Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Urinary Bladder, Overactive: Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Bladder Exstrophy: A birth defect in which the URINARY BLADDER is malformed and exposed, inside out, and protruded through the ABDOMINAL WALL. It is caused by closure defects involving the top front surface of the bladder, as well as the lower abdominal wall; SKIN; MUSCLES; and the pubic bone.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Administration, Intravesical: The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.Cystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Cystitis, Interstitial: A condition with recurring discomfort or pain in the URINARY BLADDER and the surrounding pelvic region without an identifiable disease. Severity of pain in interstitial cystitis varies greatly and often is accompanied by increased urination frequency and urgency.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Urinary Bladder Fistula: An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.Urinary Retention: Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Urinary Diversion: Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Gallbladder Emptying: A process whereby bile is delivered from the gallbladder into the duodenum. The emptying is caused by both contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter mechanism at the choledochal terminus.Hypogastric Plexus: A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Aminobiphenyl Compounds: Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Epispadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is above its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the top or the side of the PENIS, but the urethra can also be open the entire length of the penis. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is often between the CLITORIS and the labia, or in the ABDOMEN.Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Benzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.FANFT: A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Uroplakin III: A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IB to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Mandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Diagnostic Techniques, Urological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.Pudendal Nerve: A nerve which originates in the sacral spinal cord (S2 to S4) and innervates the PERINEUM, the external GENITALIA, the external ANAL SPHINCTER and the external urethral sphincter. It has three major branches: the perineal nerve, inferior anal nerves, and the dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).CresolsBCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Urinary Incontinence, Urge: Involuntary discharge of URINE that is associated with an abrupt and strong desire to void. It is usually related to the involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle of the bladder (detrusor hyperreflexia or detrusor instability).Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Urography: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Receptor, Muscarinic M3: A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Rats, Inbred F344Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Urethral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETHRA. Benign epithelial tumors of the urethra usually consist of squamous and transitional cells. Primary urethral carcinomas are rare and typically of squamous cells. Urethral carcinoma is the only urological malignancy that is more common in females than in males.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Urinary Incontinence, Stress: Involuntary discharge of URINE as a result of physical activities that increase abdominal pressure on the URINARY BLADDER without detrusor contraction or overdistended bladder. The subtypes are classified by the degree of leakage, descent and opening of the bladder neck and URETHRA without bladder contraction, and sphincter deficiency.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.New HampshireUrinary Reservoirs, Continent: Structures which collect and store urine and are emptied by catheterization of a cutaneous stoma or internal diversion to the urethra. The reservoirs are surgically created during procedures for urinary diversion.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Urological Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of urogenital conditions and diseases such as URINARY INCONTINENCE; PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA; and ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.BenzilatesDisease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Cystotomy: Surgical incision or puncture into a URINARY BLADDER. Cystotomy may be used to remove URINARY CALCULI, or to perform tissue repair and reconstruction.Dysuria: Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptor, Muscarinic M2: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Urachus: An embryonic structure originating from the ALLANTOIS. It is a canal connecting the fetal URINARY BLADDER and the UMBILICUS. It is normally converted into a fibrous cord postnatally. When the canal fails to be filled and remains open (patent urachus), urine leaks through the umbilicus.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Nocturia: Frequent URINATION at night that interrupts sleep. It is often associated with outflow obstruction, DIABETES MELLITUS, or bladder inflammation (CYSTITIS).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hair Dyes: Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.ButylaminesMice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Methylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Vesico-Ureteral Reflux: Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Swim bladder overexpansion[edit]. Barotrauma injury to tiger angelfish - head end. Note distended swim bladder and gas space in ... Williams, Kenneth Gabriel (1959). The New Frontier: Man's Survival in the Sky. Thomas. Retrieved 2008-07-28.. ... The swim bladder is an organ of buoyancy control which is filled with gas extracted from solution in the blood, and which is ... If the fish is brought upwards in the water column faster than the gas can be resorbed, the gas will expand until the bladder ...
"Then what is the nature of men? Blown-up bladders!" "Don't forget to exercise incredulity; for it is the sinews of the soul." ... P. W. Buckham, p. 245 Plato, Gorgias [505e]: "So that, in Epicharmus's phrase, 'what two men spake erewhile' I may prove I can ... "The best thing a man can have, in my view, is health." "The hand washes the hand: give something and you may get something." " ... "Trojan Men") Philoktetes ("Philoctetes") Choreuontes ("The Dancers") Chytrai ("The Pots") Reproducing a mid-4th century BC ...
Structure of the penis Male pelvic organs seen from right side. Vertical section of bladder, penis, and urethra. Bulbourethral ... The glands gradually diminish in size with advancing age.[unreliable source] Some human males may excrete sperm carried out of ... is one of two small exocrine glands in the reproductive system of many male mammals (of all domesticated animals, they are only ...
The veins of the right half of the male pelvis. Veins of the penis. Vertical section of bladder, penis, and urethra. Transverse ... "Male urogenital diaphragm." perineum at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (maleugtriangle4). ...
He died of bladder cancer in May 2009. "Fons Brijdenbach". Sports-Reference.com. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. ... "European Indoor Championships (Men)". GBR Athletics. Athletics Weekly. Retrieved 8 May 2009. "Wie was Fons Brydenbach?". ... "European Junior Championships (Men)". GBR Athletics. Athletics Weekly. Retrieved 8 May 2009. "Belgian Championships". GBR ... "1975 European Indoor Championships, men's 400 m semi-final". Die Leichtatletik-Statistik-Seite. Retrieved 8 May 2009. "Fons ...
Fundus of the bladder with the vesiculæ seminales. Vertical section of bladder, penis, and urethra. Prostate with seminal ... causing male infertility. Acquired obstructions can occur due to infections. To treat these causes of male infertility, sperm ... "The Male Pelvis: Distribution of the Peritoneum in the Male Pelvis" MedicalMnemonics.com: 2424 319 [dead link] Cross section ... Investigational attempts for male contraception have focused on the vas with the use of the intra vas device and reversible ...
In males, cryptorchidism is common. Abnormal genitalia in females is not a common feature. Renal abnormalities have been ... Horseshoe kidney and bladder diverticuli have been reported. Other abdominal malformations, including pyloric stenosis and ...
Muscles of male perineum. Muscles of the female perineum. Saggital (Vertical) section of bladder, penis, and urethra. ... "The Male Perineum and the Penis: The External Anal Sphincter" perineum at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown ...
They supply the bladder and terminal ureter. The two most prominent of them are superior vesical artery and Inferior vesical ... The inferior vesical artery is only found in males... ...
Primitive kidney and bladder, from a reconstruction. Stages in the development of the external sexual organs in the male and ...
In men, the prostate is removed. Pelvic exenteration is most commonly used in cases of very advanced or recurrent cancer, in ... The urinary bladder, urethra, rectum, and anus are removed. The procedure leaves the person with a permanent colostomy and ...
Men with IC/BPS may have prostatitis, and vice versa. Overactive bladder Trigger point-a key to myofascial pain syndrome. " ... terms currently in use in addition to IC/BPS include painful bladder syndrome, bladder pain syndrome and hypersensitive bladder ... Arora, Hans C.; Shoskes, Daniel A. (2017-02-12). "The enigma of men with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome". ... Research has shown a proliferation of nerve fibers is present in the bladders of people with IC which is absent in the bladders ...
The male has a peculiar "bladder" under the hindwing. Zimmerman, Elwood C. (1958). Insects of Hawaii. 8 Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea ...
5 drinks for men, per occasion). The bladder may rupture if overfilled and not emptied. This can occur in the case of binge ... Men are more likely to binge drink (up to 81 percent of alcohol binges are done by men) than women and men are also more likely ... Binge drinking is more common in men than it is in women. Among students in the US, approximately 50 percent of men and 39 ... 10 percent of women and 19 percent of men have reported being assaulted as a result of alcohol. Males who drink more than 35 ...
It can affect both males and females of any breed of cat. It is more commonly found in females cats; however, when males do ... This blockage can be from a bladder stone or a buildup of crystals, which are bacterial build up in the form of sand. These ... The main reason as to why feline cystitis is more dangerous in male cats is because their urethra is much narrower than females ... Feline cystitis means "inflammation of the bladder". The term idiopathic translates to unknown cause. This is because the ...
Only inflated males Donelson, Nathan C.; van Staaden, Moira J. (10 May 2005). "Alternate tactics in male bladder grasshoppers ... Adult males of most species acquire an inflated, bladder-like abdomen at the final molt. Their abdominal segments consist of a ... The body length of adult males vary from 11.5 to 68.0 mm, and that of females from 22.0 to 107 mm. Males of a particular ... Only inflated males P. miranda (Péringuey) Range: South Africa and Tanzania, Habitat: Forest Phenotype: Only inflated males ...
The bladder is in the middle behind the ventral sucker. The genus is hermaphrodite, as both male and female reproductive system ... Leiper RT (1913). "Observations on certain helminths of Man". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene ... from the caecum of an Assamese man in India. Their description of the internal structure was inaccurate and incomplete. They ... the amphistome parasite of man and pig". Journal of Helminthology. 46 (1): 35-46. PMID 5038423. Taxonomy at UniProt Taxonomy ...
Retrograde ejaculation empties the seminal fluid formed in the emission phase into the bladder of the male instead of expelling ... For example, a man may have a dry orgasm (termed Retrograde ejaculation); there is no expulsion of ejaculate however the man ... These muscle contractions are related to the sensations of orgasm for the male. Sperm is produced in the testes and enters the ... The functions of this fluid are not entirely known but are suggested to aid in lubricating the male urethra in preparation for ...
Cowan, K. M., Shutler, D., Herman, T. B., & Stewart, D. T. (2007). EXTREME MALE-BIASED INFECTIONS OF MASKED SHREWS BY BLADDER ... Since males have larger ranges they have a higher exposure to parasites (Cowan 2007). Masked shrews are opportunistic ...
The city revoked the liquor licenses of the bars, and undercover police officers worked to entrap as many homosexual men as ... He was being treated for bladder cancer. His funeral mass was offered by Cardinal William Wakefield Baum at St. Patrick's ... McFadden, Robert D. (February 17, 1991). "Mourners Recall Wagner as Man Of Subtle Grace". The New York Times. Retrieved January ... He had been suffering from bladder cancer. Max Abelson (February 12, 2007). "Wendy's Warren". The New York Observer. Retrieved ...
The anatomy of the human urinary system differs between males and females at the level of the urinary bladder. In males, the ... Urinary system in the male. Urine flows from the kidneys via the ureters into the bladder where it is stored. When urinating, ... The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra ... 1. Human urinary system: 2. Kidney, 3. Renal pelvis, 4. Ureter, 5. Urinary bladder, 6. Urethra. (Left side with frontal section ...
The recto-vesical pouch is the pocket that lies between the rectum and the urinary bladder in human males and other male ... "The Male Pelvis: Distribution of the Peritoneum in the Male Pelvis" Anatomy photo:44:st-1501 at the SUNY Downstate Medical ... In women, the uterus lies between the rectum and the bladder. Therefore, women do not have a recto-vesical pouch, but instead ... It is lined by peritoneum and at its base is the rectoprostatic fascia (Denonvillier's fascia). When a man is upright or supine ...
It is located in front of and below the urinary bladder. In males, the suspensory ligament of the penis attaches to the pubic ... "The Male Pelvis: Hemisection of the Male Pelvis" Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15-Plastination Laboratory at the ... Median sagittal section of male pelvis Median sagittal section of female pelvis Anterior view of the body pelvis from a ...
... effectively using the swim bladder as a resonating chamber. The sciaenids' large swim bladder is more expansive and branched ... The croaking mechanism is used by males as a mating call in some species. To produce the croaking sound, special muscles ... In some species the sonic muscle fibres are only present in males. These muscles strengthen during the mating season and are ... In those species that lack the ability to croak year-round, croaking is usually restricted to males for attracting mates. A ...
The large excretory bladder is in the middle, behind the ventral sucker. The species, being hermaphrodite, has both male and ... In 1876, T. R. Lewis and J. McConnell identified from the cæcum of an Assamese man in India and named it Amphistomum hominis. ... Leiper RT (1913). "Observations on certain helminths of Man". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene ... the amphistome parasite of man and pig". Journal of Helminthology. 46 (1): 35-46. PMID 5038423. Chai JY, Shin EH, Lee SH, Rim ...
Bullfrogs, such as the male American bullfrog and the male African bullfrog, stay with their tadpoles and protect them from ... Burrowing frogs are able to hold water in their bladder, because of this indigenous Australians use them to drink water.[15]p13 ... p10 Male frogs and toads may croak to attract a female. When a female frog has chosen a mate, the male frog hops on top of her ... Males release sperm to fertilize them. The eggs are laid one by one or in batches. Batches of eggs can look like a long chain ...
... is a urinary bladder disease of unknown cause characterised by pain associated with urination (dysuria), urinary frequency (as ... Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (commonly abbreviated to IC/PBS), ... Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (commonly abbreviated to "IC/PBS"), is a urinary bladder disease of unknown ... Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (commonly abbreviated to "IC/PBS"), is a urinary bladder disease of unknown ...
... state after bladder exstrophy) Peer Reviewed Pediatric Radiology Cases ... Urinary bladder after bladder augmentation with ileum patch ( ... Male Region-Organ:. Pelvis-Urinary bladder Most likely etiology ... Urinary bladder after bladder augmentation with ileum patch (state after bladder exstrophy). R Mund. Urinary bladder after ... Urinary bladder after bladder augmentation with ileum patch (state after bladder exstrophy). R Mund. Urinary bladder after ...
An anticipated minimum of 300 female patients, up to a maximum of 600 patients including males, are currently being enrolled at ... About Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS). IC/BPS is a chronic inflammatory bladder disease characterized by ... Aquinox Statement on FDA Advisory Committee Meeting to Discuss Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS). - Bone, ... The primary endpoint of the LEADERSHIP 301 trial is the difference in the change from baseline in the maximum daily bladder ...
Results: Males were overrepresented in all subgroups. A relatively high prevalence of cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, ... keywords = "BEEC, Bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex, CBE, CE, CL-P, Classic bladder exstrophy, Cleft lip with or without ... Results: Males were overrepresented in all subgroups. A relatively high prevalence of cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, ... Results: Males were overrepresented in all subgroups. A relatively high prevalence of cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, ...
Urine travels from the bladder through the urethra to be excreted from the body. ... Urine travels from the bladder through the urethra to be excreted from the body. ...
... injury to bladder, kidney stone formation, bladder incontinence (inability to hold urine) and others. If the bladder is ... Lately whenever I hold my bladder or I feel as if i need to pee I develop a soreness right under my bladder like something ... Sometimes a man does not suspect that he suffers from compression of the urethra to the point where he turns completely unable ... Most symptoms of BPH are caused by pressing the urethra and bladder changes. The most common are: - Difficulty urinating - ...
If you had bladder cancer, would you know the symptoms? WebMD explains the signs that indicate you might have this rare ... Articles OnBladder Cancer. Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - What Are the Symptoms of Bladder Cancer? * What Is Bladder Cancer? ... American Cancer Society: "Signs and Symptoms of Bladder Cancer." American Society of Clinical Oncology: "Bladder Cancer: ... If you have bladder cancer, the blood eventually comes back. In some cases, you cant see blood in your urine. Your doctor or ...
Learning how to control the urge to urinate may be all the therapy men need to treat an overactive bladder, a new study ... The trial of 204 men with overactive bladder suggests behavioral therapy may be a good way to start treatment, the study ... The study provides good evidence that for the group of men with overactive bladder, symptoms without obstruction from an ... Many medications typically prescribed for overactive bladder have significant side effects, especially in older men using ...
Learn about common bladder problems in men and what you can do about them. ... Bladder problems in men, most involving urination, are more common than you may think. ... Who Treats Bladder Problems? Because a number of problems can affect the bladder, several types of doctors treat bladder ... About 30% of men in the United States have overactive bladder (OAB). OAB is the name for a group of symptoms related to ...
But then again, Im not sure that this is a bladder infection.. My reasons for thinking it is a bladder infection of some type ... Bladder pain sucks arse. July 18, 2010 3:54 PM Subscribe. Odd soreness in the pelvic area. Yes, I will talk to a doctor, but ... Oh, the Gall (Bladder)! July 4, 2010. What in gods name could be wrong with my kidney,... April 27, 2009. adult tonsillectomy ... Im gonna guess bladder infection, because of your increasing need to pee. If so, the clinicll know in moments and get you on ...
Male bladder anatomy. Male bladder anatomy. Urine travels from the bladder through the urethra to be excreted from the body.. ...
Fluid intake affects the risk of bladder cancer in men BMJ 1999; 318 :1372 ... Fluid intake affects the risk of bladder cancer in men. BMJ 1999; 318 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.318.7195.1372 (Published ... A clear link between increased fluid intake and a decreased risk of bladder cancer has been shown in a paper in the New England ...
About 2 months ago under the glans of my penis there appeared two blood-filled bladders (or bumps, or papules... I dont know ... Bladders under glans of the penis nogitsune Hello. At the beginning I want to apologize for my bad medical English. About 2 ... At least thats how it appears to me... The bladders arent visible when penis is flaccid, but in either state they are ... Create an account to receive updates on: Bladders under glans of the penis ...
Are the symptoms of bladder cancer different in men and women? Well tell you key stats about this condition and when to see a ... Men are three to four times more likely to develop bladder cancer than women. Caucasian men have the greatest risk. Read on to ... Bladder cancer. Most of the time, bladder cancer begins in the inner wall of the lining of the bladder (urothelium or ... Stage 4 bladder cancer is also known as metastatic bladder cancer. Its a serious form of bladder cancer, but there are ...
... setting the stage perfectly for a bladder rupture, doctors say. ... Drinking can lead to both a very full bladder, and a dimmed ... Off the Deep End: Mans Drunken Lake Dive Bursts His Bladder. By Stephanie Pappas 2015-10-22T19:07:06Z. Health ... A day of beer and boating went sour for one young man in Maine, who ended up bursting his bladder when he dove into a lake. ... The man couldnt make himself pee, and a catheter inserted into his bladder revealed urine filled with blood, doctors Matthew ...
The case studies of bladder tumors occurring in two young men occupationally exposed to 4,4-methylenebis(2-chloroanaline) ( ... The case studies of bladder tumors occurring in two young men occupationally exposed to 4,4-methylenebis(2-chloroanaline) ( ... The tumors were detected in two nonsmoking males under the age of 30. One subject was a 28 year old man who was found to have ... The other subject was a 29 year old man who was offered cystoscopy because of his history of exposure to MBOCA; a papillary ...
Elmedical for bladder cancer. Men suffering from a different problem "down there" - non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC ... Hope for men with bladder and prostate problems. Two promising Israeli treatments target common conditions affecting millions ... If youre a man over the age of 50, the chance that youll get BPH is 50 percent. By the time you reach 80, the risk jumps to ... Read more on: debilitating, incision, invasive, Biodan, ArgoMed, European Union, ProArc Medical, Elmedical, bladder cancer, BPH ...
Inset of the bladder, prostate, and urethra, showing urine flow from the bladder through the catheter ... with labels pointing to the bladder, penis, drainage pouch strapped to one leg, and the inserted Foley catheter. ... Male body with inset showing urine flow from the bladder through catheter. View full-sized image Download Media Please credit ... Drawing of a male body, with labels pointing to the bladder, penis, drainage pouch strapped to one leg, and the inserted Foley ...
... to remove a melon-sized calcium stone from a mans bladder (video below). Maheshbhai Rasikbhai Patel, 49, was suffering ... Doctors Use Crowbar To Remove Stone From Mans Bladder. Author:. David Bonner. Updated:. Mar 6, 2018. Original:. Apr 12, 2017. ... Surgeons in India had to use a crowbar to remove a melon-sized calcium stone from a man's bladder (video below). ... Surgery revealed a stone measuring 4.5 inches by 6.7 inches in his bladder, which took one-and-a-half hours to remove. Video ...
Bladder cancer is twice as common in males as it is in females. In the US, bladder cancer is the fourth most common type of ... Frankincense Oil -- A Wise Mans Remedy For Bladder Cancer. *March 18, 2009 ... human bladder cancer cells and normal bladder cells. The team found that frankincense oil is able to discriminate between ... Now, an enriched extract of the Somalian Frankincense herb Boswellia carteri has been shown to kill off bladder cancer cells. ...
... June 29, 2018 Mounting evidence indicates that ... Mid-stream urine was collected from 31 male patients with bladder cancer and 18 non-neoplastic controls. DNA was extracted from ... A better understanding of the role of microbiome in the development and progression of bladder cancer could pave a new way for ... However, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of urinary microenvironment of bladder cancer has not been yet reported. We ...
Cystoscopy with bladder biopsies is generally performed as an outpatient procedure with the patient under general anesthesia. ... Cystoscopy is the primary diagnostic modality for the diagnosis of bladder carcinoma because it confers low risk and allows the ... The urinary tract distal to the bladder-the shorter urethra in women or the longer urethra in men, with its prostatic, bulbar, ... Cystoscopy Techniques for Men. Men are most easily evaluated with a flexible cystoscope (see the image below). Modern versions ...
While older men are the most likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer, imagine our surprise when BCAN met Mike Bartlett and ... Many think bladder cancer is just a disease of older people. They can have their bladder removed, and they will have a ... Lynn Zito shared her reflections on her husband Jims experience with bladder cancer. I dont think people take bladder cancer ... Matthews Bladder Cancer Journey. 2016 was the scariest year of my life. I urinated blood around Christmas in 2015, and a CAT ...
How many uncomplicated male and female overactive bladder patients reveal detrusor overactivity during urodynamic study?. ... The association between overactive bladder symptoms and objective parameters from bladder diary and filling cystometry. ... How many uncomplicated male and female overactive bladder patients reveal detrusor overactivity during urodynamic study?. ... Control of bladder function by peripheral nerves: avenues for novel drugs targets. Urology 2004; 63 (Suppl. 3A): 24-31. * ...
Measurement characteristics of a voiding diary for use by men and women with overactive bladder.. Brown JS1, McNaughton KS, ... is reliable and appears to be valid for documenting the change in symptoms of overactive bladder in men and women with ... Men and women reported a daily average of approximately 10 micturitions, 7 occurrences of strong urge, and 2 episodes of urge ... Voiding diaries serve as the primary tool to assess symptoms of overactive bladder in clinical settings and in clinical trials ...
  • Pediatric Urology Midwest Alliance (PUMA) 2019, ' Probability of Bladder Augmentation, Diversion and Clean Intermittent Catheterization in Classic Bladder Exstrophy: A 36-Year, Multi-Institutional, Retrospective Cohort Study ', The Journal of urology , vol. 202, no. 6, pp. 1256-1262. (elsevier.com)
  • AQXP ), a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company discovering and developing targeted therapeutics in disease areas of inflammation and immuno-oncology, today issued the following statements following the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bone, Reproductive, and Urologic Drugs Advisory Committee meeting on interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). (globenewswire.com)
  • At the meeting, the panel voted 15 to 0 that patients with interstitial cystitis and patients with bladder pain syndrome should be combined in clinical trials. (globenewswire.com)
  • The LEADERSHIP 301 trial, which commenced enrollment in September 2016, is a three-arm, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 3 clinical trial investigating the ability of 200 mg and 100 mg oral, once daily rosiptor (AQX-1125) to reduce bladder pain in patients with IC/BPS. (globenewswire.com)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included children born from 1980 to 2016 with bladder exstrophy and treated across 5 centers (exclusion criteria less than 1 year followup after birth, isolated epispadias, bladder exstrophy variants etc). (elsevier.com)
  • Objective: To identify genetic and nongenetic risk factors that contribute to the severity of the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC). (elsevier.com)
  • On survival analysis the probability of bladder augmentation/diversion was 14.9% by age 5 years, 50.7% by 10 years and 70.1% by 18 years. (elsevier.com)
  • Probability of bladder augmentation/diversion varied significantly between centers (p=0.01). (elsevier.com)
  • Probability of bladder augmentation/diversion was 60.7% 10 years after bladder neck procedure. (elsevier.com)
  • Probability of bladder augmentation/diversion differed among institutions. (elsevier.com)
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