A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
A small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK where cleavage begins. Upon fertilization the cytoplasm streams from the vegetal pole away from the yolk to the animal pole where cleavage will occur. This germinal area eventually flattens into a layer of cells (BLASTODERM) that covers the yolk completely.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The plasma membrane of the egg.
Members of the transforming growth factor superfamily that play a role in pattern formation and differentiation during the pregastrulation and GASTRULATION stages of chordate development. Several nodal signaling ligands are specifically involved in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during development. The protein group is named after a critical region of the vertebrate embryo PRIMITIVE STREAK referred to as HENSEN'S NODE.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
A folic acid derivative used as a rodenticide that has been shown to be teratogenic.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

The Drosophila melanogaster homologue of the Xeroderma pigmentosum D gene product is located in euchromatic regions and has a dynamic response to UV light-induced lesions in polytene chromosomes. (1/342)

The XPD/ERCC2/Rad3 gene is required for excision repair of UV-damaged DNA and is an important component of nucleotide excision repair. Mutations in the XPD gene generate the cancer-prone syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne's syndrome, and trichothiodystrophy. XPD has a 5'- to 3'-helicase activity and is a component of the TFIIH transcription factor, which is essential for RNA polymerase II elongation. We present here the characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster XPD gene (DmXPD). DmXPD encodes a product that is highly related to its human homologue. The DmXPD protein is ubiquitous during development. In embryos at the syncytial blastoderm stage, DmXPD is cytoplasmic. At the onset of transcription in somatic cells and during gastrulation in germ cells, DmXPD moves to the nuclei. Distribution analysis in polytene chromosomes shows that DmXPD is highly concentrated in the interbands, especially in the highly transcribed regions known as puffs. UV-light irradiation of third-instar larvae induces an increase in the signal intensity and in the number of sites where the DmXPD protein is located in polytene chromosomes, indicating that the DmXPD protein is recruited intensively in the chromosomes as a response to DNA damage. This is the first time that the response to DNA damage by UV-light irradiation can be visualized directly on the chromosomes using one of the TFIIH components.  (+info)

Cell death in the avian blastoderm: resistance to stress-induced apoptosis and expression of anti-apoptotic genes. (2/342)

We investigated the expression of an apoptotic cell death program in blastodermal cells prior to gastrulation and the susceptibility of these cells to stress-induced cell death. A low frequency (3.1%) of apoptotic blastodermal cells was observed in Hoechst 33342-vitally stained cytological preparations of complete blastoderms from unincubated eggs. These cells showed the stereotypic features of apoptosis including a progression of nuclear changes, cell shrinkage and blebbing, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Prolonged storage of eggs at 12 degrees C induced apoptosis in blastodermal cells (14%). A modest amount of apoptosis (10%) was also induced at the heat shock temperature of 48 degrees C, but not at 45 degrees C. Etoposide and other potent cytotoxic drugs failed to induce apoptosis in the blastodermal cells after 4 h of exposure. Progressively more apoptosis was induced at 8 and 24 h, but it did not exceed 35% of the cells. We detected transcripts for the anti-apoptotic genes bcl-2, bcl-xL, and hsp70. The developmental expression of these genes, especially hsp70, correlated with the delayed and limited stress-induction of apoptosis. These studies reveal the capacity of pre-streak blastodermal cells to engage in apoptosis and their relative resistance to stress conditions. This may be due to the prominent expression of hsp70 and/or multiple cell death genes which primarily antagonize cell death.  (+info)

Reconstitution of the organizer is both sufficient and required to re-establish a fully patterned body plan in avian embryos. (3/342)

Lateral blastoderm isolates (LBIs) at the late gastrula/early neurula stage (i.e., stage 3d/4) that lack Hensen's node (organizer) and primitive streak can reconstitute a functional organizer and primitive streak within 10-12 hours in culture. We used LBIs to study the initiation and regionalization of the body plan. A complete body plan forms in each LBI by 36 hours in culture, and normal craniocaudal, dorsoventral, and mediolateral axes are re-established. Thus, reconstitution of the organizer is sufficient to re-establish a fully patterned body plan. LBIs can be modified so that reconstitution of the organizer does not occur. In such modified LBIs, tissue-type specific differentiation (with the exception of heart differentiation) and reconstitution of the body plan fail to occur. Thus, the reconstitution of the organizer is not only sufficient to re-establish a fully patterned body plan, it is also required. Finally, our results show that formation and patterning of the heart is under the control of the organizer, and that such control is exerted during the early to mid-gastrula stages (i.e., stages 2-3a), prior to formation of the fully elongated primitive streak.  (+info)

Timing and cell interactions underlying neural induction in the chick embryo. (4/342)

Previous studies on neural induction have identified regionally localized inducing activities, signaling molecules, potential competence factors and various other features of this important, early differentiation event. In this paper, we have developed an improved model system for analyzing neural induction and patterning using transverse blastoderm isolates obtained from gastrulating chick embryos. We use this model to establish the timing of neural specification and the spatial distribution of perinodal cells having organizer activity. We show that a tissue that acts either as an organizer or as an inducer of an organizer is spatially co-localized with the prospective neuroectoderm immediately rostral to the primitive streak in the early gastrula. As the primitive streak elongates, this tissue with organizing activity and the prospective neuroectoderm rostral to the streak separate. Furthermore, we show that up to and through the mid-primitive streak stage (i.e., stage 3c/3+), the prospective neuroectoderm cannot self-differentiate (i.e. , express neural markers and acquire neural plate morphology) in isolation from tissue with organizer activity. Signals from the organizer and from other more caudal regions of the primitive streak act on the rostral prospective neuroectoderm and the latter gains potency (i.e., is specified) by the fully elongated primitive streak stage (i.e., stage 3d). Transverse blastoderm isolates containing non-specified, prospective neuroectoderm provide an improved model system for analyzing early signaling events involved in neuraxis initiation and patterning.  (+info)

Analysis of an even-skipped rescue transgene reveals both composite and discrete neuronal and early blastoderm enhancers, and multi-stripe positioning by gap gene repressor gradients. (5/342)

The entire functional even-skipped locus of Drosophila melanogaster is contained within a 16 kilobase region. As a transgene, this region is capable of rescuing even-skipped mutant flies to fertile adulthood. Detailed analysis of the 7.7 kb of regulatory DNA 3' of the transcription unit revealed ten novel, independently regulated patterns. Most of these patterns are driven by non-overlapping regulatory elements, including ones for syncytial blastoderm stage stripes 1 and 5, while a single element specifies both stripes 4 and 6. Expression analysis in gap gene mutants showed that stripe 5 is restricted anteriorly by Kruppel and posteriorly by giant, the same repressors that regulate stripe 2. Consistent with the coregulation of stripes 4 and 6 by a single cis-element, both the anterior border of stripe 4 and the posterior border of stripe 6 are set by zygotic hunchback, and the region between the two stripes is 'carved out' by knirps. Thus the boundaries of stripes 4 and 6 are set through negative regulation by the same gap gene domains that regulate stripes 3 and 7 (Small, S., Blair, A. and Levine, M. (1996) Dev. Biol. 175, 314-24), but at different concentrations. The 3' region also contains a single element for neurogenic expression in ganglion mother cells 4-2a and 1-1a, and neurons derived from them (RP2, a/pCC), suggesting common regulators in these lineages. In contrast, separable elements were found for expression in EL neurons, U/CQ neurons and the mesoderm. The even-skipped 3' untranslated region is required to maintain late stage protein expression in RP2 and a/pCC neurons, and appears to affect protein levels rather than mRNA levels. Additionally, a strong pairing-sensitive repression element was localized to the 3' end of the locus, but was not found to contribute to efficient functional rescue.  (+info)

A transcription unit at the ken and barbie gene locus encodes a novel Drosophila zinc finger protein. (6/342)

We describe a novel Drosophila transcription unit, located in chromosome region 60A. It encodes a zinc finger protein that is expressed in distinct spatial and temporal patterns during embryogenesis. Its initial expression occurs in a stripe at the anterior and the posterior trunk boundary, respectively. The two stripes are activated and spatially controlled by gap-gene activities. The P-element of the enhancer trap line l(2)02970 is inserted in the 5'-region of the transcript and causes a ken and barbie (ken) phenotype, associated with malformation of male genital structures.  (+info)

Induction of the mesendoderm in the zebrafish germ ring by yolk cell-derived TGF-beta family signals and discrimination of mesoderm and endoderm by FGF. (7/342)

The endoderm forms the gut and associated organs, and develops from a layer of cells which emerges during gastrula stages in the vertebrate embryo. In comparison to mesoderm and ectoderm, little is known about the signals which induce the endoderm. The origin of the endoderm is intimately linked with that of mesoderm, both by their position in the embryo, and by the molecules that can induce them. We characterised a gene, zebrafish gata5, which is expressed in the endoderm from blastula stages and show that its transcription is induced by signals originating from the yolk cell. These signals also induce the mesoderm-expressed transcription factor no tail (ntl), whose initial expression coincides with gata5 in the cells closest to the blastoderm margin, then spreads to encompass the germ ring. We have characterised the induction of these genes and show that ectopic expression of activin induces gata5 and ntl in a pattern which mimics the endogenous expression, while expression of a dominant negative activin receptor abolishes ntl and gata5 expression. Injection of RNA encoding a constitutively active activin receptor leads to ectopic expression of gata5 and ntl. gata5 is activated cell-autonomously, whereas ntl is induced in cells distant from those which have received the RNA, showing that although expression of both genes is induced by a TGF-beta signal, expression of ntl then spreads by a relay mechanism. Expression of a fibroblast growth factor (eFGF) or a dominant negatively acting FGF receptor shows that ntl but not gata5 is regulated by FGF signalling, implying that this may be the relay signal leading to the spread of ntl expression. In embryos lacking both squint and cyclops, members of the nodal group of TGF-beta related molecules, gata5 expression in the blastoderm is abolished, making these factors primary candidates for the endogenous TGF-beta signal inducing gata5.  (+info)

Characterization of Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 activity during zebrafish embryogenesis. (8/342)

We have developed a simple fluorescent assay for detection of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in zebrafish embryos that utilizes a fluorescent phosphatidylcholine substrate. By using this assay in conjunction with selective PLA2 inhibitors and Western blot analysis, we identified the principal activity in zebrafish embryogenesis as characteristic of the Ca2+-dependent cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) subtype. Embryonic cPLA2 activity remained constant from the 1-cell stage until the onset of somitogenesis, at which time it increased sharply. This increase was preceded by the expression of a previously identified zebrafish cPLA2 homologue (Nalefski, E., Sultzman, L., Martin, D., Kriz, R., Towler, P., Knopf, J., and Clark, J. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 18239-18249). By using a quenched BODIPY-labeled phosphatidylcholine that fluoresces only upon cleavage by PLA2, lipase activity was visualized in the cells of living embryos where it localized to perinuclear membranes.  (+info)

The blastoderm is the layer of cells that forms on the surface of a developing embryo, during the blastula stage of embryonic development. In mammals, this layer of cells is also known as the epiblast. The blastoderm is responsible for giving rise to all of the tissues and organs of the developing organism. It is formed by the cleavage of the fertilized egg, or zygote, and is typically a single layer of cells that surrounds a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel. The blastoderm plays a critical role in the early stages of embryonic development, and any disruptions to its formation or function can lead to developmental abnormalities or death of the embryo.

A nonmammalian embryo refers to the developing organism in animals other than mammals, from the fertilized egg (zygote) stage until hatching or birth. In nonmammalian species, the developmental stages and terminology differ from those used in mammals. The term "embryo" is generally applied to the developing organism up until a specific stage of development that is characterized by the formation of major organs and structures. After this point, the developing organism is referred to as a "larva," "juvenile," or other species-specific terminology.

The study of nonmammalian embryos has played an important role in our understanding of developmental biology and evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). By comparing the developmental processes across different animal groups, researchers can gain insights into the evolutionary origins and diversification of body plans and structures. Additionally, nonmammalian embryos are often used as model systems for studying basic biological processes, such as cell division, gene regulation, and pattern formation.

"Drosophila" is a genus of small flies, also known as fruit flies. The most common species used in scientific research is "Drosophila melanogaster," which has been a valuable model organism for many areas of biological and medical research, including genetics, developmental biology, neurobiology, and aging.

The use of Drosophila as a model organism has led to numerous important discoveries in genetics and molecular biology, such as the identification of genes that are associated with human diseases like cancer, Parkinson's disease, and obesity. The short reproductive cycle, large number of offspring, and ease of genetic manipulation make Drosophila a powerful tool for studying complex biological processes.

A gastrula is a stage in the early development of many animals, including humans, that occurs following fertilization and cleavage of the zygote. During this stage, the embryo undergoes a process called gastrulation, which involves a series of cell movements that reorganize the embryo into three distinct layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. These germ layers give rise to all the different tissues and organs in the developing organism.

The gastrula is characterized by the presence of a central cavity called the archenteron, which will eventually become the gut or gastrointestinal tract. The opening of the archenteron is called the blastopore, which will give rise to either the mouth or anus, depending on the animal group.

In summary, a gastrula is a developmental stage in which an embryo undergoes gastrulation to form three germ layers and a central cavity, which will eventually develop into various organs and tissues of the body.

A blastodisc is a term used in embryology, specifically in describing the development of birds and reptiles. It refers to a flattened disc of cells that forms on the upper surface of the yolk during early embryonic development. This disc contains the cells that will give rise to the embryo itself, as well as the extra-embryonic membranes that support its development.

The blastodisc is formed when the sperm fertilizes the egg, triggering a series of cell divisions and rearrangements. The cells in the blastodisc are initially equivalent, but they soon become organized into distinct regions with different fates. The outermost layer of the blastodisc will give rise to the extra-embryonic membranes, while the inner cells will form the embryo proper.

It's worth noting that the term "blastodisc" is not used in mammalian development, where a similar structure is called the "blastocyst."

'Drosophila proteins' refer to the proteins that are expressed in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. This organism is a widely used model system in genetics, developmental biology, and molecular biology research. The study of Drosophila proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including gene regulation, cell signaling, development, and aging.

Some examples of well-studied Drosophila proteins include:

1. HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein 70): A chaperone protein involved in protein folding and protection from stress conditions.
2. TUBULIN: A structural protein that forms microtubules, important for cell division and intracellular transport.
3. ACTIN: A cytoskeletal protein involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and maintenance of cell shape.
4. BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (LACZ): A reporter protein often used to monitor gene expression patterns in transgenic flies.
5. ENDOGLIN: A protein involved in the development of blood vessels during embryogenesis.
6. P53: A tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer by regulating cell growth and division.
7. JUN-KINASE (JNK): A signaling protein involved in stress response, apoptosis, and developmental processes.
8. DECAPENTAPLEGIC (DPP): A member of the TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor Beta) superfamily, playing essential roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

These proteins are often studied using various techniques such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology to understand their functions, interactions, and regulation within the cell.

'Drosophila melanogaster' is the scientific name for a species of fruit fly that is commonly used as a model organism in various fields of biological research, including genetics, developmental biology, and evolutionary biology. Its small size, short generation time, large number of offspring, and ease of cultivation make it an ideal subject for laboratory studies. The fruit fly's genome has been fully sequenced, and many of its genes have counterparts in the human genome, which facilitates the understanding of genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

Here is a brief medical definition:

Drosophila melanogaster (droh-suh-fih-luh meh-lon-guh-ster): A species of fruit fly used extensively as a model organism in genetic, developmental, and evolutionary research. Its genome has been sequenced, revealing many genes with human counterparts, making it valuable for understanding genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

"Body patterning" is a general term that refers to the process of forming and organizing various tissues and structures into specific patterns during embryonic development. This complex process involves a variety of molecular mechanisms, including gene expression, cell signaling, and cell-cell interactions. It results in the creation of distinct body regions, such as the head, trunk, and limbs, as well as the organization of internal organs and systems.

In medical terminology, "body patterning" may refer to specific developmental processes or abnormalities related to embryonic development. For example, in genetic disorders such as Poland syndrome or Holt-Oram syndrome, mutations in certain genes can lead to abnormal body patterning, resulting in the absence or underdevelopment of certain muscles, bones, or other structures.

It's important to note that "body patterning" is not a formal medical term with a specific definition, but rather a general concept used in developmental biology and genetics.

A chick embryo refers to the developing organism that arises from a fertilized chicken egg. It is often used as a model system in biological research, particularly during the stages of development when many of its organs and systems are forming and can be easily observed and manipulated. The study of chick embryos has contributed significantly to our understanding of various aspects of developmental biology, including gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis, and pattern formation. Researchers may use various techniques to observe and manipulate the chick embryo, such as surgical alterations, cell labeling, and exposure to drugs or other agents.

"Tribolium" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually the name of a genus of beetles, also known as flour beetles, which are often used in scientific research, particularly in the fields of genetics and evolution. If you have any confusion with a specific medical context where this term was used, I would recommend checking the source again for clarification.

Genes in insects refer to the hereditary units of DNA that are passed down from parents to offspring and contain the instructions for the development, function, and reproduction of an organism. These genetic materials are located within the chromosomes in the nucleus of insect cells. They play a crucial role in determining various traits such as physical characteristics, behavior, and susceptibility to diseases.

Insect genes, like those of other organisms, consist of exons (coding regions) that contain information for protein synthesis and introns (non-coding regions) that are removed during the process of gene expression. The expression of insect genes is regulated by various factors such as transcription factors, enhancers, and silencers, which bind to specific DNA sequences to activate or repress gene transcription.

Understanding the genetic makeup of insects has important implications for various fields, including agriculture, public health, and evolutionary biology. For example, genes associated with insect pests' resistance to pesticides can be identified and targeted to develop more effective control strategies. Similarly, genes involved in disease transmission by insect vectors such as mosquitoes can be studied to develop novel interventions for preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

"Coturnix" is a genus of birds that includes several species of quails. The most common species is the Common Quail (Coturnix coturnix), which is also known as the European Quail or the Eurasian Quail. This small ground-dwelling bird is found throughout Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa, and it is known for its distinctive call and its migratory habits. Other species in the genus Coturnix include the Rain Quail (Coturnix coromandelica), the Stubble Quail (Coturnix pectoralis), and the Harlequin Quail (Coturnix delegorguei). These birds are all similar in appearance and behavior, with small, round bodies, short wings, and strong legs that are adapted for running and scratching in leaf litter. They are also known for their cryptic coloration, which helps them blend in with their surroundings and avoid predators. Quails are popular game birds and are also kept as pets and for ornamental purposes in some parts of the world.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Insect Proteins" is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide some information about insect protein from a nutritional and food science perspective.

Insect proteins refer to the proteins that are obtained from insects. Insects are a rich source of protein, and their protein content varies by species. For example, mealworms and crickets have been found to contain approximately 47-63% and 60-72% protein by dry weight, respectively.

In recent years, insect proteins have gained attention as a potential sustainable source of nutrition due to their high protein content, low environmental impact, and the ability to convert feed into protein more efficiently compared to traditional livestock. Insect proteins can be used in various applications such as food and feed additives, nutritional supplements, and even cosmetics.

However, it's important to note that the use of insect proteins in human food is not widely accepted in many Western countries due to cultural and regulatory barriers. Nonetheless, research and development efforts continue to explore the potential benefits and applications of insect proteins in the global food system.

Heteroptera is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in zoology. It refers to a suborder of insects within the order Hemiptera, also known as true bugs. This group includes a wide variety of species, such as bed bugs, assassin bugs, and stink bugs. While Heteroptera is not directly related to human health or medicine, some species can have medical importance as disease vectors or pests.

Morphogenesis is a term used in developmental biology and refers to the process by which cells give rise to tissues and organs with specific shapes, structures, and patterns during embryonic development. This process involves complex interactions between genes, cells, and the extracellular environment that result in the coordinated movement and differentiation of cells into specialized functional units.

Morphogenesis is a dynamic and highly regulated process that involves several mechanisms, including cell proliferation, death, migration, adhesion, and differentiation. These processes are controlled by genetic programs and signaling pathways that respond to environmental cues and regulate the behavior of individual cells within a developing tissue or organ.

The study of morphogenesis is important for understanding how complex biological structures form during development and how these processes can go awry in disease states such as cancer, birth defects, and degenerative disorders.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Quail" is typically used to refer to a group of small birds that belong to the family Phasianidae and the subfamily Perdicinae. There is no established medical definition for "quail."

However, if you're referring to the verb "to quail," it means to shrink back, draw back, or cower, often due to fear or intimidation. In a medical context, this term could be used metaphorically to describe a patient's psychological response to a threatening situation, such as receiving a difficult diagnosis. But again, "quail" itself is not a medical term.

Fushi Tarazu (FTZ) transcription factors are a family of proteins that regulate gene expression during development in various organisms, including insects and mammals. The name "Fushi Tarazu" comes from the phenotype observed in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) mutants, which have segmentation defects resembling a "broken rosary bead" or "incomplete abdomen."

FTZ transcription factors contain a zinc finger DNA-binding domain and are involved in the regulation of homeotic genes, which control body pattern formation during development. They play crucial roles in establishing and maintaining proper segmentation and regional identity along the anterior-posterior axis of the organism. In mammals, FTZ transcription factors have been implicated in various processes, including neurogenesis, adipogenesis, and energy metabolism.

Embryonic organizers are specialized cells or tissues in developing embryos that provide critical signals to guide the organization and development of surrounding cells and tissues. They play a crucial role in establishing the body plan and patterning of the organism during embryogenesis. A well-known example is the Spemann-Mangold organizer, first described in amphibians, which induces the formation of the neural tissue and organizes the surrounding tissues to form the body axis. Embryonic organizers have been identified in various animal models, including mammals, birds, and fish, and they are essential for normal embryonic development.

A blastula is a stage in the early development of many animals, including mammals. It is a hollow ball of cells that forms as a result of cleavage, which is the process of cell division during embryonic development. The blastula is typically characterized by the presence of a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel, which is surrounded by a single layer of cells known as the blastoderm.

In mammals, the blastula stage follows the morula stage, which is a solid mass of cells that results from cleavage of the fertilized egg. During further cell division and rearrangement, the cells in the morula become organized into an inner cell mass and an outer layer of cells, called the trophoblast. The inner cell mass will eventually give rise to the embryo proper, while the trophoblast will contribute to the formation of the placenta.

As the morula continues to divide and expand, it forms a cavity within the inner cell mass, which becomes the blastocoel. The single layer of cells surrounding the blastocoel is called the blastoderm. At this stage, the blastula is capable of further development through a process called gastrulation, during which the three germ layers of the embryo (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) are formed.

It's important to note that not all animals go through a blastula stage in their development. Some animals, such as insects and nematodes, have different patterns of early development that do not include a blastula stage.

A zebrafish is a freshwater fish species belonging to the family Cyprinidae and the genus Danio. Its name is derived from its distinctive striped pattern that resembles a zebra's. Zebrafish are often used as model organisms in scientific research, particularly in developmental biology, genetics, and toxicology studies. They have a high fecundity rate, transparent embryos, and a rapid development process, making them an ideal choice for researchers. However, it is important to note that providing a medical definition for zebrafish may not be entirely accurate or relevant since they are primarily used in biological research rather than clinical medicine.

The vitelline membrane is a thin, transparent, flexible, and protective membrane that surrounds the yolk in bird, reptile, and some insect eggs. It provides nutrition and physical protection to the developing embryo during incubation. In medical terms, it is not directly relevant as it does not have a counterpart or equivalent structure in mammalian embryology.

Nodal signaling ligands refer to a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the developmental processes of organisms, particularly during embryogenesis. Nodal is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily and functions as a key morphogen in establishing left-right asymmetry, inducing mesoderm formation, and promoting cell differentiation and proliferation.

Nodal signals are transmitted through a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways involving type I and type II receptors, regulatory Smad proteins (Smad2 and Smad3), and co-activators or co-repressors. The activation of Nodal signaling ligands is tightly regulated both spatially and temporally to ensure proper embryonic development.

Abnormalities in Nodal signaling have been implicated in various human congenital disorders, such as heterotaxy syndrome, which affects the normal asymmetry of internal organs. Additionally, deregulated Nodal signaling has also been associated with certain types of cancer, including ovarian and colorectal cancers.

The cleavage stage of an ovum, also known as a fertilized egg, refers to the series of rapid cell divisions that occur after fertilization. During this stage, the single cell (zygote) divides into multiple cells, forming a blastomere. This process occurs in the fallopian tube and continues until the blastocyst reaches the uterus, typically around 5-6 days after fertilization. The cleavage stage is a critical period in early embryonic development, as any abnormalities during this time can lead to implantation failure or developmental defects.

Insect hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological and behavioral processes in insects. They are produced and released by endocrine glands and organs, such as the corpora allata, prothoracic glands, and neurosecretory cells located in the brain. Insect hormones play crucial roles in the regulation of growth and development, reproduction, diapause (a state of dormancy), metamorphosis, molting, and other vital functions. Some well-known insect hormones include juvenile hormone (JH), ecdysteroids (such as 20-hydroxyecdysone), and neuropeptides like the brain hormone and adipokinetic hormone. These hormones act through specific receptors, often transmembrane proteins, to elicit intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression, cell behavior, or organ function. Understanding insect hormones is essential for developing novel strategies for pest management and control, as well as for advancing our knowledge of insect biology and evolution.

Homeodomain proteins are a group of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the development and differentiation of cells in animals and plants. They are characterized by the presence of a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain, which is typically about 60 amino acids long. The homeodomain consists of three helices, with the third helix responsible for recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences.

Homeodomain proteins are involved in regulating gene expression during embryonic development, tissue maintenance, and organismal growth. They can act as activators or repressors of transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors. Mutations in homeodomain proteins have been associated with various human diseases, including cancer, congenital abnormalities, and neurological disorders.

Some examples of homeodomain proteins include PAX6, which is essential for eye development, HOX genes, which are involved in body patterning, and NANOG, which plays a role in maintaining pluripotency in stem cells.

Germ cells are the reproductive cells, also known as sex cells, that combine to form offspring in sexual reproduction. In females, germ cells are called ova or egg cells, and in males, they are called spermatozoa or sperm cells. These cells are unique because they carry half the genetic material necessary for creating new life. They are produced through a process called meiosis, which reduces their chromosome number by half, ensuring that when two germ cells combine during fertilization, the normal diploid number of chromosomes is restored.

Aminopterin is a type of anti-folate drug that is primarily used in cancer treatment and research. It works by inhibiting the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, aminopterin prevents the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, aminopterin has also been used in experimental studies to investigate the role of folate metabolism in various biological processes, including embryonic development and immune function. However, due to its potent anti-proliferative effects, the use of aminopterin is limited to specialized medical and research settings, and it is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent in clinical practice.

Germ layers refer to the primary layers of cells that form during embryonic development and give rise to the various tissues and organs in the body. In humans, there are three germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Each germ layer differentiates into distinct cell types and structures during the process of gastrulation. The ectoderm gives rise to the nervous system, sensory organs, and skin; the mesoderm forms muscles, bones, blood vessels, and the circulatory system; and the endoderm develops into the respiratory and digestive systems, including the lungs, liver, and pancreas.

Embryonic induction is a process that occurs during the development of a multicellular organism, where one group of cells in the embryo signals and influences the developmental fate of another group of cells. This interaction leads to the formation of specific structures or organs in the developing embryo. The signaling cells that initiate the process are called organizers, and they release signaling molecules known as morphogens that bind to receptors on the target cells and trigger a cascade of intracellular signals that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cell fate. Embryonic induction is a crucial step in the development of complex organisms and plays a key role in establishing the body plan and organizing the different tissues and organs in the developing embryo.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Gastrulation follows blastoderm formation, where the tips of the blastoderm begins the formation of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and ... In chicken eggs, the blastoderm represents a flat disc after embryonic fertilization. At the edge of the blastoderm is the site ... A blastoderm (germinal disc, blastodisc) is a single layer of embryonic epithelial tissue that makes up the blastula. It ... The blastoderm is formed when the oocyte plasma membrane begins cleaving by invagination, creating multiple cells that arrange ...
In the anterior cap region of the syncytial blastoderm, which has non-segregated nuclei along the periphery of the blastoderm, ... Later, in the cellular blastoderm, which has all nuclei along the periphery separated in individual cells with their own cell ... Torso and hunchback expression represses otd expression in the anterior most region of the blastoderm while dorsal expression ... Mazumdar A, Mazumdar M (October 2022). "How one becomes many: Blastoderm cellularization in Drosophila melanogaster". BioEssays ...
The word syncytium in animal embryology is used to refer to the coenocytic blastoderm of invertebrates. A coenocytic colony is ... At first, the nuclei of the early embryo rapidly and synchronously divide in the "syncytial" blastoderm and then migrate ... blastoderms, i.e. early on the embryos exhibit incomplete cell division. The nuclei undergo S-phase (DNA replication) and ... the egg is called a cellular blastoderm. The pole cells - the germline anlage - are the first cells to separate fully. Certain ...
... cell membranes form around the nuclei of the syncytial blastoderm converting it to a cellular blastoderm. The expression ... This process sets up a gradient between the ventral and dorsal side of the blastoderm embryo with the repression or induction ... At the dorsal side of the embryo, blastoderm nuclei where this is little or no nuclear dorsal protein express zerknüllt, ... At the ventral end of the embryo, blastoderm nuclei exposed to high concentrations of dorsal protein induce the transcription ...
It has been demonstrated that gap gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm exhibit a property called canalization, a ... "Mechanisms of gap gene expression canalization in the Drosophila blastoderm". BMC Systems Biology. 5 (118): 118. doi:10.1186/ ...
The blastoderm is a single layer of cells, and the hypoblast and area opaca endoderm cells lie directly below the blastoderm. ... As blastoderm cells migrate anteriorly they push primary hypoblast cells and form a secondary hypoblast known as the endoblast ... By implanting a fragment of quail Koller's sickle into a chicken blastoderm, Drs. Callebaut and Van Nueten observed the ... Callebaut, M; Van Nueten, E (1994). "Rauber's (Koller's) sickle: The early gastrulation organizer of the avian blastoderm". ...
Fires, which uses Fires of Yavimaya with Saproling Burst and Blastoderm. Dredge, which uses Bazaar of Baghdad and cards with ...
The larger question she addressed was what the developmental potential was of portions of the early chick blastoderm, when ... Reddick ML (1937). The differentiation of portions of the chick blastoderm in chorio-allantoic grafts. Thesis for Degree of the ... "The differentiation of portions of the chick blastoderm in chorio-allantoic grafts". Robert W. Woodruff Library. University of ... with a thesis studying the embryo chick blastoderm. After gaining her Masters, Reddick began teaching biology at Spelman in ...
Her dissertation was titled "Thyroid Forming Potencies of the Early Chick Blastoderm." Dr. Rudnick spent most of her academic ... Dorothea Rudnick, "Thyroid Forming Potencies of the Early Chic Blastoderm" (University of Chicago 1931). "Dorothea Rudnick" in ...
"Differentiation of the Junctional Complex of Surface Cells in the Developing Fundulus Blastoderm". The Journal of Cell Biology ...
One can determine if an egg is fertilized when the blastoderm is visible. The candle passes through the rest of the ...
... fish blastoderm, frog embryos, rabbit ovary, re-aggregating cells, cockroach hemocyte capsules, rabbit skin, chick embryos, ... "Gap junction-mediated transfer of left-right patterning signals in the early chick blastoderm is upstream of Shh asymmetry in ... "Differentiation of the junctional complex of surface cells in the developing Fundulus blastoderm". J. Cell Biol. 48 (3): 455-72 ...
"Transcription Factors Bind Thousands of Active and Inactive Regions in the Drosophila Blastoderm". PLOS Biology. 6 (2): e27. ...
Interior cells of the blastoderm move towards the outer cells, thus "intercalating" with each other. The blastoderm begins to ... Studies on fundulus demonstrated that the YSL is capable of undergoing epiboly even when the blastoderm has been removed, ... however, the blastoderm cannot undergo epiboly in the absence of the YSL. In zebrafish, there is a microtubule array in the ... of the blastoderm which will eventually form the embryo's three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). The EVL, YSL, ...
... and engrailed in the Drosophila blastoderm". Cell. 44 (6): 949-957. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90018-8. PMID 3955654. S2CID ...
Area opaca is the blastoderm's peripheral part where the cells remain unseparated from the yolk. It is a white area that ... In fish, the hypoblast is the inner layer of the thickened margin of the epibolizing blastoderm in the gastrulating fish embryo ... Simultaneously, the secondary hypoblast (endoblast) cells continue to migrate anteriorly from the blastoderm's posterior ... The resulting two-layered blastoderm (epiblast and hypoblast) is joined at the marginal zone of the area opaca, and the space ...
These actomyosin rings invaginate to separate all nuclei for one another in the syncytial blastoderm. Anillin has a unique ...
... and engrailed in the Drosophila blastoderm". Cell. 44 (6): 949-957. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90018-8. PMID 3955654. S2CID ...
At the early blastoderm stage, Dpp signaling is uniform and low along the dorsal side. A sharp signaling profile emerges at the ...
"Neural induction and notochord formation by mesoderm from the node area of the early chick blastoderm". Journal of Experimental ...
In this way the initial gradients of morphogens can lead to the establishment of a specific region within the blastoderm. It ... Krüppel is expressed in the center of the embryo during the cellular blastoderm stage of development. Its expression pattern is ... Diagram at Davidson College - a Drosophila embryo at the cellular blastoderm stage triple-labeled for three segmentation ...
The blastoderm now consists of three layers, an outer ectoderm, a middle mesoderm, and an inner endoderm; each has distinctive ... The blastula is usually a spherical layer of cells (the blastoderm) surrounding a fluid-filled or yolk-filled cavity the ...
He presents here several figures and illustrations of the cleavage of the blastoderm in reptiles and birds. He examines in ...
The term triploblast may refer to any egg cell in which the blastoderm splits into three layers. All bilaterians, the animals ...
This axis is defined by the creation of a pH difference "inside" and "outside" of the blastoderm between the subgerminal space ... the lighter yolk components will be near one end of the blastoderm and will become the future posterior. The molecular basis of ...
Distinct tissue areas were recognized that grew and gave rise to specific structures, including the blastoderm, or chick origin ...
The blastoderm develops into the epiblast and hypoblast and it is between these layers that the blastocoel will form. The shape ...
Many of the cards with fading were quite powerful; the cards Parallax Wave, Parallax Tide, Blastoderm, Saproling Burst, and ...
It was discovered that cellularization of the blastoderm took place either during or before the specifications of body regions ...
... activated by the maternal Bicoid morphogen gradient and determines the anterior-posterior axis within the syncytial blastoderm ...
Gastrulation follows blastoderm formation, where the tips of the blastoderm begins the formation of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and ... In chicken eggs, the blastoderm represents a flat disc after embryonic fertilization. At the edge of the blastoderm is the site ... A blastoderm (germinal disc, blastodisc) is a single layer of embryonic epithelial tissue that makes up the blastula. It ... The blastoderm is formed when the oocyte plasma membrane begins cleaving by invagination, creating multiple cells that arrange ...
Aveda Institute Syncitial Blastoderm Stage of Drosophila Embryos Questions ... 3.In the syncitial blastoderm stage of Drosophila embryos, nuclei move to the periphery and are held in their positions just ...
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Blastoderm-specific gene 25ADNA (5-D(*GP*TP*TP*CP*CP*AP*AP*TP*TP*GP*GP*AP*A)-3)ACETATE ION ...
Apoptosis in the chicken blastoderm: in situ detection of fragmented DNA and ultrastructural characterization ...
involved_in syncytial blastoderm mitotic cell cycle IGI Inferred from Genetic Interaction. more info ... involved_in embryonic development via the syncytial blastoderm TAS Traceable Author Statement. more info ... and syncytial blastoderm mitotic cell cycle. Located in nucleus and spindle midzone. Colocalizes with mitotic spindle. Is ...
... demonstrated that below unincubated quail blastoderms the subgerminal space extends much more peripherally in the cranial then ... By radioactive ooplasmic yolk layer labeling during late oogenesis, we demonstrated that below unincubated quail blastoderms ... Unequal caudocephalic ooplasmic uptake and eccentric formation of the subgerminal space below unincubated quail blastoderms ... Unequal caudocephalic ooplasmic uptake and eccentric formation of the subgerminal space below unincubated quail blastoderms ...
Blastoderm Is the Subject Area "Blastoderm" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
blastoderm segmentation. 28. head segmentation. 0. anterior head segmentation +. 0. posterior head segmentation +. 0. ...
... no tail at blastoderm margin, Schulte-Merker et al., 1992; goosecoid at the dorsal side of blastoderm, Stachel et al., 1993). ... gsc and ntl transcripts were first detected at a part of the marginal blastoderm at 6 hpf by WISH (Fig. 5A and B). gsc showed ... Thereafter, the blastoderm was separated from yolk by the YSL.. After 7 hpf, the shape of the embryo changed from ellipsoidal ( ... A) gsc is graded expression in part of the blastoderm at 6 hpf (arrowheads). (B) ntl is expressed in a local marginal region of ...
The Blastoderm in Chicks During Early Gastrulation. This image shows a chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo undergoing gastrulation ... At this point in time the chicken embryo is a blastoderm (shown in blue). The first magnification of the embryo shows that the ... The second rectangular magnification shows the blastoderm cross-sectioned through the primitive streak. ... blastoderm cell layers have thickened to form the primitive streak and Hensens node. The primitive streak extends from the ...
The Blastoderm in Chicks During Early Gastrulation. This image shows a chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo undergoing gastrulation ... At this point in time the chicken embryo is a blastoderm (shown in blue). The first magnification of the embryo shows that the ... The second rectangular magnification shows the blastoderm cross-sectioned through the primitive streak. ... blastoderm cell layers have thickened to form the primitive streak and Hensens node. The primitive streak extends from the ...
Attachment of the blastoderm to the vitelline envelope affects gastrulation of insects.. Nature, 568(7752) 395-399 (2019) ... Here we show that a particular part of the blastoderm tissue of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) tightly adheres in a ... The OES also promotes apical localization of injected RNAs in blastoderm stage embryos, another dynein-mediated process. ... suggests that gastrulation in this organism also relies on adhesion between the blastoderm and the vitelline envelope. Our ...
Specifically, Bin3 appears to methylate 7SK RNA during the process of oogenesis and early blastoderm development. Methylation ...
Mohler J (1993) Genetic regulation of cnc expression in the pharnygeal primordia of Drosophila blastoderm embryos. Rouxs Arch ... CncA and CncB are presumably maternal and they are detectable at syncytial and early cellular blastoderm stages, then they ... cncB transcription is activated in blastoderm and continuous during embryogenesis in two parts of embryo: the anterior part ...
... blastoderm embryo; cytoplasmic part; cephalopharyngeal skeleton; follicle cell. It has one annotated transcript and one ... embryonic development via the syncytial blastoderm; embryonic development ending in birth or egg hatching; embryonic ...
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48. Three-Dimensional Morphology and Gene Expression Mapping for the Drosophila Blastoderm. David W. Knowles. 49. From Confocal ...
... can form in a single embryonic blastoderm? What are the most effective policies for recognizing, modulating, and communicating ...
90%-epiboly: blastoderm margin closing over the yolk plug. Bud: polster. 3-somite: third somite. 6-somite: eye primordium ( ...
1 describes the emc mRNA distribution in the subsequent developmental stages, from cellular blastoderm to the post dorsal- ... emc mRNA is already detectable in syncytial blastoderms, where it is homogeneously distributed. This mRNA is probably of ...
... but also from the anteroposterior and terminal patterning systems in the blastoderm embryo (Liang, 2012). Most blastoderm genes ... The initial expression of Krüppel occurs in a precisely bounded central region of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. The spatial ... In Drosophila, the pair-rule gene eve is expressed in a pattern of seven stripes during the syncytial blastoderm stage of ... The expression of the homeotic gene Antennapedia (Antp), which is first activated in late blastoderm embryos as a strong stripe ...
If youre playing with Masques cards then Blastoderm and Saporling Burst are excellent choices. Invasion Block also has some ...
Facilitated transport of a Dpp/Scw heterodimer by Sog/Tsg leads to robust patterning of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Cell ...
  • At this point in time the chicken embryo is a blastoderm (shown in blue). (asu.edu)
  • The first magnification of the embryo shows that the blastoderm cell layers have thickened to form the primitive streak and Hensen's node. (asu.edu)
  • Shimmi, O., Umulis, D., Othmer, H. & O'Connor, M. B. Facilitated transport of a Dpp/Scw heterodimer by Sog/Tsg leads to robust patterning of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. (nature.com)
  • Then, within the same cytoplasm, syncytial embryonic nuclei undergo a series of rapid, synchronous S and M phases to form the blastoderm embryo. (ens-lyon.fr)
  • By radioactive ooplasmic yolk layer labeling during late oogenesis, we demonstrated that below unincubated quail blastoderms the subgerminal space extends much more peripherally in the cranial then in the caudal direction, where it ends abruptly against Koller's sickle. (naturalsciences.be)
  • Thereafter, epiboly started and a blastoderm covered over the yolk cell at 8 hpf. (bioone.org)
  • The blastoderm covered the yolk cell completely at 15 hpf. (bioone.org)
  • 90%-epiboly: blastoderm margin closing over the yolk plug. (ucsd.edu)
  • In teleosts, the Yolk Syncytial Layer (YSL) is functionally similar to the anterior visceral endoderm found in mice and is required for morphogenesis of the overlying blastoderm. (rice.edu)
  • These data show that the p38 MAPK pathway is essential for maintaining normal yolk cell equilibrium during early development and that without proper cues from the YSL, the blastoderm cannot complete its morphogenetic movements. (rice.edu)
  • During doming, the blastoderm, a tissue composed of surface epithelial cells and inner mesenchymal cells, thins and spreads over the yolk cell. (ist.ac.at)
  • Blockage of translation of aplnra mRNA in zebrafish embryos results in retarded or failed epiboly with the blastoderm apparently disconnected from the nuclei of the yolk syncytial layer. (nih.gov)
  • It consists of a discshaped mass of cells several strata in thickness, the blastoderm, lying closely applied to the yolk. (edu.au)
  • A cavity is formed beneath the blastoderm by the detachment of its central cells from the underlying yolk while ^ the peripheral cells remain attached. (edu.au)
  • The space thus established between the blastoderm and the yolk is termed the segmentation cavity (blastocoele). (edu.au)
  • The marginal area of the blastoderm in which the cells remain undetached from the yolk and closely adherent to it, is called the zone of junction. (edu.au)
  • Only the blastoderm and the immediately underlying yolk are included in the diagram. (edu.au)
  • A blastoderm (germinal disc, blastodisc) is a single layer of embryonic epithelial tissue that makes up the blastula. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chicken eggs, the blastoderm represents a flat disc after embryonic fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final two layers of the embryoblast are known collectively as the bilaminar embryonic disc as well as the bilaminar blastocyst or bilaminar blastoderm . (primidi.com)
  • and syncytial blastoderm mitotic cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • 3.In the syncitial blastoderm stage of Drosophila embryos, nuclei move to the periphery and are held in their positions just beneath the plasma membrane by the cytoskeleton. (brilliantessay.com)
  • The YSL and YSL nuclei (YSN) undergo epiboly, and during convergence and extension movements of the blastoderm, the YSN underneath the animal cap also converge and extend underneath the axial hypoblast. (rice.edu)
  • Gastrulation follows blastoderm formation, where the tips of the blastoderm begins the formation of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the edge of the blastoderm is the site of active migration by most cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the reduction in blastoderm surface tension represents the key process coordinating surface cell layer expansion with inner cell layer thinning and spreading during doming. (ist.ac.at)
  • The second rectangular magnification shows the blastoderm cross-sectioned through the primitive streak. (asu.edu)
  • The YSL undergoes dramatic reorganization during early development through processes that mirror the morphogenetic movements of the blastoderm. (rice.edu)
  • I show that this pathway acts in the YSL along with a mixer gene family member, mix-type homeobox gene 1 ( mxtx1 ), to non-autonomously coordinate extracellular matrix deposition and morphogenetic movements in the overlying blastoderm. (rice.edu)
  • In the present study, Heisenberg and his colleague asked how the two tissue movements - surface cell expansion and inner cell intercalation - coordinate their movements during blastoderm spreading. (ist.ac.at)
  • Strikingly, this loosening at the blastoderm surface not only triggers surface cell layer expansion, but also induces inner cell intercalation leading to inner cell layer thinning and spreading. (ist.ac.at)
  • Is the Subject Area "Blastoderm" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Unequal caudocephalic ooplasmic uptake and eccentric formation of the subgerminal space below unincubated quail blastoderms presenting a Koller's sickle. (naturalsciences.be)
  • Home / Associated publications / Belgian Journal of Zoology / Bibliographic References / Unequal caudocephalic ooplasmic uptake and eccentric formation of the subgerminal space below unincubated quail blastoderms presenting a Koller's sickle. (naturalsciences.be)
  • The blastoderm is formed when the oocyte plasma membrane begins cleaving by invagination, creating multiple cells that arrange themselves into an outer sleeve to the blastocoel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combining theory and experiments, they show that surface cells, by undergoing active expansion, reduce the surface tension of the blastoderm. (ist.ac.at)
  • Our study shows that by reducing its surface tension, the layer of epithelial cells simultaneously drives expansion and thinning of the blastoderm, and so coordinates these two processes. (ist.ac.at)
  • In the center of the blastoderm the cells are smaller. (edu.au)
  • Apical localization of pair-rule transcripts requires 3' sequences and limits protein diffusion in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The peripheral cytoplasm (periplasm) of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo is subdivided into apical and basal compartments by a layer of nuclei. (ox.ac.uk)
  • As a postdoctoral fellow, she focused on using mathematical models to gain insights into various biological systems, including developmental gene regulatory networks of the blastoderm embryo of D. melanogaster, the pathology of liver diseases, calcium dynamics in mitochondria-associated ER membranes, and the epidemic spread of SARS-CoV-2. (nih.gov)
  • A mitotic wave sweeping across a Tribolium blastoderm embryo (from bottom left to top right). (peel-lab.org)
  • Drosophila blastoderm embryo showing expression of the segmentation gene fushi-tarazu (yellow). (peel-lab.org)
  • Translation of hunchback(mat) (hb[mat]) mRNA must be repressed in the posterior of the pre-blastoderm Drosophila embryo to permit formation of abdominal segments. (embl.de)
  • Looking at the future of functional genomics from inside the Drosophila blastoderm -(Meeting Rm 2 at the Centre for Math. (newton.ac.uk)
  • Within otherwise naïve zebrafish blastoderm explants, however, Nodal induces C and E in a largely PCP-dependent manner, arguing that Nodal acts both upstream of and in parallel with PCP during gastrulation to regulate embryonic axis extension cooperatively. (elifesciences.org)
  • This article provides instructions for generating zebrafish blastoderm explants and demonstrates that a single signaling molecule - a Nodal ligand - is sufficient to induce germ layer formation and extension morphogenesis in otherwise naïve embryonic tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Gastrulation follows blastoderm formation, where the tips of the blastoderm begins the formation of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer of the two layers of the blastoderm that form during gastrulation, corresponding to primitive ectoderm during gastrulation and to the definitive ectoderm after gastrulation[ZFA]. (mcw.edu)
  • As noted above fandango maternal mutant embryos and kugelkern (kuk) mutant embryos showed remarkably similar blastoderm cellularization defects. (sdbonline.org)
  • Indeed we find no statistically significant differences in the relative timing of any event between the initial cellularization of the blastoderm and hatching. (science20.com)
  • We identified the molecular cascade leading to 25 cell types, the spatial origins of those cell types in the blastoderm, profiled a developmental signaling mutant, and identified cells that change their specification during gastrulation. (nih.gov)
  • Generation of Naïve Blastoderm Explants from Zebrafish Embryos. (nih.gov)
  • In chicken eggs, the blastoderm represents a flat disc after embryonic fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • 19. Pluripotency properties of embryonic stem cells isolated from stage X blastoderm of Mazandaran native chicken. (nih.gov)
  • Behaving as a sheet of cells, the blastoderm undergoes complex folding movements generating a multilayered germ band, which soon becomes visibly segmented. (nih.gov)
  • 90%-epiboly: blastoderm margin closing over the yolk plug. (ucsd.edu)
  • Blastoderm degeneration, an early embryonic failure in dwarf single comb white leghorn chickens. (omia.org)
  • A blastoderm (germinal disc, blastodisc) is a single layer of embryonic epithelial tissue that makes up the blastula. (wikipedia.org)