Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Blastocyst Inner Cell Mass: The cluster of cells inside a blastocyst. These cells give rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper. They are pluripotent EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS capable of yielding many but not all cell types in a developing organism.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Vitrification: The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.Embryo Implantation, Delayed: Delay in the attachment and implantation of BLASTOCYST to the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The blastocyst remains unattached beyond the normal duration thus delaying embryonic development.Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Ectogenesis: Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Ethylene Glycol: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques: Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Mice, Inbred ICRSingle Embryo Transfer: The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Mice, Inbred CBAPregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Embryo Loss: Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Twinning, Monozygotic: The division of a ZYGOTE into two parts, each of which is capable of further development.Mice, Inbred C57BLFreezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.

An ultrastructural study of implantation in the golden hamster. II. Trophoblastic invasion and removal of the uterine epithelium. (1/4036)

Sixty six implantation sites from 18 golden hamsters were examined with light and electron microscopy between 4 and 5 1/2 days of pregnancy (post-ovulation). At 4 days some blastocysts began to invade the uterine epithelium, with trophoblastic processes penetrating and engulfing portions of the uterine epithelium. The majority of epithelial cells appeared normal before invasion, although at two implantation sites three or four adjoining epithelial cells were necrotic before penetration by the trophoblast. In general the epithelial cells were degenerating at the time the trophoblast invaded the epithelium. Inclusions, representing portions of the engulfed epithelium, and varying in size and electron density, were present throughout the invading trophoblast cells at 4 1/2 and 5 days of pregnancy. At 5 1/2 days the uterine epithelium had disappeared and the embryo was now almost completely surrounded by blood lacunae.  (+info)

Ontogeny of expression of a receptor for platelet-activating factor in mouse preimplantation embryos and the effects of fertilization and culture in vitro on its expression. (2/4036)

Platelet-activating factor (PAF; 1-o-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is a potent ether phospholipid. It is one of the preimplantation embryo's autocrine growth/survival factors. It may act via a G protein-linked receptor on the embryo; however, the evidence for this is conflicting. The recent description of the intracellular form of the PAF:acetlyhydrolase enzyme as having structural homology with G proteins and Ras also suggests this as a potential intracellular receptor/transducer for PAF. This study used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine the ontogeny of expression of the genes for these proteins in the oocyte and preimplantation-stage embryo. Transcripts for the G protein-linked PAF receptor were detected in the late 2-cell-stage embryo and in all stages from the 4-cell stage to blastocysts. They were also present in unfertilized oocytes and newly fertilized zygotes but only at relatively low levels. The incidence of expression was generally low and variable in late zygotes and early 2-cell embryos. Expression past the 2-cell stage was alpha-amanitin sensitive. The results indicated that mRNA for this receptor is a maternal transcript that was degraded during the zygote-2-cell stage. New expression of the receptor transcript required activation of the zygotic genome. Fertilization of embryos in vitro caused this transcript not to be expressed in the zygote. Culture of zygotes (irrespective of their method of fertilization) caused expression from the zygotic genome to be retarded by more than 24 h. This retardation did not occur if culture commenced at the 2-cell stage. The transcripts for the subunits of intracellular PAF:acetylhydrolase were not detected in oocytes or at any stage of embryo development examined, despite their being readily detected in control tissue. This study confirms the presence of the G protein-linked PAF receptor in the 2-cell embryo and describes for the first time its normal pattern of expression during early development. The adverse effects of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo culture on the expression of this transcript may be a contributing factor for the poor viability of embryos produced in this manner. The reduced expression of PAF-receptor mRNA following IVF predicts that such embryos may have a deficiency in autocrine stimulation and also suggests that supplementation of growth media with exogenous PAF would be only partially beneficial. The effect of IVF and culture may also explain the conflicting literature.  (+info)

X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) expression and X chromosome inactivation in the preattachment bovine embryo. (3/4036)

Expression of the X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) is thought to be essential for the initiation of X chromosome inactivation and dosage compensation during female embryo development. In the present study, we analyzed the patterns of Xist transcription and the onset of X chromosome inactivation in bovine preattachment embryos. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of Xist transcripts in all adult female somatic tissues evaluated. In contrast, among the male tissues examined, Xist expression was detected only in testis. No evidence for Xist transcription was observed after a single round of RT-PCR from pools of in vitro-derived embryos at the 2- to 4-cell stage. Xist transcripts were detected as a faint amplicon at the 8-cell stage initially, and consistently thereafter in all stages examined up to and including the expanded blastocyst stage. Xist transcripts, however, were subsequently detected from the 2-cell stage onward after nested RT-PCR. Preferential [3H]thymidine labeling indicative of late replication of one of the X chromosomes was noted in female embryos of different developmental ages as follows: 2 of 7 (28.5%) early blastocysts, 6 of 13 (46.1%) blastocysts, 8 of 11 (72.1%) expanded blastocysts, and 14 of 17 (77.7%) hatched blastocysts. These results suggest that Xist expression precedes the onset of late replication in the bovine embryo, in a pattern compatible with a possible role of bovine Xist in the initiation of X chromosome inactivation.  (+info)

Induction of Ig light chain gene rearrangement in heavy chain-deficient B cells by activated Ras. (4/4036)

During B cell development, rearrangement and expression of Ig heavy chain (HC) genes promote development and expansion of pre-B cells accompanied by the onset of Ig light chain (LC) variable region gene assembly. To elucidate the signaling pathways that control these events, we have tested the ability of activated Ras expression to promote B cell differentiation to the stage of LC gene rearrangement in the absence of Ig HC gene expression. For this purpose, we introduced an activated Ras expression construct into JH-deleted embryonic stem cells that lack the ability to assemble HC variable region genes and assayed differentiation potential by recombination activating gene (RAG) 2-deficient blastocyst complementation. We found that activated Ras expression induces the progression of B lineage cells beyond the developmental checkpoint ordinarily controlled by mu HC. Such Ras/JH-deleted B cells accumulate in the periphery but continue to express markers associated with precursor B cells including RAG gene products. These peripheral Ras/JH-deleted B cell populations show extensive Ig LC gene rearrangement but maintain an extent of kappa LC gene rearrangement and a preference for kappa over lambda LC gene rearrangement similar to that of wild-type B cells. We discuss these findings in the context of potential mechanisms that may regulate Ig LC gene rearrangement.  (+info)

In-vitro fertilization and culture of mouse embryos in vitro significantly retards the onset of insulin-like growth factor-II expression from the zygotic genome. (5/4036)

In this study, the effect of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and culture of mouse embryos in vitro on the normal expression of insulin-like growth factor-II (IFG-II) ligand and receptor was examined. The expression of IGF-II increased in a linear fashion at least up to the 8-cell stage of development. IGF-II expression in embryos collected fresh from the reproductive tract was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than in embryos fertilized in the reproductive tract and cultured in vitro (in-situ fertilized: ISF), and its expression was further reduced (P < 0.001) in IVF embryos at all development stages tested. The expression of IGF-II was significantly (P < 0.001) lower when embryos were cultured individually in 100 microl drops compared with culture in groups of 10 in 10 microl drops of medium. The addition of platelet activating factor to culture medium partially overcame this density-dependent decline of expression. Culture of ISF and IVF zygotes also caused the onset of new IGF-II mRNA transcription from the zygotic genome to be significantly (P < 0.001) retarded, until at least the 8-cell stage of development. This effect was greater (P < 0.05) for IVF than for ISF embryos. Neither IVF nor culture had any obvious effect on IFG-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor (IGF-IIr) mRNA expression.  (+info)

Detection of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in embryos from smoking couples: evidence for transmission by spermatozoa. (6/4036)

Tobacco smoking is deleterious to reproduction. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a potent carcinogen in cigarette smoke. Its reactive metabolite induces DNA-adducts, which can cause mutations. We investigated whether B[a]P diol epoxide (BPDE) DNA adducts are detectable in preimplantation embryos in relation to parental smoking. A total of 17 couples were classified by their smoking habits: (i) both partners smoke; (ii) wife non-smoker, husband smokes; and (iii) both partners were non-smokers. Their 27 embryos were exposed to an anti-BPDE monoclonal antibody that recognizes BPDE-DNA adducts. Immunostaining was assessed in each embryo and an intensity score was calculated for embryos in each smoking group. The proportion of blastomeres which stained was higher for embryos of smokers than for non-smokers (0.723 versus 0.310). The mean intensity score was also higher for embryos of smokers (1.40+/-0.28) than for non-smokers (0.38+/-0.14; P = 0.015), but was similar for both types of smoking couples. The mean intensity score was positively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked by fathers (P = 0.02). Increased mean immunostaining in embryos from smokers, relative to non-smokers, indicates a relationship with parental smoking. The similar levels of immunostaining in embryos from both types of smoking couples suggest that transmission of modified DNA is mainly through spermatozoa. We confirmed paternal transmission of modified DNA by detection of DNA adducts in spermatozoa of a smoker father and his embryo.  (+info)

Co-expression of cytokeratins and vimentin by highly invasive trophoblast in the white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi, and the black mastiff bat, Molossus ater, with observations on intermediate filament proteins in the decidua and intraplacental trophoblast. (7/4036)

Histological and immunocytochemical studies of gravid reproductive tracts obtained from the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi) and the black mastiff bat (Molossus ater) have established that both species develop unusually invasive trophoblast. This is released by the developing discoidal haemochorial placenta, expresses both cytokeratins and vimentin, and invades the myometrium and adjacent tissues (including the ovaries) via interstitial migration within the walls of maternal blood vessels. Hence, this trophoblast is noteworthy for the extent to which it undergoes an epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. In Molossus, it originates from the cytotrophoblastic shell running along the base of the placenta, is mononuclear, and preferentially invades maternal arterial vessels serving the discoidal placenta. This trophoblast may have a role in dilatation of these vessels when the discoidal placenta becomes functional. In Diaemus, the highly invasive trophoblast appears to originate instead from a layer of syncytiotrophoblast on the periphery of the placenta is multinucleated, and vigorously invades both arterial and venous vessels. During late pregnancy, it becomes extensively branched and sends attenuated processes around many of the myometrial smooth muscle fibres. In view of its distribution, this trophoblast could have important influences upon myometrial contractility and the function of blood vessels serving the gravid tract. Other aspects of intermediate filament expression in the uteri and placentae of these bats are also noteworthy. Many of the decidual giant cells in Molossus co-express cytokeratins and vimentin, while the syncytiotrophoblast lining the placental labyrinth in Diaemus late in pregnancy expresses little cytokeratin.  (+info)

Trophectoderm differentiation in the bovine embryo: characterization of a polarized epithelium. (8/4036)

Blastocytst formation is dependent on the differentiation of a transporting epithelium, the trophectoderm, which is coordinated by the embryonic expression and cell adhesive properties of E-cadherin. The trophectoderm shares differentiative characteristics with all epithelial tissues, including E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion, tight junction formation, and polarized distribution of intramembrane proteins, including the Na-K ATPase. The present study was conducted to characterize the mRNA expression and distribution of polypeptides encoding E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and the tight junction associated protein, zonula occludens protein 1, in pre-attachment bovine embryos, in vitro. Immunocytochemistry and gene specific reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction methods were used. Transcripts for E-cadherin and beta-catenin were detected in embryos of all stages throughout pre-attachment development. Immunocytochemistry revealed E-cadherin and beta-catenin polypeptides evenly distributed around the cell margins of one-cell zygotes and cleavage stage embryos. In the morula, detection of these proteins diminished in the free apical surface of outer blastomeres. E-cadherin and beta-catenin became restricted to the basolateral membranes of trophectoderm cells of the blastocyst, while maintaining apolar distributions in the inner cell mass. Zonula occludens protein 1 immunoreactivity was undetectable until the morula stage and first appeared as punctate points between the outer cells. In the blastocyst, zonula occludens protein 1 was localized as a continuous ring at the apical points of trophectoderm cell contact and was undetectable in the inner cell mass. These results illustrate that the gene products encoding E-cadherin, beta-catenin and zonula occludens protein 1 are expressed and maintain cellular distribution patterns consistent with their predicted roles in mediating trophectoderm differentiation in in vitro produced bovine embryos.  (+info)

*Blastocyst

... transfer and fertility treatment Risks of blastocyst transfer Blastocyst photos at different stages of development ... A recent breakthrough for in vitro fertilization is the use of blastocysts. A blastocyst would be implanted five to six days ... This is then known as the blastocyst. The side of the blastocyst where the inner cellular mass (ICM) forms is referred to as ... into the uterus where the blastocysts are inserted into the womb. Blastocysts also offer an advantage because they can be used ...

*Bilaminar blastocyst

This bilaminar blastocyst also defines the primitive dorsal ventral axis. Blastocyst implantation will occur during the second ... bilaminar blastoderm/blastocyst), which sits between the amniotic cavity and the blastocyst cavity. The embryo proper and ... Therefore, the blastocyst cavity serves as a nutrient center and the fluid is able to reach and feed cells so that they can ... Bilaminar blastocyst or Bilaminar disc refers to the epiblast and the hypoblast, evolved from the embryoblast. These two layers ...

*Trilaminar blastocyst

A trilaminar embryo (or trilaminary blastoderm, or trilaminar germ disk) is an early stage in the development of triploblastic organisms, which include humans and many other animals. It is an embryo which exists as three different germ layers - the ectoderm, the mesoderm and the endoderm. These layers are arranged on top of each other like a stack of paper, giving rise to the name trilaminar, or "three-layered". These three layers arise early in the third week (after gastrulation) from the epiblast (a portion of the mammalian inner cell mass). Swiss embryology (from UL, UB, and UF) hdisqueembry/triderm01 Embryology at UNSW Notes/week3_4 Overview at edu. ...

*Zona hatching

To be able to perform implantation on the uterine wall, the blastocyst first needs to get rid of the zona pellucida. This lysis ... Prior to this event, the predecessor of the embryo, in the form of a blastocyst, is surrounded by a glycoprotein sphere called ... In some situations, the term "hatching" is used only for artificial ways to free the blastocyst from the zona pellucida, and ... "Blastocyst Development". UNSW Embryology. UNSW CRICOS. ISBN 978 0 7334 2609 4. Langman's Medical Embryology 6th Edition, page ...

*Morula

This results in a hollow ball of cells known as the blastocyst. The blastocyst's outer cells will become the first embryonic ... A morula is distinct from a blastocyst in that a morula (3-4 days post fertilization) is a 16-cell mass in a spherical shape ... "The Morula and Blastocyst". the Endowment for Human Development. Retrieved 11 April 2015. Sherman, Lawrence S. et al., eds. ( ... A morula, if untouched and allowed to remain implanted, will eventually develop into a blastocyst. The morula is produced by a ...

*Cleavage (embryo)

At this stage, the embryo is called a blastocyst. Embryogenesis Blastocyst Forgács, G.; Newman, Stuart A. (2005). "Cleavage and ...

*Implantation (human embryo)

Nevertheless, the apposition on the blastocyst is not dependent on if it is on the same side of the blastocyst as the inner ... There is massive communication between the blastocyst and the endometrium at this stage. The blastocyst signals to the ... perhaps because it increases the area of contact with the rather spherical blastocyst. On the blastocyst, on the other hand, it ... Factors from the blastocyst also trigger the final formation of decidual cells into their proper form. In contrast, some ...

*Immunosurgery

However, if the structural integrity of the blastocyst is compromised prior to the experiment, the ICM is susceptible to the ... This technique is used to isolate the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. The trophoectoderm's cell junctions and tight ... Cruz, Y. P.; Treichel, R. S.; Harsay, E.; Chi, K. D. (1993-01-01). "Mouse Blastocyst Immunosurgery with Commercial Antiserum to ... Immunosurgery is a method of selectively removing the external cell layer (trophoblast) of a blastocyst through a cytotoxicity ...

*Blastocoel

spelling blastocoele, blastocele) is also termed the blastocyst cavity (or cleavage or segmentation cavity) is the name given ... Borland, Raymond Michael (1977). "Transport processes in the mammalian blastocyst". Development in Mammals. 1: 31-67. Cherr, ... called a blastocyst. for sex call 7838725002. Similar to mammals, fertilization of the avian ovum occurs in the oviduct. From ... to the fluid-filled cavity of the blastula (blastocyst) that results from cleavage of the oocyte (ovum) after fertilization. It ...

*Prenatal development

A hollow cavity forms marking the blastocyst stage. (day 1.5-3 of fertilization.) The blastocyst contains only a thin rim of ... The blastocyst reaches the uterus at roughly the fifth day after fertilization. It is here that lysis of the zona pellucida ... The blastocyst is fully implanted day 7-12 of fertilization. Formation of the yolk sac. The embryonic cells flatten into a disk ... This stage is called a blastocyst. Up to this point there is no growth in the overall size of the embryo, as it is confined ...

*Alan Clemetson

Clemetson CA, Moshfeghi MM, Mallikarjuneswara VR (1970). "Electrophoretic mobility of the rat blastocyst". Contraception. 1: ...

*Blastomere

Blastocoel Blastocyst Oocyte Blastomere Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., ...

*Blastula

In mammals the blastula is referred to as a blastocyst. The blastocyst contains an embryoblast (or inner cell mass) that will ... In the mammalian blastocyst (term for mammalian blastula) there are three lineages that give rise to later tissue development. ... ISBN 978-0-7923-8336-9. Forgács & Newman, 2005: p. 27 Cockburn, Katie; Rossant, Janet (1 April 2010). "Making the blastocyst: ... Blastocyst Cellular differentiation Gastrulation Polarity in embryogenesis Diploblasty Triploblasty "Blastula". Encyclopædia ...

*Osvaldo Daniel

The hybrid cell is then stimulated to divide by an electric shock, and when it develops into a blastocyst it is implanted in ... Albieri then implanted the blastocyst into Dora's ovary. At this time, Dora does not know that she was carrying a clone. When ...

*Pregnancy test

Blastocyst Gravindex Wilcox AJ, Baird DD, Weinberg CR (1999). "Time of implantation of the conceptus and loss of pregnancy". ...

*Embryogenesis

The blastocyst must not be confused with the blastula; even though they are similar in structure, their cells have different ... Mammals at this stage form a structure called the blastocyst,[1] characterized by an inner cell mass that is distinct from the ...

*John Jain

"Monozygotic twins and triplets in association with blastocyst transfer". Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. 21 (4 ...

*Human chorionic gonadotropin

hCG-positive indicates an implanted blastocyst and mammalian embryogenesis. These can be done to diagnose and monitor germ cell ...

*Cat

At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10-12 days, implantation occurs. The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 ...

*Leukemia inhibitory factor

As embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass at the blastocyst stage, removing them from the inner cell mass ... Stewart CL, Kaspar P, Brunet LJ, Bhatt H, Gadi I, Köntgen F, Abbondanzo SJ (September 1992). "Blastocyst implantation depends ...

*Human embryogenesis

A blastocyst is then formed and implanted in the uterus. Embryogenesis continues with the next stage of gastrulation, when the ... The decidua here is termed the decidua basalis; it lies between the blastocyst and the myometrium and forms the maternal part ... The epiblast is adjacent to the trophoblast and made of columnar cells; the hypoblast is closest to the blastocyst cavity and ... The resulting increase in size of the blastocyst causes it to hatch through the zona pellucida, which then disintegrates. The ...

*Hypoblast

Enders A. C., Lantz K. C., Schlafke S. (1990). Differentiation of the inner cell mass of the baboon blastocyst. Anat. Rec. 226 ... In mouse embryo, the visceral endoderm develop from the primitive endoderm of the blastocyst during the implantation stage ...

*Horse breeding

The success rate of ICSI is 23-44% blastocyst development. Domestication of the horse Endometrosis Evolution of the horse ... the egg might have already reached the blastocyst stage. The gestation period lasts for about eleven months, or about 340 days ...

*Heuser's membrane

At this point, the exocoelomic cavity replaces the blastocyst cavity. At days 11 to 12, there is further delineation of the ...

*Rebecca Spindler

Reactivating tammar wallaby blastocysts oxidise glucose. Biology of Reproduction 58, 1425-1431. Spindler R.E., M.B. Renfree, G ... Reactivating tammar wallaby blastocysts oxidise fatty acids and amino acids. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 115, 79-86. ... Oocyte metabolism predicts the development of cat embryos to blastocyst in vitro. Molecular Reproduction and Development 56, ... Carbohydrate uptake by quiescent and reactivating mouse blastocysts. Journal of Experimental Zoology 276, 132-137. Spindler R.E ...
STUDY QUESTION: Is the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) active during human preimplantation development?. SUMMARY ANSWER: Mitotic spindle disruption during mitosis activates the SAC from at least Day 3 of human preimplantation development, but this does not lead to apoptosis until Day 5.. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Human preimplantation embryos frequently acquire chromosomal abnormalities, but the mechanisms behind this are poorly understood. It has been speculated that a dysfunctional SAC could be responsible. Although research has shown that the SAC components are present during early human development, functional studies are lacking.. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In vitro study using human preimplantation embryos in a university research laboratory. We studied a total of 38 Day-3, 38 Day-4, 29 Day-5 and 21 Day-6 human preimplantation embryos, donated for research, during 16 h of incubation.. PARTICIPANT/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We cultured human preimplantation embryos overnight in a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain and sperm cell surface antigen (NS-4) on preimplantation mouse embryos. AU - Solter, Davor. AU - Camartin, Melitta. PY - 1976/1/1. Y1 - 1976/1/1. N2 - Antiserum prepared in rabbit against 4-day-old mouse cerebellum (anti-NS-4 serum) reacts in the complement-mediated cytotoxicity test with unfertilized and fertilized mouse eggs, cleavage stage embryos, and cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. This activity is specifically removed by absorption of antiserum with adult mouse brain and epididymal sperm but not with adult liver, spleen, kidney, and thymocytes. The antiserum reacts most strongly with cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass and, in order of decreasing reactivity, with four- to eight-cell stage embryos, zygotes, unfertilized eggs, and two-cell stage embryos.. AB - Antiserum prepared in rabbit against 4-day-old mouse cerebellum (anti-NS-4 serum) reacts in the complement-mediated cytotoxicity test with unfertilized and fertilized ...
Calcitonin secretion in the pregnant uterus is tightly regulated by the ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone, which limit its expression to a brief period preceding blastocyst implantation. The binding of calcitonin to a G protein-coupled receptor activates adenylate cyclase and elevates cytosolic Ca2+ levels. The acceleration of preimplantation embryonic development that is known to occur upon elevation of intracellular Ca2+ prompted an investigation into calcitonin regulation of blastocyst differentiation. Using reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction to estimate the relative abundance of calcitonin receptor mRNA, a 25-fold accumulation of the splice variant, CR-1a, was observed in embryos between the 1-cell and 8-cell stages. Cytosolic free Ca2+ levels were rapidly elevated in embryos at the 4-cell to blastocyst stages after exposure to 10 nM calcitonin. Blastocysts treated for 30 minutes with 10 nM calcitonin differentiated in vitro at an accelerated rate, as assessed ...
Totipotent non-committed inner cell mass (ICM) cells from human blastocysts, if demonstrated to be capable of proliferating in vitro without differentiation, will have several beneficial uses, not only in the treatment of neurodegenerative and genetic disorders, but also as a model in studying the events involved in embryogenesis and genomic manipulation. Nine patients admitted to an in-vitro fertilization programme donated 21 spare embryos for this study. All 21 embryos were grown from the 2-pronuclear until blastocyst stages on a human tubal epithelial monolayer in commercial Earles medium (Medicult, Denmark) supplemented with 10% human serum. The medium was changed after blastocyst formation to Changs medium supplemented with 1000 units/ml of human leukaemia inhibitory factor (HLIF) and the embryos left undisturbed for 72 h to allow the hatched ICM and trophoblast to attach to the feeder monolayer. Nineteen of the 21 embryos from nine patients produced healthy ICM lumps which could be ...
Immunosurgery is a useful technique for the isolation of inner cell masses from murine blastocysts. Conventionally, rabbit antisera made ad hoc against murine splenic or fetal cells or fibroblasts have been used as antibody sources. We investigated the feasibility of using commercially available rabbit antiserum to murine erythrocytes (anti-RBC) and compared it with rabbit antiserum generated ad hoc to murine L-cells (anti-L-cell). Our results indicate that anti-RBC is at least as effective as anti-L-cell serum for the immunosurgical isolation of inner cell masses, which became either miniblastocysts (later forming outgrowths) or embryoid bodies (undergoing ectoderm-endodermlike differentiation within 48 h). Because anti-RBC is commercially available, the technical modification described herein increases the accessibility of the immunosurgical protocol for the isolation of murine inner cell masses.
Fibronectin 1 (FN1), a glycoprotein component of the extracellular matrix, exerts different functions during reproductive processes such as fertilisation, gastrulation and implantation. FN1 expression has been described to increase significantly from the morula towards the early blastocyst stage, suggesting that FN1 may also be involved in early blastocyst formation. By alternative splicing at 3 defined regions, different FN1 isoforms are generated, each with a unique biological function. The analysis of the alternative FN1 splicing on the one hand and the search for candidate FN1 receptors on the other hand during early bovine embryo development may reveal more about its function during bovine preimplantation embryo development. RT-qPCR quantification of the FN1 splice isoforms in oocytes, embryos, cumulus cells and adult tissue samples revealed a large variation in overall FN1 expression and in splice variant expression. Moreover, two new FN1 transcript variants were identified, the first one
Early development and implantation of the embryo.. A. The zygote stage begins upon fertilization of the secondary oocyte by the sperm. The zygote contains both pro-nuclei and is contained within the zona pellucida, until the blastocyst stage. B. The morula stage. Following compaction and symmetrical cleavage divisions of the blastomeres (the cells of the early embryo), the embryo contains 8 (early morula) to 32 cells (morula). The inner cells will give rise to the inner cell mass, whereas the outer cells will give rise to the trophoblast, which forms a cavity called the blastocoele cavity. C. The blastocyst stage. The developing embryo is defined as a blastocyst from the appearance of the blastocoele cavity, and now contains two cell populations- the surrounding outer trophoblast cells, and the inner cell mass cells, located at one side of the inner cavity. The portion of the trophoblast nearest to the inner cell mass is called the polar trophoblast (embryonic pole) and the portion of the ...
Oct4 is required for lineage priming in the developing inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst[4] "The transcription factor Oct4 is required in vitro for establishment and maintenance of embryonic stem cells and for reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency. In vivo, it prevents the ectopic differentiation of early embryos into trophoblast. Here, we further explore the role of Oct4 in blastocyst formation and specification of epiblast versus primitive endoderm lineages using conditional genetic deletion. Experiments involving mouse embryos deficient for both maternal and zygotic Oct4 suggest that it is dispensable for zygote formation, early cleavage and activation of Nanog expression. Nanog protein is significantly elevated in the presumptive inner cell mass of Oct4 null embryos, suggesting an unexpected role for Oct4 in attenuating the level of Nanog, which might be significant for priming differentiation during epiblast maturation. Induced deletion of Oct4 during the morula to blastocyst ...
The cell lineage of the mouse was studied from the 2-cell stage to the blastocyst. Lineage to the 8-cell stage was followed under the microscope. Each cell from the 2-cell stage divided to form two daughter cells which remained attached. Subsequently, these two daughters each produced two descendants; one of these descendants regularly lay deep in the structure of the embryo while the other was peripheral. Lineage to the blastocyst was followed by injecting oil drops into cells at the 8-cell stage, and then following the segregation of these drops into the inner cell mass and trophectoderm. Between the 8-cell stage and the blastocyst, the deep cells contributed more frequently to the inner cell mass than did the peripheral cells.. ...
Treatment of in vitro matured bovine oocytes with colcemid results in a membrane protrusion that contains maternal chromosomes, which can be easily removed by aspiration. Four experiments were designed to evaluate the overall and temporal effects of conditioned medium (CM) by bovine cumulus cells on development of nuclear transfer (NT) bovine embryos and to examine the chromosomal composition and allocation of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) of the subsequent blastocysts. The nuclear transfer embryos were cultured in various CR1aa media conditioned by preculture with bovine cumulus cells. Development to the blastocyst stage in BSA-containing CM (BCM) and serum-containing CM (SCM) were similar to co-culture group (24-30%). The 24 hr-conditioned BCM yielded higher blastocyst development than 48 and 72 hr-conditioned BCM. Temporary exposure of embryos to BCM and SCM followed by CR1aa was also studied. Morula and blastocyst development were not different among the groups cultured in BCM for 72,
Bangalore Infertility Treatments center,The couple undergoing for IVF/ICSI have more embryos.Blastocyst Culture,Technique in IVF to select the best embryo.
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In humans, reproduction is considered a relatively inefficient process, when compared with other mammalian species and the chance of achieving a spontaneous pregnancy after timed intercourse is at the most 20-30%. Chromosome segregation errors are a well-known inherent feature of cell division in human preimplantation embryos produced by in vitro ... read more fertilization (IVF). The occurrence of such errors, which results in embryos containing chromosomally abnormal (aneuploid) cells, is believed to be the main cause for the reported inefficiency of human reproduction, as it may lead to pre-clinical pregnancy losses. In this thesis we start by evaluating the impact of ovarian stimulation administrated to patients undergoing IVF on the development of IVF-derived human embryos. We conclude that although the use of ovarian stimulation is considered relatively safe, further studies are needed to increase the knowledge on this subject and reduce potential effects on embryo development and ...
The molecular regulation of mammalian peri-implantation development is complex and difficult to study in vivo. We successfully cultured hamster blastocysts through hatching and peri-attachment stages, using a chemically defined medium, HECM-2h. Using this system, we showed that a species-specific, embryonic cysteine-like protease is involved in blastocyst hatching and that the process is modulated by growth factors. In particular, heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) or leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) enhance blastocyst hatching, and the former also improves attachment and trophoblast outgrowth. We observed interesting changing patterns of expression of mRNA and/or immunoreactive protein for EGF, HB-EGF, LIF and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the embryo and/or endometrial tissue, during peri-implantation development. Together, it appears that hamster blastocyst hatching, attachment and trophoblast outgrowth are regulated by autocrine and/or paracrine growth factors, ...
Blastocyst Transfer and treatment at Santati Fertility Center in Mumbai and Thane, the Indias largest independent infertility Blastocyst Transfer treatment provider
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level ...
The aim in developing this approach to the study of implantation has been to establish a method which will permit the investigation of the process extracorporeally, thus providing conditions that are more readily controllable than those obtainable in an experimental animal. Shaffers method of organ culture has been adapted to the needs of the present investigation and it has been found that somewhat more than half of the rabbit blastocysts, explanted on strips of endometrium and incubated on them as combined explants, became implanted within 48 to 72 h. ...
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Nilsson, B. O., Jin, M., Larsson, A. and Sundström, P. (1996), Human Autoantibodies Recognizing Human and Mouse Preimplantation Stages. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 36: 135-140. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.1996.tb00154.x ...
The preimplantation period of development represents the highest interval of embryonic loss throughout pregnancy. It is therefore imperative that we elucidate the mechanisms involved in regulating preimplantation embryonic responses to stress and that govern development. The MAPK pathways are involved in both responding to environmental stress and regulation of development throughout embryogenesis, and are therefore good candidates to study the mechanisms involved in preimplantation embryonic adaptation to stress and development. The preimplantation embryo culminates in the development of a fluid filled structure called the blastocyst. It is at this stage the first differentiation events occur and the trophectoderm (TE), which will go on to form the embryonic portion of the placenta, develops. The p38 MAPK is required for embryo development to proceed beyond the 8-16 cell stage as well to play an adaptive role in regulating embryonic response to culture stress. My hypothesis is that the MAPK
In a mouse model, in vitro fertilization or extended embryo culture leads to the increased expression of TRP53 in susceptible embryos. Ablation of the TRP53 gene improved embryo viability indicating that increased expression of TRP53 is a cause of the reduction of embryo viability resulting from in vitro fertilization or embryo culture. This study investigates the status of TRP53 expression in human embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Following fertilization, embryos were cultured for 96 h and then cryopreserved. Immediately upon thawing they were fixed in formaldehyde and subjected to immunostaining for TRP53. Staining was visualized by confocal microscopy. Negative controls were incubated with isotype control immunoglobulin and showed negligible staining. All embryos showed TRP53 staining above negative controls. TRP53 staining was heterogenous within and between embryos. An embryo that showed retarded development showed high levels of TRP53 expression. A blastocyst that had ...
A preparation and a method of making composite blastocysts (CBs) from aggregates of dissociated cells of non-viable pre-embryos are disclosed. The CB is characterized morphologically by having two distinct tissue types, the inner cell mass (ICM) and the trophectoderm (TE), and a blastocoelic cavity (BC). The ICM is differentially stainable with bisbenzimide and the TE is differentially stainable with propidium iodide. The ICM is pluripotent in that it contains embryonic stem (ES) cells. The TE cells are pluripotent in that they can give rise to all cell types normally derived from TE cells. The primate TE is characterized by the production of chorionic gonadotrophin. The method of making CBs is an aggregation process (AP) comprising inter alia the following steps: 1) dissociation of discarded pre-embryos; 2) isolation of single nucleated cells from dissociated discarded pre-embryos; 3) microsurgical encapsulation of several cells within a host zona pellucida or artificial aggregation with or without a
Bilaminar blastocyst or Bilaminar disc refers to the epiblast and the hypoblast, evolved from the embryoblast. These two layers are sandwiched between two balloons: the primitive yolk sac and the amniotic cavity. The inner cell mass, the embryoblast, begins to transform into two distinct epithelial layers just before implantation occurs. The epiblast is the outer layer that consists of columnar cells.The inner layer is called the hypoblast, or primitive endoderm, which is composed of cuboidal cells. As the two layers become evident, a basement membrane presents itself between the layers. The final two layers of the embryoblast are known collectively as the bilaminar embryonic disc as well as the bilaminar blastocyst or bilaminar blastoderm. This bilaminar blastocyst also defines the primitive dorsal ventral axis. Blastocyst implantation will occur during the second week of fetal development in the endometrium of the uterus; the epiblast is dorsal and the hypoblast is ventral. The zygote ...
The effect of glucose and insulin on the in vitro development of the rat preimplantation embryo was studied by incubating rat blastocysts recovered on days 5 or 6 of pregnancy in the absence or presence of increasing levels of glucose and/or insulin for 24 or 48 h. A differential cell-staining method allowed the separate counting of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells at the end of the incubation period. In a high-glucose medium (17 mM), ICM and, to a lesser extent, TE developments were significantly and irreversibly inhibited. Low insulin concentrations (3 pM) stimulated ICM and TE development in the presence of 1.1 or 6 mM glucose. Higher insulin levels (30-600 pM) in a 6-mM glucose medium, resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of ICM and, to a lesser extent, TE development after both 24 and 48 h. This insulin-induced inhibition was reversible if insulin was removed from the medium after 24 h. In the absence of glucose in the medium, insulin was neither stimulatory nor ...
ICR albino mouse embryos (n=4lS0) were used to determine production of progesterone and estradiol. In Experiment I, cultures containing 20 (n=lO), 40 (n=lO) or 60 (n=6) early blastocysts were incubated in 13 X 100 rom tubes with .25 ml BMOC-2 for 20 h under 5% CO2 and air at 37C. Also, 20 (n=4) , 40 (n=7) and 60 (n=6) control embryos were frozen at -90C after flushing. Viability was determined by culturing 20 (n=5) , 40 (n=7) and 60 (n=6) for 24 h at which time percent normal development was microscopically evaluated.. In Experiment II, 40 embryos at either morula, early blastocyst or late blastocyst (n=lO) stage were cultured similarly. Viability and control steroid levels were determined on n=5, n=7 and n=7 cultures. Incubated and control cultures were extracted with diethyl ether and progesterone and estradiol isolated on Sephadex LH-20 columns prior to quantification by radioimmunoassay.. Viability for all cultures was 95.6 + .05% (~+SD). In Experiment I, incubated progesterone and estradiol ...
In the present study, we report that suppression of Nek2 expression by RNAi resulted in developmental defects at the second mitosis of the mouse early embryos. Many blastomeres in the Nek2-suppressed embryos were arrested at M phase with abnormal spindle structures. These results confirm that Nek2 is essential for embryonic mitosis, especially for proper segregation of chromosomes.. Phenotypes of Nek2-suppressed mouse embryos are comparable to those of the Xenopus embryos in which the Nek2 activity was reduced by microinjection of the mRNA for kinase-inactive form of Nek2B or of the Nek2 antibody (Uto and Sagata, 2000). Depletion of Nek2 resulted in fragmentation or dispersal of the centrosomes and eventually in interference of embryonic development of both species. In addition, our results are consistent with a previous report in which removal of the Nek2 proteins from Xenopus egg extracts did not disturb entry into mitosis and accompanying condensation of chromosomes (Fry et al., 2000). ...
Principal Investigator:SAIJO YASUO, Project Period (FY):2015-04-01 - 2017-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research, Research Field:Respiratory organ internal medicine
A.P. Wong et al, "Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into mature airway epithelia expressing functional CFTR protein," Nat. Biotechnol., vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 876-882, Sept. 2012.. Y. Yamanaka et al, "FGF signal-dependent segregation of primitive endoderm and epiblast in the mouse blastocyst," Development, vol. 137, no. 5, pp. 715-724, March 2010.. C. Chazaud et al, "Early lineage segregation between epiblast and primitive endoderm in mouse blastocysts through the Grb2-Mapk pathway," Dev. Cell, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 615-624, May 2006.. H. Niwa et al, "Interaction between Oct3/4 and Cdx2 Determines trophectoderm differentiation," Cell, vol. 123, no. 5, pp. 917-929, Dec. 2005.. A. Nagy et al, "Derivation of completely cell culture-derived mice from early-passage embryonic stem cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., vol. 90, no. 18, pp. 8424-8428, Sept. 1993. ...
article{1048354, abstract = {Recent studies have shown that short-term exposure of oocytes to a stressor such as hydrostatic pressure or osmotic stress might induce stress tolerance in embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the consequences of short-term hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure to bovine in vitro matured cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) on subsequent preimplantation embryo development and apoptosis. in the first experiment, mature COCs were incubated in H2O2 at concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 100 mu mol/l, and subsequently fertilized and cultured. Oocyte incubation with 50-100 mu mol/l of H2O2 resulted in a significantly higher blastocyst yield (47.3\%) in comparison with control medium (31.8\%), while apoptotic cell ratio was inversely related with H2O2 concentration. In the second experiment, we showed that the stress tolerance after H2O2 exposure was not mediated by increased glutathione content in treated oocytes nor by enhanced fertilization or ...
Up until at least 7 1/4 days p.c., the orientation of all axes in the mouse conceptus, embryonic axis included, is directly correlated with two orientations of the 82 h blastocyst within the lumen. These two are: the almost horizontal position of the blastocysts inner cell mass-abembryonic pole axi …
Even before implantation, three cell lineages are apparent in the blastocyst of mouse and human. Outermost is the trophectoderm that will contribute trophoblast to the placenta. The inner cell mass has already differentiated into the epiblast and the primitive endoderm or hypoblast. For mouse, this much has been clear since the pioneering studies of Emil Selenka (here). ...
A blastocyst is a cellular mass that forms early in the embryo development process in mammals. Humans develop a blastocyst about...
The total cell count of the H33342-stained blastocyst. An H33342-stained blastocyst from the control group revealed a total of 77 visible nuclei observed from d
Weve just had a negative result from our first IVF ICSI antagonist cycle. Had 6 eggs; 4 fertilised; vacuoles developed by day 3; no good blastocyst at day 5 to transfer; transferred a early blastocyst on day 6 that was slow and collapsed - page 2
The inner cell mass (ICM) is the part of the blastocyst that is fated to become the embryo, amnion, and yolk sac. In contrast, the trophectoderm cells of the blastocyst will contribute to extra-embryonic tissues, such as the placenta and umbilical cord. Cells of the ICM are pluripotent, meaning they can give rise to all the cell lineages (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm) found in the body. The ICM is, thus, a source of embryonic stem cells.. ...
Research on in vitro embryo production (IVP) in the equine is impeded by the limited availability of mature oocytes as the mare is mono ovulating and superovulation is still difficult (Dippert and Squires, 1994; Bezard et al., 1995; Alvarenga et al., 2001b). Despite recent improvement in IVM of equine oocytes, success rates of IVM in that species remain low in all culture media tested compared to other species (Goudet et al., 2000b). However, most studies have focused on the percentage of oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage (nuclear maturation) but few concentrated on the final oocyte competence as measured by its ability to develop into a blastocyst and further establish a pregnancy. Blastocyst production rate is influenced not only by culture environment but also by oocyte maturation conditions. Under in vitro culture conditions, oxidative modifications of cell components via increased ROS represent a major culture induced stress (Johnson and Nasr-Esfahani, 1994). Anti-oxidant systems can ...
Blastocyst is an advance embryo which is developed for about 5-6 days, after fertilization. It allow to select the best quality embryo to achieving a successful pregnancy.
CTR researchers have revealed the role of the OCT4 gene in human embryos in the first few days of development. This is the first time that genome editing has been used to study gene function in human embryos.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Fei Gao, Jiyu Guan, Limei Liu, Sheng Zhang, Peipei An, Anran Fan, Guangqi Song, Peng Zhang, Tianchuang Zhao, Bo Tang, Xueming Zhang, Ziyi Li].
Those Swedish scientists at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm have become the first to successfully edit genetic material in healthy human embryos. The scientists, led by biologist Fredrik Lanner, injected a gene-editing tool into human embryos that was intended to make extremely specific changes to that embryos genetic material. The human embryo injection is done at an extremely early stage, less than 48 hours after fertilization. So what are they changing in the human embryos DNA? That is not entirely clear. For now, the researchers say that they are hoping that the experiments theyre conducting will help them develop new methods for preventing miscarriages and for treating infertility, as well as to better understand human embryo development.. The human embryos used in the Swedish experiments could lead to pregnancy, but for the moment, they will not. The human embryos used were donated by couples that had undergone an in vitro fertilization process. The human embryos all contained an ...
Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells were developed as a tool for introducing specific, site-directed alterations into the mammalian genome to create mouse models in which gene function and regulation can be studied. ES cell lines are derived in vitro from the outgrowth of the inner cell mass (ICM) of a blastocyst, the portion of the blastocyst that gives rise to the embryo. Undifferentiated ES cells are then manipulated in culture and, when injected into a blastocyst, have the ability to incorporate back into the ICM and contribute to the genetic makeup of the developing embryo. The resulting pups are considered chimeric in their genetic makeup as they consist of tissues deriving from both the ES cells and cells within the ICM of the blastocyst. The desired outcome is to create chimeric mice that inherit germ cells derived from the injected ES cells. In this way, mutations can be introduced into the ES cells in vitro, then incorporated in vivo into the germline of a mouse and transmitted from ...
Soy-based formula? Neonatal plant estrogen exposure leads to adult infertility in female mice - Science Daily, 5/2/12 - A paper published May 2 in Biology of Reproduction describes the effects of brief prenatal exposure to plant estrogens on the mouse oviduct, modeling the effects of soy-based baby formula on human infants. The results suggest that exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the womb or during childhood has the potential to affect a womans fertility as an adult, possibly providing the mechanistic basis for some cases of unexplained female infertility ... part of the National Institutes of Health, previously demonstrated that neonatal exposure to the plant estrogen genistein results in complete infertility in female adult mice. Causes of infertility included failure to ovulate, reduced ability of the oviduct to support embryo development before implantation, and failure of the uterus to support effective implantation of blastocyst-stage embryos ... The team now reports that neonatal ...
I recently had IVF using donor eggs. My transfer was 5 days ago using two Grade A blastocyst. They are from a donor, so I have not had any trigger injections or any form of HCG put into my body. I am o...
Li P, Tong C, Mehrian-Shai R, Jia L, Wu N, Yan Y, Maxson RE, Schulze EN, Song H, Hsieh CL, Pera MF, Ying QL. Germline competent embryonic stem cells derived from rat blastocysts. Cell. 2008 Dec 26;135(7):1299-310. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.12.006. PMID: 19109898. [PubMed] [PDF ...
For the first time in the UK, researchers have used genome editing technology to examine the function of a specific gene in human embryos.. The team, led by researchers at the Francis Crick Institute, also included colleagues from Cambridge University, Oxford University, the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Seoul National University and Bourn Hall Clinic.. The team focused on OCT4, a protein that normally gets activated within the first few days of human embryo development. The proteins role is not yet fully understood, but it does release an initial "set of instructions" to cells to keep progress embryo development.. Using CRISPR-Cas9, the researchers "turned off" the gene that produces OCT4 and observed what happened to 41 embryo development over the next seven days.. The embryos used for the study were donated from couples who had a surplus after IVF treatment.. A healthy embryo can transform from one cell to about 200 within the first week of development. During this time, the blastocyst ...
The egg-to-embryo transition entails transforming a highly differentiated oocyte into totipotent blastomeres, and represents one of the earliest obstacles that...
Currently, in vitro-produced embryos derived by ovum pick up (OPU) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies represent approximately one-third of the embryos worldwide in cattle. Nevertheless, the culture of small groups of embryos from an individual egg donor is an issue that OPU-IVF laboratories have to face. In this work, we tested whether the development and quality of the preimplantation embryos in vitro cultured in low numbers (five embryos) could be improved by the addition of epidermal growth factor, insulin, transferrin and selenium (EGF-ITS) or by the WOW system. With this aim, immature oocytes recovered from slaughtered heifers were in vitro matured and in vitro fertilized. Presumptive zygotes were then randomly cultured in four culture conditions: one large group (LG) (50 embryos/500l medium) and three smaller groups [five embryos/50l medium without (control) or with EGF-ITS (EGF-ITS) and five embryos per microwell in the WOW system (WOW)]. Embryos cultured in LG showed a greater ...
There are several differences between the cleavage in mammals and the cleavage in other animals. Mammals have a slow rate of division that is between 12 and 24 hours. These cellular division are asynchronous. Zygotic transcription starts at the two, four, or eight-cell stage. Cleavage is holoblastic and rotational. At the eight-cell stage, the embryo goes through a process called compaction. Most of the blastomeres in this stage become polarized and develop tight junctions with the other blastomeres. This process leads to the development of two different populations of cells: polar cells on the outside and apolar cells on the inside. The outer cells, called the trophoblast cells, secrete fluid on their basal (inner) surface to form a blastocoel cavity through the process of cavitation. These trophoblast cells will eventually give rise to the embryonic contribution to the placenta called the chorion. The inner cells adhere to one side of the cavity to form the inner cell mass (ICM) and will give ...
Transcription factor (TF) binding to DNA is fundamental for gene regulation. However, it remains unknown how the dynamics of TF-DNA interactions change during cell-fate determination in vivo. Here, we use photo-activatable FCS to quantify TF-DNA binding in single cells of developing mouse embryos. In blastocysts, the TFs Oct4 and Sox2, which control pluripotency, bind DNA more stably in pluripotent than in extraembryonic cells. By contrast, in the four-cell embryo, Sox2 engages in more long-lived interactions than does Oct4. Sox2 long-lived binding varies between blastomeres and is regulated by H3R26 methylation. Live-cell tracking demonstrates that those blastomeres with more long-lived binding contribute more pluripotent progeny, and reducing H3R26 methylation decreases long-lived binding, Sox2 target expression, and pluripotent cell numbers. Therefore, Sox2-DNA binding predicts mammalian cell fate as early as the four-cell stage. More generally, we reveal the dynamic repartitioning of TFs ...
With the exception of birds, most non-mammalian vertebrates depend on the production of a relatively large number of eggs with only a small proportion surviving. Mammals have evolved a system wherein relatively few eggs are produced, but the survival rate is relatively high. This is accomplished by a combination (in all except the prototheres) of prenatal care and, in most, post-natal care.. In the generalized early development in eutherian mammals, the early cleavages produce the blastocyst, a hollow ball of cells. A cluster of cells intrude into the cavity of the blastocyst: the inner cell mass. This eventually will produce the embryo and some extraembryonic membranes. The outer layer of the blastocyst is the trophoblast. The trophoblast eventually develops into the chorion of the placenta and associated structures.. The placenta forms the connection between mother and child, allowing for nutrition, gases, and excretionary materials to move by diffusion between embryonic and maternal ...
Interspecies-SCNT preimplantation embryos derived from human granulosa cells fused with enucleated bovine oocytes. Cleavage embryos (A) and blastocysts (C) derived from SCNT. Parthenogenetically developed cleavage embryos (B) and hatching blastocysts (D) as controls ...
The role of the TCF family of transcriptional regulators in primary axis formation is addressed by studying the mechanisms of action of XTcf-3 in Xenophus laevis embryos. The early events of primary axis induction involve activation through the WNT signaling pathway. As a result of activation ... read more of the pathway the cytoplasmic level of ß-catenin increases at the future dorsal side of the early cleavage stage embryo. Around the 16-32 cell stage, ß-catenin becomes apparent in the nuclei. The presence of nuclear ß-catenin causes several hours later the activation of specific target genes, like e.g. XSiamois. Since ß-catenin does not contain a DNA binding region, DNA binding proteins must mediate this transactivation. Ectopic expression of ß-catenin causes activation of dorsal genes and results in the induction and differentiation of a secondary axis. (See introduction). Three different homologs of the Tcf/Lef family of transcription factors have been cloned in Xenopus laevis, XTcf-3, ...
A technique may one day prevent something that is currently unpreventable -- the transmission of mitochondrial diseases from mother to child, according to a proof-of-concept paper published online today (April 14) in Nature. Blastocyst on day 5 after fertilizationImage: Wikimedia commons, EkemThe authors swapped the nuclei from one fertilized human egg with the nuclei from another, creating an embryo with nuclear DNA from the donor egg, but mitochondrial DNA primarily from the recipient. They s
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quarter zona-pellucida (ZP) opening by laser-assisted hatching (QLAH) on the clinical outcomes following transfer of vitrified-warmed blastocysts developed from low-grade cleavage-stage embryos in patients with all high-grade and fair-grade cleavage-stage embryos transferred without achieving pregnancy. Patients were randomized into ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Duancheng Wen, Nestor Saiz, Zev Rosenwaks, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Shahin Rafii].
Principal Investigator:TOMOGANE Hiroshi, Project Period (FY):1998 - 2000, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Applied animal science
3-DAY TRANSFER: 1dpt ..embryo is growing and developing 2dpt... Embryo is now a blastocyst 3dpt....Blastocyst hatches out of shell on this day 4dpt.. Blastocyst attaches to a site on the uterine ...
Trophectoderm TE Definition - The trophectoderm is a layer of cells on the outer edge of a blastocyst. The trophectoderm begins to form on the 5th day...
Hi everyone. This is IVF #4 for us and were TTC #1. Its been a few years since we did IVF, took abit of a break. We just managed to get 19 eggs collected and I was told today that we have 6 good looking day-2 embies there. We are hoping
An anonymous reader writes: According to Reuters, Using a culture method previously tested to grow mouse embryos outside of a mother, the teams were able to conduct almost hour by hour observations of human embryo development to see how they develop and organize themselves up to day 13. Brave ne...
Cell Med 5:29-42 Uniparental zygotes with two paternal (androgenetic, AG) or two maternal genomes (gynogenetic, GG) cannot develop into viable offsprings but form blastocysts from which pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells can be derived. For most organs, it is unclear whether uniparental ES cells can give rise to stably expandable somatic stem cells that can repair injured tissues. Even if previous reports indicated that the capacity of AG ES cells to differentiate in vitro into pan-neural progenitor cells (pNPCs) and into cells expressing neural markers is similar to biparental [normal fertilized (N)] ES cells, their potential for functional neurogenesis is not known. Here we show that murine AG pNPCs give rise to neuron-like cells, which then generate sodium-driven action potentials while maintaining fidelity of imprinted gene expression. Neural engraftment after intracerebral transplantation was achieved only by late (22 days) AG and N pNPCs with in vitro low colony-forming cell (CFC) ...
Mice, Blastocyst, Blastocyst Implantation, Gestation, Pregnancy, Urine, Estradiol, Estrogen, Uterus, Administration, Animal, Estrogens, Creatinine, Growth, Oestradiol, Steroids, Testosterone, Injection, Progesterone, Pregnancies
Trophectoderm Biopsy Definition - A trophectoderm biopsy is a test that is performed to examine the chromosomes of a developing blastocyst. It...
What does it feel like when the embryo implants - How many cells does an embryo have to be before it implants? When does cell division start? Cell division starts. Right after fertilization. The blastocyst is the preimplantation embryo. It has a varying cell number (30 to 200).
Embryonic stem (ES) cells made from the internal cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts are characterised by their ability to self-renew and their potential to differentiate into many different cell types. are straight controlled by Zfp322a were determined by correlating the gene appearance profile of RNAi-treated uses cells with the ChIP-seq outcomes. These tests exposed that Zfp322a prevents uses cell difference by controlling MAPK path. Additionally, Zfp322a can be discovered to become a book reprogramming element that can replace Sox2 in the traditional Yamanakas elements (OSKM). It can become actually utilized in mixture with Yamanakas elements and that addition potential clients to a higher reprogramming effectiveness and to speeding of the starting point of the reprogramming procedure. Jointly, our outcomes demonstrate that Zfp322a is normally a story important element of the transcription aspect network which maintains the identification of mouse Ha sido cells. Writer Overview Embryonic ...
In recent years, the transcription and expression patterns of cytokines and their receptors in mammalian embryos and the dams during embryonic development, have been extensively studied. Significant p
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Answer: Researchers use a microscopic glass pipette to extract the 46 chromosomes of DNA from the nuclei of a skin cell. Then 23 chromosomes are removed from a donated human unfertilized egg. The 46 chromosomes are inserted into the donor eggs empty cytoplasm. The egg begins to divide as an embryo. After 4 days, stem cells are removed from the interior lining of the egg (called a blastocyst) and a placed in a Petri dish with a growth medium. The blastocyst is discarded, but the stem line continues ...
..۞╬╬۞ The smooth solution, with a helping hand, can generate any cell type in the body, the cells of the blastocyst are called totipotent related to their positional identities in embryogenesis. Cell division control machinery pre and postsynaptic 5=HT1 and the aberrant invented formation polarized front to back C. hominis induced outgrouth in silico. NFKB…
Activating genes for reprogramming factors for a short time transforms large numbers of differentiated cells into multipotent forms that could be useful for cell-based therapies.. 0 Comments. ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Krones, Tanja; Schluter, Elmar; Manolopoulos, Konstantin; Bock, Karin; Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf; Koch, Manuela C.; Lindner, Martin; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Mayatepek, Ertan; Huels, Gerd; Neuwohner, Elke; El Ansari, Susan; Wissner, Thomas; Richter, Gerd (2005-01) ...
We have 5 frozen embryos! Hopefully this keeps me in babies for awhile. My doctor just called with the details of all 11 of my embryos. They grade them based on a few different things. The number indicates the stage of blastocyst development (1 is earliest, 5 is hatching out of the shell) and the…
The present study was designed as 5 X 4 factorial to investigate the effects of using sperm from 5 bulls, and varied sperm-oocyte incubation times (5, 10, 15 and 20 h) on the fertilization, cleavage rates and blastocyst ...
Sorry. Okay, seriously, 11dp5dt and I STILL dont know if this cycle has worked or not. I wasnt listening to the nurses when I had my transfer. I was so happy to have blastocysts and frozen embryos everything they said went flying in one ear and out the other on a glittery rainbow train driven…
We transferred four embryos, 3 @ 8 cell and 1 @ 7 cell. We havent decided whether we will go for another or not. We have one embryo that made it to blastocyst and was frozen, so we will probably try that. I dont think we will do another fresh cycle. I cant imagine going through all of that at like age 42 or 43 w/ a toddler. I dont know, I could change my mind ...
Hey guys!!! I had a 3dt on wed and had 1 6 cell and 2 4 cell embryos. wanted to see if anyone got pregnant witha 4 cell! Thanks ...
The inßuence of the sperm motility stimulant pentoxifylline (PF) on preimplantation embryo development in hamsters was evaluated. Eight-cell embryos were cultured in hamster embryo culture medium (HECM)-2, with or without PF (0· 0233·6 mM). There was 90%, 37% and 29% inhibition of blastocyst development by 3·6 (used for human sperm), 0·9 and 0 ·45 mM PF, respectively. However, 23 µM PF (exposed to hamster oocytes during IVF) signicantly (P , 0·05) improved blastocyst development (63· 6% v. 51· 8%); morulae development was, however, not curtailed by 0·45 mM or 0·9 mM PF (51·8%±6·0 or 50·5%±11·3, respectively). Post-implantation viability of PF-treated embryos was assessed by embryo transfer; 43% of 80 PF-treated embryos implanted compared with 40% of 79 control embryos. Of the 9 recipients, 6 females delivered pups (19, i.e. 16% of transferred embryos or 53% of implanted embryos). These data show that in hamsters, continuous presence of PF at 0·45-3·6 mM is detrimental to ...
LINE-1 (Long Interspersed Nuclear elements) and HERVs (Human Endogenous Retroviruses) are two families of retrotransposons which together account for about 28% of the human genome. Genes harbored within LINE-1 and HERV retrotransposons, particularly that encoding the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme, are generally expressed at low levels in differentiated cells, but their expression is up-regulated in embryonic tissues and transformed cells. Here we review evidence indicating that the LINE-1-encoded RT plays regulatory roles in early embryonic development. Indeed, antisense-mediated inhibition of expression of a highly expressed LINE-1 family in mouse zygotes caused developmental arrest at the two- or four-cell embryo stages. Development is also arrested when the embryo endogenous RT activity is pharmacologically inhibited by nevirapine, an RT inhibitor currently employed in AIDS treatment. The arrest of embryonic development is irreversible even after RT inhibition is removed and it is associated with
Transcription factor control of TE/ICM segregation. TE and ICM lineage segregation is controlled by a small group of transcription factors. Specifically, Cdx2 is required for TE development, while the pluripotency markers octamer 3/4 (Oct4), Nanog, and SRY-box containing gene 2 (Sox2) are involved in establishing the ICM fate. In the mouse, Cdx2 is expressed at varying levels in all blastomeres starting at the eight-cell stage, but it becomes restricted to outside, future TE cells, prior to blastocyst formation (Figure 1) (72, 73). This variation in Cdx2 levels between individual blastomeres at the eight-cell stage may be a result of differences in the order and orientation of the cleavage divisions leading up to this stage (71). Embryos missing Cdx2 do form blastocysts initially, but the TE in these embryos loses its epithelial integrity and cannot differentiate further, resulting in death around the time of implantation (74). Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 have expression patterns that are ...
More than 90 percent of enucleated one-cell mouse embryos receiving pronuclei from other one-cell embryos successfully develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro. In this investigation, nuclei from successive preimplantation cleavage stages were introduced into enucleated one-cell embryos and the embryos were tested for development in vitro. Although two-cell nuclei supported development to the morula or blastocyst stage, four-cell, eight-cell, and inner cell mass cell nuclei did not. The inability of cell nuclei from these stages to support development reflects rapid loss of totipotency of the transferred nucleus and is not the result of simultaneous transfer of membrane or cytoplasm.
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-Rs) are expressed at increasing levels on mouse preimplantation embryos. Immunofluorescence assays were used to show that unfertilized eggs and 2-cell embryos have a very low level of reactivity to antimouse EGF-R antibodies, but by the 4-cell stage and later t …
She said that her results also had implications for human embryo stem (ES) cell research. "Human embryonic stem cell lines are derived from blastocysts that, we know now, already have, or still have, a form of XCI. While mouse embryos reactivate the X chromosome in the inner cell mass at the blastocyst stage so that the derived embryonic stem cells are completely undifferentiated, it is not yet known whether this occurs in human embryos. The onset and subsequent steps of XCI in human pre-implantation embryos occur at a later stage than in mouse embryos. Thus, it is possible that reactivation of the X chromosome happens also at a later stage, after the usual time for ES cell derivation. The current human ES cell lines may, therefore, still have the first wave of XCI. Indeed, the majority of human ES cells have XCI features ...
Blastocyst transfer is associated with a higher chance for pregnancy. The risk for multiple pregnancy can be reduced by transferring fewer blastocysts.
At Atlantic Reproductives embryology lab, all embryos are cultured to the blastocyst development stage, which is the best stage for doing genetic analysis.
The ultrastructure of bovine morulae and blastocysts developed from in vitro-matured and -fertilized oocytes in a serum-supplemented medium was compared with that of morulae and blastocysts collected
Blastocyst culture is for improved take home baby rate. But blastocyst culture may reduce the number of embryo transfers as all embryos may not grow to the blastocyst stage & may be arrested at 4 or 6 cell stage, thus resulting in cancellation of the entire cycle. Blastocyst culture. ...
To investigate the relationship between air bubble position after blastocyst transfer (BT) and pregnancy rates (PRs). Retrospective cohort study. University-based infertility center. Three hundred fifteen consecutive nondonor BTs by
1. Li X-Y, Thomas S, Sabo PJ, Eisen MB, Stamatoyannopoulos JA, Biggin MD. The role of chromatin accessibility in directing the widespread, overlapping patterns of Drosophila transcription factor binding. Genome Biol. 2011;12: R34. doi: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-4-r34 21473766. 2. Thurman RE, Rynes E, Humbert R, Vierstra J, Maurano MT, Haugen E, et al. The accessible chromatin landscape of the human genome. Nature. 2012;489: 75-82. doi: 10.1038/nature11232 22955617. 3. Klemm SL, Shipony Z, Greenleaf WJ. Chromatin accessibility and the regulatory epigenome. Nat Rev Genet. 2019;20: 207-220. doi: 10.1038/s41576-018-0089-8 30675018. 4. Wu J, Huang B, Chen H, Yin Q, Liu Y, Xiang Y, et al. The landscape of accessible chromatin in mammalian preimplantation embryos. Nature. 2016;534: 652-657. doi: 10.1038/nature18606 27309802. 5. Clark SJ, Argelaguet R, Kapourani C-A, Stubbs TM, Lee HJ, Alda-Catalinas C, et al. scNMT-seq enables joint profiling of chromatin accessibility DNA methylation and transcription in ...
Embryonic stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos are totipotent cells that can differentiate into all tissues and cell types (1). Recent discoveries that extend the potential use of ES cells include the isolation of ES cells from embryonic human tissue (2) and transplantation in sheep and mice of nuclei from mature tissues into enucleated oocytes, permitting the generation of ES cells from the same individual (3). Thus, ES cell technology may be the basis of new cell replacement therapies.. ES cells induced to differentiate in vitro give rise to many cell types including hematopoietic precursors, heart and skeletal muscle, endothelium, and neural cells (4). In the central nervous system, proliferation and differentiation of multipotential neural stem cells and glial progenitors can be controlled by defined factors (5). Here, we show that applying this knowledge to ES cells permits efficient in vitro generation of precursors for oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. ...
Stress in utero or during the early post natal period plays a cardinal role in shaping future health. An initial stressor, occurring when the embryo is exquisitely sensitive to environmental changes, reprograms the developing gene networks, tissue, and organs so that the resulting individual is predisposed to disease. We hold that suboptimal preimplantation conditions predispose adult individuals to altered glucose homeostasis, leading to an increased incidence of insulin resistance. Our preliminary data show that increased stress during in vitro culture results in proportionate deterioration of gene expression in mouse embryos. Most importantly, we have identified thioredoxin-interacting protein (txnip) as a marker of preimplantation stress. Txnip mRNA and protein levels are upregulated in blastocyst after in vitro culture; suboptimal culture conditions (Whittens medium- WM) results in a more intense txnip upregulation than culture in optimized medium (KSOM with amino acid, KAA). Txnip ...
Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells have served as a model to study the relationship between cancer and cellular differentiation given their potential to produce tumors and, to varying degrees, participate in embryonic development. Here, nuclear transplantation was used to assess the extent to which the tumorigenic and developmental potential of EC cells is governed by epigenetic as opposed to genetic alterations. Nuclei from three independent mouse EC cell lines (F9, P19, and METT-1) with differing developmental and tumorigenic potentials all were able to direct early embryo development, producing morphologically normal blastocysts that gave rise to nuclear transfer (NT)-derived embryonic stem (ES) cell lines at a high efficiency. However, when tested for tumor or chimera formation, the resulting NT ES cells displayed an identical potential as their respective donor EC cells, in stark contrast to previously reported NT ES cells derived from transfer of untransformed cells. Consi stent with this ...
Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells produced from the internal cell mass of preimplantation stage embryos. genes like the human being thyroid transcription element 1 (and also have overlapping temporal and spatial expressions in the peripheral epithelial cells from the developing lung where activates the transcription of (Shaw-White manifestation is directly controlled through this synergistic actions from the N-terminal and zinc-finger domains of as well as the homeodomain area of (Liu in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells offers been proven to induce differentiation towards extraembryonic endoderm a prerequisite for lung organogenesis (Fujikura (SRY (sex-determining area Y) package 17) a marker of definitive endoderm in mice offers revealed the key function of the element in the differentiation of respiratory epithelial cells into the various cells of the conducting airways (Park when grown in suspension and form embryoid bodies (EBs) which express markers specific to the three ...
Researchers supported the use of the portal vein as a site for islet transplantation, but noted that there are issues with injecting encapsulated cells into the liver. Finally, the research team suggested decreasing capsule size to nano-scale and combining PEGylation coating of capsules with a layer of poly(ethylene) glycol molecules with low-dose immunosuppression to improve engraftment and long-term function.. What about stem cells?. Human embryonic stem cells emerge five to seven days into an embryos development, when the embryo is a hollow sphere. The sphere consists of an outer layer of cells that goes on to form the placenta, and an inner cluster of cells known as the inner cell mass that goes on to form all of the tissues of the body. At this stage, the embryo is known as a blastocyst. Embryonic stem cells arise from the inner cell mass. (Picture shows a five-day-old embryo, known as a blastocyst. The dark patch inside the blastocyst is the inner cell mass, from which embryonic stem ...
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Cell division. During the first 12 hours after conception, the fertilized egg cell remains a single cell. After approximately 30 hours, it divides from 1 cell into 2 and 15 hours later, the 2 cells divide into 4. And at the end of 3 days, the fertilized egg cell has become a berry-like structure made up of 16 cells. This structure is called a morula, which is Latin for mulberry. The cells continue to divide 8 or 9 days following conception into a blastocyst. Although it is only the size of a pinhead, the blastocyst is composed of hundreds of cells. The blastocyst is slowly carried by tiny hair-like projections in the fallopian tube called cilia toward the uterus. During the critically important process of implantation, it must attach itself to the uterine lining where it will be able to get nourishment from the mothers blood supply. If the blastocyst is unable to attach, the pregnancy will fail to survive. ...
MELO, I.M.F. et al. Effect of enrofloxacin on the blastocyst endometrial interactions and their impact on placental and fetal development in rats. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. [online]. 2014, vol.66, n.5, pp.1406-1412. ISSN 0102-0935. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-5594.. Some studies have shown the toxic effects of enrofloxacin in various tissues. Thus, the hypothesis that enrofloxacin could interfere with placental development and generate adverse effects to the fetus was tested in this study. Enrofloxacin (Baytril(r)) was administered in the dose of 5mg/kg daily, i.m., throughout gestation in rats. The placentas were analyzed morphologically, morphometrically, and immunohistochemically on the 7, 14, and 20th days of pregnancy. The results showed that enrofloxacin reduced the number of implantation sites, weight, and placental disk total area at 14 and 20 days of development, in addition to the element components of the placenta. The histochemical analysis did not reveal significant changes in ...
Developed in the early 1990s, PGD is used so couples can prevent a pregnancy affected by a genetic condition or chromosomal disorder. Its performed by removing one or two cells (called blastomeres) for biopsy from the preimplantation embryo at the six to ten cell stage (about day three of development). If one or both parents-to-be have a known genetic abnormality and their child might be at increased risk for Tay Sachs disease, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, Fragile X syndrome, spinal muscular atrophy or other conditions, PGD can show if the embryo is likely to grow into a person with that potential problem. If thats the case, most like a decision will be made not to implant a specific embryo in a womans womb.. While its almost hard to believe, no rigorous long-term studies have been carried out in order to see whether PGD poses any serious health risks down the line - even though the procedure involves manipulating a developing embryo. So Chinese scientists Ran Huo, Qi Zhou and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Different chromatin and energy/redox responses of mouse morulae and blastocysts to slow freezing and vitrification. AU - Somoskoi, Bence. AU - Martino, Nicola A.. AU - Cardone, Rosa A.. AU - Lacalandra, Giovanni M.. AU - DellAquila, Maria E.. AU - Cseh, S.. PY - 2015/3/24. Y1 - 2015/3/24. N2 - Background: The ability to cryopreserve mammalian embryos has become an integral part of assisted reproduction, both in human and veterinary medicine. Despite differences in the size and physiological characteristics of embryos from various species, the embryos have been frozen by either of two procedures: slow freezing or vitrification. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of slow freezing and vitrification to the chromatin structure, energy status and reactive oxygen species production of mouse morulae and blastocysts. Methods: Mouse morulae and blastocysts were randomly allocated into vitrification, slow freezing and control groups. For slow freezing, Dulbecco phosphate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of a porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer technique by optimizing donor cell and recipient oocyte preparations. AU - Lee, Gabsang. AU - Hyun, Sang Hwan. AU - Kim, Hye Soo. AU - Kim, Dae Young. AU - Lee, So Hyun. AU - Lim, Jeong Mook. AU - Lee, Eun Song. AU - Kang, Sung Keun. AU - Lee, Byeong Chun. AU - Hwang, Woo Suk. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - This study was conducted to improve a porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique by optimizing donor cell and recipient oocyte preparations. Adult and fetal fibroblasts, and cumulus and oviduct cells were used as donor cells, and in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes were employed as recipient oocytes. The percentages of fusion and development to the blastocyst stage, the ratio of blastocysts to 2-cell embryos, and cell number of blastocysts were monitored as experimental parameters. In Experiment 1, donor cells of four different types were transferred to enucleated oocytes matured in vitro, and more (P , ...
A bottom-up label-free mass spectrometric proteomic strategy was used to analyse the protein profiles of the human embryonic secretome. Culture media samples used for embryonic culture of patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were selected as a test case for this exploratory proof-of-principle study. The media were stored after embryo transfer and then pooled into positive (n = 8) and negative (n = 8) implantation groups. The absolute quantitative bottom-up technique employed a multidimensional protein identification technology based on separation by nano-ultra-high pressure chromatography and identification via tandem nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with data-independent scanning in a hydrid QqTOF mass spectrometer. By applying quantitative bottom-up proteomics, unique proteins were found exclusively in both the positive- and negative-implantation groups, which suggest that competent embryos express and secrete unique biomarker proteins into the surrounding ...
Introduction. In recent years the multipotent extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) stem cells have been a focus of intense research. In Vivo, XEN cells contribute to the formation of the extraembryonic endoderm, visceral and parietal endoderm and later on, the yolk sac. The mature mouse blastocyst consists of three distinct cell types: the trophectoderm, which gives rise to the trophoblast and extraembryonic ectoderm (ExEc), the pluripotent cells of the epiblast, and the primitive or extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn), an epithelial layer of cells on the surface of the epiblast. The primitive endoderm gives rise to: (i) visceral endoderm (VE) that surrounds the epiblast and the ExEc; and (ii) parietal endoderm (PE) that interacts with the trophoblast giant cell layer. PE cells migrate along the inner surface of the trophectoderm and together with trophoblast giant cells form the parietal yolk sac.. Description of Technology. This technology comprises a group of mouse cells induced in parallel to ...
The extraembryonic endoderm of mammals is essential for nutritive support of the foetus and patterning of the early embryo. Visceral and parietal endoderm are major subtypes of this lineage with the former exhibiting most, if not all, of the embryonic patterning properties. Extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) cell lines derived from the primitive endoderm of mouse blastocysts represent a cell culture model of this lineage, but are biased towards parietal endoderm in culture and in chimaeras. Here, I further characterise XEN cells and show that these cell lines exhibit high levels of heterogeneity. In an effort for XEN cells to adopt visceral endoderm character different aspects of the in vivo environment were mimicked. I found that BMP4 and laminin promote a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition of XEN cells with upregulation of epithelial markers and downregulation of mesenchymal markers. Gene expression analysis showed the differentiated XEN cells most resembled extraembryonic visceral endoderm. ...
The embryo implantation rate in assisted reproduction procedures is 20%, which leads to a low clinical pregnancy rate (35%), and even lower live birth rate (25%), per cycle started. Low embryo quality, poor endometrial receptivity, difficulties during the blastocyst hatching process are frequently denoted as the main reasons for the low implantation rate in humans.. The artificial rupture or thinning of the zona pellucida before embryo transfer-assisted hatching (AH)-has been proposed to foster spontaneous hatching and improve embryo implantation rates. Despite great effort, the clinical relevance of AH remains controversial and elusive.. There is a great importance of AH during frozen embryo cycles. Due to previous studies there is no precise answer about the value of AH performed on cryopreserved-thawed embryos. As far as is known, there is no clinical data to indicate the effects of AH on vitrified-warmed embryo transfer.. The objective of this prospective study is to assess the possible ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) derived from the inner cell mass of pre-implantation human blastocysts have two unique properties-indefinite self-renewal in culture and pluripotency, or the ability to differentiate into tissues from all three embryonic germ layers. As a result, hESC are a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine applications and have enormous potential in modeling human embryonic development. To realize this potential, a deeper understanding of the basic biology of hESC, especially of the genes that regulate self-renewal and differentiation, will be necessary. ❧ The focus of our study is on Oct4, a POU domain transcription factor and critical regulator of pluripotency whose levels are precisely controlled in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). In contrast to the single murine Oct4 isoform, which is better understood and more widely studied, three alternatively spliced isoforms exist in humans-OCT4A, OCT4B, and OCT4B1. Studies of human OCT4 are further confounded by ...
0081]The nuclear transfer embryos from Example 5 surgically transferred into the oviduct of surrogate mothers. The transfer was conducted depending on the preparation state of surrogate mothers after the activation of the nuclear transfer embryos in Example 5. Namely, when the surrogate mothers were immediately prepared, the transfer of the nuclear transfer embryos was immediately conducted, and if it was not so, the transfer was conducted on the day following the activation of the nuclear transfer embryos (reproduction embryo stage: 2 cell stage or 4 cell stage). As the surrogate mothers, 123 of dogs consisting of mixed breeding dogs and Labrador Retrievers were used. The selected dogs were disease-free, showed the repetition of the normal estrus cycle and had a normal uterine condition. 1,095 of reconstructed embryos from Example 5 were surgically transferred into the surrogate mothers. For this purpose, the surrogate mothers were anesthetized by vascular injection with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine ...

Improvement of a porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer technique by optimizing donor cell and recipient oocyte preparations<...Improvement of a porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer technique by optimizing donor cell and recipient oocyte preparations<...

The percentages of fusion and development to the blastocyst stage, the ratio of blastocysts to 2-cell embryos, and cell number ... The percentages of fusion and development to the blastocyst stage, the ratio of blastocysts to 2-cell embryos, and cell number ... The percentages of fusion and development to the blastocyst stage, the ratio of blastocysts to 2-cell embryos, and cell number ... The percentages of fusion and development to the blastocyst stage, the ratio of blastocysts to 2-cell embryos, and cell number ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/improvement-of-a-porcine-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-technique-

Zavos - Congress 2001Zavos - Congress 2001

The only advantage of PGD is that it allows SCNT blastocysts, which have a greater than 50% probability of being ... This (it is believed) is one of the reasons for only (on average) 50% of the NT blastocysts implanting [7]. ... The advantage of PGD is that it provides a rapid means for diagnosing which morphologically normal blastocysts are actually ... Although technically a morula, this ball is ubiquitously referred to as a blastocyst in the scientific literature, and will ...
more infohttp://zavos.org/library/library_congress01.htm

Brain and sperm cell surface antigen (NS-4) on preimplantation mouse embryos<...Brain and sperm cell surface antigen (NS-4) on preimplantation mouse embryos<...

... and cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. This activity is specifically removed by absorption ... and cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. This activity is specifically removed by absorption ... and cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. This activity is specifically removed by absorption ... and cells of the trophoblast and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. This activity is specifically removed by absorption ...
more infohttps://www.researchwithnj.com/en/publications/brain-and-sperm-cell-surface-antigen-ns-4-on-preimplantation-mous

Finding biomarkers in non-model species: literature mining of transcription factors involved in bovine embryo development |...Finding biomarkers in non-model species: literature mining of transcription factors involved in bovine embryo development |...

A characteristic feature of blastocyst development in ruminants (cattle, sheep) and in pig is the elongation process (Figure 1 ... Chang MC: Development of bovine blastocyst with a note on implantation. Anat Rec. 1952, 113: 143-161. 10.1002/ar.1091130203. ... This approach was applied to identify novel transcription factors during bovine blastocyst elongation, a process that is not ... However, molecular-genetic data on ruminant embryo development are scant and blastocyst elongation is not observed in rodents ...
more infohttps://biodatamining.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-0381-5-12

Parthenogenetic development of Mos-deficient mouse oocytes. by Y Hirao and J J. EppigParthenogenetic development of Mos-deficient mouse oocytes." by Y Hirao and J J. Eppig

... oocytes in vitro may adversely affect preimplantation development and reduce the frequency of blastocyst formation even under ... In total, 5% of the Mos-/- oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage. Preimplantation-like and early postimplantation-like ... Blastocyst: cy, ul, Cell-Division, Female, Metaphase, Mice, Oocytes: gd, cy, ul, Phenotype, Photogrammetry, Proto-Oncogene- ... In total, 5% of the Mos-/- oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage. Preimplantation-like and early postimplantation-like ...
more infohttps://mouseion.jax.org/stfb1990_1999/936/

Array comparative genomic hybridization screening in IVF significantly reduces number of embryos available for cryopreservation...Array comparative genomic hybridization screening in IVF significantly reduces number of embryos available for cryopreservation...

All group B patients (48/48) had at least one blastocyst remaining for cryopreservation. A total of 157 (40.4%) blastocysts ... Incorporation of aCGH screening significantly reduced the total number of cryopreserved blastocysts compared to when ... 389 good morphology blastocysts were identified and a single top quality blastocyst was selected for fresh transfer. ... All group B patients (48/48) had at least one blastocyst remaining for cryopreservation. A total of 157 (40.4%) blastocysts ...
more infohttps://www.csm.ox.ac.uk/publications/348904

Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model. | ScholarBank@NUSCumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model. | [email protected]

Expression of cumulus-specific genes in SCNT-derived embryos at 2-cell, 4-cell and day 4.5 blastocyst stages was compared with ... followed by activation in 10 micromol/L strontium chloride for 5 h and subsequent in vitro culture up to the blastocyst stage. ... which continually remained silent at the 4-cell and blastocyst stages. It is therefore concluded that all four cumulus-specific ...
more infohttp://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/46585

The use of DNA fingerprinting to assess monozygotic twinning in Meishan and Landrace x Large White pigs<...The use of DNA fingerprinting to assess monozygotic twinning in Meishan and Landrace x Large White pigs<...

These results suggest that monozygotic twinning in the pig occurs during embryo cleavage or blastocyst development and may be ... These results suggest that monozygotic twinning in the pig occurs during embryo cleavage or blastocyst development and may be ... These results suggest that monozygotic twinning in the pig occurs during embryo cleavage or blastocyst development and may be ... These results suggest that monozygotic twinning in the pig occurs during embryo cleavage or blastocyst development and may be ...
more infohttps://abdn.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/the-use-of-dna-fingerprinting-to-assess-monozygotic-twinning-in-m

Blastocyst Implantation  |authorSTREAMBlastocyst Implantation |authorSTREAM

HATCHING OF THE BLASTOCYST : HATCHING OF THE BLASTOCYST Formation of blastocyst (D4) Shedding of zona pellucida & hatching of ... Implantation of Blastocyst Implantation of Blastocyst : Implantation of Blastocyst Day - 4: Morula reaches in uterine cavity ... SEQUENCE AFTER FERTILIZATION? 1st cleavage after 30 Hours Morula 3days Blastocyst formation 4th day Blastocyst floats in Uterus ... Blastocyst Implantation Prof. Dr. Saeed Shafi Slide 2: Nadia Suleyman, a 32-year old business executive underwent IVF and ...
more infohttp://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/msaeedshafi-157600-blastocyst-implantation-entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/

Blastocyst News, Research - Page 4Blastocyst News, Research - Page 4

Blastocyst Freeze Media, Blastocyst Thaw Media, Embryo Freeze Media, Embryo Thaw Media, Complete Early Cleavage Medium® (ECM®) ... blastocyst stage has become a real option after researchers achieved pregnancy rates that were as good as those for blastocysts ... zygotes through day 3 cleavage and blastocyst stage embryos within the fertility area. ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/?tag=/Blastocyst&page=4

Blastocyst Images, Stock Photos & Vectors | ShutterstockBlastocyst Images, Stock Photos & Vectors | Shutterstock

Find blastocyst Stock Images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations, and vectors in the ... Blastocyst stock photos. 850 Blastocyst stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free. See blastocyst ... blastocyst. Human blastocyst, with inner cell mass. the mammalian conceptus in the post-morula stage, consisting of the ... blastocyst. Human blastocyst, with inner cell mass. the mammalian conceptus in the post-morula stage, consisting of the ...
more infohttps://www.shutterstock.com/search/blastocyst

Blastocyst - definition of blastocyst by The Free DictionaryBlastocyst - definition of blastocyst by The Free Dictionary

blastocyst synonyms, blastocyst pronunciation, blastocyst translation, English dictionary definition of blastocyst. n. The ... blastocyst. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to blastocyst: blastocyst transfer ... However at the ARU, blastocyst culture enables embryos to be "grown" in a lab to the blastocyst stage of development (day five ... The number of embryos or blastocysts transferred in each cycle was captured, but embryo and blastocyst transfers were not ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/blastocyst

JCI -
Making the blastocyst: lessons from the mouseJCI - Making the blastocyst: lessons from the mouse

Blastocyst score affects implantation and pregnancy outcome: towards a single blastocyst transfer. Fertil Steril. 2000;73(6): ... Making the blastocyst: lessons from the mouse Katie Cockburn et al. * Portrait of an oocyte: our obscure origin Roger Gosden et ... while Oct4 expression becomes limited to the ICM in the early blastocyst stage. By the late blastocyst stage, while continuing ... Making the blastocyst: lessons from the mouse. Katie Cockburn and Janet Rossant Department of Molecular Genetics, University of ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/41229

JCI -
Making the blastocyst: lessons from the mouseJCI - Making the blastocyst: lessons from the mouse

expression becomes limited to the ICM in the early blastocyst stage. By the late blastocyst stage, while continuing to express ... are not established until the late blastocyst stage. The expression patterns of NANOG. and GATA6. in the human preimplantation ... and recent discoveries have shed new light on the establishment of the three blastocyst lineages. What is less clear, however, ... results in the formation of a blastocyst with three distinct cell lineages. Only one of these lineages, the epiblast, ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/41229/figure/1

Blastocyst - WikipediaBlastocyst - Wikipedia

Blastocyst transfer and fertility treatment Risks of blastocyst transfer Blastocyst photos at different stages of development ... A recent breakthrough for in vitro fertilization is the use of blastocysts. A blastocyst would be implanted five to six days ... This is then known as the blastocyst. The side of the blastocyst where the inner cellular mass (ICM) forms is referred to as ... into the uterus where the blastocysts are inserted into the womb. Blastocysts also offer an advantage because they can be used ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blastocyst

Blastocyst Images | DR-MALPANIBlastocyst Images | DR-MALPANI

For example, a blastocyst quality grade of 4AB means that the blastocyst is expanded (grade 4), has many tightly packed cells ... This blastocyst grading system assigns 3 separate quality scores to each blastocyst embryo: ... Blastocyst Hatching out of Zona (shell) = Grade 5. (I) Inner Cell mass = Grade A (Very Good). (T) Trophectoderm = Grade A (Very ... Blastocyst completely hatched = Grade 6. (I) Inner Cell mass = Grade A (Very Good). (T) Trophectoderm = Grade A (Very Good) ...
more infohttps://www.drmalpani.com/blogs/blastocystimages

The Morula and BlastocystThe Morula and Blastocyst

The cells inside the blastocyst are called the inner cell mass and give rise to the head, body, and other structures vital to ... By 4 to 5 days, a cavity forms within this ball of cells and the embryo is then called a blastocyst. ... The Morula and Blastocyst. Select Subtitle Language. 88 languages available. Afrikaans. Albanian (Tosk) [Shqip]. Arabic [عربي] ...
more infohttps://www.ehd.org/movies.php?mov_id=6

What is a Blastocyst? (with pictures)What is a Blastocyst? (with pictures)

A blastocyst is a cellular mass that forms early in the embryo development process in mammals. Humans develop a blastocyst ... So a blastocyst is very early pregnancy? Is a blastocyst before implantation? It sounds like it would have to be if part of the ... Apparently, a blastocyst isnt an embryo yet. (In humans, the term embryo only applies after implantation.) At the blastocyst ... Within the blastocyst, there are two types of cells. In the interior is the inner cell mass, a portion of which will begin to ...
more infohttp://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-a-blastocyst.htm

Blastocyst Injection - Genetically Engineered Mouse Facility | MD
Anderson Cancer CenterBlastocyst Injection - Genetically Engineered Mouse Facility | MD Anderson Cancer Center

Blastocyst Injection. The ability of mouse pre-implantation embryos to incorporate cells from other embryos is fundamental to ... Genetically modified ES cells will be injected into C57Bl/6 or C57Bl/6 albino blastocysts. Injected blasts will then be ... ES cell clone contributing to the germ-line is highly dependent on the quality of the ES cells injected into the blastocyst. It ...
more infohttps://www.mdanderson.org/research/research-resources/core-facilities/genetically-engineered-mouse-facility/services-and-fees/blastocyst-injection.html

Bilaminar blastocyst - WikipediaBilaminar blastocyst - Wikipedia

This bilaminar blastocyst also defines the primitive dorsal ventral axis. Blastocyst implantation will occur during the second ... bilaminar blastoderm/blastocyst), which sits between the amniotic cavity and the blastocyst cavity. The embryo proper and ... Therefore, the blastocyst cavity serves as a nutrient center and the fluid is able to reach and feed cells so that they can ... Bilaminar blastocyst or Bilaminar disc refers to the epiblast and the hypoblast, evolved from the embryoblast. These two layers ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilaminar_blastocyst

Poor quality blastocyst - Fertility Treatments | Forums | What to ExpectPoor quality blastocyst - Fertility Treatments | Forums | What to Expect

I have just had a grade 5CC blastocyst and an early blastocyst transferred yesterday. My egg quality has been an issue for me, ... I have just had a grade 5CC blastocyst and an early blastocyst transferred yesterday. My egg quality has been an issue for me, ... I feel like my blastocyst is a lost cause, but then I hear stories like yours and it gives me a glimmer of hope. I hope you ...
more infohttps://www.whattoexpect.com/forums/fertility-treatments/topic/poor-quality-blastocyst.html

Blastocyst Transfer | Community Health NetworkBlastocyst Transfer | Community Health Network

Advantages of Blastocyst Transfer. *Transferring embryos that have developed to blastocyst stage should help improve pregnancy ... The blastocyst stage is the point at which the embryo normally exists within the uterus and is usually capable of implantation ... With blastocyst transfer, fewer embryos are transferred to the uterus, which limits the possibility of high-order multiple ... Generally, with blastocyst transfer excellent pregnancy rates can be achieved by transferring only two embryos. Our most recent ...
more infohttps://www.ecommunity.com/services/fertility-care/in-vitro-fertilization-ivf/blastocyst-transfer

Human Cloning Obfuscation 8: A Blastocyst, Not an Embryo | National ReviewHuman Cloning Obfuscation 8: A Blastocyst, Not an Embryo | National Review

Human Cloning Obfuscation 8: A Blastocyst, Not an Embryo By Wesley J. Smith * About Wesley J. Smith ... When it is about 7-10 days along, it is a blastocyst. In human biology, the embryo is called a fetus after three months of ... In this edition, bioethicist Jonathan Moreno claims that a blastocyst isnt an embryo. From his Huffington Post column:. ... The egg "reprograms" the DNA in the donor cell to an embryonic state and divides until it has reached the early, blastocyst ...
more infohttps://www.nationalreview.com/human-exceptionalism/human-cloning-obfuscation-8-blastocyst-not-embryo-wesley-j-smith/

polyethylene glycol and blastocyst vitrificationpolyethylene glycol and blastocyst vitrification

Abstract A series of five experiments measured the high survival of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro after cryopreservation ... Subject: polyethylene glycol and blastocyst vitrification Authors Ohboshi S. Fujihara N. Yoshida T. Tomogane H. Institution ... Title Usefulness of polyethylene glycol for cryopreservation by vitrification of in vitro-derived bovine blastocysts. Source ... bovine blastocysts produced in vitro, and that a two-step addition of VS improved the in vitro survival of post-warming embryos ...
more infohttp://cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=13271
  • Blastocysts are given a quality grade for each of the 3 components and the score is expressed with the expansion grade listed first, the inner cell mass grade listed second and the trophectoderm grade third. (drmalpani.com)
  • For example, a blastocyst quality grade of 4AB means that the blastocyst is expanded (grade 4), has many tightly packed cells in the inner cell mass (grade A), and has a trophectoderm with few cells forming a loose epithelium (grade B). See the examples of blastocyst grading pictures below. (drmalpani.com)
  • The mammalian blastocyst is a hollow ball of cells containing two cell types, the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm[GO]. (bioontology.org)
  • Cdx2 becomes upregulated in outside, future TE cells, starting at the 32-cell stage, while Oct4 expression becomes limited to the ICM in the early blastocyst stage. (jci.org)
  • By the late blastocyst stage, while continuing to express Oct4 ubiquitously, the ICM contains a population of Nanog -positive EPI cells and a population of Gata6 -positive PE cells. (jci.org)
  • B ) Development is similar in the early human embryo, although compaction occurs at the 16-cell stage and the mutually exclusive expression patterns of CDX2 and OCT4 are not established until the late blastocyst stage. (jci.org)
  • Blastocyst transcription of OCT4 (pluripotency marker) was not affected by LPA stimulation. (hindawi.com)
  • It sounds like it would have to be if part of the blastocyst isn't even the baby at all, but just cells that are going to become the placenta. (wisegeek.org)
  • Furthermore, hormonal changes in the mother, specifically a peak in luteinizing hormone (LH) prepares the endometrium to receive the blastocyst and envelope it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzymes released degrade the endometrial lining, while autocrine growth factors such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) allow the blastocyst to further invade the endometrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The side of the blastocyst where the inner cellular mass (ICM) forms is referred to as the animal pole, while the vegetal pole refers to the side opposite this. (wikipedia.org)
  • A blastocyst is a cellular mass that forms early in the process of embryo development in mammals. (wisegeek.org)
  • The inner portion of the blastocyst is filled with fluid. (ivf1.com)
  • The final two layers of the embryoblast are known collectively as the bilaminar embryonic disc as well as the bilaminar blastocyst or bilaminar blastoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the BO-IVF media system, laboratories can benefit from this extensive combined portfolio of knowledge of EmbryoTrans Biotech by achieving higher blastocyst rates, more robust blastocysts and thereby a higher pregnancy rate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Earlier studies have shown that this test can select oocytes with superior quality in some species such as the pig, goat, bovine, mouse, and dog in terms of nuclear maturation, cleavage rate and blastocyst yield (Ericsson et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Supplementation of culture medium with LPA (10 −5 M) between Days 2 and 8 had no effect on embryo yield and quality and on blastocyst relative mRNA abundance of genes involved in prostaglandin synthesis ( PTGS2 , PGES , and PGFS ) and steroidogenesis (3 β HSD ). (hindawi.com)
  • Also, let's quote the Human Embryo Authority in the UK-which supports almost anything having to do with embryonic and cloning research-which accurately notes that a blastocyst is an embryo. (nationalreview.com)