An advanced phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia, characterized by a rapid increase in the proportion of immature white blood cells (blasts) in the blood and bone marrow to greater than 30%.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
BENZOIC ACID amides.
Brief therapeutic approach which is ameliorative rather than curative of acute psychiatric emergencies. Used in contexts such as emergency rooms of psychiatric or general hospitals, or in the home or place of crisis occurrence, this treatment approach focuses on interpersonal and intrapsychic factors and environmental modification. (APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4, often used in pharmaceuticals as smooth muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antihistamines, but can also be found as recreational drugs with stimulant and entactogen properties.
The phase of chronic myeloid leukemia following the chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC-PHASE), where there are increased systemic symptoms, worsening cytopenias, and refractory LEUKOCYTOSIS.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
The initial phase of chronic myeloid leukemia consisting of an relatively indolent period lasting from 4 to 7 years. Patients range from asymptomatic to those exhibiting ANEMIA; SPLENOMEGALY; and increased cell turnover. There are 5% or fewer blast cells in the blood and bone marrow in this phase.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
The parent cells that give rise to both cells of the GRANULOCYTE lineage and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A dangerous life-threatening hypermetabolic condition characterized by high FEVER and dysfunction of the cardiovascular, the nervous, and the gastrointestinal systems.
An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Proto-oncogene protein bcr is a serine-threonine kinase that functions as a negative regulator of CELL PROLIFERATION and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. It is commonly fused with cellular abl protein to form BCR-ABL FUSION PROTEINS in PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME positive LEUKEMIA patients.
Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Non-receptor tyrosine kinases encoded by the C-ABL GENES. They are distributed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. c-Abl plays a role in normal HEMATOPOIESIS especially of the myeloid lineage. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl arises when specific N-terminal amino acids are deleted, releasing the kinase from negative regulation.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Phenanthrenes are aromatic hydrocarbons consisting of three benzene rings fused together in a linear arrangement, commonly found in various plants and some animals, and can act as precursors for certain steroid hormones or exhibit pharmacological activities with potential therapeutic uses.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
'Explosions' in a medical context typically refer to the immediate physical trauma caused by a sudden and violent release of energy, often resulting in a high-pressure blast wave that can cause barotrauma, blunt force injury, or burns, depending on the nature and proximity of the explosion.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Thiazoles are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a sulfur atom and a nitrogen atom, which are bound by two carbon atoms to form a five-membered ring, and are widely found in various natural and synthetic substances, including some pharmaceuticals and vitamins.

Toward a leukemia treatment strategy based on the probability of stem cell death: an essay in honor of Dr. Emil J Freireich. (1/479)

Dr. Emil J Freireich is a pioneer in the rational treatment of cancer in general and leukemia in particular. This essay in his honor suggests that the cell kill concept of chemotherapy of acute myeloblastic leukemia be extended to include two additional ideas. The first concept is that leukemic blasts, like normal hemopoietic cells, are organized in hierarchies, headed by stem cells. In both normal and leukemic hemopoiesis, killing stem cells will destroy the system; furthermore, both normal and leukemic cells respond to regulators. It follows that acute myelogenous leukemia should be considered as a dependent neoplasm. The second concept is that cell/drug interaction should be considered as two phases. The first, or proximal phase, consists of the events that lead up to injury; the second, or distal phase, comprises the responses of the cell that contribute to either progression to apoptosis or recovery. Distal responses are described briefly. Regulated drug sensitivity is presented as an example of how distal responses might be used to improve treatment.  (+info)

Prognostic significance of bone marrow biopsy in essential thrombocythemia. (2/479)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The diagnostic and prognostic value of bone marrow biopsy (BMB) has been widely investigated in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD). The present study is based on a review of the results of routine BMBs taken from 93 essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients at the time of diagnosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The common BMB histologic parameters and clinico-hematologic variables were considered for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Clinico-pathologic correlations were looked for univariately. Moreover, the diagnostic significance of the histologic findings was tested by means of cluster analysis. Overall survival and event-free survival were considered as prognostic endpoints. RESULTS: There were no correlations between the clinic and pathologic findings, and none of the histologic and clinical parameters was predictive of survival or the occurrence of major clinical events. Cluster analysis of the BMB findings revealed two distinct morphologic patterns: one was clearly myeloproliferative; the other had somewhat dysplastic features. The event-free and overall survival rates in the latter group were significantly worse (p = 0.0377 and p = 0.0162 respectively), with major ischemic events accounting for most of the difference in event-free survival. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: These results have no clearcut counterpart in the literature, but we feel that dysplastic BMB findings could be included in the definition of ET prognostic scores in order to allow therapeutic strategies to be adapted to the level of risk.  (+info)

Increased BAX expression is associated with an increased risk of relapse in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. (3/479)

Studies in cell lines have indicated that expression of the BCL-2 family of proteins is an important determinant of chemotherapy-induced apoptosis; however, the level of expression of these proteins in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has not been extensively reported. Using quantitative Western blotting we have determined the level of expression of BCL-2, BAX, MCL-1, and BCL-X in lymphoblasts from 47 children with ALL (33 at presentation only, 4 at relapse only, and 10 at both presentation and on relapse). Results were determined as a ratio to actin as an internal control. BCL-2, BAX, and MCL-1 were detected in all samples. BCL-XL was only detected in 6 cases (4 at presentation and 2 at relapse) and BCL-XS in none. No correlation was found between expression and white blood cell count, age at diagnosis, gender, or blast karyotype. BCL-2 levels and the BCL/BAX and MCL-1/BAX ratios were found to be significantly higher in B-lineage as compared with T-lineage disease (P <.003,.02, and.02, respectively). No consistent pattern of change in expression was noted in the 10 cases studied at both presentation and relapse. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant correlation between high BAX expression and an increased probability of relapse (P <.05 by the log rank test), suggesting that chemosensitivity in leukemic blasts may be regulated by factors that override the BCL-2 pathway.  (+info)

Matrix metalloproteinase production by bone marrow mononuclear cells from normal individuals and patients with acute and chronic myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes. (4/479)

The two matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) Mr 72,000 type IV collagenase (MMP-2, gelatinase A) and Mr 92,000 type IV collagenase (MMP-9, gelatinase B) play key roles in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion by digestion of extracellular matrix barriers. We have investigated the production of these two enzymes as well as the membrane-type MMP (MT1-MMP) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in the bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 24), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML; n = 17), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS; n = 8), and healthy donors (n = 5). Zymographic analysis of BM-MNC-conditioned medium showed that a Mr 92,000 gelatinolytic activity, identified as MMP-9 by Western blotting, was constitutively released from cells of all patients and healthy individuals examined in this study. In contrast, MMP-2 secretion was found to be absent in all samples from healthy donors but present in 8 of 11 (73%) of the samples from patients with primary AML, 7 of 8 (88%) with secondary AML, and only 1 of 5 (20%) cases with AML in remission, indicating MMP-2 to be produced by the leukemic blasts. MMP-2 release was not detected in CML cell-conditioned medium with the exception of two cases, both patients either being in or preceding blast crisis. In MDS, MMP-2 was found in three of eight (38%) of the patients, two of them undergoing progression of disease within 12 months. Quantitative Northern blot analysis in freshly isolated BM-MNCs showed a relatively low constitutive expression of TIMP-1 in all samples, whereas MMP-9 gene transcription was higher in healthy donors and CML samples, than in AML and MDS. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed the presence of TIMP-2 mRNA in the majority of MMP-2-releasing BM-MNCs. MT1-MMP expression was present in most samples of patients with MDS or AML but absent in those with secondary AML and CML. Thus, we have shown that BM-MNCs continuously produce MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and demonstrated that leukemic blast cells additionally secrete MMP-2 representing a potential marker for dissemination in myeloproliferative malignancies.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel receptor that maps near the natural killer gene complex: demonstration of carbohydrate binding and expression in hematopoietic cells. (5/479)

A novel type II integral membrane protein has been identified in the course of screening for genes overexpressed in a mouse model of chronic myelogenous leukemia blast crisis. This new protein, designated NKCL, consists of a 210-amino acid polypeptide with a short, NH2-terminal cytoplasmic tail of 17 amino acids preceding a transmembrane domain and a COOH-terminal extracellular region. The COOH-terminal 132 amino acids bear typical features of the C-type animal lectin carbohydrate-recognition domain. The Nkcl gene is unique in that it maps just proximal to the region of the genome that encodes group V members of the C-type animal lectin family near the natural killer gene complex on mouse chromosome 6, but its protein product also has features of several group II C-type animal lectins. Most notably, it has a complete Ca2+-binding site 2, which forms part of the sugar-binding site in other members of the family, and binds mannose in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Moreover, its expression is not restricted to natural killer cells, as reported for the majority of group V lectins. Nkcl is expressed in pluripotent myeloid precursors, precursor and mature macrophages, and neutrophils.  (+info)

Thiotepa, busulfan and cyclophosphamide as a preparative regimen for allogeneic transplantation for advanced chronic myelogenous leukemia. (6/479)

Thirty-six adults with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in second or greater chronic phase, accelerated phase, or blast crisis underwent marrow or blood stem cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling using high-dose thiotepa, busulfan and cyclophosphamide (TBC) as the preparative regimen. All evaluable patients engrafted and had complete donor chimerism. One patient failed to clear meningeal leukemia, and one patient had one of 30 metaphases positive for the Philadelphia chromosome at 2 months post transplant. The remainder of the patients studied had eradication of CML documented by cytogenetics and/or Southern blot for BCR gene rearrangement, and 13 of 15 patients studied became negative for the BCR gene rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction. Three-year relapse rate is 42% (95% CI, 19-64%). The relapse rate was significantly lower for patients transplanted without blast crisis (9% vs 100%, P < 0.001). Eight (22%, 95% CI, 10-39%) patients had severe or fatal veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Elevated liver enzymes within 1 month prior to transplantation and transplantation using marrow were significantly associated with the occurrence of VOD. Three-year survival is 28% (95% CI, 13-43%). Survival was significantly higher for patients transplanted without blast crisis (45% vs 0%, P = 0.01). TBC is an effective preparative regimen for CML in accelerated phase but not refractory blast crisis, and it should be used with caution in patients with prior hepatopathy who have an increased risk of severe VOD.  (+info)

Decreases in Ikaros activity correlate with blast crisis in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. (7/479)

Gene targeting studies in mice have shown that the lack of Ikaros activity leads to T-cell hyperproliferation and T-cell neoplasia, establishing the Ikaros gene as a tumor suppressor gene in mice. This prompted us to investigate whether mutations in Ikaros play a role in human hematological malignancies. Reverse transcription-PCR was used to determine the relative expression levels of Ikaros isoforms in a panel of human leukemia/lymphoma cell lines and human bone marrow samples from patients with hematological malignancies. Among the cell lines examined, only BV-173, which was derived from a chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patient in lymphoid blast crisis, overexpressed the dominant-negative isoform, Ik-6. In 9 of 17 samples of patients in blast crisis of CML, Ikaros activity had been reduced either by drastically reducing mRNA expression (4 of 17) or by overexpressing the dominant-negative isoform Ik-6 (5 of 17). Significantly, expression of Ikaros isoforms seemed normal in chronic phase CML patients and patients with other hematological malignancies. In some cases, overexpression of the dominant-negative Ik-6 protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis, and Southern blot analysis indicated that decreases in Ikaros activity correlated with a mutation in the Ikaros locus. In summary, these findings suggest that a reduction of Ikaros activity may be an important step in the development of blast crisis in CML and provide further evidence that mutations that alter Ikaros expression may contribute to human hematological malignancies.  (+info)

Triggering noncycling hematopoietic progenitors and leukemic blasts to proliferate increases anthracycline retention and toxicity by downregulating multidrug resistance. (8/479)

Expression of the multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and MDR-related protein (MRP) decrease cellular retention and consequently cytotoxicity of anthracyclines. MDR is expressed on normal human hematopoietic progenitors and leukemic blasts. Normal CD34(+) progenitors showed rhodamine efflux in 20% to 30% of the cells, which could be blocked by verapamil. These cells appeared noncycling, in contrast to the proliferating rhodamine bright (RhoB) cells. We postulated that MDR expression can be downregulated by proliferation induction. Triggering rhodamine dull (RhoD) CD34(+) cells to proliferate indeed resulted in a higher rhodamine retention and significantly decreased efflux modulation by verapamil (P =.04). Also in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the proliferation rate (percentage S/G(2)+M and Iododeoxyuridine labelings index) was significantly less in the RhoD blasts (P +info)

A blast crisis is a severe and life-threatening complication that can occur in patients with certain types of blood cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is characterized by the rapid growth and accumulation of immature blood cells, known as blasts, in the bone marrow and peripheral blood.

In a blast crisis, the blasts crowd out normal blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to a significant decrease in the production of healthy red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. This can result in symptoms such as anemia, fatigue, infection, easy bruising or bleeding, and an enlarged spleen.

Blast crisis is often treated with aggressive chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation to eliminate the abnormal blasts and restore normal blood cell production. The prognosis for patients in blast crisis can be poor, depending on the type of leukemia, the patient's age and overall health, and the response to treatment.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL positive is a specific subtype of leukemia that originates in the bone marrow and involves the excessive production of mature granulocytes, a type of white blood cell. It is characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome, which is formed by a genetic translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion gene. This gene encodes for an abnormal protein with increased tyrosine kinase activity, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The presence of this genetic abnormality is used to confirm the diagnosis and guide treatment decisions.

A fusion protein known as "BCR-ABL" is formed due to a genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia chromosome (derived from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22). This results in the formation of the oncogenic BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, which contributes to unregulated cell growth and division, leading to chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and some types of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The BCR-ABL fusion protein has constitutively active tyrosine kinase activity, which results in the activation of various signaling pathways promoting cell proliferation, survival, and inhibition of apoptosis. This genetic alteration is crucial in the development and progression of CML and some types of ALL, making BCR-ABL an important therapeutic target for these malignancies.

Leukemia, myeloid is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, where blood cells are produced. Myeloid leukemia affects the myeloid cells, which include red blood cells, platelets, and most types of white blood cells. In this condition, the bone marrow produces abnormal myeloid cells that do not mature properly and accumulate in the bone marrow and blood. These abnormal cells hinder the production of normal blood cells, leading to various symptoms such as anemia, fatigue, increased risk of infections, and easy bruising or bleeding.

There are several types of myeloid leukemias, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). AML progresses rapidly and requires immediate treatment, while CML tends to progress more slowly. The exact causes of myeloid leukemia are not fully understood, but risk factors include exposure to radiation or certain chemicals, smoking, genetic disorders, and a history of chemotherapy or other cancer treatments.

Benzamides are a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring (a aromatic hydrocarbon) attached to an amide functional group. The amide group can be bound to various substituents, leading to a variety of benzamide derivatives with different biological activities.

In a medical context, some benzamides have been developed as drugs for the treatment of various conditions. For example, danzol (a benzamide derivative) is used as a hormonal therapy for endometriosis and breast cancer. Additionally, other benzamides such as sulpiride and amisulpride are used as antipsychotic medications for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders.

It's important to note that while some benzamides have therapeutic uses, others may be toxic or have adverse effects, so they should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

Crisis intervention is a immediate, short-term emergency response to help individuals who are experiencing an acute distress or destabilizing event and are at risk of harm to themselves or others. The goal of crisis intervention is to restore equilibrium and ensure the person's safety, while also addressing any immediate needs or concerns. This may involve various strategies such as:

1. Psychoeducation: Providing information about the crisis situation, common reactions, and coping skills.
2. Emotional support: Offering a safe and non-judgmental space for the person to express their feelings and concerns.
3. Problem-solving: Helping the person identify potential solutions to the crisis situation and make informed decisions.
4. Safety planning: Developing a plan to ensure the person's safety and prevent future crises.
5. Referral: Connecting the person with appropriate resources and services for ongoing support and care.

Crisis intervention is often provided by mental health professionals, such as counselors, social workers, or psychologists, in various settings including hospitals, emergency departments, crisis hotlines, and community mental health centers.

Blast injuries are traumas that result from the exposure to blast overpressure waves, typically generated by explosions. These injuries can be categorized into primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries.

1. Primary Blast Injuries: These occur due to the direct effect of the blast wave on the body, which can cause barotrauma to organs with air-filled spaces such as the lungs, middle ear, and gastrointestinal tract. This can lead to conditions like pulmonary contusion, traumatic rupture of the eardrums, or bowel perforation.

2. Secondary Blast Injuries: These result from flying debris or objects that become projectiles due to the blast, which can cause penetrating trauma or blunt force injuries.

3. Tertiary Blast Injuries: These occur when individuals are thrown by the blast wind against solid structures or the ground, resulting in blunt force trauma, fractures, and head injuries.

4. Quaternary Blast Injuries: This category includes all other injuries or illnesses that are not classified under primary, secondary, or tertiary blast injuries. These may include burns, crush injuries, inhalation of toxic fumes, or psychological trauma.

It is important to note that blast injuries can be complex and often involve a combination of these categories, requiring comprehensive medical evaluation and management.

Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4. They have the molecular formula N-NRR' where R and R' can be alkyl or aryl groups. Piperazines have a wide range of uses in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and as building blocks in organic synthesis.

In a medical context, piperazines are used in the manufacture of various drugs, including some antipsychotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, and anti-worm medications. For example, the antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine and the antidepressant drug nefazodone both contain a piperazine ring in their chemical structure.

However, it's important to note that some piperazines are also used as recreational drugs due to their stimulant and euphoric effects. These include compounds such as BZP (benzylpiperazine) and TFMPP (trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine), which have been linked to serious health risks, including addiction, seizures, and death. Therefore, the use of these substances should be avoided.

Accelerated Phase Leukemia, Myeloid is a stage in the progression of certain myeloid malignancies such as Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) or Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). During this phase, there is an increase in the number of immature blood cells (blasts) in the bone marrow and/or blood compared to the chronic phase. However, it has not yet reached the level of blast proliferation seen in the blast crisis phase.

The accelerated phase is characterized by various laboratory and clinical features, including:
- A significant increase in the percentage of blasts (10-19%) in the peripheral blood or bone marrow
- An increase in the white blood cell count, typically over 50 x 10^9/L
- The presence of new cytogenetic abnormalities or an increasing number of existing chromosomal changes
- A decrease in platelet count and/or hemoglobin levels
- Increasing symptoms related to bone marrow failure, such as fatigue, infection, and bleeding

The accelerated phase often precedes the blast crisis phase, which is associated with a worse prognosis. Early detection and intervention in the accelerated phase may help improve treatment outcomes and delay progression to blast crisis.

Pyrimidines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. They are one of the two types of nucleobases found in nucleic acids, the other being purines. The pyrimidine bases include cytosine (C) and thymine (T) in DNA, and uracil (U) in RNA, which pair with guanine (G) and adenine (A), respectively, through hydrogen bonding to form the double helix structure of nucleic acids. Pyrimidines are also found in many other biomolecules and have various roles in cellular metabolism and genetic regulation.

The Philadelphia chromosome is a specific genetic alteration in certain types of leukemia and lymphoma, including chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is the result of a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, which forms an abnormal fusion gene called BCR-ABL. This gene produces an abnormal protein that leads to unregulated cell growth and division, causing cancer. The Philadelphia chromosome was first discovered in Philadelphia, USA, hence the name.

Human chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, composed of DNA and proteins, present in the nucleus of human cells. Each chromosome is a single, long DNA molecule that carries hundreds to thousands of genes.

Chromosomes 21, 22, and Y are three of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes. Here's what you need to know about each:

* Chromosome 21 is the smallest human autosomal chromosome, with a total length of about 47 million base pairs. It contains an estimated 200-300 genes and is associated with several genetic disorders, most notably Down syndrome, which occurs when there is an extra copy of this chromosome (trisomy 21).
* Chromosome 22 is the second smallest human autosomal chromosome, with a total length of about 50 million base pairs. It contains an estimated 500-600 genes and is associated with several genetic disorders, including DiGeorge syndrome and cat-eye syndrome.
* The Y chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes (the other being the X chromosome) and is found only in males. It is much smaller than the X chromosome, with a total length of about 59 million base pairs and an estimated 70-200 genes. The Y chromosome determines maleness by carrying the gene for the testis-determining factor (TDF), which triggers male development in the embryo.

It's worth noting that while we have a standard set of 23 pairs of chromosomes, there can be variations and abnormalities in the number or structure of these chromosomes that can lead to genetic disorders.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight mistake in your question. The correct term is "ABL" (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1), which refers to a specific gene that encodes a tyrosine kinase protein. ABL genes can play a role in the development of certain types of cancer when they become mutated or dysregulated. Here's a brief medical definition:

ABL (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1) gene:
A gene located on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes a tyrosine kinase protein involved in various cellular processes, such as regulation of the cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). The ABL gene can become dysregulated or mutated, leading to the production of an abnormal tyrosine kinase protein that contributes to the development of certain types of cancer, most notably chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The Philadelphia chromosome, a result of a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, creates the abnormal fusion gene BCR-ABL, which encodes a constitutively active tyrosine kinase that drives the development of CML. Targeted therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib (Gleevec), has been successful in treating CML and some forms of ALL with ABL mutations.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a type of cancer that starts in certain blood-forming cells of the bone marrow. In chronic phase CML, the disease progresses slowly and may not cause any symptoms for a period of time. It is characterized by the overproduction of mature and immature white blood cells, called myeloid cells. These cells accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to anemia, fatigue, easy bruising, and increased risk of infection. The distinguishing genetic feature of CML is the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome, which is formed by a genetic translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion gene. This gene produces an abnormal protein that contributes to the development of leukemia. The chronic phase of CML can last for several years and is typically treated with targeted therapy such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) which target the BCR-ABL protein.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, the soft inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. In AML, the immature cells, called blasts, in the bone marrow fail to mature into normal blood cells. Instead, these blasts accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and normal white blood cells (leukopenia).

AML is called "acute" because it can progress quickly and become severe within days or weeks without treatment. It is a type of myeloid leukemia, which means that it affects the myeloid cells in the bone marrow. Myeloid cells are a type of white blood cell that includes monocytes and granulocytes, which help fight infection and defend the body against foreign invaders.

In AML, the blasts can build up in the bone marrow and spread to other parts of the body, including the blood, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and brain. This can cause a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, fever, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and weight loss.

AML is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the type and stage of the leukemia.

Granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GMPs) are a type of hematopoietic progenitor cell that is capable of giving rise to two major types of white blood cells: granulocytes and macrophages. These cells play crucial roles in the immune system, with granulocytes being primarily involved in the defense against bacterial and fungal infections, while macrophages are responsible for phagocytosing (ingesting) and destroying foreign particles, microorganisms, and cancer cells.

GMPs are found in the bone marrow and are produced from more immature hematopoietic stem cells through a process called differentiation. GMPs can further differentiate into more mature progenitor cells, such as granulocyte progenitors and macrophage-dendritic cell progenitors, which then give rise to the final differentiated cells of the granulocyte and macrophage lineages.

Abnormalities in GMPs can lead to various hematological disorders, including leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. Therefore, understanding the biology and regulation of GMPs is important for developing new therapies for these diseases.

Gene expression regulation in leukemia refers to the processes that control the production or activation of specific proteins encoded by genes in leukemic cells. These regulatory mechanisms include various molecular interactions that can either promote or inhibit gene transcription and translation. In leukemia, abnormal gene expression regulation can lead to uncontrolled proliferation, differentiation arrest, and accumulation of malignant white blood cells (leukemia cells) in the bone marrow and peripheral blood.

Dysregulated gene expression in leukemia may involve genetic alterations such as mutations, chromosomal translocations, or epigenetic changes that affect DNA methylation patterns and histone modifications. These changes can result in the overexpression of oncogenes (genes with cancer-promoting functions) or underexpression of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent uncontrolled cell growth).

Understanding gene expression regulation in leukemia is crucial for developing targeted therapies and improving diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies.

Leukemia, lymphoid is a type of cancer that affects the lymphoid cells, which are a vital part of the body's immune system. It is characterized by the uncontrolled production of abnormal white blood cells (leukocytes or WBCs) in the bone marrow, specifically the lymphocytes. These abnormal lymphocytes accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a decrease in red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and healthy white blood cells (leukopenia).

There are two main types of lymphoid leukemia: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia progresses rapidly, while chronic lymphocytic leukemia has a slower onset and progression.

Symptoms of lymphoid leukemia may include fatigue, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and individual patient factors but often involve chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

A thyroid crisis, also known as thyrotoxic crisis or storm, is a rare but life-threatening condition characterized by an exaggerated response to the excess production of thyroid hormones (thyrotoxicosis). This condition can lead to severe hypermetabolic state, multi-organ dysfunction, and cardiovascular collapse if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

Thyroid crisis is often triggered by a stressful event, infection, or surgery in individuals with uncontrolled or poorly managed hyperthyroidism, particularly those with Graves' disease. The symptoms of thyroid crisis include high fever, tachycardia (rapid heart rate), hypertension (high blood pressure), agitation, confusion, delirium, vomiting, diarrhea, and sometimes coma.

The diagnosis of thyroid crisis is based on the clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves hospitalization in an intensive care unit, administration of medications to block the production and release of thyroid hormones, control heart rate and rhythm, correct electrolyte imbalances, and provide supportive care until the patient's condition stabilizes.

K562 cells are a type of human cancer cell that are commonly used in scientific research. They are derived from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow.

K562 cells are often used as a model system to study various biological processes, including cell signaling, gene expression, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are also commonly used in drug discovery and development, as they can be used to test the effectiveness of potential new therapies against cancer.

K562 cells have several characteristics that make them useful for research purposes. They are easy to grow and maintain in culture, and they can be manipulated genetically to express or knock down specific genes. Additionally, K562 cells are capable of differentiating into various cell types, such as red blood cells and megakaryocytes, which allows researchers to study the mechanisms of cell differentiation.

It's important to note that while K562 cells are a valuable tool for research, they do not fully recapitulate the complexity of human CML or other cancers. Therefore, findings from studies using K562 cells should be validated in more complex model systems or in clinical trials before they can be translated into treatments for patients.

Leukemia is a type of cancer that originates from the bone marrow - the soft, inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. It is characterized by an abnormal production of white blood cells, known as leukocytes or blasts. These abnormal cells accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a decrease in red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and healthy white blood cells (leukopenia).

There are several types of leukemia, classified based on the specific type of white blood cell affected and the speed at which the disease progresses:

1. Acute Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress rapidly, with symptoms developing over a few weeks or months. They involve the rapid growth and accumulation of immature, nonfunctional white blood cells (blasts) in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) - Originates from lymphoid progenitor cells, primarily affecting children but can also occur in adults.
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) - Develops from myeloid progenitor cells and is more common in older adults.

2. Chronic Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress slowly, with symptoms developing over a period of months to years. They involve the production of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells that can accumulate in large numbers in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Affects B-lymphocytes and is more common in older adults.
- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) - Originates from myeloid progenitor cells, characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia chromosome. It can occur at any age but is more common in middle-aged and older adults.

Treatment options for leukemia depend on the type, stage, and individual patient factors. Treatments may include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-bcr are a group of intracellular signaling proteins that play a role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are encoded by the c-bcr gene located on chromosome 22. The c-bcr gene can fuse with the c-abl gene (located on chromosome 9) as a result of a chromosomal translocation, leading to the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein. This fusion protein has constitutively active tyrosine kinase activity and is associated with the development of certain types of leukemia, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).

The c-bcr gene can also fuse with other genes, leading to the formation of different fusion proteins that have been implicated in the development of other types of cancer. The normal function of c-bcr proteins is not fully understood, but they are thought to play a role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton and intracellular signaling pathways.

Refractory anemia with excess blasts is a type of blood disorder that is characterized by the presence of increased numbers of immature blood cells, or "blasts," in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. This condition is considered a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which is a group of disorders caused by abnormalities in the production of blood cells in the bone marrow.

In refractory anemia with excess blasts, the bone marrow fails to produce sufficient numbers of healthy red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. This results in anemia (low red blood cell count), neutropenia (low white blood cell count), and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count). Additionally, there is an increased number of blasts in the bone marrow and peripheral blood, which can indicate the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a more aggressive form of blood cancer.

Refractory anemia with excess blasts is considered "refractory" because it does not respond well to treatment, including chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. The prognosis for this condition varies depending on the severity of the disease and other individual factors, but it is generally poor, with many patients progressing to AML within a few years.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Human chromosome pair 22 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosome pair 22 is one of the 22 autosomal pairs of human chromosomes, meaning they are not sex chromosomes (X or Y). Chromosome 22 is the second smallest human chromosome, with each arm of the chromosome designated as p and q. The short arm is labeled "p," and the long arm is labeled "q."

Chromosome 22 contains several genes that are associated with various genetic disorders, including DiGeorge syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, and cat-eye syndrome, which result from deletions or duplications of specific regions on the chromosome. Additionally, chromosome 22 is the location of the NRXN1 gene, which has been associated with an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia when deleted or disrupted.

Understanding the genetic makeup of human chromosome pair 22 can provide valuable insights into human genetics, evolution, and disease susceptibility, as well as inform medical diagnoses, treatments, and research.

Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma (previously known as Precursor T-lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma) is a type of cancer that affects the early stages of T-cell development. It is a subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is characterized by the overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts in the bone marrow, blood, and other organs.

In Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma, these abnormal lymphoblasts accumulate primarily in the lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes, leading to the enlargement of these organs. This subtype is more aggressive than other forms of ALL and has a higher risk of spreading to the central nervous system (CNS).

The medical definition of Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma includes:

1. A malignant neoplasm of immature T-cell precursors, also known as lymphoblasts.
2. Characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of these abnormal cells in the bone marrow, blood, and lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes.
3. Often associated with chromosomal abnormalities, genetic mutations, or aberrant gene expression that contribute to its aggressive behavior and poor prognosis.
4. Typically presents with symptoms related to bone marrow failure (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia), lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen), and potential CNS involvement.
5. Diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, and molecular genetic testing.
6. Treated with intensive multi-agent chemotherapy regimens, often combined with radiation therapy and/or stem cell transplantation to achieve remission and improve survival outcomes.

Neoplastic stem cells, also known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), are a subpopulation of cells within a tumor that are capable of self-renewal and generating the heterogeneous lineages of cells that comprise the tumor. These cells are believed to be responsible for the initiation, maintenance, and progression of cancer, as well as its recurrence and resistance to therapy.

CSCs share some similarities with normal stem cells, such as their ability to divide asymmetrically and give rise to differentiated progeny. However, they also have distinct characteristics that distinguish them from their normal counterparts, including aberrant gene expression, altered signaling pathways, and increased resistance to apoptosis (programmed cell death).

The existence of CSCs has important implications for cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Targeting these cells specifically may be necessary to achieve durable remissions and prevent relapse, as they are thought to survive conventional therapies that target the bulk of the tumor. Further research is needed to better understand the biology of CSCs and develop effective strategies for their elimination.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

A "Blood Cell Count" is a medical laboratory test that measures the number of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets in a sample of blood. This test is often used as a part of a routine check-up or to help diagnose various medical conditions, such as anemia, infection, inflammation, and many others.

The RBC count measures the number of oxygen-carrying cells in the blood, while the WBC count measures the number of immune cells that help fight infections. The platelet count measures the number of cells involved in clotting. Abnormal results in any of these counts may indicate an underlying medical condition and further testing may be required for diagnosis and treatment.

Human chromosome pair 9 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell of the human body. Each member of the pair contains thousands of genes and other genetic material, encoded in the form of DNA molecules. The two chromosomes in a pair are identical or very similar to each other in terms of their size, shape, and genetic makeup.

Chromosome 9 is one of the autosomal chromosomes, meaning that it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y) and is present in two copies in all cells of the body, regardless of sex. Chromosome 9 is a medium-sized chromosome, and it is estimated to contain around 135 million base pairs of DNA and approximately 1200 genes.

Chromosome 9 contains several important genes that are associated with various human traits and diseases. For example, mutations in the gene that encodes the protein APOE on chromosome 9 have been linked to an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, variations in the gene that encodes the protein EGFR on chromosome 9 have been associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Overall, human chromosome pair 9 plays a critical role in the development and function of the human body, and variations in its genetic makeup can contribute to a wide range of traits and diseases.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Drug resistance in neoplasms (also known as cancer drug resistance) refers to the ability of cancer cells to withstand the effects of chemotherapeutic agents or medications designed to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This can occur due to various mechanisms, including changes in the cancer cell's genetic makeup, alterations in drug targets, increased activity of drug efflux pumps, and activation of survival pathways.

Drug resistance can be intrinsic (present at the beginning of treatment) or acquired (developed during the course of treatment). It is a significant challenge in cancer therapy as it often leads to reduced treatment effectiveness, disease progression, and poor patient outcomes. Strategies to overcome drug resistance include the use of combination therapies, development of new drugs that target different mechanisms, and personalized medicine approaches that consider individual patient and tumor characteristics.

Cytogenetic analysis is a laboratory technique used to identify and study the structure and function of chromosomes, which are the structures in the cell that contain genetic material. This type of analysis involves examining the number, size, shape, and banding pattern of chromosomes in cells, typically during metaphase when they are at their most condensed state.

There are several methods used for cytogenetic analysis, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Karyotyping involves staining the chromosomes with a dye to visualize their banding patterns and then arranging them in pairs based on their size and shape. FISH uses fluorescent probes to label specific DNA sequences, allowing for the detection of genetic abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, or translocations. CGH compares the DNA content of two samples to identify differences in copy number, which can be used to detect chromosomal imbalances.

Cytogenetic analysis is an important tool in medical genetics and is used for a variety of purposes, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the identification of genetic disorders.

Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including leukemias and lymphomas. Its chemical name is cytosine arabinoside, and it works by interfering with the DNA synthesis of cancer cells, which ultimately leads to their death.

Cytarabine is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs and may be administered through various routes, such as intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous injection, or orally. The specific dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health status.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, cytarabine can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It may also cause more serious side effects, such as damage to the liver, kidneys, or nervous system, and it is important for patients to be closely monitored during treatment to minimize these risks.

It's important to note that medical treatments should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, and this information should not be used as a substitute for medical advice.

An economic recession is a significant decline in economic activity that spreads across the economy and lasts more than a few months. It is typically defined as a decrease in gross domestic product (GDP) for two or more consecutive quarters. A recession can also be characterized by high unemployment, declining retail sales, and falling industrial production. Recessions are usually caused by a combination of factors, including financial panics, monetary policy mistakes, and external shocks such as wars or natural disasters. The severity and duration of a recession can vary widely, with some being relatively mild and short-lived, while others can be more severe and prolonged. In general, recessions are a normal part of the business cycle and are typically followed by periods of economic expansion.

Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. They are called granulocytes because they contain small granules in their cytoplasm, which are filled with various enzymes and proteins that help them fight off infections and destroy foreign substances.

There are three types of granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Neutrophils are the most abundant type and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. Eosinophils play a role in defending against parasitic infections and regulating immune responses. Basophils are involved in inflammatory reactions and allergic responses.

Granulocytes are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they circulate and patrol for any signs of infection or foreign substances. When they encounter a threat, they quickly move to the site of infection or injury and release their granules to destroy the invading organisms or substances.

Abnormal levels of granulocytes in the blood can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder.

Chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical changes in the chromosomes that can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to mutagenic agents. These changes can affect the genetic material encoded in the chromosomes, leading to various consequences such as developmental abnormalities, cancer, or infertility.

Structural aberrations include deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and rings, which result from breaks and rearrangements of chromosome segments. Numerical aberrations involve changes in the number of chromosomes, such as aneuploidy (extra or missing chromosomes) or polyploidy (multiples of a complete set of chromosomes).

Chromosome aberrations can be detected and analyzed using various cytogenetic techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These methods allow for the identification and characterization of chromosomal changes at the molecular level, providing valuable information for genetic counseling, diagnosis, and research.

"Gene rearrangement" is a process that involves the alteration of the order, orientation, or copy number of genes or gene segments within an organism's genome. This natural mechanism plays a crucial role in generating diversity and specificity in the immune system, particularly in vertebrates.

In the context of the immune system, gene rearrangement occurs during the development of B-cells and T-cells, which are responsible for adaptive immunity. The process involves breaking and rejoining DNA segments that encode antigen recognition sites, resulting in a unique combination of gene segments and creating a vast array of possible antigen receptors.

There are two main types of gene rearrangement:

1. V(D)J recombination: This process occurs in both B-cells and T-cells. It involves the recombination of variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments to form a functional antigen receptor gene. In humans, there are multiple copies of V, D, and J segments for each antigen receptor gene, allowing for a vast number of possible combinations.
2. Class switch recombination: This process occurs only in mature B-cells after antigen exposure. It involves the replacement of the constant (C) region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene with another C region, resulting in the production of different isotypes of antibodies (IgG, IgA, or IgE) that have distinct effector functions while maintaining the same antigen specificity.

These processes contribute to the generation of a diverse repertoire of antigen receptors, allowing the immune system to recognize and respond effectively to a wide range of pathogens.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are immature, self-renewing cells that give rise to all the mature blood and immune cells in the body. They are capable of both producing more hematopoietic stem cells (self-renewal) and differentiating into early progenitor cells that eventually develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. HSCs are found in the bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and peripheral blood. They have the ability to repair damaged tissues and offer significant therapeutic potential for treating various diseases, including hematological disorders, genetic diseases, and cancer.

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder that affects the hemoglobin in red blood cells. Hemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. In sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin is abnormal and causes the red blood cells to take on a sickle shape, rather than the normal disc shape. These sickled cells are stiff and sticky, and they can block blood vessels, causing tissue damage and pain. They also die more quickly than normal red blood cells, leading to anemia.

People with sickle cell anemia often experience fatigue, chronic pain, and jaundice. They may also have a higher risk of infections and complications such as stroke, acute chest syndrome, and priapism. The disease is inherited from both parents, who must both be carriers of the sickle cell gene. It primarily affects people of African descent, but it can also affect people from other ethnic backgrounds.

There is no cure for sickle cell anemia, but treatments such as blood transfusions, medications to manage pain and prevent complications, and bone marrow transplantation can help improve quality of life for affected individuals. Regular medical care and monitoring are essential for managing the disease effectively.

Remission induction is a treatment approach in medicine, particularly in the field of oncology and hematology. It refers to the initial phase of therapy aimed at reducing or eliminating the signs and symptoms of active disease, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. The primary goal of remission induction is to achieve a complete response (disappearance of all detectable signs of the disease) or a partial response (a decrease in the measurable extent of the disease). This phase of treatment is often intensive and may involve the use of multiple drugs or therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy. After remission induction, patients may receive additional treatments to maintain the remission and prevent relapse, known as consolidation or maintenance therapy.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of diverse bone marrow disorders characterized by dysplasia (abnormal development or maturation) of one or more types of blood cells or by ineffective hematopoiesis, resulting in cytopenias (lower than normal levels of one or more types of blood cells). MDS can be classified into various subtypes based on the number and type of cytopenias, the degree of dysplasia, the presence of ring sideroblasts, and cytogenetic abnormalities.

The condition primarily affects older adults, with a median age at diagnosis of around 70 years. MDS can evolve into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in approximately 30-40% of cases. The pathophysiology of MDS involves genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities that lead to impaired differentiation and increased apoptosis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, ultimately resulting in cytopenias and an increased risk of developing AML.

The diagnosis of MDS typically requires a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, along with cytogenetic and molecular analyses to identify specific genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities. Treatment options for MDS depend on the subtype, severity of cytopenias, and individual patient factors. These may include supportive care measures, such as transfusions and growth factor therapy, or more aggressive treatments, such as chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.

Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) are a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in various cellular functions, including signal transduction, cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. They catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the tyrosine residues of proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules.

PTKs can be divided into two main categories: receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). RTKs are transmembrane proteins that become activated upon binding to specific ligands, such as growth factors or hormones. NRTKs, on the other hand, are intracellular enzymes that can be activated by various signals, including receptor-mediated signaling and intracellular messengers.

Dysregulation of PTK activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, PTKs are important targets for drug development and therapy.

CD34 is a type of antigen that is found on the surface of certain cells in the human body. Specifically, CD34 antigens are present on hematopoietic stem cells, which are immature cells that can develop into different types of blood cells. These stem cells are found in the bone marrow and are responsible for producing red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

CD34 antigens are a type of cell surface marker that is used in medical research and clinical settings to identify and isolate hematopoietic stem cells. They are also used in the development of stem cell therapies and transplantation procedures. CD34 antigens can be detected using various laboratory techniques, such as flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry.

It's important to note that while CD34 is a useful marker for identifying hematopoietic stem cells, it is not exclusive to these cells and can also be found on other cell types, such as endothelial cells that line blood vessels. Therefore, additional markers are often used in combination with CD34 to more specifically identify and isolate hematopoietic stem cells.

RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is a single-stranded molecule similar in structure to DNA, involved in the process of protein synthesis in the cell. It acts as a messenger carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are produced.

A neoplasm, on the other hand, is an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, however, are cancerous and have the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites in the body through a process called metastasis.

Therefore, an 'RNA neoplasm' is not a recognized medical term as RNA is not a type of growth or tumor. However, there are certain types of cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses that contain RNA as their genetic material and can cause neoplasms. For example, human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are RNA viruses that can cause certain types of cancer in humans.

Nucleotidases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides into nucleosides and phosphate groups. Nucleotidases play important roles in various biological processes, including the regulation of nucleotide concentrations within cells, the salvage pathways for nucleotide synthesis, and the breakdown of nucleic acids during programmed cell death (apoptosis).

There are several types of nucleotidases that differ in their substrate specificity and subcellular localization. These include:

1. Nucleoside monophosphatases (NMPs): These enzymes hydrolyze nucleoside monophosphates (NMPs) into nucleosides and inorganic phosphate.
2. Nucleoside diphosphatases (NDPs): These enzymes hydrolyze nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) into nucleoside monophosphates (NMPs) and inorganic phosphate.
3. Nucleoside triphosphatases (NTPs): These enzymes hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) into nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) and inorganic phosphate.
4. 5'-Nucleotidase: This enzyme specifically hydrolyzes the phosphate group from the 5' position of nucleoside monophosphates, producing nucleosides.
5. Pyrophosphatases: These enzymes hydrolyze pyrophosphates into two phosphate groups and play a role in regulating nucleotide metabolism.

Nucleotidases are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various tissues, organs, and biological fluids, including blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Dysregulation of nucleotidase activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Translocation, genetic, refers to a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a segment of a chromosome is transferred from one chromosome to another, resulting in an altered genome. This can occur between two non-homologous chromosomes (non-reciprocal translocation) or between two homologous chromosomes (reciprocal translocation). Genetic translocations can lead to various clinical consequences, depending on the genes involved and the location of the translocation. Some translocations may result in no apparent effects, while others can cause developmental abnormalities, cancer, or other genetic disorders. In some cases, translocations can also increase the risk of having offspring with genetic conditions.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-ABL are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival. They belong to the family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases and are encoded by the c-ABL gene located on chromosome 9 in humans.

The c-ABL protein is composed of several functional domains, including an N-terminal cap domain, a SRC homology 3 (SH3) domain, a SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain, and a C-terminal tyrosine kinase domain. These domains enable c-ABL to interact with other proteins and participate in signal transduction pathways that control essential cellular functions.

However, when the c-ABL gene is altered or mutated, it can become an oncogene, leading to the production of a dysregulated c-ABL protein. This abnormal protein can contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in cancer. One such example is the Philadelphia chromosome, a genetic alteration found in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and some types of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This abnormality arises from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion gene. The resulting BCR-ABL fusion protein has constitutively active tyrosine kinase activity, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division, which is characteristic of leukemia.

In summary, proto-oncogene proteins c-ABL are essential regulators of normal cellular processes. However, when they become dysregulated due to genetic alterations or mutations, they can contribute to the development of cancer.

Surface antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system as being foreign or different from the host's own cells. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides that are capable of stimulating an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells such as T-cells.

Surface antigens are important in the context of infectious diseases because they allow the immune system to identify and target infected cells for destruction. For example, viruses and bacteria often display surface antigens that are distinct from those found on host cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. In some cases, these surface antigens can also be used as targets for vaccines or other immunotherapies.

In addition to their role in infectious diseases, surface antigens are also important in the context of cancer. Tumor cells often display abnormal surface antigens that differ from those found on normal cells, allowing the immune system to potentially recognize and attack them. However, tumors can also develop mechanisms to evade the immune system, making it difficult to mount an effective response.

Overall, understanding the properties and behavior of surface antigens is crucial for developing effective immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer.

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of rare, chronic blood cancers that originate from the abnormal proliferation or growth of one or more types of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. These disorders result in an overproduction of mature but dysfunctional blood cells, which can lead to serious complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and organ damage.

There are several subtypes of MPDs, including:

1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of mature granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CML is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, which drives uncontrolled cell growth and division.
2. Polycythemia Vera (PV): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of all three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets - in the bone marrow. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, bleeding, and enlargement of the spleen.
3. Essential Thrombocythemia (ET): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and bleeding.
4. Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF): A disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with scar tissue, leading to impaired blood cell production and anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.
5. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CNL can lead to an increased risk of infections and organ damage.

MPDs are typically treated with a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the subtype of MPD, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any comorbidities.

Myeloid progenitor cells are a type of precursor cells that originate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow. These cells have the ability to differentiate into various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, platelets, and different kinds of white blood cells, specifically granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes. Myeloid progenitor cells are crucial for the maintenance of normal hematopoiesis and immune function. Abnormalities in myeloid progenitor cell differentiation or function can lead to various hematological disorders such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Nucleoside deaminases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the removal of an amino group (-NH2) from nucleosides, converting them to nucleosides with a modified base. This modification process is called deamination. Specifically, these enzymes convert cytidine and adenosine to uridine and inosine, respectively. Nucleoside deaminases play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the regulation of gene expression, immune response, and nucleic acid metabolism. Some nucleoside deaminases are also involved in the development of certain diseases and are considered as targets for drug design and discovery.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

5'-Nucleotidase is an enzyme that is found on the outer surface of cell membranes, including those of liver cells and red blood cells. Its primary function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleoside monophosphates, such as adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP), to their corresponding nucleosides, such as adenosine and guanosine, by removing a phosphate group from the 5' position of the nucleotide.

Abnormal levels of 5'-Nucleotidase in the blood can be indicative of liver or bone disease. For example, elevated levels of this enzyme in the blood may suggest liver damage or injury, such as that caused by hepatitis, cirrhosis, or alcohol abuse. Conversely, low levels of 5'-Nucleotidase may be associated with certain types of anemia, including aplastic anemia and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

Medical professionals may order a 5'-Nucleotidase test to help diagnose or monitor the progression of these conditions. It is important to note that other factors, such as medication use or muscle damage, can also affect 5'-Nucleotidase levels, so results must be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

The term "DNA, neoplasm" is not a standard medical term or concept. DNA refers to deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the genetic material present in the cells of living organisms. A neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor or growth of abnormal tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

In some contexts, "DNA, neoplasm" may refer to genetic alterations found in cancer cells. These genetic changes can include mutations, amplifications, deletions, or rearrangements of DNA sequences that contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Identifying these genetic abnormalities can help doctors diagnose and treat certain types of cancer more effectively.

However, it's important to note that "DNA, neoplasm" is not a term that would typically be used in medical reports or research papers without further clarification. If you have any specific questions about DNA changes in cancer cells or neoplasms, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or conducting further research on the topic.

Phenanthrenes are not typically defined in a medical context, but they are a class of organic compounds that have a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon structure consisting of three benzene rings fused together. They can be found in some natural products and have been studied for their potential pharmacological properties. Some phenanthrenes have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities, among others. However, more research is needed to fully understand their therapeutic potential and safety profile.

Southern blotting is a type of membrane-based blotting technique that is used in molecular biology to detect and locate specific DNA sequences within a DNA sample. This technique is named after its inventor, Edward M. Southern.

In Southern blotting, the DNA sample is first digested with one or more restriction enzymes, which cut the DNA at specific recognition sites. The resulting DNA fragments are then separated based on their size by gel electrophoresis. After separation, the DNA fragments are denatured to convert them into single-stranded DNA and transferred onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane.

Once the DNA has been transferred to the membrane, it is hybridized with a labeled probe that is complementary to the sequence of interest. The probe can be labeled with radioactive isotopes, fluorescent dyes, or chemiluminescent compounds. After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove any unbound probe and then exposed to X-ray film (in the case of radioactive probes) or scanned (in the case of non-radioactive probes) to detect the location of the labeled probe on the membrane.

The position of the labeled probe on the membrane corresponds to the location of the specific DNA sequence within the original DNA sample. Southern blotting is a powerful tool for identifying and characterizing specific DNA sequences, such as those associated with genetic diseases or gene regulation.

Human chromosome pair 3 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and together they contain the genetic material that is inherited from both parents. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, which contains the instructions for the development and function of all living organisms.

Human chromosomes are numbered from 1 to 22, with an additional two sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine biological sex. Chromosome pair 3 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it contains genes that are not related to sex determination. Each member of chromosome pair 3 is identical in size and shape and contains a single long DNA molecule that is coiled tightly around histone proteins to form a compact structure.

Chromosome pair 3 is associated with several genetic disorders, including Waardenburg syndrome, which affects pigmentation and hearing; Marfan syndrome, which affects the connective tissue; and some forms of retinoblastoma, a rare eye cancer that typically affects young children.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

A Tumor Stem Cell Assay is not a widely accepted or standardized medical definition. However, in the context of cancer research, a tumor stem cell assay generally refers to an experimental procedure used to identify and isolate cancer stem cells (also known as tumor-initiating cells) from a tumor sample.

Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation of cells within a tumor that are believed to be responsible for driving tumor growth, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. They have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types within the tumor, making them a promising target for cancer therapies.

A tumor stem cell assay typically involves isolating cells from a tumor sample and subjecting them to various tests to identify those with stem cell-like properties. These tests may include assessing their ability to form tumors in animal models or their expression of specific surface markers associated with cancer stem cells. The goal of the assay is to provide researchers with a better understanding of the biology of cancer stem cells and to develop new therapies that target them specifically.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and responding to potentially harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).

B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy foreign substances. When a B-cell encounters a foreign substance, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. These antibodies bind to the foreign substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes, on the other hand, are involved in cell-mediated immunity. They directly attack and destroy infected cells or cancerous cells. T-cells can also help to regulate the immune response by producing chemical signals that activate or inhibit other immune cells.

Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and mature in either the bone marrow (B-cells) or the thymus gland (T-cells). They circulate throughout the body in the blood and lymphatic system, where they can be found in high concentrations in lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid organs.

Abnormalities in the number or function of lymphocytes can lead to a variety of immune-related disorders, including immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) are a class of drugs that work by interfering with the function of protein kinases. Protein kinases are enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding a phosphate group to specific proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules. This process of adding a phosphate group is known as phosphorylation and is a key mechanism for regulating various cellular functions, including signal transduction, metabolism, and cell division.

In some diseases, such as cancer, protein kinases can become overactive or mutated, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Protein kinase inhibitors are designed to block the activity of these dysregulated kinases, thereby preventing or slowing down the progression of the disease. These drugs can be highly specific, targeting individual protein kinases or families of kinases, making them valuable tools for targeted therapy in cancer and other diseases.

Protein kinase inhibitors can work in various ways to block the activity of protein kinases. Some bind directly to the active site of the enzyme, preventing it from interacting with its substrates. Others bind to allosteric sites, changing the conformation of the enzyme and making it inactive. Still, others target upstream regulators of protein kinases or interfere with their ability to form functional complexes.

Examples of protein kinase inhibitors include imatinib (Gleevec), which targets the BCR-ABL kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia, and gefitinib (Iressa), which inhibits the EGFR kinase in non-small cell lung cancer. These drugs have shown significant clinical benefits in treating these diseases and have become important components of modern cancer therapy.

Immunophenotyping is a medical laboratory technique used to identify and classify cells, usually in the context of hematologic (blood) disorders and malignancies (cancers), based on their surface or intracellular expression of various proteins and antigens. This technique utilizes specific antibodies tagged with fluorochromes, which bind to the target antigens on the cell surface or within the cells. The labeled cells are then analyzed using flow cytometry, allowing for the detection and quantification of multiple antigenic markers simultaneously.

Immunophenotyping helps in understanding the distribution of different cell types, their subsets, and activation status, which can be crucial in diagnosing various hematological disorders, immunodeficiencies, and distinguishing between different types of leukemias, lymphomas, and other malignancies. Additionally, it can also be used to monitor the progression of diseases, evaluate the effectiveness of treatments, and detect minimal residual disease (MRD) during follow-up care.

Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the immune system by helping to regulate the levels of certain chemicals called purines within cells. Specifically, ADA helps to break down adenosine, a type of purine, into another compound called inosine. This enzyme is found in all tissues of the body, but it is especially active in the immune system's white blood cells, where it helps to support their growth, development, and function.

ADA deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that can lead to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a condition in which babies are born with little or no functional immune system. This makes them extremely vulnerable to infections, which can be life-threatening. ADA deficiency can be treated with enzyme replacement therapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

"Oryza sativa" is the scientific name for Asian rice, which is a species of grass and one of the most important food crops in the world. It is a staple food for more than half of the global population, providing a significant source of calories and carbohydrates. There are several varieties of Oryza sativa, including indica and japonica, which differ in their genetic makeup, growth habits, and grain characteristics.

Oryza sativa is an annual plant that grows to a height of 1-2 meters and produces long slender leaves and clusters of flowers at the top of the stem. The grains are enclosed within a tough husk, which must be removed before consumption. Rice is typically grown in flooded fields or paddies, which provide the necessary moisture for germination and growth.

Rice is an important source of nutrition for people around the world, particularly in developing countries where it may be one of the few reliable sources of food. It is rich in carbohydrates, fiber, and various vitamins and minerals, including thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and magnesium. However, rice can also be a significant source of arsenic, a toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in the grain during growth.

In medical terms, Oryza sativa may be used as a component of nutritional interventions for individuals who are at risk of malnutrition or who have specific dietary needs. It may also be studied in clinical trials to evaluate its potential health benefits or risks.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

An explosion is a rapid release of energy that causes a blast wave or pressure surge, and may also produce rapidly expanding gases, heat, light, and sound. In medical terms, explosions can cause a variety of injuries, including blunt trauma, penetrating trauma, burns, and primary and secondary blast injuries.

Blunt trauma is caused by the force of the explosion propelling objects or people through the air, or by the collapse of structures. Penetrating trauma is caused by flying debris or fragments that pierce the skin and other tissues. Burns can result from the heat generated by the explosion, as well as from contact with hot gases, flames, or chemicals.

Primary blast injuries are caused by the direct effect of the blast wave on the body, and can damage internal organs such as the lungs, ears, and brain. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris or fragments that become projectiles due to the force of the explosion. Tertiary blast injuries occur when people or objects are thrown by the blast wind or become trapped in collapsed structures.

Medical personnel who treat victims of explosions must be trained to recognize and manage these various types of injuries, as well as to provide appropriate psychological support for those affected by the traumatic event.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Manuals as Topic" is not a recognized medical term or concept. A manual typically refers to a book or guide that provides instructions or information about a particular subject or task. In a medical context, manuals may include clinical practice guidelines, procedural manuals, policy manuals, or training manuals that provide guidance for healthcare professionals in diagnosing, treating, and managing various medical conditions or situations. However, "Manuals as Topic" is too broad and does not refer to a specific medical concept. If you have a more specific question about a particular type of medical manual, I'd be happy to help!

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Thiazoles are organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring consisting of a nitrogen atom and a sulfur atom, along with two carbon atoms and two hydrogen atoms. They have the chemical formula C3H4NS. Thiazoles are present in various natural and synthetic substances, including some vitamins, drugs, and dyes. In the context of medicine, thiazole derivatives have been developed as pharmaceuticals for their diverse biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, and antihypertensive properties. Some well-known examples include thiazide diuretics (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide) used to treat high blood pressure and edema, and the antidiabetic drug pioglitazone.

Blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia. T-lymphoblastic cells of acute leukemia in the bone marrow Acute erythroid ... blast crisis) Wolach, O; Stone, R. M. (2015). "How I treat mixed-phenotype acute leukemia". Blood. 125 (16): 2477-85. doi: ...
Chronic myelogenous leukemia blast crisis. He had undergone several chemotherapy sessions since he was diagnosed the previous ...
"Blasts escalate Japan's nuclear crisis". World News Australia. 16 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 April 2011. David ... While stepping-up monitoring of radiation levels on its own shores in face of the Fukushima nuclear power plant crisis, China, ... In response to the crisis, the Japanese government mobilized the Self-Defence Forces, while many countries sent search and ... The ministry excluded Fukushima from the results because of the ongoing nuclear crisis. The reconstruction of damaged areas in ...
"Blasts escalate Japan's nuclear crisis". World News Australia. March 16, 2011. Archived from the original on April 7, 2011. ... Amoco Cadiz oil spill off the coast of France in 1978 Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes in the 1990s Red Hill water crisis ... from the chemical manufacturing operations of the Army and its lessee Shell Chemicals company Nigeria gully erosion crisis, ...
"Blasts escalate Japan's nuclear crisis". World News Australia. 16 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 April 2011. David ... "News Analysis: Japan crisis puts global nuclear expansion in doubt". Platts. 21 March 2011. "Nuclear power: When the steam ... Increased interest in climate change mitigation, low-carbon energy and global energy crisis resulted in what was described as ... "How nuclear power plants could help solve the climate crisis". CNET. Retrieved 15 December 2021. "Germany to widely miss 2030 ...
Sabaghi, Dario (27 September 2020). "Invisible wounds: Beirut witnesses mental-health crisis after blast". Middle East Eye. ... 1973 coup d'état and the Pinochet dictatorship in Chile 1979 energy crisis in the United States 1985 Mexico City earthquake ... Yorkshire during the foundation of the British Monarchy The Holocaust for European Jewish peoples Iran hostage crisis in the ... and the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine and Belarus Century of humiliation in China Cuban Missile Crisis ...
"Ukraine crisis: Deadly bomb blast hits rally in Kharkiv". BBC News. 2015-02-22. Retrieved 2015-04-19. (CS1 uses Russian- ... "The crisis in Ukraine". theday.co.uk. 2014-09-11. Archived from the original on 2015-11-10. Retrieved 2015-07-30. Andrew Wilson ... The number of deaths during the 2013-2014 Ukraine crisis climbed to just over 200 during the Euromaidan protests and the ... Saul, Heather; Sengupta, Kim (2014-03-19). "Ukraine crisis: Pro-Russian troops storm naval base as Clinton warns of 'aggression ...
"Lebanon's Deepening Economic Crisis Laid Bare by Beirut Blast". BloombergQuint. Retrieved 19 September 2020. Yee, Vivian (7 ... The crisis became worse when the COVID-19 pandemic affected the Lebanese economy. In 2020, the country defaulted for the first ... The liquidity crisis also lead to a restriction on the withdrawals from US dollar bank accounts. Depositors needed to preserve ... This economic crisis made Lebanon's gross domestic product fall to about $44 billion, which was about $55 billion the year ...
"Lebanese government in crisis as ministers resign after blast". The Washington Post. 2020-08-10. Retrieved 2020-08-10. "Paula ... "Lebanon's Kataeb Party says its three MPs resigning from parliament in wake of Beirut blast". August 8, 2020 - via www.reuters. ... "Politician Paula Yacoubian says she risks her life fighting Lebanese corruption and garbage crisis". Euronews. 13 September ...
Their inactivation is related with progression into blast crisis. BCR/ABL pathway could also active PI64K/Akt/STAT5 pathway ... Some new translocate case of BAL has been reported, such as t(15,17) and t(12,13). For t(15;17), the blasts with morphology of ... BAL is difficult to treat, most patients receive treatment based on the morphology of blasts and get AML or ALL induction ... Usually the chemotherapy is chosen according to the morphology of the blast (ALL or AML). A blood-forming stem-cell ...
Connolly, Kevin (21 November 2012). "Israel-Gaza crisis: 'Bomb blast' on bus in Tel Aviv". BBC News. Retrieved 3 June 2013. Why ... "Terror attack: Blast on Tel Aviv bus; 28 hurt". Ynet News. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2013. Lazaroff, Tovah (16 ... Hamas's military wing claimed responsibility for the blast, stating that it was in response to the killing of the boy. ... "Deprived and Endangered: Humanitarian Crisis in the Gaza Strip". Human Rights Watch. 13 January 2009. Retrieved 3 September ...
"Israel-Gaza crisis: 'Bomb blast' on bus in Tel Aviv". BBC. 21 November 2012. Archived from the original on 23 April 2013. ... "Blast on bus in heart of Tel Aviv". Ynet News. 21 November 2012. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 21 ... During the operation, a bomb blast on a bus wounded at least 28 civilians, three seriously. This was described as a terrorist ... Serge Schmemann (5 March 2010). "Bombing in Israel:The Overview;4th Terror Blast in Israel Kills 14 at Mall in Tel Aviv; Nine- ...
"Israel-Gaza crisis: 'Bomb blast' on bus in Tel Aviv". BBC. November 21, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2012. "Hamas leader tells ... "Terror attack: Blast on Tel Aviv bus; 28 hurt". Ynet News. November 21, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2012. "הפיצוץ בת"א: "חשבנו ...
"Israel-Gaza crisis: 'Bomb blast' on bus in Tel Aviv". BBC. November 21, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2012. Hamas to gain ... many Arab states that backed the coalition cut off funds to the PLO which brought the PLO to the brink of crisis. In the ...
Mroue, Bassem; Keller, Greg (10 September 2012). "Syria Crisis: Aleppo Car Bomb Blast Kills At Least 30". Huffington Post. ... The state news agency SANA reported the deaths of three Syrian troops as a result of a bomb blast, with an officer also ... "Humanitarian crisis looms in south Syria town amid ongoing government siege". Al-Monitor. 10 July 2021. Archived from the ... "Syria crisis: Spooked by rebel gains, Jordan doubles down on Islamic State". The Christian Science Monitor. 4 May 2015. ...
Mroue, Bassem; Keller, Greg (10 September 2012). "Syria Crisis: Aleppo Car Bomb Blast Kills At Least 30". Huffington Post. ... Syrian Crisis. New York City, NY: UNICEF. [2] Burack, Cristina. 2020. 5 Million Syrian Children in Need Due to War. Germany: DW ... "Syrian crisis". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 5 May 2020. Welle, Deutsche. "5 million Syrian children in need due to war , DW , ... "Syria Crisis Fast Facts". www.unicef.org. August 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2020. "Help Children in Syria". Save the Children. ...
Mroue, Bassem; Keller, Gereg (10 September 2012). "Syria Crisis: Aleppo Car Bomb Blast Kills At Least 30". Huffington Post. ... During four hours of fighting rebels tried to blast holes in the walls of the mosque with RPGs before storming the site but ... "Syrian forces blast rebel-held districts of Aleppo, according to activists". Al Jazeera. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. ... On 21 October, "a suicide car bomber" caused a blast in the New Syriac quarter wounding several people and damaging the Syrian- ...
"Israel-Gaza crisis: 'Bomb blast' on bus in Tel Aviv". BBC. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012. "UN chief Ban Ki-moon ... The blast on the bus occurred in an area with many office buildings and heavy pedestrian traffic. The bus bombing complicated ... "Israel blasts Hamas police building on sixth day of conflict". AFP via ABC News. 18 November 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012. ... "Terror attack: Blast on Tel Aviv bus; 28 hurt". Ynet News. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012. "21 wounded in terror ...
Hiyama, Hiroshi (15 March 2011). "Blasts, new fire escalate Japan's nuclear crisis". AFP. Retrieved 26 March 2011. "TEPCO ... "Japan nuclear crisis: Meltdown at Fukushima Daiichi plant may now be inevitable". The New York Daily News. 17 March 2011. ... "TEPCO: Unit No.4 blast due to hydrogen from Unit No.3". NHK. 16 May 2011. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved ... "Crisis continues at crippled Japanese nuclear power plants". VOA. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011. JAIF (26 June 2012) ...
Lippman, Daniel (April 21, 2020). "Democrats blast Trump team's handling of federal workers in coronavirus crisis". Politico. ...
"Nigeria's Boko Haram crisis: Jos blasts kill scores". BBC News. 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2022-04-12. v t e v t e (Pages using ...
BBC (16 January 2013). "Syria crisis: Dozens killed by Aleppo university blasts". BBC. Retrieved 21 January 2013. Lamine Chikhi ... "Blasts in Pakistan Kill at Least 115 and Raise Fears Over Elections". The New York Times. 10 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January ... "Shia mosque blast kills 15 in Pakistan". Times of India. Retrieved 21 June 2013. Alissa J. Rubin (24 June 2013). "Taliban ... "Quetta: Alamdar Rd blasts toll hits 84". The News International. 11 January 2013. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013 ...
"Nigeria's Boko Haram crisis: Jos blasts kill scores". BBC News. 6 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015. "Scores killed in Nigeria ... The blast killed twelve people and wounded another one. The attack occurred at dawn and was attributed to Boko Haram although ... The blast killed at least 11 people. The attack occurred on 29 January in Gombi, Adamawa State. 30 January - At least 86 people ... "New Year's Day blast kills at least 3 in Nigeria". Xinhua News Agency. 2 January 2018. Archived from the original on January 2 ...
"Nigeria's Boko Haram crisis: Maiduguri blasts kill dozens". BBC News. 21 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015. Idowu, ... "Boko Haram crisis: Nigeria fury over U.S. arms refusal". BBC News. 11 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014. Eric Schmidt ( ... "Boko Haram crisis: Nigeria estimates Baga deaths at 150". BBC News. 12 January 2015. Samer Muscati (10 June 2015). "Anatomy of ... Nigeria's Boko Haram Crisis explained" In: African Security Review 19/2, 2010, pp. 54-67. Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos (ed ...
"Syria crisis: Dozens killed by Aleppo university blasts". BBC News. 15 January 2013. Archived from the original on 30 March ... The blasts reportedly struck an area between Aleppo University's halls of residence and the architecture faculty. The initial ...
"Syria crisis: Dozens killed by Aleppo university blasts". BBC News. 2013-01-15. Archived from the original on 2017-10-18. ... The blast struck a parking lot for a military intelligence complex. The 18 July 2012 Damascus bombing was an attack that killed ... April 29 - A blast next to former Interior Ministry building in Damascus killed six people. Syrian prime minister Wael al-Halqi ... "Bomb Blast Kills 40 People in Syria's Afrin". Haaretz. 28 April 2020. "Fuel truck bomb kills more than 40 in northern Syria". ...
"Nigeria's Boko Haram crisis: Maiduguri blasts kill dozens". BBC News. September 21, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2015. ... "Dozens die in blasts in Borno state capital, Nigerian official says". Abuja, Nigeria: CBS News. Associated Press. September 22 ... "5 suicide blasts hit Nigerian city of Maiduguri, 54 killed". Yahoo News. March 7, 2015. Bukar Hussain (September 21, 2015). "85 ... Lanre Ola; Isaac Abrak; Alexis Akwagyiram & Julia Payne (September 22, 2015). "At least 80 people killed in bomb blasts in ...
MacKinnon, Mark (16 August 2020). "Leaders fear crisis sparked by Beirut blast could lead to civil war". The Globe and Mail Inc ... "Deadly blast near Hezbollah complex in Beirut". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 15 August 2013. Karam, Zeina (15 August 2013). "Car bomb ... Economic Collapse, Energy Crisis, Now Fear of Civil War In Lebanon, 10/14/21 Newsweek Vohra, Anchal (16 October 2021). " ... Grain freights arrived to Beirut on 19 November 1914 to the relief of the masses; however, the crisis was to worsen as both ...
It is highly expressed in blast crisis transition of chronic myeloid leukemia. When overexpressed by transfection, NME3 ...
"Tim David signs last-minute Surrey deal to solve Blast availability crisis". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 8 July 2021. "Tim David ... They moved back to Australia when he was two years old in the wake of the 1997 Asian financial crisis and he grew up in Perth. ... In February 2022, David was signed by Lancashire County Cricket Club to play in the 2022 T20 Blast and in April was bought ... "Tim David joins Lancashire for Blast". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 10 February 2022. "The Hundred 2022: latest squads as Draft ...
The countrys economic crisis and political instability have taken a toll on the mental health of many people, who feel ... Around the same time, the dramatic search for potential survivors in the Gemmayzeh neighbourhood a month after the blast, fires ... On the days following the blast, NGOs set up hotlines and walk-in clinics to support people suffering from mental distress, ... But when her house was destroyed by the blast, she convinced herself to come here because otherwise she would have killed ...
NDP blasts Liberals for failing to fix the housing crisis in Indigenous communities. OTTAWA - On Tuesday, for the fourth time ... The Liberals can fix this crisis, but they choose not to do it. And Pierre Poilievre isnt the answer - when he was housing ... slammed the Liberals for consistently failing to solve the dire housing crisis in First Nations communities and say urgent ... Inuit and Métis governments with sustainable long-term funding to address this crisis. The time to act is now!" ...
Arctic blast sets off governments Cold Weather Payment - but are you eligible for the £25 off energy bills?. ... Martin Lewis loses rag as he blasts energy price cap changes as f***ing disgrace. 16 May 2022, 10:53 , Updated: 16 May 2022 ... The price cap news comes after a Tory minister sparked anger by saying people struggling with the cost of living crisis should ... As millions of people face being hammered financially as the cost of living crisis bites, Ofgem announced plans to review the ...
Once it progresses into the phase of blast crisis (CML-BP), the curative effect is poor, and the fatality rate is extremely ... We further examined the oncogenic role of miR-181d in CML blast crisis in vivo. When the tumor diameters reached 8-9 mm, miR- ... Once it progresses into the phase of blast crisis (CML-BP), the curative effect is poor, and the fatality rate is extremely ... Recent studies have found that histone methyltransferase is involved in the pathogenesis of CML blast crisis. For instance, the ...
Tags: Biden, blasts, border, crisis, devastated, Laken, parents, Riley, spoke, Trump, War ... Trump says he spoke to devastated parents of Laken Riley, blasts Biden for border crisis like a war. ... President Trump added that the border crisis is "like a war, its a military operation." ...
... progressed to blast crisis very early and thus required special interventions. Cytogenetic monitoring is an important pillar in ... Complex cytogenetic abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukemia resulting in early progression to blast crisis: a case report. * ... Management of CML-blast crisis. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2016;29(3):295-307. ... Complex cytogenetic abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukemia resulting in early progression to blast crisis: a case report ...
... August 1, 2014 By CCM Staff ... The San Jose Mercury News is blasting the government response to the border crisis of unaccompanied children, saying that "… ... Filed Under: Border Kids, Community, Courts Budget, National Tagged With: border crisis, Civil Courts, immigration crisis, ... You are here: Home / Border Kids / Mercury News Blasts Border Crisis Response ...
The Jelly Bean Crisis is officially on.. *** Praise for The Jelly Bean Crisis***. "The Jelly Bean Crisis is a heart warming and ... Book Blast Special***. Get your Kindle copy of The Jelly Bean Crisis for 99 cents!. http://www.amazon.com/The-Jelly-Bean-Crisis ... The Jelly Bean Crisis by Jolene Stockman. A total meltdown. The whole school watching. Now Poppys an ex-straight-A with no ... The Jelly Bean Crisis was instant love for me." - Book Briefs.. "Its a beautifully told story that youll be thinking about ...
Advisory panel blasts handling of Ebola crisis. 03:29. *. Putting a face on the Ebola workers. 03:19 ...
Atiku Abubakar has said Bola Tinubu has no clear ideas on how to solve the foreign exchange crisis, which has affected the ... "Rather, he told the country and experts who have been offering ideas on how to resolve the crisis that he and his team should ... Nigerias reserves did not have enough foreign exchange that can be sold freely at fair market prices during crises.. ... How we asked South West governors to create a crisis by boycotting FG in 1999 - Pa Adebanjo ...
Amid the economic crisis in Sri Lanka, civil activist Mohammed Fuzly, while speaking to The Quint, lashed out at the Rajapaksa ... Amid the economic crisis in Sri Lanka, civil activist Mohammed Fuzly, while speaking to The Quint, lashed out at the Rajapaksa ... Sri Lankan Protester Blasts Rajapaksas for Mismanagement, Corruption. He accused the state of robbing the national assets ... Recap: Sri Lankas Economic Crisis. Sri Lanka is going through an economic meltdown of a scale unseen since the countrys ...
Blast crisis. (n.d.). https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/blast-crisis. ... healthcare professionals call this a blast crisis. A person in this phase may experience tiredness, fever, and an enlarged ... Blastic phase: At least 20% of the cells in the blood and bone marrow are blast cells. If this number reaches more than 30%. , ... Chronic phase: Fewer than 10% of the cells in a persons blood or bone marrow sample are blast cells. At this point, a person ...
Send Emergency SMS in Crisis or Disaster Situations. Send text message alerts and mobilise people quickly in emergency ... Send an emergency text message blast through our dashboard - simply send quick SMS, enter your message and choose your ... Streamline communications alerts and blast emergency text messages to alert people to fires, volcano eruptions, earthquakes, ...
Rio Tinto CEO, top executives resign amid cave blast crisis. Date:. 11 Sep 2020. Content Type:. Article. ... Rio Tinto blasts 46,000-year-old Aboriginal site to expand iron ore mine. Date:. 28 May 2020. Content Type:. Article. ... Rio Tinto CEOs fate in balance as board to meet after blasting of Aboriginal site. Date:. 8 Sep 2020. Content Type:. Article. ... Test for the board: UK pension fund heaps pressure on Rio Tinto boss over Juukan Gorge blasts. Date:. 9 Sep 2020. Content Type ...
... blasted Biden for the border crisis and a lack of concern hes shown for how it is impacting citizens in the region. ... He said, instead of looking at all the other pictures of how the crisis is being managed, saying "But there are a thousand ... The Judge also went on to confront Biden and the media for surrounding the crisis with pictures of border control officials who ... Speaking to the border crisis, which has worsened since Haitian immigrants are now flooding into the United States, Tijerina ...
lymphoid blast crisis oncogene. non-oncogenic Rho GTPase-specific GTP exchange factor. protein kinase A-anchoring protein 13. ... These RefSeqs were suppressed for the cited reason(s). Suppressed RefSeqs do not appear in BLAST databases, related sequence ... links, or BLAST links (BLink), but may still be retrieved by clicking on their accession.version below. ...
Blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia. T-lymphoblastic cells of acute leukemia in the bone marrow Acute erythroid ... blast crisis) Wolach, O; Stone, R. M. (2015). "How I treat mixed-phenotype acute leukemia". Blood. 125 (16): 2477-85. doi: ...
Lewis Blasts Democrat "Do Nothing" Approach on Gas Price Crisis -. Apr 12, 2011 Press Release ...
However, progression to blast crisis (BC) still occurs especially in TKI-resistant patients and represents a clinical challenge ... Chimeric antigen-receptor (CAR)-engineered natural killer (NK) cells targeting chronic myeloid Leukemia (CML) blast crisis. ... Chimeric antigen-receptor (CAR)-engineered natural killer (NK) cells targeting chronic myeloid Leukemia (CML) blast crisis ... use of an NK cell-mediated CAR therapy strategy targeting CD25 which has been shown to be upregulated in CML blast crisis. The ...
Blast crisis. * Blasts ≥ 20% of peripheral blood WBCs or nucleated bone marrow cells ... Blasts comprising 10-19% of white blood cells (WBCs) in peripheral blood and/or nucleated bone marrow cells ... Blasts comprising 10-19% of white blood cells (WBCs) in peripheral blood and/or nucleated bone marrow cells ... National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend against using WHO definitions for accelerated or blast phase CML, ...
Former ICE Director Blasts Mayorkas Over Border Crisis, Says Hes Lying to the American People: Former Immigration and ... Border crisis has only worsened since Del Rio, Texas, invasion. Bidens border crisis has worsened in recent weeks due to a ... Bidens Mass Illegal Migration: Border Crisis Has Only Worsened Since Del Rio, Texas, Invasion; Former ICE Director Blasts ... Labels: -BOSMAN, Alejandro Mayorkas, Amnesty, border crisis, Border Security, build a wall, deportation, Donald Trump, illegal ...
The recommended dose of imatinib is 600 mg/day for adult patients in blast crisis. Blast crisis is defined as blasts ≥ 30% in ... Myeloid blast crisis: 260 patients with myeloid blast crisis were enrolled. 95 (37%) had received prior chemotherapy for ... Lymphoid blast crisis: a limited number of patients were enrolled in phase I studies (n=10). The rate of haematological ... However, some of these reactions may be serious or life-threatening and several patients with blast crisis died with a complex ...
Bannon Blasts The Biden Admin And Weak Republicans For The Border Crisis Started by GeorgiaPeach, 03-21-2024 07:37 PM ...
Lebanon was already mired in political and financial crisis before the blast. ... The financial crisis poses a mortal danger to the country; but it also represents an opportunity for political change. By Ishac ... In interview with Lena Bopp, writer Elias Khoury talks about the crisis and about the state of culture in his home country ... In a sign of the mistrust between Beirut and donors before the blast, debt default talks between the Lebanese government and ...
Blast Crisis; Polycythemia Vera; Pulmonary Fibrosis; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor;. Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; ... Blast Crisis; Polycythemia Vera; Pulmonary Fibrosis; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; ... Philadelphia Positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Myeloid Blast Crisis; Polycythemia Vera; Pulmonary Fibrosis; Recurrent Adult ...
HAWKINS/WALKER CAMPAIGN BLASTS DEMOCRATS MANUFACTURED CRISIS IN WISCONSIN. Sep 11, 2020 ...
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) if in Blast Crisis, evolution to AML. *Multiple Myeloma ...
Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) in blast crisis phase -Hodgkin lymphoma with stable or progressive disease -Mantle cell ... Low risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (,= 5% blasts, including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia) with adverse cytogenetics ( ...
The end result is that blast crisis has a dismal prognosis and even if you manage to get to the end of the pregnancy and ... If you use a TKI alone, youll probably get temporary control of their blast crisis, but youll put the fetus at risk. If you ... But nonetheless, you have to spell out the facts that if its very early in the pregnancy and theyre in blast crisis, you ... Fortunately, I have only ever seen one patient present with their CML in blast crisis at the time of their pregnancy. The ...
The condition consists of three phases: the chronic phase, the accelerated phase, and the blast phase (or blast crisis). In the ... In blast crisis, 30 percent or more of blood or bone marrow cells are myeloblasts. Signs and symptoms are most severe in this ... The most common genetic changes associated with progression to blast crisis include an extra copy of chromosome 8 (trisomy 8), ... play a role in the progression of the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia to the accelerated phase and blast crisis. ...
  • Speaking to Fox News on Thursday, Democratic Judge of Webb County (TX), Judge Tano Tijerina, blasted Biden for the border crisis and a lack of concern he's shown for how it is impacting citizens in the region. (american1.com)
  • Speaking to the border crisis, which has worsened since Haitian immigrants are now flooding into the United States, Tijerina said, "Biden fomented this and now he's alienated us. (american1.com)
  • The Judge also went on to confront Biden and the media for surrounding the crisis with pictures of border control officials who were on horseback. (american1.com)
  • Former Immigration and Customs Enforcement Director Tom Homan blasted Homeland Security Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas over the Biden administration's border crisis, declaring he is "lying to the American people. (rightspeak.net)
  • Once it progresses into the phase of blast crisis (CML-BP), the curative effect is poor, and the fatality rate is extremely high. (researchsquare.com)
  • The natural course of the disease includes a chronic phase (CP), an accelerated phase (AP) and a blast phase (BP). (researchsquare.com)
  • while in blast phase of CML (CML-BP), a large number of invasive primitive and immature cells accumulate [2]. (researchsquare.com)
  • However, some patients are still insensitive to TKIs or develop drug resistance, leading to an accelerated CML phase and/or blast phase. (researchsquare.com)
  • A recent study showed that miR-150 expression, was downregulated in the transition period between the CML chronic phase and the blast crisis [8]. (researchsquare.com)
  • In this phase, 10-19% of the cells in the blood or bone marrow are blast cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend against using WHO definitions for accelerated or blast phase CML, and instead recommend Modified MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) criteria for accelerated phase CML and International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) criteria for blast phase. (medscape.com)
  • adult and paediatric patients with Ph+ CML in chronic phase after failure of interferon-alpha therapy, or in accelerated phase or blast crisis. (medicines.org.uk)
  • The condition consists of three phases: the chronic phase, the accelerated phase, and the blast phase (or blast crisis). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers believe that additional genetic changes play a role in the progression of the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia to the accelerated phase and blast crisis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The blast phase leads to fulminant complications resembling those of acute leukemia, including sepsis and bleeding. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some patients progress directly from the chronic to the blast phase. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In a sign of the mistrust between Beirut and donors before the blast, debt default talks between the Lebanese government and International Monetary Fund had stalled in the absence of reforms. (qantara.de)
  • Economic suffered a hattrick of simultaneous events during 2020 loss and physical damage were estimated to be US$ 8 bil- - the economic crisis, the Beirut blast and the COVID-19 lion according to the World Bank ( 8 ). (who.int)
  • The response to the Beirut blast was the first funds, that fact is "private hospitals are owed US$ 1.3 bil- weakening in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. (who.int)
  • These findings led to the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, refractory anemia with excess of blast-1) in accordance with the WHO 2008 classification [ 1 ] and MDS with multilineage dysplasia in accordance with the 2016 revision of WHO classification [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Unlike most cancers, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is classified into phases rather than stages, based partly on the percentage of immature white blood cells (blasts) in peripheral blood and bone marrow. (medscape.com)
  • Fewer than 10% of the cells in a person's blood or bone marrow sample are blast cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • At least 20% of the cells in the blood and bone marrow are blast cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, as the condition progresses, immature white blood cells called myeloblasts (or blasts) accumulate in the blood and bone marrow. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In blast crisis, 30 percent or more of blood or bone marrow cells are myeloblasts. (medlineplus.gov)
  • platelet (Plt) count, 53.6 × 10 10 /L. A bone marrow smear showed 6.4% blasts and marked dysplasia of neutrophils and erythroid precursor cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Many Lebanese say the blast, blamed on a huge store of ammonium nitrate, highlighted the negligence of a corrupt political elite. (qantara.de)
  • Regardless of the tem, which has been historically disjointed first by the cause, the blast was devastating for the Lebanese health- civil war (1975-1990), and second by the arrival of signif- care system ( 7 ). (who.int)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that shocks and recover, its health system has continued its the blast caused damage to more than half of Beirut's slow decline and highlighted by events in 2020. (who.int)
  • We have shown here that IM induces autophagy in CML blast crisis cell lines, CML primary cells, and p210BCR/ABL-expressing myeloid precursor cells. (lu.se)
  • Taken together, the miR-181d/RBP2/p65 loop promotes CML blast transformation. (researchsquare.com)
  • President Trump added that the border crisis is "like a war, it's a military operation. (totalnews.com)
  • On the days following the blast, NGOs set up hotlines and walk-in clinics to support people suffering from mental distress, trauma and anxiety because of the explosion. (middleeasteye.net)
  • In a city where people were already experiencing an unprecedented economic crisis and political instability, the explosion at Beirut's port left many more lives in despair. (middleeasteye.net)
  • Doctors diagnose the stage of CML based on the number of leukemia cells, or blast cells, present in the blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Healthcare professionals will look at the number of leukemia cells, or blast cells, in the blood to determine which stage a person has reached. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • An emergency donor conference on Sunday for blast-stricken Lebanon raised pledges worth nearly 253 million euros ($298 million) for immediate humanitarian relief, the French presidency said. (qantara.de)
  • Lebanon was already mired in political and financial crisis before the blast. (qantara.de)
  • The International Monetary Fund said it was willing to redouble efforts to help Lebanon after the devastating blast, but said all of the country's institutions needed to show willingness to carry out reforms. (qantara.de)
  • Lebanon medical supplies within days of the blast ( 10 ). (who.int)
  • Lebanon is facing its worst economic crisis since the civ- tematic test and trace for symptomatic individuals as per il war. (who.int)
  • The PDP presidential candidate in the 2023 elections stated this against the backdrop of Tinubu's meeting last Thursday with governors and other stakeholders to address the Foreign Exchange crisis and the problem of economic downturn. (chronicle.ng)
  • NDP Housing critic Jenny Kwan (Vancouver East) and NDP Indigenous Services critic Lori Idlout (Nunavut) slammed the Liberals for consistently failing to solve the dire housing crisis in First Nations communities and say urgent action and investments are needed now. (ndp.ca)
  • Former Vice President Atiku Abubakar has said President Bola Tinubu has no clear ideas on how to solve the foreign exchange crisis, which has affected the Naira and exacerbated the economic situation in the country. (chronicle.ng)
  • We present a case of a Tajik, Afghan patient with chronic myeloid leukemia with del(6)(q23.3q27), t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), monosomy 11, monosomy 12, and marker chromosome who, despite having typical clinical and hematological disease with initial response to therapy, progressed to blast crisis very early and thus required special interventions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The San Jose Mercury News is blasting the government response to the border crisis of unaccompanied children, saying that "… surely the United States will meet this hemisphere's crisis in a humane manner befitting its history" and outlining that the "policy" crisis is really a funding crisis. (californiacourtsmonitor.com)
  • Therefore, it is becoming urgent to explore the molecular mechanisms of blast crisis transition and develop new therapeutic targets. (researchsquare.com)
  • As millions of people face being hammered financially as the cost of living crisis bites, Ofgem announced plans to review the energy price cap every three months. (lbc.co.uk)
  • Atiku said Tinubu failed, yet again, to showcase any concrete policy step that his administration is taking to contain the crises of currency fluctuation and poverty that face the country. (chronicle.ng)
  • He opened the engine room door to investigate and was instantly hit in the face by a blast of hot smoke. (cdc.gov)
  • Biden's border crisis has worsened in recent weeks due to a massive invasion of illegal aliens in Del Rio, Texas. (rightspeak.net)
  • Moreover, the expression of miR-328 was lost in blast crisis of CML and its overexpression could promote cell differentiation and inhibit cell proliferation, by inducing the survival factor PIM1 and suppressing the binding between the translational regulator poly(rC)-binding protein hnRNP E2 and CEBPA [9]. (researchsquare.com)
  • belong to either cell_type.b_cell or cell_type.t_cell and do not belong to either Stage_1.normal_hsc or Stage_1.pre_blast_crisis. (lu.se)
  • Flow cytometric analysis showed that the blasts were positive for CD13, CD33, CD34, CD56, and HLA-DR, which was consistent with myeloblasts. (hindawi.com)
  • CDC's Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) manual was first published in 2002 to provide an approach to health communication during emergencies based on experience and psychological and communication sciences. (cdc.gov)
  • Send an emergency text message blast through our dashboard - simply send quick SMS, enter your message and choose your recipient list. (clicksend.com)
  • Nigeria's reserves did not have enough foreign exchange that can be sold freely at fair market prices during crises. (chronicle.ng)
  • In a span of eight days, more than 26,000 Haitian migrants arrived en masse and in a coordinated manner to Del Rio. (rightspeak.net)
  • Rather, he told the country and experts who have been offering ideas on how to resolve the crisis that he and his team should not be distracted and allowed time to continue cooking their cocktail that has brought untold hardship to the people of Nigeria. (chronicle.ng)
  • For Budget 2024, the Liberals have a chance to partner with all levels of government including First Nations, Inuit and Métis governments with sustainable long-term funding to address this crisis. (ndp.ca)
  • Why plan crisis communication? (cdc.gov)

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