Blastocladiella: A genus of aquatic fungi of the family Blastocladiaceae, order Blastocladiales, used in the study of zoospore formation.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.PhiladelphiaNeoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Stramenopiles: A common name (but used formally) for a group of organisms that are mostly kinds of algae including BACILLARIOPHYTA; OOMYCETES; PHAEOPHYCEAE; and CHRYSOPHYCEAE. They all contain CHLOROPLASTS that are thought to have been derived from the endosymbiosis of ancient RED ALGAE.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Volvocida: An order of CHLOROPHYTA commonly found in freshwater habitats. Characteristics include the presence of a cellulose wall and two to four equal, smooth, apical flagella.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl: Cyclic N-oxide radical functioning as a spin label and radiation-sensitizing agent.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Halorhodopsins: Light driven chloride ion pumps that are ubiquitously found in halophilic archaea (HALOBACTERIALES).BerlinOptogenetics: The combination of genetic and optical methods in controlling specific events with temporal precision in targeted cells of a functioning intact biological system.Rhodopsins, Microbial: Rhodopsin molecules found in microorganisms such as ARCHAEA and PROTEOBACTERIA.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Halobacterium: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.

Characterization and submitochondrial localization of the alpha subunit of the mitochondrial processing peptidase from the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii. (1/48)

In an effort to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the drastic morphological changes the mitochondria go through during the life cycle of the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii, the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the mitochondrial processing peptidase (alpha-MPP) was isolated. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the predicted alpha-MPP polypeptide comprises 474 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 51,900 Da, presenting a characteristic mitochondrial signal sequence. Northern blot analysis indicated a single 1.4-kb transcript encoding the B. emersonii alpha-MPP, whose levels decrease during sporulation, becoming very low in the zoospore, and increase again during germination. Despite these variations in mRNA concentration, B. emersonii alpha-MPP protein levels do not change significantly during the life cycle of the fungus, as observed in Western blots. Experiments to investigate the submitochondrial localization of B. emersonii alpha-MPP and beta-MPP were also carried out, and the results indicated that both subunits are associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane, possibly as part of the bc1 complex, as described for plants.  (+info)

Searching for the role of protein phosphatases in eukaryotic microorganisms. (2/48)

Preference for specific protein substrates together with differential sensitivity to activators and inhibitors has allowed classification of serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPs) into four major types designated types 1, 2A, 2B and 2C (PP1, PP2A, PP2B and PP2C, respectively). Comparison of sequences within their catalytic domains has indicated that PP1, PP2A and PP2B are members of the same gene family named PPP. On the other hand, the type 2C enzyme does not share sequence homology with the PPP members and thus represents another gene family, known as PPM. In this report we briefly summarize some of our studies about the role of serine/threonine phosphatases in growth and differentiation of three different eukaryotic models: Blastocladiella emersonii, Neurospora crassa and Dictyostelium discoideum. Our observations suggest that PP2C is the major phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of amidotransferase, an enzyme that controls cell wall synthesis during Blastocladiella emersonii zoospore germination. We also report the existence of a novel acid- and thermo-stable protein purified from Neurospora crassa mycelia, which specifically inhibits the PP1 activity of this fungus and mammals. Finally, we comment on our recent results demonstrating that Dictyostelium discoideum expresses a gene that codes for PP1, although this activity has never been demonstrated biochemically in this organism.  (+info)

Chitin biosynthesis during Blastocladiella zoospore germination: evidence that the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway is post-translationally activated during cell differentiation. (3/48)

De novo construction of a chitinous cell wall accompanies Blastocladiella emersonii zoospore germination. At least an order of magnitude increase in total hexosamine occurs during germination. This increase is into polymer (chitin) and occurs on schedule in the presence of cycloheximide. Uridine-5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UDPGlcNAc), both the end product of hexosamine biosynthesis and a substrate for chitin biosynthesis, is a potent inhibitor of the activity of the first pathway-specific enzyme of hexosamine biosynthesis in zoospore extracts. Certain uridine nucleotides, not perceptibly influencing the activity of the first enzyme per se, counteract the inhibitory effects of UDPGlcNAc. The concentration of UDPGlcNAc in the zoospore is sufficient to act as an inhibitor of the enzyme, but the amount of UDPGlcNAc is sufficient, by over an order of magnitude, to account for the chitin synthesized during germination. Both the production of UDPGlcNAc and its utilization for chitin synthesis appear to be post-translationally regulated in zoospores and during zoospore germination.  (+info)

Structure, expression, and functional analysis of the gene coding for calmodulin in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii. (4/48)

The single calmodulin (CaM) gene and the corresponding cDNA of the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii were isolated and characterized. The CaM gene is interrupted by three introns and transcribed in a single 0.7-kb mRNA species encoding a predicted protein 91% identical to human CaM. B. emersonii CaM has been expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with gluthatione S-transferase (GST) and purified by affinity chromatography and cleavage from the GST portion using a site-specific protease. In the presence of Ca(2+), B. emersonii CaM exhibited a shift in apparent molecular mass similar to that observed with bovine CaM and was able to activate the autophosphorylation of CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) from rat brain. CaM expression is developmentally regulated in B. emersonii, with CaM mRNA and protein concentrations increasing during sporulation to maximum levels observed just prior to the release of the zoospores into the medium. Both CaM protein and mRNA levels decrease drastically at the zoospore stage, increasing again during germination. The CaM antagonists compound 48/80, calmidazolium, and W7 were shown to completely inhibit B. emersonii sporulation when added to the cultures at least 120, 150, and 180 min after induction, respectively. All these drugs also inhibited growth and zoospore production in this fungus. The Ca(2+) channel blocker TMB-8 and the CaMKII inhibitor KN93 completely inhibited sporulation if added up to 60 min after induction of this stage, but only KN93 affected fungal growth. The data presented suggest that the Ca(2+)-CaM complex and CaMKII play an important role during growth and sporulation in B. emersonii.  (+info)

Esterase activity during the life cycle of Blastocladiella emersonii. (5/48)

Total esterase activity was measured in extracts on Blastocladiella throughout its life cycle by the degradation of alpha-naphthyl acetate. A fivefold incease in activity, apparently due to the synthesis of new enzymes, was found during sporulation.  (+info)

Characterization and expression of two genes encoding isoforms of a putative Na, K-ATPase in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii. (6/48)

A P-type ATPase gene (BePAT1) from the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii, which surprisingly showed high similarity with the alpha-subunit of Na, K-ATPases from animal cells, has been reported recently [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1383 (1998) 183]. In the present study, we describe the characterization of a second gene, denominated BePAT2, and show that these two genes have a different intron-exon structure but encode putative proteins with greater than 90% amino acid identity. Northern blot and multiplex reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays have revealed that BePAT1 and BePAT2 genes have a non-coordinate, developmentally regulated expression during B. emersonii life cycle. Phosphoenzyme formation experiments using the immunopurified enzymes have indicated the presence of a Na, K-ATPase-like activity. Furthermore, immunofluorescence studies using B. emersonii zoospores localized the ATPases on the plasma membrane of these cells.  (+info)

Cloning and structural analysis of the gene for the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in Blastocladiella emersonii. (7/48)

We have isolated and characterized cDNA and genomic DNA clones encoding the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii. Nucleotide sequence analysis has shown that the predicted protein comprises 403 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 44,263 Da and an overall 40% identity to mammalian RII subunits, including a serine in the phosphorylation site, which confirms the Blastocladiella protein as a type II regulatory subunit. The B. emersonii R gene presents two introns, one located in the 5'-noncoding region, whereas the other interrupts the coding region, just after the dimerization domain of the protein. The promoter region does not contain recognizable TATA or CCAAT sequences and is very GC rich, a characteristic shared by mammalian cAMP-dependent protein kinase subunit genes previously analyzed. S1 mapping and primer extension experiments revealed multiple transcription initiation sites. Several sequence motifs were identified in the 5'-flanking region which could be responsible for the regulation of this gene.  (+info)

Gene discovery and expression profile analysis through sequencing of expressed sequence tags from different developmental stages of the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii. (8/48)

Blastocladiella emersonii is an aquatic fungus of the chytridiomycete class which diverged early from the fungal lineage and is notable for the morphogenetic processes which occur during its life cycle. Its particular taxonomic position makes this fungus an interesting system to be considered when investigating phylogenetic relationships and studying the biology of lower fungi. To contribute to the understanding of the complexity of the B. emersonii genome, we present here a survey of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from various stages of the fungal development. Nearly 20,000 cDNA clones from 10 different libraries were partially sequenced from their 5' end, yielding 16,984 high-quality ESTs. These ESTs were assembled into 4,873 putative transcripts, of which 48% presented no matches with existing sequences in public databases. As a result of Gene Ontology (GO) project annotation, 1,680 ESTs (35%) were classified into biological processes of the GO structure, with transcription and RNA processing, protein biosynthesis, and transport as prevalent processes. We also report full-length sequences, useful for construction of molecular phylogenies, and several ESTs that showed high similarity with known proteins, some of which were not previously described in fungi. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression profile (digital Northern analysis) of each transcript throughout the life cycle of the fungus using Bayesian statistics. The in silico approach was validated by Northern blot analysis with good agreement between the two methodologies.  (+info)

1. Zoospores germinate rapidly and semi-synchronously upon exposure to growth medium or an inorganic salts solution. Amino acid incorporation into protein is detected only after a characteristic lag period, the extent of which is a function of developmental, rather than absolute, time.. 2. The turn-on of amino acid incorporation occurs after several of the morphological events of germination have taken place - notably, retraction of the flagellum, conversion to a spheroid cell morphology, vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, formation of the initial cell wall, and elongation of the single mitochondrion. A second group of morphological changes - release of ribosomes from the nuclear cap into the cytoplasm, appearance of multiple mitochondrial profiles, disappearance of the flagellar axoneme, and disappearance of gamma particles - takes place in the cell population during the turn-on of incorporation.. 3. Cycloheximide reversibly inhibits germination at a characteristic block point. ...
Participants: 1) Herwig Baier (PI, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Munich), coworker: Miguel Fernandes 2) Marcus Elstner (PI; Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KIT), coworker: 3) Peter Hegemann (PI; Humboldt University Berlin), coworker: Ulrike Scheib 4) Franziska Schneider (PI; University of Freiburg), coworker: Ramona Kopton Abstract: Mechanism, engineering and application of Rhodopsin-guanylyl cyclases Channelrhodopsin, which was discovered and described as a light-gated ion channel in the laboratory of Peter Hegemann and colleagues, has revolutionized the field of neuroscience over the past decade by enabling researchers to specifically activate selected neurons in a large ensemble of neuronal cells with short light flashes, a technology now known as Optogenetics. However, though highly desirable, the inactivation of specific cells using moderate or low light intensities is not yet possible. The recently discovered rhodopsin-guanylyl-cyclase (RhGC) of the fungus Blastocladiella ...
Multiple anthropogenic stressors have been shown to impact animal and plant communities in freshwater ecosystems, but the responses of aquatic fungi remain largely unknown. Stressor effects on fungal communities may, however, result in changes of decomposition of plant litter and, thus, impact nutrient cycling, a key process for ecosystem functioning. We tested the impact of increased chloride and sediment levels, as well as reduced water flow velocity, on eukaryotic freshwater communities, with an emphasis on fungi, in a mesocosm experiment. Each of the three stressors was applied individually and in all combinations in a full-factorial design. Litterbags with non-sterilised tree leaves and sterile ceramic tiles were added to the mesocosms, to analyse the responses of communities in decaying plant material and in biofilms. Fungi preferably occurring in biofilms were supposed to represent indigenous aquatic fungi, while litterbag communities should be predominantly composed of fungi known from ...
Radionuclides also termed as radioisotopes are elements that possess radioactivity. It means upon decay they emit radiations like alpha, beta or gamma particles and trans..
About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and fungi. Topics relating to viruses, viroids and prions also belong here ...
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE Alma Whiffen Barksdale (1916-1981) was born in Hammonton, New Jersey on October 25, 1916. She received her A.B. (1937) at Maryville College, Maryville, Tennessee, and her M.S. in botany (1939) and Ph.D. in botany and mycology (1941) at the University of North Carolina, where she was a Carnegie Fellow (1941-42). Dr. Barksdale conducted postdoctoral research under Dr. John N. Couch (1943) and became a National Research Council Fellow with Dr. William H. Weston at Harvard University (1942-43). Dr. Barksdales work falls into three periods. The first was her graduate and postdoctoral studies on the cytology, nutrition, and taxonomy of aquatic fungi (phyla Oomycota and Chytridiomycota). Her contributions included: (1) the development of methods for the isolation, purification, and culture of nine genera of lower aquatic fungi; (2) the determination of their nutritional requirements; and (3) the discovery of a new type of sexual life cycle in the Blastocladiales, an order composed of ...
Reproduction of articles for non-commercial educational or research use granted without request if credit to The Ohio State University and The Ohio Academy of Science is given. ...
Massapequa Mold Removal Should you believe or know that there is you living in or possess a house in need of Mold removal that was Massapequa, then youve reached the appropriate spot. Water Mold & Fire ...
Copyright Get Revising 2017 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
The Chelsea Smile had emerged into real space in a belch of exotic fire, huge portions of its front armour had been gouged away, leaving reams of open decks and super structure open to space, still venting atmosphere, fire and drive plasma into space. Its underside launch bays had been reamed open into a vast slash across the underside of the once proud vessel. Once mighty weapon turrets had been ripped away, leaving potholes across the broken hull, and half of its bridge section had been torn asunder. Almost all of the power had been drained from its nuclear reactors and its FTL system still leaked volatile radiation into the coldness of space, painting the whole region in beta and gamma particles, creating beautiful but deadly plumes of invisible energies ...
The Chelsea Smile had emerged into real space in a belch of exotic fire, huge portions of its front armour had been gouged away, leaving reams of open decks and super structure open to space, still venting atmosphere, fire and drive plasma into space. Its underside launch bays had been reamed open into a vast slash across the underside of the once proud vessel. Once mighty weapon turrets had been ripped away, leaving potholes across the broken hull, and half of its bridge section had been torn asunder. Almost all of the power had been drained from its nuclear reactors and its FTL system still leaked volatile radiation into the coldness of space, painting the whole region in beta and gamma particles, creating beautiful but deadly plumes of invisible energies ...
primary zoospore ii) Primary zoospores liberated a) Hole opens up at the end of the zoosporangium b) All the zoospores flow out iii) Primary zoospores swim and encyst a) Swim for a time b) Drop to the bottom (substrate) with flagella down c) Develop cellulose walls (encysting) d) Rests (remains in that situation for a while) iv) Release of secondary zoospore a) Secondary zoospore is formed out of the cytoplasm in the ...
Hi, My pool supply store recently told me that Baquacil CDX has been replaced by Softswim Oxysheen (untrue for one thing) and that it works just as well if not better. I use CDX primarily as a means of helping to avoid getting white water mold. So what I would like to know is - do these two products work basically the same as the store is telling me? The Oxysheen is 42.8% potassium peroxymonopersulfate, and 4.3% active oxygen with a pH of 2.3. The CDX is 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide.
Anaerobic chytridiomycete fungi possess hydrogenosomes, which generate hydrogen and ATP, but also acetate and formate as end-products of a prokaryotic-type mixed-acid fermentation. Notably, the anaerobic chytrids Piromyces and Neocallimastix use pyruvate:formate lyase (PFL) for the catabolism of pyr …
The water mold Achlya ambisexualis reproduces asexually by the formation of zoospores produced in sporangia. The differentiation of vegetative hyphae to sporangia involves a series of morphologic and biochemical changes. Thus far, very little is known about the regulation of sporogenesis in this organism. Using DNA-DNA and DNA-RNA hybridizations, we investigated the presence of DNA sequences homologous to the yeast RAS gene in A. ambisexualis. A 1.8-kilobase (kb) HindIII fragment containing the complete RASsc1 gene specifically hybridized to BamHI, PstI, and SalI digested A. ambisexualis DNA. RNA blot analysis revealed the presence of a detectable level of RNA transcript (1.3 kb) that hybridizes to RASsc1, only in differentiating mycelia. In addition, the 35S-labeled polypeptide profile of sporulating hyphae differs from that of vegetative hyphae. The selective transcription of 1.3-kb RNA during sporangiogenesis indicates that it may play some significant role in the asexual sporulation in A. ...
One of the fundamental patterns in macroecology is the increase in the number of observed taxa with size of sampled area. For microbes, the shape of this relationship remains less clear. The current study assessed the diversity of aquatic fungi, by the traditional approach based on conidial morphology (captures reproducing aquatic hyphomycetes) and next generation sequencing (NGS; captures other fungi as well), on graded sizes of alder leaves (0.6 to 13.6 cm2). Leaves were submerged in two streams in geographically distant locations: the Oliveira Stream in Portugal and the Boss Brook in Canada. Decay rates of alder leaves and fungal sporulation rates did not differ between streams. Fungal biomass was higher in Boss Brook than in Oliveira Stream, and in both streams almost 100% of the reads belonged to active fungal taxa. In general, larger leaf areas tended to harbour more fungi, but these findings were not consistent between techniques. Morphospecies-based diversity increased with leaf area in ...
Listings in Party Suppliers & Equipment, Pet Stores, Fire, Water & Mold Restoration and Human Services in Supply and Shallotte
Bacteria display the greatest range in metabolic ability of any group of organisms. There are both autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Heterotrophic bacteria are a crucial link in the decomposition of organic matter and the cycling of nutrients in aquatic systems.. Autotrophic bacteria are primary producers in aquatic systems as are true algae. For this reason, autotrophic bacteria (predominantly cyanobacteria) are often categorized as algae, though the organisms are by no means closely related. Cyanobacteria used to be mistakenly called blue-green algae. Ecologically, much of what applies to algae is relevant to autotrophic bacteria.. Fungi. Fungi occur as single cells, and in filaments called hyphae. Most aquatic fungi are microscopic; those known as hyphomycetes are the most abundant and important. Fungi are heterotrophic, and, like heterotrophic bacteria, obtain their nutrition by secreting exoenzymes into their immediate environment, which break compounds down into simpler ...
For the production of biofuels and chemicals from plant biomass, a complete utilisation of the cellulose and hemicellulose present is desired. The degradation of these polymers is commonly approached via a physical and/or thermo-assisted chemical pretreatment, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. In grass-type feedstocks, glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) is the major hemicellulose. It is constituted of a β-(1 → 4) linked xylopyranosyl backbone, substituted by side groups, such as O-acetyl groups, arabinofuranosyl residues and 4-O-methyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl uronic acids. The occurrence of substituents in the xylan backbone is highly dependent on the feedstock used. In addition, the abundance and distribution of substituents can be affected by the type and severity of the pretreatment performed [1]. For example, O-acetyl groups and arabinosyl residues are released during hydrothermal pretreatments catalysed by alkali or acids [2-4]. However, glucuronic acid (UA) and its 4-O-methyl etherified derivative ...
Which of the following best compares rhizoids and fruiting bodies in Fungi? Fruiting bodies house rhizoids, which produce and release spores. Rh...
The kinetosome-flagellum base of Thraustochytriumsp. has several ultrastructural features that are unique among the fungi studied thus far. Within the lumen formed by the kinetosome fibrils are two...
The sooner you take your cat for treatment after the first signs appear, the better the prognosis.. All cats will need to undergo surgical removal of as much affected tissue as possible. The tissue remaining after surgery will then be treated with a laser (photoablation) to kill any fungal filaments in the surrounding tissue. Enlarged lymph nodes in the abdominal cavity should be biopsied (tissue will be surgically removed for examination). Medical therapy should be continued for a minimum of six months.. ...
EN ISO 10273 method for the detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in foods was validated in the project Mandate M/381 funded by European Commission. A total of 14 laboratories from five European countries participated in the interlaboratory study (ILS) organized during 2013 and 2014. Before the ILS, the method was revised by an international group of experts and the performance of the revised method was assessed in an ILS study. The results are published as a part of the standard EN ISO 10273 revision. The study included three rounds with different sample types; raw milk, iceberg lettuce and minced meat, inoculated with a low and high level of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains representing major pathogenic bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. The homogeneity and stability of the samples were verified before dispatching them to the laboratories. The results demonstrated the method sensitivity of 96% in raw milk, 97% in minced meat, and 98% in lettuce at high inoculation level of pathogenic ...
A method is provided for introducing a foreign gene into a plant cell by means of an Olpidium zoospore vector having associated with it a reassembled nucleoprotein complex comprising the foreign gene and reassociated coat protein of a zoospore-transmissable virus. The plant cell is contacted with the zoospore under conditions suitable for transmission of the nucleoprotein complex into the cell. The method can be conducted under nonsterile conditions, is applicable to all nucleic acids regardless of size, and is useful for introducing foreign genes into cells of both monocots and dicots.
Supplement Protists do not have much in common apart from a relatively simple organization. They may occur as unicellular, multicellular, coenocytic, or colonial organisms. Protists include: (1) protozoa, the animal-like protists, (2) algae, the plant-like protists, and (3) slime moulds and water moulds, the fungus-like protists. ...
Other than the defining difference in the type of gamete produced, differences between males and females in one lineage cannot always be predicted by differences in another. The concept is not limited to animals; egg cells are produced by chytrids, diatoms, water moulds and land plants, among others. In land plants, female and male designate not only the egg- and sperm-producing organisms and structures, but also the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants. ...
総合学術電子ジャーナルサイト「J-STAGE」-国内で発行された学術論文全文を読むことのできる、日本最大級の総合電子ジャーナルプラットフォームです。
Market Scenario: The Global Gene Expression Analysis Market is expected to grow significantly over the forecast period. It is estimated that the global gene expression analysis market is expected to hold a market value of USD 3.250.... ...
Listings in Debris Removal, HVAC Sales & Service Contractors, Food & Drink, Fire, Water & Mold Restoration and Utilities in Supply
Kevin Hochstenbach, Danitsja van Leeuwen, Hans Gmuender, Ralf W. Gottschalk, Martinus Løvik, Berit Granum, Unni Cecilie Nygaard, Ellen Namork, Micheline Kirsch-Volders, Ilse Decordier, Kim Vande Loock, Harrie Besselink, Margareta Törnqvist, Hans von Stedingk, Per Rydberg, Jos C Kleinjans, Henk van Loveren, Joost H M van Delft, (2012). Global Gene Expression Analysis in Cord Blood Reveals Gender-Specific Differences in Response to Carcinogenic Exposure In Utero. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention s. 1756-1767. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0304 ...
Water Damage Restoration in Ormond-by-the-sea Surprise is usually the very first thing once they are confronted with an urgent situation that leads to water damage in Ormond-by-the-sea that many homeowners experience. This really is particularly ...
Phytophthora is a type of water mold, also know as an oomycete. Just like pythium, phytophthora is an exceptionally aggressive fungus that causes both economic
Aphanomyces invadans is a highly pathogenic oomycete fungi which infects the Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus and many other species of fish from around the world. This water mould has been implicated in massive fish kills in North Carolina, resulting in hundreds of thousands of dead fish. On average, an infection resulting from less than 10 zoospores (the infective stage of this fungi) is enough to kill a fish, and even infection by just a single zoospore can result in ulcerous lesions that can lead to mortality. Fish infected with the fungi develops ulcerous lesions which ultimately lead to extensive tissue necrosis. This fungus develops extremely quicky, doubling its hyphal mass every ten days, and it is also highly invasive, extending its hyphae into various tissues including the liver, kidneys and spinal cord of the fish host. Interestingly, A. invadans outbreaks are associated with high rainfall. This is likely due to the fact that this water mould has a low salinity tolerance and ...
"Zoospore germination in Blastocladiella emersonii: Cell differentiation without protein synthesis?". Proceedings of the ...
Domnas A; Catimo EC (1965). "The behavior of amidohydrolases and L-glutamate in synchronized populations of Blastocladiella ...
As well, two (once) popular model organisms-Allomyces macrogynus and Blastocladiella emersonii-belong to this phylum. ... Genus Nematoceromyces Doweld 2013 Genus Blastocladiella Matthews 1937 [Clavochytridium Couch & Cox 1939; Sphaerocladia Stüben ...
"The rhodopsin-guanylate cyclase of the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii enables fast optical control of cGMP signaling ...
It contains the following genera: Allomyces Blastocladiella Blastocladia Blastocladiopsis Microallomyces The family was ...
... blastocladiella MeSH B05.283.600 --- neocallimasticales MeSH B05.283.600.600 --- neocallimastix MeSH B05.283.600.675 --- ...
Zoospore Germination in Blastocladiella Emersonii Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Cell ...
Blastocladiella emersonii HSP90B (ABU45371.1), Danio rerio HSP90β (NP_571385.2), Ostreococcus lucimarinus HSP90 (ABP00103.1), ... Blastocladiella emersonii HSP90B (ABU45371.1), Danio rerio HSP90β (NP_571385.2), Ostreococcus lucimarinus HSP90 (ABP00103.1), ...
The recently discovered rhodopsin-guanylyl-cyclase (RhGC) of the fungus Blastocladiella emersonii offers an elegant solution to ...
Blastocladiella is heterotrophic for thiamine. The remarkable fact that it can be replaced by a combination of bicarbonate, ... One phase of morphogenesis (production of resistant sporangia) in the life cycle ofBlastocladiella has been investigated ...
... realizado um programa de seqüenciamento de cDNAs obtidos de bibliotecas da fase de germinação do fungo aquático Blastocladiella ... Análise da expressão gênica global durante a germinação do fungo aquático Blastocladiella emersonii ... Globlal gene expression analysis during germination of the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii ... realizado um programa de seqüenciamento de cDNAs obtidos de bibliotecas da fase de germinação do fungo aquático Blastocladiella ...
Blastocladiella emersonii Cantino et Hyatt (ATCC® 22665™) ATCC® Number: 22665™ Designation: [D. Sonneborn L17, MUCL 35062] ...
8 March 2018: Blastocladiella. 7 March 2018: Khaya senegalensis. 7 March 2018: Paliurus spina-christi. 7 March 2018: ...
Study of the expression of heat shock genes hsp90, hsp60 and hsp10 of the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii ... Estudo da expressão dos genes de choque térmico hsp90, hsp60 e hsp10 do fungo aquático Blastocladiella emersonii ... Blastocladiella emersonii. Blastomyces (Estudo). Choque térmico. Expressão gênica. Fungo zoospórico. Fungos (Estudo). Hsp. ... Blastocladiella emersonii. Blastomyces (Study). Fungi (Study). Gene expression. Hsp. Thermal shock. Zoosporic fungus. ...
Developmental Pathways of the Water Mold, Blastocladiella emersonii. 67. Extra-Embryonic Circulation In the Chick ...
The rhodopsin-guanylyl cyclase of the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii enables fast optical control of cGMP signaling ...
"The rhodopsin-guanylate cyclase of the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii enables fast optical control of cGMP signaling ...
Cloning and structural analysis of the gene for the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in Blastocladiella ... Blastocladiella emersonii (22), and mouse (33), we designed a set of oligonucleotides for PCR amplification of a region of the ... Blastocladiella emersonii (accession number M81713); A.n., Aspergillus nidulans (accession number AF043231); M.g., Magnaporthe ...
Blastocladiella emersonii (accession number M81713); A.n., Aspergillus nidulans (accession number AF043231); M.g., Magnaporthe ...
Theres more to fungi than mere mushrooms. Learn about the main types of fungi, get examples of them, and see what they look like.
Gc1 of Blastocladiella emersonii (Aquatic fungus). *3.E.1.5.2. Learning/memory process protein of 704 aas and 7 N-terminal TMSs ...
"Zoospore germination in Blastocladiella emersonii: Cell differentiation without protein synthesis?". Proceedings of the ...
Domnas A; Catimo EC (1965). "The behavior of amidohydrolases and L-glutamate in synchronized populations of Blastocladiella ...
Blastocladiella) to the Blastocladiomycota. The mammalian gut fungi, many of which produce multiflagellate zoospores, have also ...
Blastocladiella (Chytridiomycota), Blumeria, Neolecta, and Taphrina (Ascomycota) were used as the outgroup. ...
... a retinylidene/guanylyl cyclase fusion protein and optogenetics tool from the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii. ...
As well, two (once) popular model organisms-Allomyces macrogynus and Blastocladiella emersonii-belong to this phylum. ... Genus Nematoceromyces Doweld 2013 Genus Blastocladiella Matthews 1937 [Clavochytridium Couch & Cox 1939; Sphaerocladia Stüben ...
Organization and fine structure of the side body and its lipid sac in the zoospore ofBlastocladiella emersonii. Mycologia (N.Y ...
... o dos genes codificando as subunidades alfa e beta da peptidase processadora mitocondrial do fungo aqu tico Blastocladiella ...
Global gene expression analysis during germination in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii. Salem-Izacc, et al. (2009 ... expression profile analysis through EST sequencing from different developmental stages of the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella ...
It contains the following genera: Allomyces Blastocladiella Blastocladia Blastocladiopsis Microallomyces The family was ...
  • The proteins in this group allow to feel the direction of the light and other microorganisms that have simple eyes - such as Chlamydomonas and fungus Blastocladiella, floating spores which also provided with photosensitive sensors. (ublogz.com)
  • In other cases of the saprophytic fungi such as Rhizopus and Blastocladiella the rhizoids develop which penetrate the substratum and absorb the food material. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • One phase of morphogenesis (production of resistant sporangia) in the life cycle of Blastocladiella has been investigated experimentally in some detail, and the underlying biochemical transformations have, in part, been elucidated. (springer.com)