Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)ExplosionsBombs: A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.AfghanistanMultiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Hospitals, Military: Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.IraqLung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Hot Flashes: A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Electric Wiring: An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Compressed Air: Air that is reduced in volume by pressure.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Terrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)Islam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Hawks: Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.BaltimorePhysical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Afghan Campaign 2001-: Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Iraq War, 2003-2011: An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.Post-Concussion Syndrome: The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.

Development of serial bio-shock tubes and their application. (1/205)

OBJECTIVE: To design and produce serial shock tubes and further examine their application to experimental studies on blast injury. METHODS: Bio-medical engineering technique was used for the design and development of the serial shock tubes. One thousand four hundred and fifty nine animals (757 rats, 105 guinea pigs, 335 rabbits, 240 dogs and 22 sheep) were then used to test the wounding effects of the shock tubes. RESULTS: Three types of bio-shock tubes, that is, large-, medium- and small-scale shock tubes were made in our laboratory. The large-scale shock tube is 39 meters long; the inner diameter of the test section is 1 meter; and the maximum overpressure in the driving section is 10.3 MPa. A negative pressure could be formed by means of the reflected rarefactive wave produced by the end plate. The medium-scale shock tube is 34.5 meters long; the maximum overpressure in the driving section is 22 MPa; the test section is designed to be a knockdown, showing 5 basic types with inner diameter of 77 to 600 millimeters, which could be used for researches on overpressure, explosive decompression, underwater explosion, and so on. The small-scale shock tube is 0.5 meter long with the maximum endured overpressure of 68.6 MPa. Results from animal experiments showed that this set of shock tubes could induce various degrees of systemic or local blast injury in large or small animals. CONCLUSIONS: This set of bio-shock tubes can approximately simulate typical explosive wave produced by nuclear or charge explosion, and inflict various degrees of blast injury characterized by stability and reproducibility. Therefore, they can meet the needs of blast research on large and small animals.  (+info)

Effect of type and transfer of conventional weapons on civilian injuries: retrospective analysis of prospective data from Red Cross hospitals. (2/205)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the link between different weapons used in modern wars and their potential to injury civilians. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data about hospital admissions. SETTING: Hospitals of the International Committee of the Red Cross. SUBJECTS: 18 877 people wounded by bullets, fragmentation munitions, or mines. Of these, 2012 had been admitted to the hospital in Kabul within six hours of injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age and sex of wounded people according to cause of injury and whether they were civilians (women and girls, boys under 16 years old, or men of 50 or more). RESULTS: 18.7% of those injured by bullets, 34.1% of those injured by fragments, and 30.8% of those injured by mines were civilians. Of those admitted to the Red Cross hospital in Kabul within six hours of injury, 39.1% of those injured by bullets, 60.6% of those injured by fragments, and 55.0% of those injured by mines were civilians. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of civilians injured differs between weapon systems. The higher proportion injured by fragments and mines is explicable in terms of the military efficiency of weapons, the distance between user and victim, and the effect that the kind of weapon has on the psychology of the user.  (+info)

Circumstances around weapon injury in Cambodia after departure of a peacekeeping force: prospective cohort study. (3/205)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the circumstances surrounding weapon injury and combatant status of those injured by weapons. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Northwestern Cambodia after departure of United Nations peacekeeping force. SUBJECTS: 863 people admitted to hospital for weapon injuries over 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual incidence of weapon injury by time period; proportions of injuries inflicted as a result of interfactional combat (combat injuries) and outside such combat (non-combat injuries) by combatant status and weapon type. RESULTS: The annual incidence of weapon injuries was higher than the rate observed before the peacekeeping operation. 30% of weapon injuries occurred in contexts other than interfactional combat. Most commonly these were firearm injuries inflicted intentionally on civilians. Civilians accounted for 71% of those with non-combat injuries, 42% of those with combat related injuries, and 51% of those with weapon injuries of either type. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of weapon injuries remained high when the disarmament component of a peacekeeping operation achieved only limited success. Furthermore, injuries occurring outside the context of interfactional combat accounted for a substantial proportion of all weapon injuries, were experienced disproportionately by civilians, and were most likely to entail the intentional use of a firearm against a civilian.  (+info)

Prevention of skin and soft tissue entrapment in tibial segment transportation. (4/205)

We report of a ten year old patient with soft tissue damage and bone defect of the tibia as a sequel of osteomyelitis. After excision and stabilization with an Ilizarov fixateur segment transportation was started. In order to avoid skin and soft tissue entrapment in the docking region, we used a metal cage as a space provider, which was shortened as segment transportation progressed. To our knowledge this simple method has not been described so far.  (+info)

Mine blast injuries: ocular and social aspects. (5/205)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Landmines have long been used in conventional warfare. These are antipersonnel mines which continue to injure people long after a ceasefire without differentiating between friend or foe, soldier or civilian, women or children. This study focuses on Afghan non-combatants engaged in mine clearing operations in Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Russo-Afghan war. The patterns and types of injuries seen are described and experiences in their management, ways, and means to prevent them, and recommendations for the rehabilitation of the affected individuals are given. METHODS: It is a retrospective and analytical study of 84 patients aged 19-56 years who sustained mine blast injuries during mine clearing operations in Afghanistan from November 1992 to January 1996. The study was carried out at a military hospital with tertiary care facilities. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their injuries. Group 1 required only general surgical attention, group 2 sustained only ocular injuries, while group 3 had combined ocular and general injuries. Patients in groups 2 and 3 were treated in two phases. The first phase aimed at immediate restoration of the anatomy, while restoration of function wherever possible was done in subsequent surgical procedures in the second phase. RESULTS: It was observed that 51 out of 84 patients (60.7%) had sustained ocular trauma of a variable degree as a result of the blasts. The mean age of the victims was 29 years and they were all male. A total of 91 eyes of 51 patients (89.2%) had been damaged. Bilaterality of damage was seen in 40 (78.4%) patients. Most, 34 (37.3%), eyes became totally blind (NPL). Only a few escaped with injury mild enough not to impair vision. Foreign bodies, small and multiple, were found in the majority of eyes; most, however, were found in the anterior segment, and posterior segment injuries were proportionally less. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of blindness caused by mine blast injuries is quite high. The resulting psychosocial trauma to the patients and their families is tremendous and has not been adequately highlighted. These injuries are a great drain on the country's resources. Enforcement of preventive measures and the use of protective gear and sophisticated equipment by the mine clearing personnel would prove to be far more economical in terms of human life as well as medical and economic resources. There is also need for greater attention towards the establishment of support groups and rehabilitation programmes for these individuals.  (+info)

Injuries from fireworks in the United States. (6/205)

Fireworks traditionally are used in the United States to celebrate Independence Day on July 4th. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) estimates that 8500 persons in the United States are treated in emergency departments each year for fireworks-related injuries (1). Of all fireworks-related injuries, 70%-75% occur during a 30-day period that surrounds the July 4th holiday (June 23-July 23) (2). Seven of every 100 persons injured by fireworks are hospitalized, approximately 40% of those injured are children aged < or = 14 years, and males are injured three times more often than females (1). The injury rate is highest among boys aged 10-14 years (3). Most commonly, injuries from fireworks affect the hands (34%), face (12%), and eyes (17%) (4). Injuries are more frequent and more severe among persons who are active participants than among bystanders (3).  (+info)

High rate of candidemia in patients sustaining injuries in a bomb blast at a marketplace: a possible environmental source. (7/205)

In this study, a cluster of candidemia among patients sustaining injuries in a bomb blast at a marketplace was investigated by means of a multivariate analysis, a case-control study, and quantitative air sampling. Candidemia occurred in 7 (30%) of 21 patients (58% of those admitted to the intensive care unit [ICU]) between 4 and 16 days (mean, 12 days) after the injury and was the single most frequent cause of bloodstream infections. Inhalation injury was the strongest predictor for candidemia by multivariate analysis. Candidemia among the case patients occurred at a significantly higher rate than among comparable trauma patients injured in different urban settings, including a pedestrian mall (2 of 29; P=. 02), and among contemporary ICU control patients (1 of 40; P=.001). Air sampling revealed exclusive detection of Candida species and increased mold concentration in the market in comparison with the mall environment. These findings suggest a role for an exogenous, environmental source in the development of candidemia in some trauma patients.  (+info)

Effect of epidermal growth factor and dexamethasone on explosive deafness. (8/205)

OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on cochlear hair cells of normal and explosion-stricken guinea pigs and the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and dexamethasone (DXM) treatment for blast hearing loss. METHODS: Immunohistochemical technique and auditory brainstem response (ABR) test were used. RESULTS: Scattered expression of EGFR was seen in inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) in normal guinea pigs. Segmentally distributing positive reaction was also located in stereocilia of hair cells. Distribution of EGFR reaction was seen in the cytoplasm of IHC 24 hours after exposure to blasts, and in the stereocilia of IHC and the cuticular plate of OHC 72 hours postexposure. At one week EGFR reaction in hair cells increased obviously and part of OHC stereocilia also showed positive reaction. EGFR reaction reduced at two weeks, though positive reaction could still be found in the stereocilia of hair cells at one month. Combination of EGF and DXM administrations promoted hearing recovery significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The healing of injured hair cells may be related to EGF.  (+info)

  • Current Explosive mechanisms [improvised explosive devices (IEDs), landmines, and rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs)] are believed to account for 56-78% of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) related injuries ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Explosives are categorized as high-order (HE) explosives or low-order (LE) explosives and they each cause different injury patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a blast event, the Soldier may downplay their symptoms, but if they have an amber or red indicator light on their blast gauge, that can't be downplayed. (darpa.mil)
  • The structures of the internal ears are most often affected by the blast wave, with perforated ear drums the most common injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paradigm of not seeking medical aid for the 'invisible injuries' of war, which include PTSD and TBI, is changing but there is still some reluctance to seeking aid. (darpa.mil)
  • In response to DARPA's need for larger production quantities and rapid device refinement, RIT researchers subsequently formed BlackBox Biometrics, a small business, to commercialize and manufacture the Blast Gauges. (darpa.mil)
  • Redirection of blast force of a terrorist bomb placed in public area trashcan designed to reduce risk potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • There's insufficient reporting and research on the long-term health effects on U.S. veterans from blast exposure during Gulf War combat missions, according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM). (medpagetoday.com)
  • In the report, the IOM committee made recommendations to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) on "how to produce research that would answer the question: What bad things does exposure to blast do to a human being? (medpagetoday.com)
  • Now, new research has revealed that veterans exposed to these types of blasts are still at risk of damage in their brain's white matter - even when symptoms do not present. (foxnews.com)
  • After being exposed to a blast, many military personnel will experience TBI symptoms, such as losing consciousness, blurred vision and headaches, but some veterans will come away from the experience without any clear signs of injury. (foxnews.com)
  • In order to analyze the effects of blasts further, Morey and his team evaluated 45 U.S. veterans who had served in the military since September 2001. (foxnews.com)
  • The idea would be that people who have had blast exposure should be aware that if they're experiencing chronic symptoms - like depression, irritability or fatigue - [veterans] and doctors should be aware it could be from blast exposure," Morey said. (foxnews.com)
  • mTBI has been called the signature condition of Veterans returning from Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF), and the cause is often related to blast exposure from improvised explosive devices, mortars or rocket-propelled grenades. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Four subject groups will include Veterans complaining of dizziness/imbalance with (1) a history of blast exposure, (2) with mTBI, (3) with blast exposure and mTBI, and (4) a control group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To create the models, Radovitzky and his students collaborated with David Moore, a neurologist at the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, who used magnetic resonance imaging to model features of the head. (healthcanal.com)
  • Blast injuries are common among military personnel and veterans who were exposed to loud sounds during their time in active duty. (hear.com)
  • Characterizing effects of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder on balance impairments in blast-exposed servicemembers and Veterans using computerized posturography. (nih.gov)
  • Data were analyzed from a subject pool of 166 combat-exposed SMs and Veterans who had a blast experience within the past 2 yr while deployed. (nih.gov)
  • NFTs are characteristic CTE lesions found in the brains of athletes with repetitive concussive injury, and as reported in this study, U.S. military veterans with blast exposure. (healthcanal.com)
  • The results showed that the brain damage in blast-exposed veterans is similar to the brain injuries observed in football players who have sustained repetitive concussive head injuries. (healthcanal.com)
  • Fourteen veterans with a history of blast exposure and/or mTBI (B/mTBI) (age 27.5±3.9) and eleven veterans with no history (No B/mTBI) (age 28.1±4.3) completed FDG PET studies during wakefulness, REM sleep, and NREM sleep. (nih.gov)
  • Veterans in the mTBI group had experienced one or more blast-related concussions. (frontiersin.org)
  • These findings suggest consideration of routine post-deployment neuroendocrine screening of service members and veterans who have experienced blast-related mTBI and are reporting post-concussive symptoms. (frontiersin.org)
  • This material is based on resources from Department of Veterans Affairs-Post-Deployment Health Services/War Related Illness and Injury Study Center and use of facilities from Veterans Affairs New Jersey Health Care System in East Orange, New Jersey. (annals.org)
  • At least three veterans groups, including the Blinded Veterans Association, are backing the congressional push to - as the letter to DOD and VA states - "get a better understanding of the connection between blast injuries and suicide. (nbcnews.com)
  • The portion of U.S. service members who sustained TBIs increased each year from 2001 to 2011 - with a total of 266,810 brain injuries diagnosed in American troops between 2000 and 2012, according to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center , part of the DOD. (nbcnews.com)
  • The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. (washington.edu)
  • Despite the prevalence of blast-related injuries among returning war veterans there are still big gaps in research into long-term effects, according to a newly released study by the National Academy of Science's Institutes of Medicine (IOM). (apta.org)
  • The report also includes 10 recommendations for further study, mostly directed at the US Department of Defense (DOD) and Veterans Administration (VA). The recommendations focus on the need for further research and longitudinal studies as well as analyses of institutional barriers to collaborative studies, and an investigation into biomarkers of blast injury. (apta.org)
  • The average time that had passed between the veterans suffering blast-induced injury and undergoing DTI scans was over 4 years. (flistnews.com)
  • As more than 4 years had passed since the veterans had been exposed to the blasts, the researchers say their study shows the presence of a long-term impact of blast injury on the brain. (flistnews.com)
  • This may explain the ongoing cognitive and behavior symptoms seen in some veterans with a history of blast-related MTBI, they add. (flistnews.com)
  • But this study could imply that many thousands more veterans have service-connected wounds from blast exposure, and it might change the way the military treats blast victims, even those who don't have obvious injuries. (tspr.org)
  • So even though limb amputations after blast exposure damage would seem obviously associated, the data was too incomplete to allow researchers to rank it as truly causation for a long-term health effect," Bazarian explained. (medpagetoday.com)
  • He also noted that researchers focused on injuries sustained during combat, but did not offer details. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Even when the researchers looked at the mechanism (blast or non-blast), "they often didn't compare the injuries in a war fighter exposed to blast to the injuries in a war fighter not exposed to blast. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Since their study only focused on patient outcomes, the researchers still do not know exactly how explosive blasts cause TBI or why some individuals experience symptoms and others do not. (foxnews.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) and the University of Maryland A. James Clark School of Engineering have developed a new military vehicle shock absorbing device that may protect troops from traumatic brain injury (TBI) after a land mine blast. (brightsurf.com)
  • Raul Radovitzky, an associate professor in MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, is among the researchers looking at ways to prevent these injuries. (healthcanal.com)
  • The researchers compared how the brain would respond to the same blast wave simulated in three scenarios: a head with no helmet, a head wearing the ACH, and a head wearing the ACH with a face shield. (healthcanal.com)
  • While researchers can put instruments inside helmets to test and measure the impact of blasts on the helmets, "what is ultimately important is the impact of the blast on the face, skull and brain," he says, noting that the models created by Radovitzky's team help to predict that impact. (healthcanal.com)
  • Now, researchers from the Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies at Imperial College London will lead on a project to set up a regional surgical blast injury hub in Sri Lanka, thanks to funds from the UK's Department of Health . (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The Imperial researchers, working with their partners, will firstly address the characteristics of blast injuries in the region so that they can identify when amputations can be avoided and limb salvage procedures conducted. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The researchers also compared brain tissue samples from four soldiers with known blast exposure and/or concussive injury with brain tissue samples from three amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of repetitive concussive injuries. (healthcanal.com)
  • The three-year-long study, believed to be the first and only research effort that has clearly identified an injury mechanism from the direct effects of blasts, involved 35 researchers from 14 university research centers, medical schools, hospitals or other centers. (healthcanal.com)
  • Researchers identified early indicators of retinal injury and inflammation that may help detect individuals at risk of visual impairment who would then benefit from more timely treatment. (medicalxpress.com)
  • But the small wearable devices did produce a trove of data on blast exposure that could eventually have helped researchers understand the links between bomb blasts, concussions and brain diseases. (wrvo.org)
  • Researchers reviewed literature about blast-related burn injury, which is common among service members and is associated with infection, disability, military discharge, and mortality. (rand.org)
  • A blast injury is a wound caused by direct or indirect exposure to an explosive blast . (wikipedia.org)
  • High-order explosives (HE) detonation causes the explosive material to change into a highly pressurized gas which travels at supersonic speeds creating a 'blast wave' (over-pressurization shock wave). (wikipedia.org)
  • In conflict zones such as Afghanistan and Iraq, military personnel are often exposed to intense explosive blasts, which can lead to symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and eventually long-term brain damage. (foxnews.com)
  • The Army is also installing 42 vehicles with floor-and seat-mounted accelerometers to measure the effect of blasts on soldiers inside vehicles hit by improvised explosive devices. (medgadget.com)
  • Funded by the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization through the Army Research Office and the ISN, the analysis revealed that although the ACH - as currently designed and deployed - slightly delayed the arrival of the blast wave, it didn't significantly mitigate the wave's effects on brain tissue. (healthcanal.com)
  • The breakthrough study, published today in the journal Science Translational Medicine , finds that the brain injuries suffered by soldiers from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are due to the head rotation or motion from the blast wind. (healthcanal.com)
  • Thus, despite developments in military protective wear, the blast produced by many improvised explosive devices is associated with closed, as well as open-globe, injuries from fragmentary munitions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, the major ingredient in Composition C-4 (Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine or RDX [Royal Demolition eXplosive]) can generate an initial pressure of more than 4 million pounds per square inch (4x10E6 PSI).13 These high pressure gases rapidly expand from the original volume and generate a marked pressure wave the blast wave that moves outward in all directions. (crashingpatient.com)
  • The blast wave refers to an intense rise in pressure often called over pressure that is created by the detonation of a high explosive This increase in pressure can be so abrupt that it can shatter materials also known as a shock wave. (crashingpatient.com)
  • Injury caused by projectiles formed from the explosive device, or from the local environment (leading to blunt and penetrating injuries). (webnode.com)
  • Injuries caused by other explosive effects, including burns and inhalation injury. (webnode.com)
  • Musculoskeletal injuries are particularly common in combat situations where compartment syndromes and traumatic amputations may be a result of improvised explosive devices. (qqmovies.info)
  • The wounding patterns of blast injuries are well known to any military medic who has served recently on operations, with Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) constituting a significant proportion of the casualties on the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan. (sofrep.com)
  • Primary blast injury results from the over-pressurisation wave emanating from high-explosive charges interacting with body surfaces. (sofrep.com)
  • Children are not adults in miniature as they suffer unique patterns of injury and research has shown they are disproportionately affected by explosive weapons, Save the Children said. (japandailysun.com)
  • Mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury (mbTBI) poses special diagnostic challenges due to its overlapping symptomatology with other neuropsychiatric conditions and the lack of objective outcome measures. (nih.gov)
  • Two months after twin bomb blast in Maur, 12-year-old Ankush Kumar succumbed to injuries in Ludhiana hospital on early Friday morning. (hindustantimes.com)
  • The local residents and members of the Maur Bomb Blast Virodhi Sangharsh Committee staged a protest keeping Ankush's body in the middle of the road and they insisted they will not hold the last rites of the child till their demands are accepted. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Bomb blast injuries to the ear: the London Bridge incident series. (bmj.com)
  • Twelve patients who were treated for ear injuries at Guy's Hospital following the London Bridge bomb blast in February 1992 were reviewed. (bmj.com)
  • In summary, the ear is very susceptible to bomb blast injury, but there is a high rate of spontaneous closure of perforations and improvement of sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. (bmj.com)
  • Oddly, the soldier hadn't been anywhere near a bomb blast. (wrvo.org)
  • Follow this link to see an animated reconstruction of a bomb blast in an enclosed space . (webnode.com)
  • But among those with symptoms, 79 percent had felt the concussive wave of a bomb blast at some point. (tspr.org)
  • Medics are prepared to treat soldiers, and even civilian adults - but its children who are most likely to die if caught in a bomb blast, landmine or artillery strike. (japandailysun.com)
  • At the top of the list, the committee found sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between blast exposure and vision loss from penetrating eye injury and functional loss in blast-exposed sex organs. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Air and fluid-filled internal organs are most commonly affected, but the blast wave may also cause external injuries such as traumatic amputation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, methods have been developed to assess otolith function, and there is some evidence that head injury may affect the otolith organs to a greater degree than the semicircular canals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Dr. Fiskum and Dr. Fourney were the first to demonstrate how the enormous acceleration (G-force) that occupants of vehicles experience during under-vehicle blasts can cause mild to moderate TBI even under conditions where other vital organs are unscathed. (brightsurf.com)
  • These studies demonstrated that Kevlar protection is effective in protecting internal organs from injury, but that the brain and eyes are still affected by the blast wave. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Air-filled organs, such as the ears, lungs, stomach, and intestines are particularly at risk for blast injuries. (cemmlibrary.org)
  • The first mechanism of injury usually described as the etiology of primary blast injury is the implosion of gas-filled spaces as the high pressure blast wave compresses them.18,19 This theory states that the organs that are most vulnerable to blast injury are those containing air because the air readily is compressed. (crashingpatient.com)
  • These injuries usually affect organs that involve air meaning lungs, bowels, and ears. (emergencymedicalminute.com)
  • Air-filled organs (eg ear, lung, and gastrointestinal tract) and organs surrounded by fluid-filled cavities (eg brain and spinal cord) are particularly susceptible to primary blast injury. (qqmovies.info)
  • The report identified permanent eye injury and damage to genitourinary organs as highly linked, while pulmonary function, vertigo, and exercise limitation were described as insufficiently linked to the initial blast injury. (apta.org)
  • Their skulls are still not fully formed, and their undeveloped muscles offer less protection, so a blast is more likely to damage their brain and lungs or tear apart organs in their abdomen, even when theres no visible damage. (japandailysun.com)
  • The Army hopes that the I-BESS (Integrated Blast Effects Sensor Suite) system, which passively collects and manages the data with minimal maintenance by the soldiers, will help identify those with a greater chance for asymptomatic injuries, often in the brain, and improve armor and other mitigation strategies. (medgadget.com)
  • This would be difficult to test in any useful way without using models," says Joseph Rosen, a professor of surgery at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center who was not involved in this research but who chaired a Department of Defense science panel that analyzed the impact of blast injuries on wounded soldiers. (healthcanal.com)
  • New research being presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) in Chicago, IL, this week shows how a highly sensitive type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal the long-term impact of blast-induced brain injuries in soldiers. (flistnews.com)
  • The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions. (frontiersin.org)
  • This occurs even when the bulk head accelerations induced by a blast wave are much smaller than from a direct impact. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Primary blast injury occurs when the blast wave hits the body. (cemmlibrary.org)
  • With that thought in mind, it is important that first responders and civilian medical staff have an understanding of the patterns of injury associated with blasts, as to be best prepared for the very real possibility that a mass-casualty incident occurs in their city. (sofrep.com)
  • When this occurs, the blast wave either accelerates (when moving from high to low densities) or decelerates (when moving from low to high densities). (sofrep.com)
  • Blast lung can result in pulmonary contusions, bleeding and fluid build-up in the lungs with damage to airways and blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the experiments reported here the ultrastructural changes seen in lungs from rats exposed to a blast wave impacting on the right side of the chest are described. (nih.gov)
  • There isn t enough time during the passage of the overpressure phase of the blast wave for gas to transfer from the lungs to the outside world through the trachea.20 The second possible major mechanism of primary blast injury often is termed spalling. (crashingpatient.com)
  • As the blast wave moves into the air-filled lungs however the density of the tissue decreases significantly and the blast wave accelerates, causing increased damage. (sofrep.com)
  • The resultant injury to the lung is known as blast lung, and can cause insidious deterioration in lung function over a period of hours to days after blast exposure as fluid leaks into the lungs as a result of the damage caused by the pressure wave. (sofrep.com)
  • Solid blast is the effect of a pressure wave that strikes the walls of a contained environment like that of a submarine or tank. (britannica.com)
  • 2. A high-amperage arc can produce a pressure wave blast with a force of up to 1000 pounds. (cdc.gov)
  • The combination of pressure wave and blast wind may weaken structures. (nielsenhayden.com)
  • There were barely any external signs of injury, death was due solely to internal injuries from the blast wave. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structures of the internal ears are most often affected by the blast wave, with perforated ear drums the most common injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • But the hypothesis is…experts think the energy transmitted from the blast wave gets transferred to the brain tissue and then damages the brain tissue. (foxnews.com)
  • Some investigators have presumed that dizziness and balance disorders following blast exposure are related to CNS damage caused by the TBI rather than the pressure wave from the blast injury. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The models integrate with unprecedented detail the anatomical features of the head, including the skull, sinuses, cerebrospinal fluid and layers of gray and white matter, as well as the physical characteristics of the blast wave. (healthcanal.com)
  • In all three simulations, the blast wave struck the person from the front. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, in contrast to the results of a previous study, Radovitzky's team found that the ACH also did not worsen the effects of the blast wave. (healthcanal.com)
  • Typically, a blast injury is more likely if the sound wave lasts for a short amount of time (about 1-2 minutes). (hear.com)
  • Modern military conflict has dramatically increased the number of military personnel and civilians exposed to blast wave pressure. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Investigators used a compressed air-driven shock tube system to expose mice to blast wave pressure of 300 kPa (equivalent to 3-times atmospheric pressure) per day for three days. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In this model, the retina may serve as an area of the central nervous system that is more vulnerable than the brain and, therefore, may be an effective and more sensitive indicator of low-level injury due to blast-wave pressure," noted Dr. Greenlee. (medicalxpress.com)
  • To tackle this puzzle, the team used three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to prove that direct action of the blast wave on the head causes skull flexure, producing mechanical loads in brain tissue comparable to those in an injury-inducing impact, even at nonlethal blast pressures as low as 1 bar above atmospheric pressure. (rxpgnews.com)
  • In contrast, a blast wave squeezes the skull, creating pressures as large as an injury-inducing impact and pressure gradients in the brain that are much larger. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The blast wave sweeps over the skull like a rolling pin going over dough, said King, LLNL co-principal investigator. (rxpgnews.com)
  • In the first case, the 1.3 centimeter gap between the webbing and the shell allows the blast wave to wash under the helmet. (rxpgnews.com)
  • In this case, the blast wave is focused by the shape of the helmet and the pressures under the helmet exceed those outside, so the helmet doesn't prevent the rippling deformation of the skull and pressure gradients in the brain. (rxpgnews.com)
  • In the second case, this under wash effect is mostly prevented by the presence of the foam pads, but under blast loading, the pads can become stiffer so that the blast wave-induced motion or deformation of the helmet is transferred to the skull. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Heavy weapons like these generate a shock wave that may cause brain injuries. (wrvo.org)
  • The objective of this work was to develop an experimentally validated computational model of the human eye to evaluate: 1) the stresses and deformations in the internal structures of the eye caused by the propagation and reflections of the blast wave, and 2) to evaluate the effect of current spectacle and goggle designs on reducing the blast overpressure. (arvojournals.org)
  • We applied the model to evaluate the intraocular pressure and stresses in the tissue structures caused by the blast wave and evaluate the probability risk of injury based on experimental data for blunt impact available in the literature. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, the goggles trapped the underwash of the blast wave against the eye and resulted in a higher blast overpressure at 0.2 ms after the peak pressure than for the unprotected eye. (arvojournals.org)
  • The blast wave loading may generated significant risk of Corneal Abrasions and Hyphema. (arvojournals.org)
  • A blast wave that would cause only modest injury in the open can be lethal if the victim is in a confined area or near a reflecting surface such as a solid wall or a building.9 If the pressure wave is near a solid barrier, the pressure exerted at the reflecting surface may be many times that of the incident blast wave. (crashingpatient.com)
  • Prolonged latency for wave III of the auditory brain stem response was observed in 41.2% of the blast injured population. (ecu.edu)
  • High order explosives - including nitroglycerine , plastic explosives and other military munitions - undergo detonation which is accompanied by a blast wave that is also a 'shock wave' travelling at supersonic speed. (webnode.com)
  • Low-order explosives - typically used as propellants (or fuels), and which combust through a process known as deflagration - the blast wave is subsonic. (webnode.com)
  • Blunt impact injury sustained when a person is displaced (propelled) by the blast wave/ wind into an object or a hard surface (or when an object is propelled into a person). (webnode.com)
  • The best example is perhaps as the blast wave passes through the chest of a casualty. (sofrep.com)
  • The images below show a diagrammatic representation of a blast wave passing through a cross-sectional CT scan of a chest, as well as an actual (paediatric) blast lung casualty on X-ray and CT scan ( Barnard & Johnson 2013 ). (sofrep.com)
  • Blast-Induced TBI results from wave propagation from a blast source through the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the wave passes through the skull, cerebrospinal fluid, and through the brain, neurons undergo sequences of tension and compression for the duration of the blast wave. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blast-Induced damage is not localized to a specific region due to its wave nature, and can penetrate deep into the brain before finally subsiding, depending on the blast intensity and proximity. (wikipedia.org)
  • For overviews of blast-related injuries and their clinical management, read here and here . (webnode.com)
  • The clinical picture of dyspnoea, cough and hypoxia is referred to as blast lung syndrome and represents impaired gas exchange and vascular shunting with ventilation mismatching. (qqmovies.info)
  • It is important that research on blast [injuries] emphasize multisystem injury patterns and seek to understand the clinical importance of cross-system interactions. (apta.org)
  • As a large employer in the United States, the Department of Defense faces significant challenges ensuring that all members of the military, as well as their families, receive appropriate health care for everything from general health and well-being to specialized clinical care for deployment related injuries such as amputations, chemically induced illnesses, and post-traumatic stress disorder. (rand.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: When combined with a genetic susceptibility for developing amyloidosis of AD, blast TBI exposure leads to earlier RGC and optic nerve damage associated with modest but detectable increase in cerebral cortical Aβ pathology. (safetylit.org)
  • A self-made firecracker thrown from the window of a passing car or from the window of a multistory building could have caused a blast in which two women and a man received minor injuries, according to preliminary conclusions, Russian news agency TASS reported. (unian.info)
  • Major limb injuries and amputations were classified as having a limited association while balance dysfunction and vertigo were classified as having inadequate/insufficient evidence of an association. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Although there is a vast literature on limb salvage, there is limited research on military blast-related limb salvage. (rand.org)
  • He also confirmed that the hospital had performed "several" amputations and has been treating patients for "shrapnel injuries. (businessinsider.com)
  • TG-Blast and TG-Sham groups exhibited high variability in pathology severity, with a strong, but not statistically significant, trend for greater cerebral cortical Aβ plaque load in the TG-Blast compared to TG-Sham group. (safetylit.org)
  • Most studies found the occurrence of post traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. (washington.edu)
  • The likelihood and severity of injury to the sclera, angle, choroid, retina, and optic nerve head increased significantly with specific impulse, i.e., the area under the pressure-time trace created by the blast pressure waveform (Fig. 1). (arvojournals.org)
  • Although the rate and the severity of injury have been on the decline since the latter part of the twentieth century, there remains a significant problem. (acep.org)
  • Thus, most research has focused on the vestibular consequences of TBI (or head injury), and there is limited data on the effects of blast exposure on vestibular function or balance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine chronic effects of blast TBI on retinal ganglion cells (RGC), optic nerve, and brain amyloid load in a mouse model of AD amyloidosis. (safetylit.org)
  • The new publication, Long-Term Effects of Blast Exposure (.pdf available for free, login required) , is the ninth volume in a series of congressionally mandated studies focusing on the health effects of military service. (apta.org)
  • Dizziness and imbalance are common complaints among the blast-injured population. (ecu.edu)
  • This work has important implications for improving outcomes in military blast-induced TBI and might be applicable to causes of civilian TBI, such as car crashes," he said. (brightsurf.com)
  • Are brain injuries from IED blasts causing the military suicide crisis? (nbcnews.com)
  • Let's collect more information and maybe the epidemiologists will find a way to unlock some of this mystery: Are military suicides actually more related to the brain injuries? (nbcnews.com)
  • More than 80 percent of those injuries were not deployment-related cases, with many occurring amid crashes of privately owned cars and military vehicles. (nbcnews.com)
  • Military personnel in combat zones are at increased risk for TBI resulting from blast injuries. (cemmlibrary.org)
  • Managing war injury is no longer the exclusive preserve of military surgeons. (bmj.com)
  • To date, the war on terror has produced over 30,000 wounded military personnel with a large proportions of injuries attributed to blasts. (ecu.edu)
  • Combining those individuals who were positive for cochlear hydrops and those who were possible for cochlear hydrops group, suggests that 24.3% of blast injured military personnel may be at risk for developing cochlear hydrops. (ecu.edu)
  • Many questions remain unanswered," said committee member Jeffrey J. Bazarian, MD, MPH , of the University of Rochester in New York, who also told MedPage Today the report authors were surprised at the paucity of research to support associations between blast exposure and long-term health conditions, such as amputations. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Literature review now available for the International State-of-the-Science Meeting, "Mitigating the Impact of Blast-Related Burn Injuries: From Prolonged Field Care to Rehabilitation and Resilience. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings showed the prolonged impact of blast injury on the retina, as well as the vulnerability of particular retinal cell types to blast injury. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This article presents an overview of the specific wounding patterns of blasts to better inform medical responders of the constellations of injury patterns following blasts, as to be able to manage not only the obvious, but also the unseen life-threatening injuries. (sofrep.com)
  • Police say a 92-year-old Washington woman is being treated for life-threatening injuries after she was mauled by dogs. (spokesman.com)