fetal proteins in the mother's blood can also be affected by other factors, such as the mother's age, weight, and medical history. Therefore, the results of a pregnancy test or pregnancy screening test should be interpreted in the context of the mother's overall health and medical history.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
Homeodomain proteins are a class of transcription factors that play a crucial role in the development and differentiation of cells and tissues in animals. They are characterized by a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain, which allows them to recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences. Homeodomain proteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue differentiation, and organogenesis. They regulate the expression of genes that are essential for these processes by binding to specific DNA sequences and either activating or repressing the transcription of target genes. There are many different types of homeodomain proteins, each with its own unique function and target genes. Some examples of homeodomain proteins include the Hox genes, which are involved in the development of the body plan in animals, and the Pax genes, which are involved in the development of the nervous system. Mutations in homeodomain proteins can lead to a variety of developmental disorders, including congenital malformations and intellectual disabilities. Understanding the function and regulation of homeodomain proteins is therefore important for the development of new treatments for these conditions.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.
OTX transcription factors are a family of transcription factors that play important roles in the development of the nervous system, eye, and other organs in vertebrates. They are named after the "otx" gene, which was first identified in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. OTX transcription factors are characterized by a conserved DNA-binding domain called the OTX domain, which is responsible for recognizing specific DNA sequences. In vertebrates, there are three OTX genes: OTX1, OTX2, and OTX3. These genes are expressed in specific regions of the developing embryo and are involved in regulating the differentiation and development of various cell types. In the nervous system, OTX transcription factors are involved in the development of the retina, optic nerve, and brain. They are also involved in the development of the ear and other sensory organs. In the eye, OTX transcription factors are involved in the development of the retina and the lens. In addition to their roles in development, OTX transcription factors have also been implicated in various diseases, including cancer. For example, overexpression of OTX2 has been associated with the development of certain types of brain tumors, while mutations in the OTX1 gene have been linked to a rare form of eye cancer called retinoblastoma. Overall, OTX transcription factors are important regulators of development and have important roles in the formation and function of various organs and tissues in vertebrates.
Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are a family of proteins that play important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and tissue repair. They are produced by a variety of cells, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and neurons, and act on a wide range of cell types, including epithelial cells, muscle cells, and bone cells. FGFs are involved in many physiological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. They also play a role in the development of certain diseases, such as cancer and fibrosis. There are 23 known members of the FGF family, and they act by binding to specific receptors on the surface of cells, which then activate intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell growth and other cellular processes. FGFs are often used as therapeutic agents in clinical trials for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders.
In the medical field, the cleavage stage of the ovum refers to the early stages of development of an egg cell (ovum) after fertilization by a sperm cell. During this stage, the single cell of the ovum undergoes multiple rounds of cell division, resulting in the formation of a ball of cells called a blastocyst. The cleavage stage typically begins within a few hours of fertilization and continues for several days. During this time, the cells of the blastocyst undergo rapid division and differentiation, with some cells becoming the inner cell mass (ICM), which will eventually develop into the embryo, and others becoming the trophoblast, which will develop into the placenta. The cleavage stage is a critical period in the development of the embryo, as any errors or abnormalities during this time can lead to pregnancy complications or miscarriage. Therefore, monitoring the progress of the cleavage stage is an important part of prenatal care.
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of bone tissue in the human body. It is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins, which are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and migration. In the medical field, BMP4 is used as a therapeutic agent to promote bone growth and regeneration in a variety of conditions, including fractures, osteoporosis, and spinal cord injuries. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. BMP4 is produced by a variety of cells in the body, including osteoblasts (cells that produce bone tissue) and chondrocytes (cells that produce cartilage). It acts by binding to specific receptors on the surface of cells, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to changes in gene expression and cellular behavior. Overall, BMP4 is a critical protein for the development and maintenance of bone tissue, and its therapeutic potential is being actively explored in the medical field.
Cloning, molecular, in the medical field refers to the process of creating identical copies of a specific DNA sequence or gene. This is achieved through a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which amplifies a specific DNA sequence to produce multiple copies of it. Molecular cloning is commonly used in medical research to study the function of specific genes, to create genetically modified organisms for therapeutic purposes, and to develop new drugs and treatments. It is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their DNA. In the context of human cloning, molecular cloning is used to create identical copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence from one individual and insert it into the genome of another individual. This technique has been used to create transgenic animals, but human cloning is currently illegal in many countries due to ethical concerns.
HMGB proteins, also known as high mobility group box proteins, are a family of non-histone chromosomal proteins that are found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, and repair. HMGB proteins are characterized by their ability to bind to DNA and facilitate the opening of nucleosomes, which are the basic units of chromatin. They are also involved in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of genome stability. In the medical field, HMGB proteins have been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, inflammatory disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.
In the medical field, "cell aggregation" refers to the process by which cells clump together or aggregate to form a group or mass. This can occur naturally as cells grow and divide, or it can be induced by various factors such as chemical or mechanical stimuli. Cell aggregation is an important process in many areas of medicine, including tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and cancer research. For example, in tissue engineering, cell aggregation is often used to create three-dimensional tissue constructs by culturing cells in a scaffold or matrix that promotes cell-cell interactions and aggregation. In cancer research, cell aggregation can be used to study the behavior of cancer cells and their interactions with other cells in the tumor microenvironment. For example, cancer cells can aggregate to form spheroids, which are three-dimensional structures that mimic the architecture of solid tumors. Studying cell aggregation in spheroids can provide insights into the mechanisms of cancer progression and the development of new treatments.
Beta-catenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell adhesion and signaling pathways in the body. In the medical field, beta-catenin is often studied in the context of cancer, as mutations in the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) can lead to the development of various types of cancer, including colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer. In normal cells, beta-catenin is a component of the cadherin adhesion complex, which helps cells stick together and maintain tissue integrity. However, in cancer cells, mutations in the beta-catenin gene can lead to the accumulation of beta-catenin in the cytoplasm and nucleus, where it can activate downstream signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation and survival. Beta-catenin is also involved in the regulation of other cellular processes, such as cell migration, differentiation, and apoptosis. As such, it is a potential target for the development of new cancer therapies.
Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein (TCF7L1) is a protein that plays a role in regulating gene expression in the body. It is a member of the TCF/LEF family of transcription factors, which are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and control the activity of genes. TCF7L1 is involved in a variety of biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and development. It has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, and is the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
In the medical field, "Anura" refers to a group of amphibians known as frogs and toads. Anura is a taxonomic order that includes over 6,000 species of frogs and toads found worldwide. These animals are characterized by their moist skin, long hind legs for jumping, and a lack of a tail in adulthood. Frogs and toads play important roles in many ecosystems as predators, prey, and as indicators of environmental health. They are also commonly used in scientific research and as pets.
Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) is a family of cytokines that play a crucial role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and migration. TGF-βs are secreted by a variety of cells, including immune cells, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, and act on neighboring cells to modulate their behavior. TGF-βs have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects, depending on the context in which they are released. They can promote the differentiation of immune cells into effector cells that help to fight infections, but they can also suppress the immune response to prevent excessive inflammation. In addition to their role in immune regulation, TGF-βs are also involved in tissue repair and fibrosis. They can stimulate the production of extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen, which are essential for tissue repair. However, excessive production of TGF-βs can lead to fibrosis, a condition in which excessive amounts of connective tissue accumulate in the body, leading to organ dysfunction. Overall, TGF-βs are important signaling molecules that play a critical role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes in the body.
Wnt proteins are a family of signaling molecules that play a crucial role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. They are secreted by cells and bind to receptors on the surface of neighboring cells, activating a signaling cascade that regulates gene expression and cellular behavior. In the medical field, Wnt proteins are of great interest because they are involved in a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, developmental disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. For example, mutations in Wnt signaling pathways have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer, and dysregulated Wnt signaling has been linked to the progression of other types of cancer as well. Wnt proteins are also being studied as potential therapeutic targets for a variety of diseases. For example, drugs that target Wnt signaling have shown promise in preclinical studies for the treatment of cancer, and there is ongoing research into the use of Wnt signaling inhibitors for the treatment of other conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease and osteoporosis.
Cell differentiation is the process by which cells acquire specialized functions and characteristics during development. It is a fundamental process that occurs in all multicellular organisms, allowing cells to differentiate into various types of cells with specific functions, such as muscle cells, nerve cells, and blood cells. During cell differentiation, cells undergo changes in their shape, size, and function, as well as changes in the proteins and other molecules they produce. These changes are controlled by a complex network of genes and signaling pathways that regulate the expression of specific genes in different cell types. Cell differentiation is a critical process for the proper development and function of tissues and organs in the body. It is also involved in tissue repair and regeneration, as well as in the progression of diseases such as cancer, where cells lose their normal differentiation and become cancerous.
In the medical field, "DNA, Complementary" refers to the property of DNA molecules to pair up with each other in a specific way. Each strand of DNA has a unique sequence of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine), and the nucleotides on one strand can only pair up with specific nucleotides on the other strand in a complementary manner. For example, adenine (A) always pairs up with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs up with cytosine (C). This complementary pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures that the genetic information encoded in one strand of DNA can be accurately copied onto a new strand. The complementary nature of DNA also plays a crucial role in genetic engineering and biotechnology, as scientists can use complementary DNA strands to create specific genetic sequences or modify existing ones.
Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.
Lithium is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is highly reactive and flammable. In the medical field, lithium is primarily used as a mood stabilizer to treat bipolar disorder, a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings, including manic episodes and depression. Lithium works by regulating the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and serotonin, which are involved in mood regulation. It is typically administered as a daily pill or liquid and is considered effective in preventing and treating manic and depressive episodes in people with bipolar disorder. However, lithium can also have side effects, including tremors, weight gain, and kidney problems, and requires careful monitoring by a healthcare provider.
DNA-binding proteins are a class of proteins that interact with DNA molecules to regulate gene expression. These proteins recognize specific DNA sequences and bind to them, thereby affecting the transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) and ultimately the production of proteins. DNA-binding proteins play a crucial role in many biological processes, including cell division, differentiation, and development. They can act as activators or repressors of gene expression, depending on the specific DNA sequence they bind to and the cellular context in which they are expressed. Examples of DNA-binding proteins include transcription factors, histones, and non-histone chromosomal proteins. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of genes by recruiting RNA polymerase and other factors to the promoter region of a gene. Histones are proteins that package DNA into chromatin, and non-histone chromosomal proteins help to organize and regulate chromatin structure. DNA-binding proteins are important targets for drug discovery and development, as they play a central role in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.
Cytoskeletal proteins are a diverse group of proteins that make up the internal framework of cells. They provide structural support and help maintain the shape of cells. The cytoskeleton is composed of three main types of proteins: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Microfilaments are the thinnest of the three types of cytoskeletal proteins and are composed of actin filaments. They are involved in cell movement, cell division, and muscle contraction. Intermediate filaments are thicker than microfilaments and are composed of various proteins, including keratins, vimentin, and desmin. They provide mechanical strength to cells and help maintain cell shape. Microtubules are the thickest of the three types of cytoskeletal proteins and are composed of tubulin subunits. They play a crucial role in cell division, intracellular transport, and the maintenance of cell shape. Cytoskeletal proteins are essential for many cellular processes and are involved in a wide range of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and muscle diseases.
The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells that contains the cell's genetic material, or DNA. It is typically located in the center of the cell and is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. The nucleus is responsible for regulating gene expression and controlling the cell's activities. It contains a dense, irregularly shaped mass of chromatin, which is made up of DNA and associated proteins. The nucleus also contains a small body called the nucleolus, which is responsible for producing ribosomes, the cellular structures that synthesize proteins.
In the medical field, "trans-activators" refer to proteins or molecules that activate the transcription of a gene, which is the process by which the information in a gene is used to produce a functional product, such as a protein. Trans-activators can bind to specific DNA sequences near a gene and recruit other proteins, such as RNA polymerase, to initiate transcription. They can also modify the chromatin structure around a gene to make it more accessible to transcription machinery. Trans-activators play important roles in regulating gene expression and are involved in many biological processes, including development, differentiation, and disease.
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that are secreted by cells and act as messengers to communicate with other cells. These molecules can be hormones, growth factors, cytokines, or other signaling molecules that are capable of transmitting information between cells. They play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as immune responses and inflammation. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins is important for developing new treatments for various diseases and disorders, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders.
RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a type of nucleic acid that is involved in the process of protein synthesis in cells. It is composed of a chain of nucleotides, which are made up of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are three types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In the medical field, RNA is often studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs and therapies. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to silence specific genes and treat diseases such as cancer and viral infections. Additionally, RNA is being studied as a potential biomarker for various diseases, as changes in the levels or structure of certain RNA molecules can indicate the presence of a particular condition.
In the medical field, a cell lineage refers to the developmental history of a cell, tracing its origin back to a common ancestor cell and following its subsequent divisions and differentiation into specialized cell types. Cell lineage is an important concept in the study of stem cells, which have the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding the cell lineage of stem cells, researchers can better understand how they develop into specific cell types and how they might be used to treat various diseases. In addition, cell lineage is also important in the study of cancer, as cancer cells often arise from normal cells that have undergone mutations and have begun to divide uncontrollably. By studying the cell lineage of cancer cells, researchers can gain insights into the genetic and molecular changes that have occurred during cancer development and identify potential targets for cancer therapy.
Histones are proteins that play a crucial role in the structure and function of DNA in cells. They are small, positively charged proteins that help to package and organize DNA into a compact structure called chromatin. Histones are found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and are essential for the proper functioning of genes. There are five main types of histones: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Each type of histone has a specific role in the packaging and organization of DNA. For example, H3 and H4 are the most abundant histones and are responsible for the formation of nucleosomes, which are the basic unit of chromatin. H1 is a linker histone that helps to compact chromatin into a more condensed structure. In the medical field, histones have been studied in relation to various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. For example, changes in the levels or modifications of histones have been linked to the development of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. Additionally, histones have been shown to play a role in the regulation of gene expression, which is important for the proper functioning of cells.
Glycoproteins are a type of protein that contains one or more carbohydrate chains covalently attached to the protein molecule. These carbohydrate chains are made up of sugars and are often referred to as glycans. Glycoproteins play important roles in many biological processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and immune response. They are found in many different types of cells and tissues throughout the body, and are often used as markers for various diseases and conditions. In the medical field, glycoproteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs and therapies.
The Central Nervous System (CNS) is a complex network of nerves and neurons that controls and coordinates all bodily functions in the human body. It is composed of the brain and spinal cord, which are protected by the skull and vertebral column, respectively. The brain is the control center of the CNS and is responsible for processing sensory information, controlling movement, regulating bodily functions, and governing emotions and thoughts. It is divided into several regions, including the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure that extends from the base of the brain down through the vertebral column. It serves as a communication pathway between the brain and the rest of the body, transmitting signals from the body's sensory receptors to the brain and from the brain to the body's muscles and glands. Together, the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system, which is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, and emotion.
Metalloendopeptidases are a class of enzymes that contain a metal ion, typically zinc, as a cofactor. These enzymes are involved in the cleavage of peptide bonds in proteins, specifically at the N-terminal end of the peptide chain. They are found in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, and play important roles in many biological processes, such as blood clotting, digestion, and the regulation of hormone levels. Metalloendopeptidases are classified based on the specific metal ion they contain and the mechanism by which they cleave peptide bonds. For example, zinc metalloendopeptidases use a nucleophilic attack by a water molecule coordinated to the zinc ion to cleave the peptide bond, while copper metalloendopeptidases use a different mechanism involving the coordination of a histidine residue to the copper ion. In the medical field, metalloendopeptidases are the target of several drugs, including ACE inhibitors, which are used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. These drugs block the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), a zinc metalloendopeptidase that plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure. Other metalloendopeptidases are being studied as potential targets for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes.
In the medical field, cytoplasm refers to the gel-like substance that fills the cell membrane of a living cell. It is composed of various organelles, such as mitochondria, ribosomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as various dissolved molecules, including proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. The cytoplasm plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including metabolism, protein synthesis, and cell division. It also serves as a site for various cellular activities, such as the movement of organelles within the cell and the transport of molecules across the cell membrane. In addition, the cytoplasm is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell and protecting it from external stressors, such as toxins and pathogens. Overall, the cytoplasm is a vital component of the cell and plays a critical role in its function and survival.
Animal embryonic development
Fibroblast growth factor and mesoderm formation
Human embryonic development
One Two Three... Infinity
List of animals that have been cloned
Developmental signaling center
Maternal to zygotic transition
Count Blastula | Dinosaur Bar-B-Que
Monsieur Délire: 2010-03-24: Blastula, Lenoci/Mimmo, Twits, Braagas, Al-Yaman
Embryonic Stages from Cleavage to Gastrula in the Loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus
Animal embryonic development - Wikipedia
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Manipulating the Early Embryo of Xenopus laevis: A Video Guide
Transcription organizes euchromatin via microphase separation | Nature Communications
Biology: Developmental Biology | Encyclopedia.com
Mitosis vs. Meiosis - Compariset™ | Flinn Scientific
EvC Forum: A very brief history of Human Life
Ektoderm - Wikipedia, ang malayang ensiklopedya
CONTRARY BRIN: Abortion and the "Jesus Effect"
An essential role of Xenopus Foxi1a for ventral specification of the cephalic ectoderm during gastrulation | Development | The...
lifeissues.net | Analysis: Local Illinois School District Science Textbook Misleads Students on Stem Cell Research
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Tada M and Smith JC (2000), Xwnt11 is a target of Xenopus Brachyury: regula... - Paper
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Ontogeny of Embryonic and Yolk-Sac Larval Stage of the Sparid Sharpsnout Sea Bream (Diplodus puntazzo Cetti, 1777)
- This negative autoregulation is restricted to the mesodermal veg2 territory during the blastula stage as shown by WMISH analysis of MASO injected embryos. (caltech.edu)
- A) Induction of Xwnt11 by Xbra -GR. Animal caps derived from embryos injected with 50 pg Xbra -GR RNA or left uninjected were dissected at blastula stages and then treated with 10-6 M dexamethasone (DEX) for 3 hours or left untreated. (xenbase.org)
- Gastrulation is defined as an early developmental process in which an embryo transforms from a one-dimensional layer of epithelial cells (blastula) and reorganizes into a multilayered and multidimensional structure called the gastrula. (swirlzcupcakes.com)
- During later blastula stages, it is expressed in the endoderm precursors of the veg1 ring of cells distal to the vegetal pole of the blastula. (caltech.edu)
- Animals are generally considered to be multicellular organisms that are capable of locomotion in response to their environment (motile), are required to ingest or eat and swallow other organisms to gain proper nutrition (heterotropic), contain within each cell genetic material organized as two sets of chromosomes within a membrane-bound nucleus ( eukaryotic ), develop through a blastula (hollow ball) stage, and integrate muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and collagen into their body. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- One of the main differences is that the blastula is not hollow but is filled with yolk cells. (swirlzcupcakes.com)
- The different cells derived from cleavage, up to the blastula stage, are called blastomeres. (wikipedia.org)
- The morula develops into a structure called a blastula through a process called blastulation. (wikipedia.org)
- After the 7th cleavage has produced 128 cells, the morula becomes a blastula. (wikipedia.org)
- The morula develops into a structure called a blastula through a process called blastulation. (wikipedia.org)
- After the 7th cleavage has produced 128 cells, the morula becomes a blastula. (wikipedia.org)
- Biogenetic law of Ernst Haeckel assumed a parallelism between ontogeny and phylogeny, and asserted that embryogenesis is a recapitulation of ancient organisms because all animals start their existence from a one-celled stage and develop into morula, blastula and then gastrula stages 2 , 3 . (nature.com)
- For example, we still do not know how to explain the common early embryonic stages, such as the morula, blastula and gastrula, in evolutionary terms. (nature.com)
- Their argument is that every zygote, blastula, morula, and fetus is a child, so each one saved -- every marginal improvement, as it were -- is important in its own right. (dorfonlaw.org)
- Tres a quatro dias apos a fecundacao, o embriao chega ao utero na fase morula, formado por aproximadamente doze a dezesseis blastomeros, apos dois a tres dias, ele esta implantado no utero sendo considerado blastula blastocito ou blastocisto. (web.app)
Becomes a blastula1
- The zygote then begins to divide and becomes a blastula. (bhaskarhealth.com)
- However, in Xenopus blastula, chromatin tethering to the NE depends on nuclear filamentous actin that develops in a blastula-specific manner. (nih.gov)
- To investigate whether chromatin tethering operates in the blastula through INMPs, we experimentally introduced INMPs into Xenopus egg extracts that recapitulate nuclear formation in fertilized eggs. (nih.gov)
- We subsequently found that the LBR level was very low in the Xenopus blastula but was elevated after the blastula stage. (nih.gov)
- These results suggest that LBR-mediated chromatin tethering is circumvented in the Xenopus blastula, as it is detrimental to embryonic development. (nih.gov)
- Dorsal induction from dorsal vegetal cells in Xenopus occurs after mid-blastula transition. (wikigenes.org)
- Surface activity and locomotion of Fundulus deep cells during blastula and gastrula stages. (mbl.edu)
- 2. Epigenetic complexity during the zebrafish mid-blastula transition. (nih.gov)
- Downregulation of Cdc25 activity at the Drosophila mid-blastula transition is critical in order to remodel cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
- We showed that Cdk1 downregulation at the mid-blastula transition (through the downregulation of Cdc25) is responsible for dramatically lengthening S-phase. (nih.gov)
- Only some of the early dorsal β-catenin signature genes were activated at blastula whereas others required the induction of endomesoderm , as indicated by their inhibition by Cerberus overexpression. (xenbase.org)
- A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). (nih.gov)
- Begins with small indentation in the blastula. (preparingtobecome.com)
- The blastula continues to develop, eventually forming a structure called the gastrula. (bhaskarhealth.com)
- Is the mammalian blastula and consists of the trophoblast and the inner cell mass. (preparingtobecome.com)