A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.

The Drosophila melanogaster homologue of the Xeroderma pigmentosum D gene product is located in euchromatic regions and has a dynamic response to UV light-induced lesions in polytene chromosomes. (1/342)

The XPD/ERCC2/Rad3 gene is required for excision repair of UV-damaged DNA and is an important component of nucleotide excision repair. Mutations in the XPD gene generate the cancer-prone syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne's syndrome, and trichothiodystrophy. XPD has a 5'- to 3'-helicase activity and is a component of the TFIIH transcription factor, which is essential for RNA polymerase II elongation. We present here the characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster XPD gene (DmXPD). DmXPD encodes a product that is highly related to its human homologue. The DmXPD protein is ubiquitous during development. In embryos at the syncytial blastoderm stage, DmXPD is cytoplasmic. At the onset of transcription in somatic cells and during gastrulation in germ cells, DmXPD moves to the nuclei. Distribution analysis in polytene chromosomes shows that DmXPD is highly concentrated in the interbands, especially in the highly transcribed regions known as puffs. UV-light irradiation of third-instar larvae induces an increase in the signal intensity and in the number of sites where the DmXPD protein is located in polytene chromosomes, indicating that the DmXPD protein is recruited intensively in the chromosomes as a response to DNA damage. This is the first time that the response to DNA damage by UV-light irradiation can be visualized directly on the chromosomes using one of the TFIIH components.  (+info)

Cell death in the avian blastoderm: resistance to stress-induced apoptosis and expression of anti-apoptotic genes. (2/342)

We investigated the expression of an apoptotic cell death program in blastodermal cells prior to gastrulation and the susceptibility of these cells to stress-induced cell death. A low frequency (3.1%) of apoptotic blastodermal cells was observed in Hoechst 33342-vitally stained cytological preparations of complete blastoderms from unincubated eggs. These cells showed the stereotypic features of apoptosis including a progression of nuclear changes, cell shrinkage and blebbing, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Prolonged storage of eggs at 12 degrees C induced apoptosis in blastodermal cells (14%). A modest amount of apoptosis (10%) was also induced at the heat shock temperature of 48 degrees C, but not at 45 degrees C. Etoposide and other potent cytotoxic drugs failed to induce apoptosis in the blastodermal cells after 4 h of exposure. Progressively more apoptosis was induced at 8 and 24 h, but it did not exceed 35% of the cells. We detected transcripts for the anti-apoptotic genes bcl-2, bcl-xL, and hsp70. The developmental expression of these genes, especially hsp70, correlated with the delayed and limited stress-induction of apoptosis. These studies reveal the capacity of pre-streak blastodermal cells to engage in apoptosis and their relative resistance to stress conditions. This may be due to the prominent expression of hsp70 and/or multiple cell death genes which primarily antagonize cell death.  (+info)

Reconstitution of the organizer is both sufficient and required to re-establish a fully patterned body plan in avian embryos. (3/342)

Lateral blastoderm isolates (LBIs) at the late gastrula/early neurula stage (i.e., stage 3d/4) that lack Hensen's node (organizer) and primitive streak can reconstitute a functional organizer and primitive streak within 10-12 hours in culture. We used LBIs to study the initiation and regionalization of the body plan. A complete body plan forms in each LBI by 36 hours in culture, and normal craniocaudal, dorsoventral, and mediolateral axes are re-established. Thus, reconstitution of the organizer is sufficient to re-establish a fully patterned body plan. LBIs can be modified so that reconstitution of the organizer does not occur. In such modified LBIs, tissue-type specific differentiation (with the exception of heart differentiation) and reconstitution of the body plan fail to occur. Thus, the reconstitution of the organizer is not only sufficient to re-establish a fully patterned body plan, it is also required. Finally, our results show that formation and patterning of the heart is under the control of the organizer, and that such control is exerted during the early to mid-gastrula stages (i.e., stages 2-3a), prior to formation of the fully elongated primitive streak.  (+info)

Timing and cell interactions underlying neural induction in the chick embryo. (4/342)

Previous studies on neural induction have identified regionally localized inducing activities, signaling molecules, potential competence factors and various other features of this important, early differentiation event. In this paper, we have developed an improved model system for analyzing neural induction and patterning using transverse blastoderm isolates obtained from gastrulating chick embryos. We use this model to establish the timing of neural specification and the spatial distribution of perinodal cells having organizer activity. We show that a tissue that acts either as an organizer or as an inducer of an organizer is spatially co-localized with the prospective neuroectoderm immediately rostral to the primitive streak in the early gastrula. As the primitive streak elongates, this tissue with organizing activity and the prospective neuroectoderm rostral to the streak separate. Furthermore, we show that up to and through the mid-primitive streak stage (i.e., stage 3c/3+), the prospective neuroectoderm cannot self-differentiate (i.e. , express neural markers and acquire neural plate morphology) in isolation from tissue with organizer activity. Signals from the organizer and from other more caudal regions of the primitive streak act on the rostral prospective neuroectoderm and the latter gains potency (i.e., is specified) by the fully elongated primitive streak stage (i.e., stage 3d). Transverse blastoderm isolates containing non-specified, prospective neuroectoderm provide an improved model system for analyzing early signaling events involved in neuraxis initiation and patterning.  (+info)

Analysis of an even-skipped rescue transgene reveals both composite and discrete neuronal and early blastoderm enhancers, and multi-stripe positioning by gap gene repressor gradients. (5/342)

The entire functional even-skipped locus of Drosophila melanogaster is contained within a 16 kilobase region. As a transgene, this region is capable of rescuing even-skipped mutant flies to fertile adulthood. Detailed analysis of the 7.7 kb of regulatory DNA 3' of the transcription unit revealed ten novel, independently regulated patterns. Most of these patterns are driven by non-overlapping regulatory elements, including ones for syncytial blastoderm stage stripes 1 and 5, while a single element specifies both stripes 4 and 6. Expression analysis in gap gene mutants showed that stripe 5 is restricted anteriorly by Kruppel and posteriorly by giant, the same repressors that regulate stripe 2. Consistent with the coregulation of stripes 4 and 6 by a single cis-element, both the anterior border of stripe 4 and the posterior border of stripe 6 are set by zygotic hunchback, and the region between the two stripes is 'carved out' by knirps. Thus the boundaries of stripes 4 and 6 are set through negative regulation by the same gap gene domains that regulate stripes 3 and 7 (Small, S., Blair, A. and Levine, M. (1996) Dev. Biol. 175, 314-24), but at different concentrations. The 3' region also contains a single element for neurogenic expression in ganglion mother cells 4-2a and 1-1a, and neurons derived from them (RP2, a/pCC), suggesting common regulators in these lineages. In contrast, separable elements were found for expression in EL neurons, U/CQ neurons and the mesoderm. The even-skipped 3' untranslated region is required to maintain late stage protein expression in RP2 and a/pCC neurons, and appears to affect protein levels rather than mRNA levels. Additionally, a strong pairing-sensitive repression element was localized to the 3' end of the locus, but was not found to contribute to efficient functional rescue.  (+info)

A transcription unit at the ken and barbie gene locus encodes a novel Drosophila zinc finger protein. (6/342)

We describe a novel Drosophila transcription unit, located in chromosome region 60A. It encodes a zinc finger protein that is expressed in distinct spatial and temporal patterns during embryogenesis. Its initial expression occurs in a stripe at the anterior and the posterior trunk boundary, respectively. The two stripes are activated and spatially controlled by gap-gene activities. The P-element of the enhancer trap line l(2)02970 is inserted in the 5'-region of the transcript and causes a ken and barbie (ken) phenotype, associated with malformation of male genital structures.  (+info)

Induction of the mesendoderm in the zebrafish germ ring by yolk cell-derived TGF-beta family signals and discrimination of mesoderm and endoderm by FGF. (7/342)

The endoderm forms the gut and associated organs, and develops from a layer of cells which emerges during gastrula stages in the vertebrate embryo. In comparison to mesoderm and ectoderm, little is known about the signals which induce the endoderm. The origin of the endoderm is intimately linked with that of mesoderm, both by their position in the embryo, and by the molecules that can induce them. We characterised a gene, zebrafish gata5, which is expressed in the endoderm from blastula stages and show that its transcription is induced by signals originating from the yolk cell. These signals also induce the mesoderm-expressed transcription factor no tail (ntl), whose initial expression coincides with gata5 in the cells closest to the blastoderm margin, then spreads to encompass the germ ring. We have characterised the induction of these genes and show that ectopic expression of activin induces gata5 and ntl in a pattern which mimics the endogenous expression, while expression of a dominant negative activin receptor abolishes ntl and gata5 expression. Injection of RNA encoding a constitutively active activin receptor leads to ectopic expression of gata5 and ntl. gata5 is activated cell-autonomously, whereas ntl is induced in cells distant from those which have received the RNA, showing that although expression of both genes is induced by a TGF-beta signal, expression of ntl then spreads by a relay mechanism. Expression of a fibroblast growth factor (eFGF) or a dominant negatively acting FGF receptor shows that ntl but not gata5 is regulated by FGF signalling, implying that this may be the relay signal leading to the spread of ntl expression. In embryos lacking both squint and cyclops, members of the nodal group of TGF-beta related molecules, gata5 expression in the blastoderm is abolished, making these factors primary candidates for the endogenous TGF-beta signal inducing gata5.  (+info)

Characterization of Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 activity during zebrafish embryogenesis. (8/342)

We have developed a simple fluorescent assay for detection of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in zebrafish embryos that utilizes a fluorescent phosphatidylcholine substrate. By using this assay in conjunction with selective PLA2 inhibitors and Western blot analysis, we identified the principal activity in zebrafish embryogenesis as characteristic of the Ca2+-dependent cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) subtype. Embryonic cPLA2 activity remained constant from the 1-cell stage until the onset of somitogenesis, at which time it increased sharply. This increase was preceded by the expression of a previously identified zebrafish cPLA2 homologue (Nalefski, E., Sultzman, L., Martin, D., Kriz, R., Towler, P., Knopf, J., and Clark, J. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 18239-18249). By using a quenched BODIPY-labeled phosphatidylcholine that fluoresces only upon cleavage by PLA2, lipase activity was visualized in the cells of living embryos where it localized to perinuclear membranes.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Bicaudal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster. T2 - alteration of blastoderm cell fate.. AU - Mohler, J.. AU - Wieschaus, E. F.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Medline is the source for the citation and abstract of this record.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0022322047&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0022322047&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1101/SQB.1985.050.01.015. DO - 10.1101/SQB.1985.050.01.015. M3 - Article. C2 - 3938358. AN - SCOPUS:0022322047. VL - 50. SP - 105. EP - 111. JO - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. JF - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. SN - 0091-7451. ER - ...
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In avian gastrulation, Kollers sickle is a local thickening of cells at the posterior edge of the upper layer of the area pellucida called the epiblast. Kollers sickle is crucial for avian development, due to its critical role in inducing the differentiation of various avian body parts. Kollers sickle induces primitive streak and Hensens node, which are major components of avian gastrulation. Avian gastrulation is a process by which developing cells in an avian embryo move relative to one another in order to form the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm). The thickening of the epiblast in Kollers sickle acts as a margin separating sheets of cells from posterior side of avian blastoderms from hypoblasts and area opaca endoderm. The blastoderm is a single layer of cells, and the hypoblast and area opaca endoderm cells lie directly below the blastoderm. Kollers sickle arises from the midpoint, between the hypoblast cells and the area opaca endoderm. As blastoderm cells migrate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The initiation of pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila blastoderm. AU - Small, Stephen. AU - Levine, Michael. PY - 1991/8. Y1 - 1991/8. N2 - The interactions between the products of gap genes and pair-rule promoters results in the single most dramatic increase in the spatial complexity of gene expression during the segmentation process. We attempt to relate recent findings on the regulation of striped patterns of gene expression in the early Drosophila embryo to general strategies of gene expression and development employed by higher organisms.. AB - The interactions between the products of gap genes and pair-rule promoters results in the single most dramatic increase in the spatial complexity of gene expression during the segmentation process. We attempt to relate recent findings on the regulation of striped patterns of gene expression in the early Drosophila embryo to general strategies of gene expression and development employed by higher organisms.. UR - ...
The prototype of the Cdx family of homeodomain transcription factors is the Drosophila caudal protein. The initial maternal expression of caudal mRNA is ubiquitous and a posterior to anterior gradient of the protein develops during the syncytial blastoderm stage and persists until the onset of cellularization. Zygotic expression, which commences in the cellular blastoderm stage, is also localized to the posterior in a region which gives rise to terminal abdominal structures and the hindgut. During later embryonic development, expression of caudal is found in the midgut, hindgut and Malpigian tubules (MacDonald and Struhl, 1986; Mlodzik and Gehring, 1987).. Caudal homologues have been identified in a wide range of animal groups. A caudal‐related gene with a similar posterior expression pattern has been cloned from the short or intermediate germ band insect Bombyx mori and homologues are present in other invertebrates, including the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the annelid worm ...
This image shows a chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo undergoing gastrulation in stage four (18-19 hrs after laying) according to the Hamburger-Hamilton staging series. At this point in time the chicken embryo is a blastoderm (shown in blue). The first magnification of the embryo shows that the blastoderm cell layers have thickened to form the primitive streak and Hensens node. The primitive streak extends from the posterior (P) region to the anterior (A) region. The second rectangular magnification shows the blastoderm cross-sectioned through the primitive streak.. Format: Graphics Subject: Processes, Organisms, Theories ...
This image shows a chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo undergoing gastrulation in stage four (18-19 hrs after laying) according to the Hamburger-Hamilton staging series. At this point in time the chicken embryo is a blastoderm (shown in blue). The first magnification of the embryo shows that the blastoderm cell layers have thickened to form the primitive streak and Hensens node. The primitive streak extends from the posterior (P) region to the anterior (A) region. The second rectangular magnification shows the blastoderm cross-sectioned through the primitive streak.. Format: Graphics Subject: Processes, Organisms, Theories ...
Immediately following fertilisation in Drosophilaand many other arthropods, the embryo undergoes a series of rapid syncytial nuclear divisions
The establishment of cell polarity is crucial for building and maintaining multicellular organisms. In Drosophila, the protein kinase Par-1 is thought to be critically involved in establishing polarity but, because par-1 mutants die early in development, the function of the kinase is poorly characterized. Now, on p. 711, Richard Carthew and colleagues use RNAi to characterize the role of Par-1 in Drosophila embryos and eye imaginal discs. By depleting maternal and zygotic Par-1, they discover that it restricts the adherens junctions that link neighbouring cells to an apical position within blastoderm cells, thus revealing a role for it in establishment of cell polarity. Other RNAi experiments indicate that Par-1 is not essential for maintaining epithelial cell polarity once it is established. However, since Par-1 overexpression disrupts polarity, Par-1 must play some role in maintenance of polarity. Finally, the authors use immunostaining and epistasis analysis to uncover a novel role for Par-1: ...
Predicted to have O-methyltransferase activity; RNA 5-methyltransferase activity; and snRNA binding activity. Predicted to be involved in positive regulation of protein localization to Cajal body; positive regulation of snRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; and snRNA modification. Predicted to localize to nucleus and ribonucleoprotein complex. Is expressed in blastoderm cell and brain. Orthologous to human MEPCE (methylphosphate capping enzyme ...
An association of MBD2/3 with RPD3 and MI-2 has been suggested previously, based on results from co-immunoprecipitation experiments (Tweedie et al. 1999). Biochemical fractionation of protein extracts also suggested the presence of MBD2/3Δ in the Drosophila MI-2/NuRD complex (Ballestar et al. 2001; Marhold et al. 2004a). MBD2/3 associates with DNA during embryogenesis. During cleavage and syncytial blastoderm stages, MBD2/3 is excluded from DNA. This pattern changes dramatically during cellular blastoderm, when the protein forms Epigenetic Regulation in Drosophila 29 bright foci that precisely colocalize with DNA (Marhold et al. Until recently, the ability of the protein to bind methylated DNA has only been analyzed in a very restricted experimental context. All in vitro assays were performed with probes that were methylated at CpGs, which does not reflect the endogenous pattern of DNA methylation in the fly. In addition, the binding of MBD2/3 to Drosophila DNA had not been investigated in ...
Vasculogenesis in the early quail blastodisc as studied with a monoclonal antibody recognizing endothelial cells is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
Though all insects possess a highly conserved adult body plan, this morphological conservation belies an underlying developmental diversity that gives rise to this body plan. For example, insects are described as being `short, `intermediate or `long germband and show fundamental differences in how their body segments are generated (Davis and Patel, 2002; Krause, 1939; Sander et al., 1985). Long germband segmentation is evolutionarily derived and in this form of embryogenesis, all body segments are specified early and simultaneously during the blastoderm stage. As short and intermediate germ segmentation is found throughout the insects, whereas the long germ type is restricted to the higher insects, it is likely that a form of short or intermediate germband segmentation is evolutionarily ancestral (Davis and Patel, 2002). In this mode of segmentation, only the anterior-most segments are specified during the blastoderm stage, leaving the rest of the body plan to be specified later in ...
Polarization of epithelial cells depends on a hierarchical process whereby specific membrane-associated proteins become targeted to specialized membrane domains. Here, we describe a novel Drosophila protein, Discs Lost (DLT), that plays a crucial role in the polarization of embryonic epithelia during cellular blastoderm formation. At subsequent stages of development, DLT interacts with the apical determinant Crumbs (CRB) and the laterally localized protein Neurexin IV (NRX IV). Mutations in dlt or double-stranded RNA interference lead to aberrant localization of CRB and NRX IV and cause a concomitant loss of epithelial cell polarity. Hence, DLT is required to establish and maintain cell polarity and participates in different molecular complexes that define apical and lateral membrane domains ...
The even-skipped (eve) pair-rule gene plays a key role in the establishment of the anterior-posterior segmental pattern of the Drosophila embryo. The continuously changing pattern of eve expression can be resolved into two phases. Early expression consists of seven broad stripes in the blastoderm embryo, while late expression, which occurs after cellularization, consists of narrow stripes with sharp anterior borders that coincide with the odd-numbered parasegment boundaries. Previous studies have shown that these two phases are controlled by separate classes of cis elements in the eve promoter. Early stripes are expressed by multiple stripe-specific elements under the control of maternal-effect genes and gap genes, while late stripes are expressed by a single regulatory element, the late element, under the control of pair-rule genes including eve itself. We report here that paired (prd), a pair-rule gene which had been considered to be below eve in the regulatory hierarchy of pair-rule genes, ...
Using a cell marker mutation the cell lineage of the muscles of the Drosophila head are traced out. Three sets of muscles separated by lineage restrictions are observed, even when cells are marked as early as the blastoderm stage. Each set underlies the derivatives of one of the three pairs of imaginal discs which differentiate to form the epidermis of the adult head. Clones of the homoeotic mutation engrailed (en^10) were apparently normal in the muscles of the head. The muscle clone frequency, at the blastoderm stage, in each hemisegment of the fly is similar, indicating an equal partitioning of cells during segmentation. ...
p120 localization during the syncytial development and cellularization differs from that of Arm. (A-J) Syncytial blastoderm (A and B) and cellularizing embryo
Blasto*derm (?), n. [Gr. sprout + E. derm.] Biology|Biol. The germinal membrane in an ovum, from which the embryo is developed. &a...
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Complete information for TENM3 gene (Protein Coding), Teneurin Transmembrane Protein 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
to explain why she returned to singing and how she chose her rather bloodsoaked repertoire.. In addition to her own recording career, Shirley Collins played an important role in music history when she accompanied legendary musicologist ...
The cascade of segmentation refinement is mostly a matter of gene expression. Transcription regulators are expressed in various places along the body axis, and their combination, overlapping in some places, absent in others, dictates (through their binding to enhancers at DNA of target genes, thus activating them) a refined pattern for the next step, which consists mostly of another set of transcription regulators. The gap genes each regulate portions of the ~seven broad bands of expression, and their combinations activate the next set of pair-rule genes that are typically expressed in the same seven bands, which over time (involving mutual back and forth regulation) resolve to and help form fourteen parasegments, each of which comprise the front half of one future physical segment, and the back half of another. Lastly, a set of segment-polarity genes are activated in one-cell wide stripes to specify one or the other side of each of these fourteen parasegments, preparatory to the more ...
Ventral Hypoblast movie: The animal pole is toward the top, face on view of ventral side (dorsal is on the opposite side of embryo).. Scatter labeling of cells with the flourescent probe, Bodipy-dextran, allows many individual cells to be followed through time. Cells in the ventral hypoblast appear to be spreading away from the plane of view. This is caused by their convergence toward the dorsal side which is 180 degrees away on the opposite side of the embryo. Remember, not all of the cells are labeled in the embryo; the holes that you see between the cells are filled with cells that are not labeled with the flourescent probe.. ...
Background The longstanding canonical style of spider gastrulation posits that cell internalization occurs only at a unitary central blastopore; which the cumulus (dorsal organizer) comes from within the first deep level by cellCcell relationship. The model continues to be elaborated but substantially unchallenged by modern studies of gastrulation using the common house spider, (previously [16]) [17, 18]; examined in [19] and the wandering spider, (e.g. [20, 21]). Open in a separate windows Fig.?1 Canonical model of spider development, external view. a Blastoderm forms. b Blastoderm cells proliferate and migrate to one hemisphere to PVRL3 form a germ disc. c Primitive plate forms by internalization at a central blastopore. marks blastopore (bp). d Cumulus (c) originates in the deep layer near blastopore and migrates radially to the prospective dorso-posterior side of the germ disc. e Germ disc cells move away circumferentially from your cumulus endpoint. This movement forms the germ band; the ...
View Notes - Lecture 21x from BIO 432 at BC. 4/25/13 Messenger RNA expression patterns of two pair-rule genes, even-skipped (red) and fushi tarazu (black) in the Drosophila blastoderm Specific
Calcium signaling are conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates and plays critical roles in many molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis and postnatal development. As a critical component of the signaling pathway, the RyR medicated calcium-induced calcium release signaling system, has been well studied along with their regulator FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12/Calstabin). Lack of FKBP12 is known to result in lethal cardiac dysfunction in mouse. However, precisely how FKBP12 is regulated and effects calcium signaling in Drosophila melanogaster remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified both temporal and localization changes in expression of DmFKBP12, a translational and transcriptional regulator of Drosophila RyR (DmRyR) and FKBP12, through embryonic development. DmFKBP12 is first expressed at the syncytial blastoderm stage and undergoes increased expression during the cellular blastoderm and early gastrulation stages. At late gastrulation, DmFKBP12 expression begins to decline until it
Sections of embryos of this stage show how the entoderm has spread out and become organized into a coherent layer of cells merging peripherally with the inner margin of the germ wall and overlapping it to a certain extent (Fig. 13, C, £, F)s The cavity between the yolk and the entoderm which has been called the gastroccele is now termed the primitive gut. The yolk floor of the primitive gut does not •show in sections prepared by the usual methods. The reasons for this are to be found in the relations of the embryo to the -^ yolk A^efore it is removed for sectioning^ In the entire central region of the blastoderm lie yolk is separated from the entoderm by the cavity of the primitive gut. When the embryo is removed from the yolk sphere the yolk floor of the primitive gut, not being adherent to the blastoderm, is left behind. In contrast the peripheral part of the blastoderm Ues closely applied to the yolk. Some yolk adheres to this part of the blastoderm when it is removed. This ...
We have investigated sensillum development in Drosophila embryos homozygous for mutations in the locus string (stg). In these embryos, cell division is blocked following blastoderm formation. This permits a study of the differentiative fate of undivided precursor cells, in particular those giving ri …
Esta tesis revela la regulación transcripcional del gen gap giant (gt) en el embrión blastodermal de Drosophila por ingeniería inversa: un modelo matemático infiere los mecanismos subyacentes de datos cuantitativos de expresión recopilados en un fondo genético silvestre. El modelo se amolda a mRNA reportero controlado por elementos reguladores en cis (CRE) de gt. Es una herramienta potente para investigar cómo se forma el patrón a nivel molecular por los sitios de unión de factores de transcripción y permite predecir la expresión en cepas mutantes. La presente tesis esclarece la regulación diferencial de dos CRE adyacentes de gt y presenta la primera evidencia experimental de auto-activación de gt mediante mutagénesis de sus elementos reguladores. Tras la optimización de los parámetros en un fondo de tipo silvestre, el modelo predice correctamente los cambios observados en mutantes de Krüppel y tailless. Otras contribuciones reglamentarias sugeridas por el modelo son confirmadas por la
Arey1924 Header}} =Chapter XVII The Study of Pig Embryos= A very young pig embryos of the primitive streak and neural fold stages are shown in Fig. 364. The closure of the neural tube and the progressive appearance of mesodermal segments are likewise illustrated in Fig. 365. The fundamental similarity of these embryos to the early chicks already studied is apparent. For a short time, succeeding stages are complicated by flexion and spiral twisting which make sections difficult for the beginner to interpret. In embryos about 6 mm. long, the twist of . [[File:Arey1924 fig364.jpg,600px]] Fig. 364. Early pig embryos (Keibel). X 20. A, Blastoderm with primitive streak and knot; B, blastoderm with primitive streak and neural groove. The body has disappeared sufficiently so that its structure may be studied to better advantage. At this time the state of development is generally comparable to that of a four day chick (Fig. 366). The fetal membranes of the pig stand somewhat intermediate between ...
Exhibits NF-kappaB binding activity. Involved in ameboidal-type cell migration; dorsal/ventral pattern formation; and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Localizes to nucleus. Is expressed in several structures, including blastodisc; germ ring; mesoderm; musculature system; and pharyngeal arch. Orthologous to human SNAI1 (snail family transcriptional repressor 1 ...
Next we talked about how living things are made up of tiny cells, and looked at an egg as a rare example of a cell thats big enough to see with our eyes. Luckily I had half a dozen slightly-out-of-date eggs to hand because it took the children a few goes to crack their eggs without breaking the yolk!. Before we cracked the eggs we looked at them through magnifying glasses and noted the tiny holes in the shell through which air and water pass. Then we talked about the parts of the egg and their purpose, and found the tiny white blastodisc in the yolk and the tail-like chalaza which anchors the cell, neither of which I have ever noticed before! Wed lost J to lego by the time it came to drawing the egg, but C enjoyed colouring and labelling hers, and I left Js page blank - who knows when he might decide to come back to it with a wave of enthusiasm!. ...
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In a series of tissue cultures of fragments taken from different parts of young chick embryos, at various stages, it was found that differentiation frequently occurred, the characteristic cells of highly specialised tissues appearing in cultures in which they could not possibly have been present at explantation. The most striking differentiations were the development of red blood corpuscles, capillary vessels, nerve cells with axons and of rhythmically contracting cardiac muscle. This paper describes a simple method by which may be obtained regularly and quickly the development of very large numbers of red cells, and an account is given of the histology of the cultures. It is intended to be introductory to a physiological study, now in progress, of the conditions of hæmatopoiesis Literature. Erythropoiesis in vitro has been reported by several authors, but it has not been thoroughly investigated and, with the exceptions of the works of Slonimski (1930, a, 1931) and Shipley (1915-16), the ...
These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above. ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the tenascin family and teneurin subfamily. It is expressed in the neurons and may function as a cellular signal transducer. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009] ...
In the chick embryo, the primitive streak is the first axial structure to develop. The initiation of primitive streak formation in the posterior area pellucida is influenced by the adjacent posterior marginal zone (PMZ). We show here that chick Vg1 (cVg1), a member of the TGFbeta family of signallin …
In the infertile egg, on the left, the nucleus is merely a light spot on the yolk. The egg on the right is fertilized. In the fertilized egg the ovum has fused with a sperm to begin forming an embryo. By the time the fertilized egg is laid, many cells are divided on the surface of the yolk and formed a blastoderm. Can you see the difference between the nucleus of the infertile egg and the blastoderm of the fertilized egg? Both are indicated by the blue arrow. ...
Can anyone please help me out..I just cant understand this gastrulation stage ...my books too confusing..cant understand how the hypoblast forms the yolk sack? and what exactly are area pelucidia and area opaca? cant understand primitive streak as well as hensen node....arghh...and google is not helping! any recommendations for a book or website ...
My first year, I didnt own anything. Borrowed a 1206 and 10ft. no-till drill to plant 7 acres of soybeans. Hired the spraying and harvest from a local friend. Used that income to pay for inputs for this year, when I expanded to 40 acres. Over last winter, I purchased a 7-row/18 no-till planter ($300), 12ft. Oliver disc ($400), 16ft. harrowgator ($350), White 7300 combine/13ft. grain platform ($Free), and 1973 IH Loadstar 1700 grain truck ($1,300). Overall, less invested than most guys have in a pair of tires. I had my Ford 6000 tractor to begin with, but I borrowed a 5520 JD too. Hired my spraying, but a sprayer will ABSOLUTELY be purchased this fall. Need to control resistant weeds better than my custom guy does ...
Why and how genetic canalization evolves in gene regulatory networks. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A chemotactic dipole mechanism for large-scale vortex motion during primitive streak formation in the chick embryo. AU - Sandersius, S. A.. AU - Chuai, M.. AU - Weijer, C. J.. AU - Newman, T. J.. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - Primitive streak formation in the chick embryo involves significant coordinated cell movement lateral to the streak, in addition to the posterior-anterior movement of cells in the streak proper. Cells lateral to the streak are observed to undergo polonaise movements, i.e. two large counter-rotating vortices, reminiscent of eddies in a fluid. In this paper, we propose a mechanism for these movement patterns which relies on chemotactic signals emitted by a dipolar configuration of cells in the posterior region of the epiblast. The chemotactic dipole consists of adjacent regions of cells emitting chemo-attractants and chemo-repellents. We motivate this idea using a mathematical analogy between chemotaxis and electrostatics, and test this idea using ...
1. Grafts consisting of pieces of primitive streak from blastoderms in the primitive streak stage were placed under the primitive streak of blastoderms also in this stage.. 2. Various effects of the host on the graft are described, particularly the reversal of the antero-posterior orientation of the graft, the alteration of the regional character of the graft so as to conform with the host tissues at the same level, the suppression of differentiation in the posterior end of the primitive streak, and the incorporation of the graft tissues into the host.. 3. A considerable number of inductions occurred, since the host axis often apparently shifts to one side of the graft. The inductions are of two kinds, the normal evocation by graft mesoderm, resulting usually in the formation of superfluous neural tissue; and the complementary induction of a normal secondary axis, which it is supposed is most often due to the preliminary induction of a primitive streak in the host.. 4. Various effects of the ...
5,855-867. ,and Sanchez, L. The scute (T4) gene acts as a numerator element of the X:A signal that determines the state of activity of Sex-lethal in Drosophila. EMBO J. 8,3079-3086. ,and Sanchez, L. Gap gene properties of the pair-rule gene runt during Drosophila segmentation. Genet. Res. 59,189- 198. , and Gergen, J. P. Zygotic expression of the Drosophila segmentation gene runt antagonizes the activity of the maternal morphogen bicoid. Submitted. , Brown, J. , Scott, M. , and Wu, C. A sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that activates fushi turazu segmentation gene expression. Cells, cap tissue is induced to form mesoderm and an organizer (Fig. 2C) (Nieuwkoop, 1969). Using the animal cap assay, several growth factors and secreted molecules have been implicated in mesodermal induction (Fig. 2) (see review in Green and Smith, 1991). , 1990). , 1993). , 1988), but when combined with activin, produces mesoderm of dorsal character (Cooke, 1989). , 1992). Bone morphogenetic protein4 (BMP-4), ...
Davies, Alexander S. (2012) The naming of the Roo: an essay on the contribution of artists to the biological exploration of the new world. In: Preserving the Humboldt tradition of scholarship in Australasia: proceedings of the fourteenth Biennial Conference of the Australian Association of von Humboldt fellows, pp. 31-34. From: Fourteenth Biennial Conference of the Australian Association of von Humboldt Fellows, 30 September - 2 October 2011, Randwick, NSW, Australia. Devney, Carol A., Kondrad, Shannon L., Stebbins, Katherine R., Brittingham, Kevin D., Hoffman, David J., and Heinz, Gary H. (2009) A saltwater flotation technique to identify unincubated eggs. Journal of Fields Ornithology, ...
1. Specimens are described which demonstrate the induction of neural plateby (a) the mesodermal part of the primitive streak, (b) the head process and sinus rhomboidalis, and (c) neural plate.. 2. The neural plate which was induced by the mesodermal part of the primitive streak was in reversed orientation as regards the host embryo. Thus the orientation of the embryo must be already fixed in the mesodermal part of the streak, and must in this case have overcome any influence which the host may be able to exert.. 3. The same embryo was more complete than indicated by the presumptive fate of the tissue which induced it, whence it is concluded that the chick organiser,like the amphibian, shows a tendency to complete itself, and to this extent behaves like part of a harmonious equipotential system.. 4. Grafts of the anterior part of the embryonic axis (head process and neuralplate) into the anterior part of the host blastoderm, have induced structures which in nearly all cases give indications of ...
The nuclear cycle in plants and animals consists in the alternation of two mechanically stable systems, the resting nucleus and the metaphase chromosomes. The regularity of this alternation and the constancy of the bodies taking part in it has led to the assumption that it depends on a permanence of the positional relationship of essential elements in these bodies, that is, on a property of passing on the same structure from mother to daughter nucleus and from mother to daughter organism by the structure reproducing its like without change. This assumption has been vindicated by the demonstration at a particular nuclear division, meiosis, in the transitional and generally unstable stages of prophase between the resting nucleus and the metaphase chromosomes, of a linear arrangement of particles which is constant both in individuals and in races. The inference of this constant arrangement of particles depends on evidence of form and of function. When the inference is from form the particles are ...
The avian equivalent of Spemanns organizer, Hensens node, begins to lose its ability to induce a nervous system from area opaca epiblast cells at stage 4+, immediately after the full primitive streak stage. From this stage, the node is no longer able to induce regions of the nervous system anterior to the hindbrain. Stage 4+ is marked by the emergence from the node of a group of cells, the prechordal mesendoderm. Does the prechordal region possesses the lost functions of the organizer? The prechordal region does not have neural inducing ability, as it is unable to divert extraembryonic epiblast cells to a neural fate. However, it can confer more anterior character to prospective hindbrain cells of the host, making them acquire expression of the forebrain markers tailless and Otx-2. It can also rescue the expression of Krox-20 and Otx-2 from nervous system induced by an older (stage 5) node in extraembryonic epiblast. These properties reflect a true change of fate of cells rather than ...
The development of multi-cellular organisms begins from a single-celled zygote, which undergoes rapid cell division to form the blastula. The rapid, multiple rounds of cell division are termed cleavage. After the cleavage has produced over 100 cells, the embryo is called a blastula. The blastula is usually a spherical layer of cells (the blastoderm) surrounding a fluid-filled or yolk-filled cavity (the blastocoel). Mammals at this stage form a structure called the blastocyst, characterized by an inner cell mass that is distinct from the surrounding blastula. During cleavage, the cells divide without an increase in mass; that is, one large single-celled zygote divides into multiple smaller cells. Each cell within the blastula is called a blastomere.. Cleavage can take place in two ways: holoblastic (total) cleavage or meroblastic (partial) cleavage. The type of cleavage depends on the amount of yolk in the eggs. In placental mammals (including humans) where nourishment is provided by the mothers ...
Hard work by American and international companies has produced a great deal of innovative equipment in support of Coalition forces engaged in the Global War on Terror. They have also been doing their part to support domestic LE agencies in securing the homeland and fighting crime. An important part of the process of supplying operators with the very best gear is allowing industry representatives to get face-to-face time with the personnel who use the gear in the field. One great way to do this is through symposia and tradeshows.. Tactical Weapons recently had the opportunity to attend the SPEC OPS EAST 2008 Warfighter Symposium and Expo that was held November 18-20 in Fayetteville, NC. The SPEC OPS expo was put on by the folks of the Lodestar Group and their subsidiary DefenseTradeshows.com. The SPEC OPS expo and the other events sponsored by Lodestar allow defense contractors to form partnerships in a person-to-person environment and interact with military and law enforcement professionals. ...
Dr. William E. Krauss was a faculty member and became the first Associate Director of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, serving from 1948 to 1969. This award was established by the Krauss family to recognize excellence in research performed by a doctoral student. The award is given to a current or recently graduated Ph.D. student that has produced a peer reviewed publication of the highest quality in the past year.. The 2020 award was given to Joonbum Lee, a Ph. D. candidate in the department of Animal Science, advised by Dr. Kichoon Lee. In his work, he focuses on development of avian genome editing method and discovery the function of novel genetic factors using avian transgenic and knockout models. He is receiving the William E. Krauss Award for his paper titled, Direct delivery of adenoviral CRISPR/Cas9 vector into quail blastoderms for generation of knockout birds which was selected for mention in a front section of the print journal called In This Issue to highlight ...
Nature Segmentation in silico A new mathematical biology is emerging. Building on experimental data from developing organisms, it uses the power of computational methods to explore the properties of real gene networks.. Our understanding of gene networks is at an early stage. We perceive their complexity only after it has been filtered by the limitations of the techniques used to study them. Genome databases and DNA-chip technology, which enables huge numbers of genes to be screened for activity, will undoubtedly provide more, and much more complicated, data than anything produced by Drosophila genetics. If a relatively simple gene network such as the segment-polarity system is hard to understand intuitively, we can be certain that modelling will be essential to make sense of the flood of new data.. But this will not be elegant theoretical modelling: rather, it will be rooted in the arbitrary complexity of evolved organisms. The task will require a breed of biologist-mathematician as familiar ...
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Dr. Hughes treatment is family based and focused on facilitating the childs ability to establish a secure attachment with his/her caregivers. Developmental attachment theory and research is the primary model for relationship development and trauma resolution. Dan blends various approaches in his treatment modality. These include strategic and structural family therapy, Ericksonian hypnotherapy (utilization principle), psychodynamic principles, psychodrama, interventions congruent with Theraplay, and narrative work. He actively communicates empathy and acceptance of the individual child while providing him/her with the comforting and containment needed to explore and resolve past trauma and shame-related experiences. At the same time he is actively facilitating the childs ability to form positive, reciprocal relationships with his/her parents. Within the safety of these relationships, the child is able to finally face and resolve his/her past traumas. Also, as the child gradually develops a ...
Any given slice from the blastoderm is able to generate a complete axis until the time of gastrulation and primitive streak ... SPRATT NT Jr; HAAS H. (1960). "Integrative mechanisms in development of the early chick blastoderm. I. REgulative potentiality ...
The word syncytium in animal embryology is used to refer to the coenocytic blastoderm of invertebrates. A coenocytic cell is ... At first, the nuclei of the early embryo rapidly and synchronously divide in the "syncytial" blastoderm and then migrate ... blastoderms, i.e. early on the embryos exhibit incomplete cell division. The nuclei undergo S-phase (DNA replication) and ... the egg is called a cellular blastoderm. The pole cells - the germline anlage - are the first cells to separate fully. Certain ...
... cell membranes form around the nuclei of the syncytial blastoderm converting it to a cellular blastoderm. The expression ... This process sets up a gradient between the ventral and dorsal side of the blastoderm embryo with the repression or induction ... At the dorsal side of the embryo, blastoderm nuclei where this is little or no nuclear dorsal protein express zerknüllt, ... At the ventral end of the embryo, blastoderm nuclei exposed to high concentrations of dorsal protein induce the transcription ...
It has been demonstrated that gap gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm exhibit a property called as canalization, a ... "Mechanisms of gap gene expression canalization in the Drosophila blastoderm". BMC Systems Biology. 5 (118): 118. doi:10.1186/ ...
The blastoderm is a single layer of cells, and the hypoblast and area opaca endoderm cells lie directly below the blastoderm. ... As blastoderm cells migrate anteriorly they push primary hypoblast cells and form a secondary hypoblast known as the endoblast ... By implanting a fragment of quail Koller's sickle into a chicken blastoderm, Drs. Callebaut and Van Nueten observed the ... Callebaut, M; Van Nueten, E (1994). "Rauber's (Koller's) sickle: The early gastrulation organizer of the avian blastoderm". ...
Fires, which uses Fires of Yavimaya with Saproling Burst and Blastoderm. Dredge, which uses Bazaar of Baghdad and cards with ...
The larger question she addressed was what the developmental potential was of portions of the early chick blastoderm, when ... Reddick ML (1937). The differentiation of portions of the chick blastoderm in chorio-allantoic grafts. Thesis for Degree of the ... "The differentiation of portions of the chick blastoderm in chorio-allantoic grafts". Robert W. Woodruff Library. University of ... with a thesis studying the embryo chick blastoderm. After gaining her Masters, Reddick began teaching biology at Spelman in ...
Her dissertation was titled "Thyroid Forming Potencies of the Early Chick Blastoderm." Dr. Rudnick spent most of her academic ... Dorothea Rudnick, "Thyroid Forming Potencies of the Early Chic Blastoderm" (University of Chicago 1931). "Dorothea Rudnick" in ...
"Differentiation of the Junctional Complex of Surface Cells in the Developing Fundulus Blastoderm". The Journal of Cell Biology ...
... fish blastoderm, frog embryos, rabbit ovary, re-aggregating cells, cockroach hemocyte capsules, rabbit skin, chick embryos, ... "Gap junction-mediated transfer of left-right patterning signals in the early chick blastoderm is upstream of Shh asymmetry in ... "Differentiation of the junctional complex of surface cells in the developing Fundulus blastoderm". J. Cell Biol. 48 (3): 455-72 ...
"Transcription Factors Bind Thousands of Active and Inactive Regions in the Drosophila Blastoderm". PLOS Biology. 6 (2): e27. ...
First 13 nuclear divisions take place forming a syncytial blastoderm consisting of approximately 6000 nuclei. During the later ...
Interior cells of the blastoderm move towards the outer cells, thus "intercalating" with each other. The blastoderm begins to ... Studies on Fundulus demonstrated that the YSL is capable of undergoing epiboly even when the blastoderm has been removed, ... however, the blastoderm cannot undergo epiboly in the absence of the YSL. In zebrafish, there is a microtubule array in the ... of the blastoderm which will eventually form the embryo's three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). The EVL, YSL, ...
... and engrailed in the Drosophila blastoderm". Cell. 44 (6): 949-957. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90018-8. PMID 3955654. Forbes, AJ ...
Area opaca is the blastoderm's peripheral part, where the cells remain unseparated from the yolk. It is a white area that ... In fish, the hypoblast is the inner layer of the thickened margin of the epibolizing blastoderm in the gastrulating fish embryo ... Simultaneously, the secondary hypoblast (endoblast) cells continue to migrate anteriorly from the blastoderm's posterior ... The resulting two-layered blastoderm (epiblast and hypoblast) is joined at the marginal zone of the area opaca, and the space ...
These actomyosin rings invaginate to separate all nuclei for one another in the syncytial blastoderm. Anillin has a unique ...
... and engrailed in the Drosophila blastoderm". Cell. 44 (6): 949-957. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90018-8. The Interactive Fly: http ...
At the early blastoderm stage, Dpp signaling is uniform and low along the dorsal side. A sharp signaling profile emerges at the ...
In this way the initial gradients of morphogens can lead to the establishment of a specific region within the blastoderm. It ... Krüppel is expressed in the center of the embryo during the cellular blastoderm stage of development. Its expression pattern is ... Diagram at Davidson College - a Drosophila embryo at the cellular blastoderm stage triple-labeled for three segmentation ...
Additionally, the term may refer to any ovum in which the blastoderm splits into three layers. All "higher" and "intermediate" ...
He presents here several figures and illustrations of the cleavage of the blastoderm in reptiles and birds. He examines in ...
The blastoderm now consists of three layers, an outer ectoderm, a middle mesoderm, and an inner endoderm; each has distinctive ... The blastula is usually a spherical layer of cells (the blastoderm) surrounding a fluid-filled or yolk-filled cavity (the ...
This axis is defined by the creation of a pH difference "inside" and "outside" of the blastoderm between the subgerminal space ... the lighter yolk components will be near one end of the blastoderm and will become the future posterior. The molecular basis of ...
Distinct tissue areas were recognized that grew and gave rise to specific structures, including the blastoderm, or chick origin ...
The blastoderm develops into the epiblast and hypoblast and it is between these layers that the blastocoel will form. The shape ... and mammalian blastoderm-stage embryos. It results from cleavage of the oocyte (ovum) after fertilization. It forms during ...
Many of the cards with Fading were quite powerful; the cards Parallax Wave, Parallax Tide, Blastoderm, Saproling Burst, and ...
It was discovered that cellularization of the blastoderm took place either during or before the specifications of body regions ...
As the blastoderm cells undergo epiboly around the yolk the internalization of cells at the blastoderm margin start to form ... Once blastoderm cells have covered almost half of the yolk cell, thickening throughout the margin of deep cells occurs. The ... This layer forms when the cells at the vegetal pole of the blastoderm combine with the yolk cell underneath it. Later in ... The second cell population is the enveloping layer which is made of superficial cells from the blastoderm that eventually form ...
... isoforms of the Drosophila Spätzle protein are encoded by alternatively spliced maternal mRNAs in the precellular blastoderm ...
Gastrulation follows blastoderm formation, where the tips of the blastoderm begins the formation of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and ... In chicken eggs, the blastoderm represents a flat disc after embryonic fertilization. At the edge of the blastoderm is the site ... A blastoderm (germinal disc, blastodisc) is a single layer of embryonic epithelial tissue that makes up the blastula. It ... The blastoderm is formed when the oocyte plasma membrane begins cleaving by invagination, creating multiple cells that arrange ...
Blasto*derm (?), n. [Gr. sprout + E. derm.] Biology|Biol. The germinal membrane in an ovum, from which the embryo is developed. &a...
Determination of Blastoderm Cells in Drosophila melanogaster. L.-N. Chan and W. Gehring ... A method for culturing blastoderm cells of Drosophila in vivo has been developed that allows these cells to differentiate into ... By intermixture of genetically marked cells from bisected and whole embryos, it was shown that blastoderm cells are restricted ... The influence on the blastoderm fate map of maternal-effect genes that affect the antero-posterior pattern in Drosophila ...
The early blastoderm of Drosophila is a syncytium in which about 6000 nuclei become localized in the peripheral cytoplasm. ... Cell membrane formation during the cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila. D Loncar and S J Singer ... We speculate that these vesicles are all derived from the Golgi apparatus and are moved about in the blastoderm by interactions ... Cell membrane formation during the cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila ...
... Shaila Kotadia, University of California at Santa Cruz, ... Mazumdar A and Mazumdar M (2002) How one becomes many: blastoderm cellularization in Drosophila melanogaster. BioEssays 11: ... Kotadia, Shaila, Crest, Justin, Tram, Uyen, Riggs, Blake, and Sullivan, William(Sep 2010) Blastoderm Formation and ...
A blastoderm fate map of compartments and segments of the Drosophila head.. Struhl G1. ... The major results are: (1) For both the proboscis and eye-antenna, blastoderm cells giving rise to the anterior compartment are ... These results suggest that at the blastoderm stage, the Drosophila head consists of a series of six segment primordia of ... This paper reports a gynandromorph fate map of the blastoderm primordia forming the compartments and segments of the adult head ...
Transcription factors bind thousands of active and inactive regions in the Drosophila blastoderm.. Li XY1, MacArthur S, Bourgon ... The new targets include most of the microRNAs (miRNAs) transcribed in the blastoderm, as well as all major zygotically ... However, these poorly bound regions are, collectively, far more distant from genes transcribed in the blastoderm than highly ... Transcription Factors Bind Thousands of Active and Inactive Regions in the Drosophila Blastoderm ...
What is embryonic blastoderm? Meaning of embryonic blastoderm medical term. What does embryonic blastoderm mean? ... Looking for online definition of embryonic blastoderm in the Medical Dictionary? embryonic blastoderm explanation free. ... embryonic blastoderm. em·bry·on·ic blas·to·derm. that part of the blastoderm that takes part in the formation of the embryonic ... Embryonic blastoderm , definition of embryonic blastoderm by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
We analogize pseudocleavage furrow formation in the Drosophila blastoderm with how the mitotic apparatus positions the cleavage ... We studied cyclic reorganizations of filamentous actin, myosin II and microtubules in syncytial Drosophila blastoderms using ... and mitotic cycle phase modulate spatiotemporal distributions of F-actin and myosin II in Drosophila syncytial blastoderm ... and mitotic cycle phase modulate spatiotemporal distributions of F-actin and myosin II in Drosophila syncytial blastoderm ...
The cellular blastoderm is shown to have an intricate morphology of nuclear density patterns and apical/basal displacements ... 1,282 embryos is released that describes the mRNA expression of 22 genes at multiple time points in the Drosophila blastoderm. ... From: Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophilablastoderm at cellular resolution I: data acquisition ...
The cellular blastoderm is shown to have an intricate morphology of nuclear density patterns and apical/basal displacements ... 1,282 embryos is released that describes the mRNA expression of 22 genes at multiple time points in the Drosophila blastoderm. ... From: Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophilablastoderm at cellular resolution I: data acquisition ... A shell mask defines the region that contains all the information of interest for the segmentation algorithm: the blastoderm ...
... - A Blastoderm is the layer of cells formed at one pole of the yolky egg of birds. The yolk prevents the division ... blastoderm - [blas′tōdʉrm΄, blas′tədʉrm΄] n. [ BLASTO + DERM] the part of a fertilized ovum that gives rise to the germinal ... Blastoderm - Blas to*derm, n. [Gr. blasto s sprout + E. derm.] (Embryology) the early stage of an embryo after the first ... blastoderm - In many eggs with a large amount of yolk, cell division (cleavage) is restricted to a superficial layer of the ...
... - A Blastoderm is the layer of cells formed at one pole of the yolky egg of birds. The yolk prevents the division ... blastoderm - [blas′tōdʉrm΄, blas′tədʉrm΄] n. [ BLASTO + DERM] the part of a fertilized ovum that gives rise to the germinal ... blastoderm. early embryonic tissue composed of blastomeres arranged in a sheet-like fashion; used to refer to embryonic tissue ... Blastoderm - Blas to*derm, n. [Gr. blasto s sprout + E. derm.] (Embryology) the early stage of an embryo after the first ...
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, April 12) Embryology Paper - The development of the blastoderm of the chick in vitro (1912). ... The blastoderm is then floated onto a cover glass with its dorsal or upper surface in contact with the cover glass; the excess ... The development of the blastoderm of the chick in vitro. (1912) Anat. Rec. 8(3): 121- ... The blastoderm is transferred to Lockes solution, kept at 37° C. on a water bath. Yolk granules and vitelline membrane are ...
Kinds of blastoderm are bilaminar blastoderm, embryonic blastoderm, extraembryonic blastoderm, and trilaminar blastoderm. Also ... blastoderm. (redirected from blastodermic). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. blastoderm. [blas´to-derm] a ... so that the blastoderm forms on one side of the yolk mass, initially as a small blastodisc.. blastoderm. the layer of cells ... blastoderm. (blăs′tə-dûrm′). n.. 1. The layer of cells that develops on the surface of the yolk in an avian or reptilian egg ...
Temporal regulation of gene expression in the blastoderm Drosophila embryo Glenn K. Yasuda, 1,3 Jayne Baker, 2 and Gerold ... The anterior two-thirds of the embryo has moderate levels of maternal message concentrated at the basal side of the blastoderm ... 62: Lamb, M.M. and C.D. Laird Increase in nuclear poly(a)- containing RNA at syncytial blastoderm in Drosophila melanogaster ... 1 Temporal regulation of gene expression in the blastoderm Drosophila embryo Glenn K. Yasuda, 1,3 Jayne Baker, 2 and Gerold ...
F) Projection of confocal sections of a tslΔ/tsl604 blastoderm expressing Tsl-HA, immunostained with anti-Tsl and anti-Spectrin ... F) Projection of confocal sections of a tslΔ/tsl604 blastoderm expressing Tsl-HA, immunostained with anti-Tsl and anti-Spectrin ... I) Projection of medial confocal sections of a trkRI53 blastoderm. (I′) Same image in the green channel. (C-I) Anti-Tsl ... I) Projection of medial confocal sections of a trkRI53 blastoderm. (I′) Same image in the green channel. (C-I) Anti-Tsl ...
Activation of posterior gap gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm ... Activation of posterior gap gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm Rivera-Pomar, R., Lu, X. G., Perrimon, N., Taubert, H ... Jaeckle, H. (1995). Activation of posterior gap gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Nature, 376(6537), 253-256. ...
Small, S., & Levine, M. (1991). The initiation of pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila blastoderm. Current Opinion in Genetics ... Small, S & Levine, M 1991, The initiation of pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila blastoderm, Current Opinion in Genetics and ... The initiation of pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila blastoderm. In: Current Opinion in Genetics and Development. 1991 ; Vol. ... The initiation of pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila blastoderm. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development. 1991 Aug;1(2): ...
Mohler, J. ; Wieschaus, E. F. / Bicaudal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster : alteration of blastoderm cell fate. In: Cold ... Mohler, J., & Wieschaus, E. F. (1985). Bicaudal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster: alteration of blastoderm cell fate. Cold ... Mohler, J & Wieschaus, EF 1985, Bicaudal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster: alteration of blastoderm cell fate., Cold ... Bicaudal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster: alteration of blastoderm cell fate. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative ...
Blastoderm. Carbonize. Arrest. Army Ants. Bonehoard. Desert. 7. Befoul. Augur of Bolas. Brooding Saurian. Chandra, the ...
derm definition, variant of -dermatous, usually with nouns (melanoderm; pachyderm), or variant of -dermis (blastoderm; ectoderm ... variant of -dermatous, usually with nouns (melanoderm; pachyderm), or variant of -dermis (blastoderm; ectoderm; mesoderm). ...
Blastoderm of an Egg. Vertical section of area pellucida and area opaca (left extremity of figure) of blastoderm of a fresh… ...
Blastoderm explants. Request a detailed protocol Embryos were injected with ndr2, H2B-RFP, and/or membrane GFP RNA (and MOs) at ... Blastoderm explants exhibit asymmetric Nodal signaling. The gene expression patterns observed in ndr2-expressing explants ... Nodal ligands promote ex vivo C and E of blastoderm explants.. (A) Diagram of injection and explantation of zebrafish embryos ... The blastoderm explants described in this study provide a robust, simplified model of axial extension in which a signaling ...
Blastoderm Theory. This takes into account the cell layers in our embryological development. We have 3 layers at this stage: ...
Activation of posterior gap gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Citation:. Rivera-Pomar R, Lu X, Perrimon N, Taubert ... The process of body prepatterning during Drosophila blastoderm formation relies on the localized activities of zygotic ... H, Jäckle H. Activation of posterior gap gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Nature. 1995;376 (6537) :253-6. ...
Canalization of gene expression and domain shifts in the Drosophila blastoderm by dynamical attractors. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009 ... Canalization of gene expression and domain shifts in the Drosophila blastoderm by dynamical attractors.. ...
Drosophila melanogaster : variation of embryo size and blastoderm stage nuclear number with temperature ... Drosophila melanogaster : variation of embryo size and blastoderm stage nuclear number with temperature. ... there was a positive correlation between embryo size and the number of nuclei present at the periphery of the blastoderm stage ... Drosophila melanogaster : variation of embryo size and blastoderm stage nuclear number with... ...
Other articles where Blastoderm is discussed: blastula: …epithelial (covering) layer, called the blastoderm, enclosing a fluid- ...
In arthropods, the arrangement of genes within the Hom-C complex is similar to that found in the phylum chordata. The expression pattern of the Antennapedia (Ant) gene in lobster is similar to that of the Drosophila Ant gene, but there are some differences. You wonder whether the differences are due to the DNA cis-regulatory elements that direct expression of the Ant genes in these two organisms. Alternatively, the differences might be due to the Lobster and Drosophila transcription factors that regulate Ant expression. Design a set of experiments to distinguish between these possibilities. For each experiment, provide possible outcomes and interpret what each result would mean. Describe any control experiments that would be important. Assume that it is feasible to generate transgenic lobsters ...
  • A method for culturing blastoderm cells of Drosophila in vivo has been developed that allows these cells to differentiate into larval or adult structures. (pnas.org)
  • The early blastoderm of Drosophila is a syncytium in which about 6000 nuclei become localized in the peripheral cytoplasm. (pnas.org)
  • A blastoderm fate map of compartments and segments of the Drosophila head. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that at the blastoderm stage, the Drosophila head consists of a series of six segment primordia of similar size. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription factors bind thousands of active and inactive regions in the Drosophila blastoderm. (nih.gov)
  • We studied cyclic reorganizations of filamentous actin, myosin II and microtubules in syncytial Drosophila blastoderms using drug treatments, time-lapse movies and laser scanning confocal microscopy of fixed stained embryos (including multiprobe three-dimensional reconstructions). (biologists.org)
  • We analogize pseudocleavage furrow formation in the Drosophila blastoderm with how the mitotic apparatus positions the cleavage furrow for standard cytokinesis, and relate our findings to polar relaxation/global contraction mechanisms for furrow formation. (biologists.org)
  • 1 Temporal regulation of gene expression in the blastoderm Drosophila embryo Glenn K. Yasuda, 1,3 Jayne Baker, 2 and Gerold Schubiger 2 1Department of Genetics, SK-50, and 2Department of Zoology, NJ-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington USA The Drosophila embryo undergoes a developmental transition during cycle 14 when it initiates asynchronous mitotic cycles and markedly increases its rate of zygotic transcription. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • Small, S & Levine, M 1991, ' The initiation of pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila blastoderm ', Current Opinion in Genetics and Development , vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 255-260. (princeton.edu)
  • Bicaudal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster: alteration of blastoderm cell fate. (princeton.edu)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Bicaudal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster: alteration of blastoderm cell fate. (princeton.edu)
  • The process of body prepatterning during Drosophila blastoderm formation relies on the localized activities of zygotic segmentation genes, which are controlled by asymmetrically distributed maternal determinants. (harvard.edu)
  • Canalization of gene expression and domain shifts in the Drosophila blastoderm by dynamical attractors. (uchicago.edu)
  • During the late cellular blastoderm stage of Drosophila embryogenesis the segmentation genes engrailed, en, and wingless, wg, become expressed in two series of 14 stripes 1-4 which will subsequently coincide with the anterior 5 and posterior 4 limits of each parasegment 6 . (elsevier.com)
  • Ingham, PW , Baker, NE & Martinez-Arias, A 1988, ' Regulation of segment polarity genes in the Drosophila blastoderm by fushi tarazu and even skipped ', Nature , vol. 331, no. 6151, pp. 73-75. (elsevier.com)
  • Segmental organisation of the head in the embryo of Drosophila melanogaster : A blastoderm fate map of the cuticle structures of the larval head. (scienceopen.com)
  • Embryos of Drosophila melanogaster were irradiated in the presumptive head region with a UV-laser microbeam of 20 μm diameter at two developmental stages, the cellular blastoderm and the extended germ band. (scienceopen.com)
  • The pattern and development of cellular junctions in the different tissues of the Drosophila embryo from the blastoderm stage until hatching were analyzed. (nih.gov)
  • The TAGteam DNA motif controls the timing of Drosophila pre-blastoderm transcription. (berkeley.edu)
  • Cytoarchitecture and the patterning of fushi tarazu expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Microtubule arrays present during the syncytial and cellular blastoderm stages of the early Drosophila embryo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A two-step mode of stripe formation in the Drosophila blastoderm requires interactions among primary pair rule genes. (mpg.de)
  • Syncytia are multinucleated cells that typically exist as embryonic developmental transitions, such as the fly syncytial blastoderm, or as a terminal differentiated specialized cell, including skeletal muscles, osteoclasts, or placenta. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kinds of blastoderm are bilaminar blastoderm, embryonic blastoderm, extraembryonic blastoderm, and trilaminar blastoderm . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • By intermixture of genetically marked cells from bisected and whole embryos, it was shown that blastoderm cells are restricted in their potential for forming adult epidermal structures. (pnas.org)
  • We find that these sequence-specific DNA binding proteins bind with quantitatively different specificities to highly overlapping sets of several thousand genomic regions in blastoderm embryos. (nih.gov)
  • Although the embryos had the chorion, vitello, yolk syncytial layer and blastoderm, all of them were found altered under the optical microscope and by SEM. (science.gov)
  • the blastoderm was located in atypical areas and absent in some embryos. (science.gov)
  • Our knowledge of how bird embryos may process maternal steroids had been limited to several studies that investigated the ability of early embryonic tissues to metabolize steroids in vitro , where it was demonstrated that, by 48 h of incubation, chicken blastoderms are capable of metabolizing several steroids [ 14 - 16 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A shell mask defines the region that contains all the information of interest for the segmentation algorithm: the blastoderm nuclei with a small part of the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After migration to the embryo surface, the nuclei undergo four additional blastoderm divisions prior to cellularization. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • In addition to the embryo size difference in the directly selected lines of D . melanogaster , there was a positive correlation between embryo size and the number of nuclei present at the periphery of the blastoderm stage (mitotic cycle 14) embryo (Miles et al . (augie.edu)
  • In Ftz expressing blastoderm nuclei. (harvard.edu)
  • At the edge of the blastoderm is the site of active migration by most cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the yolk membrane first of all appear at the thickened edge of the blastoderm. (dictionary.com)
  • A blastoderm (germinal disc, blastodisc) is a single layer of embryonic epithelial tissue that makes up the blastula. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blastoderm - 1 Morula, 2 Blastula Die Blastula (von griechisch Blastos: der Keim, die Knospe, der Spross) ist ein frühes Embryonalstadium Vielzelliger Tiere, das auf das Morula Stadium folgt und die Furchung abschließt. (enacademic.com)
  • Gastrulation follows blastoderm formation, where the tips of the blastoderm begins the formation of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within otherwise naïve zebrafish blastoderm explants, however, Nodal induces C and E in a largely PCP-dependent manner, arguing that Nodal acts both upstream of and in parallel with PCP during gastrulation to regulate embryonic axis extension cooperatively. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the non-germinal region the blastoderm is formed of two layers, a flattened epiblast, and the yolk membrane . (dictionary.com)
  • When the egg is fertilized, the germinal disc becomes known as the blastoderm. (agclassroom.org)
  • The new targets include most of the microRNAs (miRNAs) transcribed in the blastoderm, as well as all major zygotically transcribed dorsal-ventral patterning genes, whose expression we show to be quantitatively modulated by anterior-posterior factors. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies 7-10 have shown that the establishment of the pattern of en stripes depends upon the activity of the homoeobox-containing pair-rule genes 11 fushi tarazu, ftz 12 and even skipped, eve 8,13 . (elsevier.com)
  • Whereas ftz and eve behave as activators of en we find that both genes are required to repress wg expression, so that wg becomes expressed only in the narrow stripes of cells which come to separate the ftz and eve bands at the end of the blastoderm stage. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, we propose that the precise positioning of the en stripes depends upon signals generated in a combinatorial manner 14 by the overlaps between the ftz or eve domains and those of other pair rule genes, specifically odd paired, opa 15 and paired, prd 11,16,17 . (elsevier.com)
  • blastoderm - In many eggs with a large amount of yolk, cell division (cleavage) is restricted to a superficial layer of the fertilized egg (meroblastic cleavage). (enacademic.com)
  • the layer of cells formed by cleavage of the fertilized egg in the presence of large amounts of yolk, e.g. in birds, so that the blastoderm forms on one side of the yolk mass, initially as a small blastodisc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the process of cleavage the blastodisc is transformed into a layer of cells (blastoderm) located on the surface of the nondividing yolk. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During doming, the blastoderm, a tissue composed of surface epithelial cells and inner mesenchymal cells, thins and spreads over the yolk cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • The blastoderm is formed when the oocyte plasma membrane begins cleaving by invagination, creating multiple cells that arrange themselves into an outer sleeve to the blastocoel. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial (covering) layer, called the blastoderm, enclosing a fluid-filled cavity, the blastocoel. (britannica.com)
  • In chicken eggs, the blastoderm represents a flat disc after embryonic fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point in time the chicken embryo is a blastoderm (shown in blue). (asu.edu)
  • This paper reports a gynandromorph fate map of the blastoderm primordia forming the compartments and segments of the adult head. (nih.gov)
  • This information enabled us to translate the spatial distribution of blastoderm defects into a fate map of segment anlagen. (scienceopen.com)
  • In addition to the segment anlagen, the regions of the presumptive dorsal pouch, anterior lobe and post-oral epithelium, whose morphogenetic movements during head involution result in the characteristic acephalic appearance of the larva, have been projected onto the blastoderm fate map. (scienceopen.com)
  • A fate map of the blastoderm. (springer.com)
  • A blastoderm fate map of the cuticle structures of the larval head. (springer.com)
  • that part of the blastoderm that takes part in the formation of the embryonic body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our study shows that by reducing its surface tension, the layer of epithelial cells simultaneously drives expansion and thinning of the blastoderm, and so coordinates these two processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The major results are: (1) For both the proboscis and eye-antenna, blastoderm cells giving rise to the anterior compartment are positioned anterior to cells giving rise to the posterior compartment. (nih.gov)
  • This result suggests that the relative anteroposterior position of blastoderm cells constitutes the positional basis for the segregation of anterior and posterior polyclones in different segments. (nih.gov)
  • Blastoderm - A Blastoderm is the layer of cells formed at one pole of the yolky egg of birds. (enacademic.com)
  • The labrum, which originates from a paired anlage dorsally at 90% EL, is separated from the remaining head segments by an area for which we did not observe cuticle defects following blastoderm irradiation, presumably because those cells give rise to the brain. (scienceopen.com)
  • Combining theory and experiments, they show that surface cells, by undergoing active expansion, reduce the surface tension of the blastoderm. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the present study, Heisenberg and his colleague asked how the two tissue movements - surface cell expansion and inner cell intercalation - coordinate their movements during blastoderm spreading. (eurekalert.org)
  • We speculate that these vesicles are all derived from the Golgi apparatus and are moved about in the blastoderm by interactions with components of the cytoskeleton. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the reduction in blastoderm surface tension represents the key process coordinating surface cell layer expansion with inner cell layer thinning and spreading during doming. (eurekalert.org)
  • T2 - alteration of blastoderm cell fate. (princeton.edu)
  • The first magnification of the embryo shows that the blastoderm cell layers have thickened to form the primitive streak and Hensen's node. (asu.edu)
  • Strikingly, this loosening at the blastoderm surface not only triggers surface cell layer expansion, but also induces inner cell intercalation leading to inner cell layer thinning and spreading. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scattered spot adherens junctions are already formed at the blastoderm stage. (nih.gov)
  • Assuming that all segment primordia are of equal length in the blastoderm, the proboscis and eye-antennal primordia are separated by a gap in which three other segment primordia might fit. (nih.gov)
  • The gnathal segments derive from a region of the blastoderm between 60% and 70% egg length (EL) dorsally and 60% and 80% ventrally. (scienceopen.com)