Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses, infecting mainly MAMMALS, and containing a single genus: POLYOMAVIRUS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China since December 20, 1999 with its own constitution. The island of Macau and adjacent islands are located off the southeast coast of China.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Biological activities of viruses and their interactions with the cells they infect.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
A method of simultaneously imaging and measuring elements at the submicron level. Nuclear microscopy uses a focused high-energy ion beam of PROTONS and ALPHA PARTICLES (a nuclear microprobe) to interact with the sample. The resulting emitted radiations are analyzed by a group of techniques simultaneously: PARTICLE INDUCED X RAY EMISSION SPECTROMETRY for minor and trace element identification; Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy to assess sample thickness and bulk elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy to assess sample structure and density.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.

A possible contributory role of BK virus infection in neuroblastoma development. (1/481)

The tumor suppressor protein p53 is aberrantly localized to the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells, compromising the suppressor function of this protein. Such tumors are experimentally induced in transgenic mice expressing the large tumor (T) antigen of polyomaviruses. The oncogenic mechanisms of T antigen include complex formation with, and inactivation of, the tumor suppressor protein p53. Samples from 18 human neuroblastomas and five normal human adrenal glands were examined. BK virus DNA was detected in all neuroblastomas and none of five normal adrenal glands by PCR. Using DNA in situ hybridization, polyomaviral DNA was found in the tumor cells of 17 of 18 neuroblastomas, but in none of five adrenal medullas. Expression of the large T antigen was detected in the tumor cells of 16 of 18 neuroblastomas, but in none of the five adrenal medullas. By double immunostaining BK virus T antigen and p53 was colocalized to the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Immunoprecipitation revealed binding between the two proteins. The presence and expression of BK virus in neuroblastomas, but not in normal adrenal medulla, and colocalization and binding to p53, suggest that this virus may play a contributory role in the development of this neoplasm.  (+info)

Concerted expression of BK virus large T- and small t-antigens strongly enhances oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. (2/481)

Previous studies have shown that the human polyomavirus BK (BKV) genome contains an oestrogen response element (ERE). This isolated element binds its cognate receptor in vitro and can mediate 17beta-oestradiol-induced gene expression when linked to a heterologous promoter. The roles of the ERE- and the AP-1-binding sites in oestrogen receptor-directed transcription from the complete BKV promoter/enhancer (Dunlop strain) have been examined and the effects of the general co-activator CBP and large T- and small t-antigens on oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription have been investigated. A constitutive activated oestrogen receptor stimulated BKV promoter activity in HeLa cells. Mutations in either the ERE- or the AP-1-binding sites did not impair oestrogen receptor-induced activation of the BKV Dunlop promoter, while mutations in both binding motifs almost completely abolished oestrogen receptor-induced transcription. Simultaneous expression of large T- and small t-antigens strongly activated oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. When expressed separately, only large T-antigen moderately stimulated oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. The stimulatory effect of large T-antigen on the activity of the oestrogen receptor is probably indirect because no physical interaction between the two proteins was detected in a two-hybrid assay. Large T-antigen abrogated the synergistic effect on transcription between this nuclear receptor and the general co-activator CBP. The findings that the BKV early proteins amplify oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription may have important biological implications in individuals with raised oestrogen concentrations.  (+info)

Morphological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural characterization of tumors and dysplastic and non-neoplastic lesions arising in BK virus/tat transgenic mice. (3/481)

To study the role in AIDS pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein, a transactivator of viral and cellular genes, we generated transgenic mice with a recombinant DNA containing BK virus (BKV) early region and the HIV-1 tat gene, directed by its own promoter-enhancer. DNA hybridization revealed that the transgene is stably maintained in all organs of transgenic mice as a tandem insertion in a number of copies ranging from 5 to 20 per cell. In addition, tat and BKV RNA were expressed in all tissues. Transgenic mice developed three types of lesions: 1) tumors, 2) hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions, and 3) non-neoplastic lesions. Tumors of different histotypes, such as lymphomas, adenocarcinomas of skin glands, leiomyosarcomas, skin squamous cell carcinomas, hepatomas, hepatocarcinomas, and cavernous liver hemangiomas, developed in 29% of transgenic animals. The majority of tumors were malignant, invasive, and producing metastases. Conversely, tumors of only two histotypes (lymphomas and adenocarcinomas of skin glands) appeared in control mice. Hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions were more frequent in transgenic than in control mice and involved the skin or its adnexes, the liver and the rectum, indicating multiple targets for the activity of the transgene. Pyelonephritis, frequently complicated with hydronephrosis, inflammatory eye lesions, and amyloid depositions represented the most frequent non-neoplastic lesions detected in transgenic mice. Many of the pathological findings observed in this animal model are comparable to similar lesions appearing in AIDS patients, suggesting a relevant role for Tat in the pathogenesis of such lesions during the course of AIDS.  (+info)

BK and JC viruses in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalent and persistent BK viruria, sequence stability of the viral regulatory regions, and nondetectable viremia. (4/481)

A role for polyomaviruses in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been suggested. BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) were demonstrated in single urine specimens from 7 (16%) of 44 and 5 (11%) of 44 patients with SLE and 0/88 and 18 (21%) of 88 matched healthy controls, respectively. During a 1-year follow-up study, episodes of polyomaviruria were detected in 16 (80%) of 20 patients, BKV in 13, and JCV in 3 patients. A group of 12 (60%) of 20 patients demonstrated persistent or recurrent polyomaviruria, BKV viruria (n=9), or JCV viruria (n=3) in 180 (70%) of 256 specimens. Polyomaviruria was not significantly associated with immunosuppressive therapy. The BKV and JCV isolates revealed predominantly stable archetypal regulatory regions over 3 years, indicating viral persistence rather than reinfection as a cause for urinary shedding. The demonstration of nondetectable viremia and stable archetypal BKV and JCV noncoding control regions during persistent viruria argue against the urinary tract as a focus for the creation of rearranged regulatory region variants.  (+info)

JC and BK virus sequences are not detectable in leukaemic samples from children with common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. (5/481)

Epidemiological evidence suggests that childhood leukaemia, and possibly common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in particular, may have an infectious aetiology. Smith (1997 J Immunother 20: 89-100) recently suggested that the critical infectious event occurs during pregnancy, and identified the polyoma virus JC as a candidate agent. In the present study we investigated whether genomes from the JC virus, and closely related BK virus, could be detected in leukaemic cells. No positive results were obtained suggesting that JC virus is unlikely to play a direct role in leukaemogenesis.  (+info)

Comparison of antibody titers determined by hemagglutination inhibition and enzyme immunoassay for JC virus and BK virus. (6/481)

A comparison of antibody titers to JC virus (JCV) or BK virus (BKV) was made by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with 114 human plasma samples. Antibody titers to JCV or BKV determined by HI were lower than those determined by EIA. Nevertheless, as HI titers increased so did EIA titers. When antibody data were compared by the Spearman rank correlation test, highly significant correlations were found between HI and EIA titers. Results obtained by plotting EIA antibody titers for JCV against those for BKV generally showed a reciprocal relationship, i.e., samples with high antibody titers to JCV had lower antibody titers to BKV and vice versa. Some samples, however, had antibody titers to both viruses. Of the samples tested, 25.4% (25 of 114) had HI and EIA antibody titers to JCV and BKV which were identical or closely related. This is not the scenario one would expect for cross-reactive epitopes shared by the two viruses, but one suggesting that these samples were from individuals who had experienced infections by both viruses. Adsorption with concentrated JCV or BKV antigen of sera with high antibody titers to both JCV and BKV and testing by JCV and BKV EIA gave results which support this conclusion. Although 52.6% (51 of 97) of the samples from the Japanese population tested had very high antibody titers (>/=40,960) to either JCV or BKV, none of the samples were found by a dot blot immunoassay to have antibodies which cross-reacted with simian virus 40. The results from this study, in agreement with those of others, suggest that humans infected by JCV or BKV produce antibodies to species-specific epitopes on their VP1 capsid protein, which is associated with hemagglutination and cellular binding.  (+info)

Polyomaviruria in renal transplant patients is not correlated to the cold ischemia period or to rejection episodes. (7/481)

Polyomaviruria was observed in one-third of all renal transplant patients, irrespective of whether their renal grafts came from a living or cadaver donor, and was not correlated to graft rejection episodes. This suggests that the renal graft ischemia period is not the major cause of polyomavirus reactivation and that reactivation of polyomavirus is not a dominant cause of graft rejection.  (+info)

Documenting the epidemiologic patterns of polyomaviruses in human populations by studying their presence in urban sewage. (8/481)

This is the first description, to our knowledge, of the distribution of human polyomavirus and simian virus 40 (SV40) in urban sewage. Using a nested-PCR procedure, we report the detection of human polyomaviruses JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) but not SV40 in a high percentage of urban sewage samples obtained from widely divergent geographical areas in Europe and Africa. For a total of 28 samples analyzed, JCV was detected in 26, BKV was detected in 22, and none was positive for SV40. All geographical areas showed a high prevalence of these viruses with mean estimated values of JC viral particles per ml on the order of 10(3) in Barcelona (Spain) and Nancy (France) and 10(2) in Pretoria (South Africa) and Umea (Sweden) and mean values of BK viral particles on the order of 10(2) in Pretoria and Barcelona and 10(1) in Nancy and Umea. This compares with estimated mean values of 10(2) to 10(3) for human adenovirus that was evaluated as a control. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified DNA from some of the samples is also presented and represents the sequence of the most abundant JC and BK viral strains in these samples. The nucleotide sequence of the JCV detected was also analyzed in a phylogenetic study and for genomic characterization in the regulatory region. This study has shown that human polyomaviruses are spread in high concentrations in the sewage of different geographical areas and are present in contaminated environments. The frequency and concentration of JCV detected in the environment and the absence of described animal hosts suggest that JCV may be useful as a marker for fecal pollution of anthropogenic origin. The results also support the idea previously described that the strains of JCV are closely related to the ethnic origin of the population studied. The procedure applied should also be useful in future studies of population patterns of viral excretion and as a tool in epidemiological studies for the detection of changes in the prevalence of specific viral pathogens.  (+info)

Background: The study evaluated the relationship of pretransplantation BK virus (BKV)-specific donor and recipient serostatus to posttransplantation BKV infection., Methods: Two hundred forty adult de novo kidney-only recipients and 15 pediatric recipients were prospectively enrolled and followed for a minimum of 18 months. Pretransplantation BKV serostatus was available for 192 adult and 11 pediatric donor-recipient pairs. Based on BKV-specific IgG enzyme immunoassay ,=8 units, subjects were divided into four groups: D+R+, D+R-, D-R+, and D-R-. BKV DNA surveillance was performed at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcomes studied were development of any BKV infection, viremia, and significant viremia (,=10,000 copies/mL plasma)., Results: Of the 192 adult subjects (D+R- [n=41], D+R+ [n=42], D-R+ [n=41], and D-R- [n=68]), 89 of 192 developed any BKV infection and 62 of 89 developed BK insignificant viremia (n=33) and significant viremia (n=29). Any BKV infection developed in 25 of 41, 22 of 42, ...
The cis-acting elements for the early and late promoters, as well as the enhancer in the prototype strains of human polyomavirus BK (BKV) are located within a 500 bp intergenic region. We previously studied the specificity of protein binding in this region in vitro and showed that the interaction of proteins of the nuclear factor-1 (NF-1) family is crucial for early promoter activity. We have now extended our study to the BKV late promoter. We show that the late promoter activity in HeLa cell extracts is poor compared to the activity of the early promoter. Using a high template to protein ratio, multiple start sites were detected by primer extension analysis. DNase I protection experiments revealed the presence of three NF-1 binding sites in the late side, in addition to those identified previously in the 68 bp repeats and C element. Competition transcription assays using binding sites for NF-1, AP-1, Sp-1 and a complete 68 bp repeat indicated that only the 68 bp repeat and the NF-1 binding site
TY - JOUR. T1 - Results of repeat renal transplantation after graft loss from BK virus nephropathy. AU - Geetha, Duvuru. AU - Sozio, Stephen M.. AU - Ghanta, Mythili. AU - Josephson, Michelle. AU - Shapiro, Ron. AU - Dadhania, Darshana. AU - Hariharan, Sundaram. PY - 2011/10/15. Y1 - 2011/10/15. N2 - Background.: BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is an important cause of renal graft loss in recent years. The aims of this study are to (1) describe the management of patients undergoing retransplantation after allograft loss in the setting of BKVN and (2) to identify risk factors for BK virus replication in the retransplant. Methods.: This retrospective study compiled data on adult patients undergoing repeat transplantation after previous loss of allograft to BKVN from six US centers. Clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic data for both the transplant that failed because of BKVN and the retransplant were abstracted and reviewed. Results.: A total of 31 patients underwent retransplantation after a ...
Human polyomavirus BK (BKPyV) is the aetiological agent of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) and of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) while human polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) is associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). However, JCPyV can give rise to PVAN and HC and BKPyV has been detected in cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF) from patients with Central Nervous System (CNS) disease, including PML. During the period 1998- 2011, 2,406 CSF samples from patients with suspected JCPyV infection were tested for the presence of BKPyV, JCPyV, and SV40 large T antigen DNA by a multiplex PCR assay in the National Centre of Microbiology. Twenty neurological patients with at least one BKPyV DNApositive CSF specimen were identified. Firstly, an internally-controlled multiplex real-time PCR was developed and showed to be suitable for the diagnosis of polyomavirus BK and JC infection, providing a sensitive, reproducible and specific quantification of the viral load of both viruses in samples ...
Factors determining the course of BK viral (BKV) infection remain uncertain. We studied the role of BKV subtype distribution in BKV-infected patients after renal transplantation.-. We performed genotyping of BKV subtypes in 180 BKV-infected renal transplant recipients with BKV nephropathy (BKVN, n=69), BKV viremia (n=94), BKV viruria alone (n=17), and in 29 healthy adults and 11 dialysis patients with spontaneous BKV replication in urine. We then tested, if the frquency of certain subtypes corresponded to the severity of the infection: BKV nephropathy, BKV high viremia (,10000 copies/mL), or BKV low viremia (,10000 copies/mL). -. Ib-2 was the most frequent BKV subtype (135/220. 61%) and subtype IV the second in frequency (50/220, 23%); Ib-1 (10%), Ia (5%), II and III (1%) were less frequent. Subtype IV-infected patients had more often BKVN and/or high viremia of ,10000 copies/mL than patients with other subtypes (31/38 versus 78/125, p=0.02). Patients with low viremia of ,10000 copies/mL were ...
This is a unique case of BK virus infection associated with HC in a LT recipient. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this association. The prevalence of BK viremia and viruria in LT recipients is low when compared to other solid organ transplant recipients.5 The prevalence of BK viruria in LT recipients has been reported to be 7.8% compared to 26.5% in kidney transplant recipients and 25.5% in heart transplant recipients. The prevalence of BK viremia was 0% in LT compared to 12.2% in kidney transplant recipients and 7% in heart transplant recipients.6. The risk factors that have been identified for BK virus infection in LT recipients include CKD, immunosuppression and previous episode(s) of rejection.7,8 One study found that LT recipients with a history of rejection had BK viremia more frequently (40%) than those without rejection (10.6%).8 Although immunosuppression is a risk factor for BK virus infection, none of the studies have identified any specific immunosuppressive ...
BK polyomavirus (BKV) is widespread among humans, asymptomatically infecting children and then persisting in renal tissue. The transcriptional control region (TCR) of the BKV genome is variable among clinical isolates. Thus, archetypal TCRs with a common basic configuration generally occur in BKV isolates from the urine of immunocompromised patients, but rearranged TCRs that possibly arise from the archetypal configuration have also been detected in clinical specimens. To examine the hypothesis that archetypal strains represent wild-type strains circulating in the human population (the archetype hypothesis), we analysed 145 complete viral genomes amplified directly from the urine of non-immunocompromised individuals worldwide. These genomes included 82, three, two and 58 sequences classified as belonging to subtypes I, II, III and IV, respectively. Rearranged TCRs with long duplications or deletions were detected from two subtype I and two subtype IV genomes, but not from the other 141 genomes (thus,
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The BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is one of the main human polyomaviruses. After primary infection, it establishes a persistent infection, and acts as an opportunistic pathogen, innocuous in immunocompetent hosts, but causing potentially serious pathology in the context of immunosuppression, in particular in kidney and hematopoietic stem cell graft recipients. Much progress has been made in recent years in the description of virus-cell interactions, but many aspects of viral physiopathology remain mysterious, principally due to the asymptomatic nature of infection in immunocompetent individuals and the lack of an animal model. The characteristics of the antiviral immune response are beginning to become more clearly understood, particularly in kidney transplant patients. Work in these areas is important in order to identify patients at high risk of developing a severe infection. Indeed, in the absence of an effective antiviral therapy few therapeutic options are available, and patient management ...
QBK : Polyomaviruses are small (45 nm, approximately 5,000 bp), DNA-containing viruses and include 3 closely related viruses of clinical significance: Simian virus 40 (SV-40), JC virus (JCV), and BK virus (BKV). SV-40 naturally infects rhesus monkeys but can infect humans, while BKV and JCV cause productive infection only in humans.(1,2) Acquisition of BKV begins in infancy. Serological evidence of infection by BKV is present in 37% of individuals by 5 years of age and over 80% of adolescents.   BKV is an important cause of interstitial nephritis and BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) in recipients of kidney transplants. Up to 5% of renal allograft recipients can be affected at about 40 weeks (range 6-150) posttransplantation.(3) Quantitative PCR analysis of BKV DNA in the plasma is the most widely used blood test for the laboratory diagnosis of BKV-associated nephropathy. Importantly, the presence of BKV DNA in blood reflects the dynamics of the disease: the conversion of plasma from negative
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and management of BK virus (BKV) reactivation following renal transplantation continues to be a significant clinical problem. Following reactivation of latent virus, impaired cellular immunity enables sustained viral replication to occur in urothelial cells, which potentially leads to the development of BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN). Current guidelines recommend regular surveillance for BKV reactivation through the detection of infected urothelial cells in urine (decoy cells) or viral nucleic acid in urine or blood. However, these methods have variable sensitivity and cannot routinely distinguish between different viral subtypes. We therefore asked whether mass spectrometry might be able to overcome these limitations and provide an additional non-invasive technique for the surveillance of BKV and identification of recipients at increased risk of BKVAN. RESULTS: Here we describe a mass spectrometry (MS)-based method for the detection of BKV derived proteins directly
Changes in allograft function and allograft survival rate after BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) diagnosis. (A) Allograft function deteriorated after BKV
Increased risk of infections and possible malignancies (eg, lymphoma, skin); kidney graft thrombosis; nephrotoxicity; and mortality in heart transplantation. Use in heart transplantation: not recommended. Avoid sun, UV light. Severe hepatic impairment or hereditary disorders (eg, galactose intolerance, Lapp lactase deficiency, glucose-galactose malabsorption): not recommended. Diabetes. Obtain everolimus, cyclosporine and tacrolimus whole blood concentrations periodically (see full labeling); and trough concentrations during dose adjustments. Monitor CBCs, renal function, urine protein, lipids, blood glucose; and for pneumonitis and serious (eg, bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal) including opportunistic infections; polyoma virus infections (eg, BK virus-associated nephropathy, and JC virus-associated progressive multiple leukoencephalopathy). Antimicrobial prophylaxis for PCP and CMV recommended. Embryo-fetal toxicity. Pregnancy; avoid. Females of reproductive potential should use highly ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full-length recombinant BKV VP1. BKV VP1 (YP_717939.1, 1 a.a. ~ 369 a.a) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (MAB3204-M14) - Products - Abnova
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Our standard of care has been changed from Thymoglobulin to Simulect and now patients were enrolled in this observational trial to gather data on their outcomes related to BK viremia and rejection rates. Two groups of patients were compared.. Retrospective (historical or control) group of subjects: patients who had received a kidney transplant and were inducted with Thymoglobulin prior to study initiation.. Prospective group of subjects: patients who is scheduled to receive kidney transplant and will be inducted with Simulect (Basiliximab).. Inductions in both groups was/is Standard of Care at a time of treatment. ...
This trial investigated the tolerability and pharmacokinetics of CMX 001 in transplant recipients with BK virus infections. The primary outcome was tolerability
Since the cloning of the BK B1 receptor in 1994 by Menke et al., several groups have begun to determine the transduction mechanisms involved in its induction (Bachvarov et al., 1996; Yang and Polgar, 1996; Ni et al., 1998; Schanstra et al., 1998;Phagoo et al., 2001). The 5′-flanking region of the human BK B1 receptor gene bears putative NF-κB as well as activator protein-1 binding motifs, a promoter organization consistent with an activation by cytokines, such as IL-1β or TNF-α (Bachvarov et al., 1996). Using transfected cultured cells, Ni et al. (1998) have demonstrated that NF-κB is involved in the inducible expression of the human BK B1 receptor gene during inflammatory processes. In resting cells, NF-κB is held inactive in the cytosol by association with inhibitory proteins of the I-κB family (Baldwin, 1996). When the NF-κB pathway is activated by agents such as lipopolysaccharide, IL-1β, and TNF-α, a phosphorylation-dependent proteolytic degradation of I-κB is initiated, ...
MACS GMP PepTivator BKV LT is a peptide pool that consists mainly of 15-mer peptides with 11 amino acids overlap. It has been developed for efficient in vitro stimulation and subsequent isolation of BKV LT-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. - Belgique
The BK1 file. We collected the information you should know about the .BK1 file on this page. If you were sent a .BK1 file in an e-mail, but you dont know what to do with it, then you can find help here.
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Results Twenty-five patients developed hemorrhagic cystitis. Pre-transplant BK viruria detected by quantitative PCR was positive in 96 patients. The one-year cumulative incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis was 16% in the PCR-positive group versus 9% in the PCR-negative group (P=0.1). The use of umbilical cord blood or a haploidentical donor was the only significant predictor of the incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis on univariate analysis. There was also a trend for a higher incidence after myeloablative conditioning. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who had a positive PCR pre-transplant and received haploidentical or cord blood grafts with myeloablative conditioning had a significantly higher risk of developing hemorrhagic cystitis (58%) than all other recipients (7%, P,0.001). ...
In recent years the scientific literature in the field of the prostate carcinoma (PCa) pointed out on the genetic heterogeneity and mutations occurring in this tumour, while little attention was given to the causes of PCa onset, in particular infectiuos agents. In this brief commentary, we wish to point out recent advancements done on the role of the human polyomavirus BK (BKPyV) in the development of PCa by harnessing both humoral and cellular immune responses. Altogether, these new insights suggest that BKPyV is involved in the transforming activity during the multistep process of PCa development. Although these findings do not provide evidence for a causal relationship between BKPyV and PCa development, additional investigations with novel techniques will help to make it a concrete event. ...
Bennett, S.M., Jiang, M., and Imperiale, M.J. (2013). Role of cell type-specific ER-associated degradation in polyomavirus trafficking. J. Virol., in press.. Broekema, N.M. and Imperiale, M.J. (2013). miRNA regulation of BK polyomavirus replication during early infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:8200-8205.. Jiang, M., Zhao, L., Gamez, M., and Imperiale, M.J. (2012). Roles of ATM and ATR-mediated DNA damage responses during lytic BK polyomavirus infection. PLoS Pathog. 8(8): e1002898. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002898.. Christensen, J.B., Ewing, S.G., and Imperiale, M.J. (2012). Identification and characterization of a DNA binding domain on the adenovirus IVa2 protein. Virology 433:124-130.. Imperiale, M.J. (2012). Dual-use research after the avian influenza controversy. B. Atom. Sci. http://thebulletin.org/web-edition/op-eds/dual-use-research-after-the-av..... Bennett, S.M., Broekema, N.B., and Imperiale, M.J. (2012). BK polyomavirus: emerging pathogen. Microbes Infect. ...
Immunocompromised patients are at risk for disease caused by infection by some polyomaviruses. To define the prevalence of polyomaviruses in children undergoing transplantation, we collected samples from a longitudinal cohort and tested for the 9 known human polyomaviruses. All were detected; several were present in previously unreported specimen types.
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full-length recombinant BKV VP1. BKV VP1 (YP_717939.1, 1 a.a. ~ 369 a.a) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (MAB3204-M19) - Products - Abnova
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Haemorrhagic cystitis is a diffuse inflammatory condition of the urinary bladder due to an infectious or noninfectious etiology, resulting in bleeding from the bladder mucosa. Chronic and recurrent haemorrhagic cystitis often results from antic...
Es sospita que els Polyomaviruses causen càncer en humans però només el poliomavirus de cèl•lules de Merkel (MCPyV) es carcinògen humà confirmat. Fins a nou poliomavirus en 468 trastorns limfoproliferatius, 1135 càncers de bufeta i 359 leucèmies limfocítica crònica (LLC) shan explorat mitjançant tres estudis cas-control a Espanya. Lexposició viral es va mesurar mitjançant enzyme linked immunosorbent assay amb virus-like-particles i tecnologia múltiplex de serologia fluorescent basada en beads. Dels limfomes explorats, nomes el limfoma difús de cèl•lules b grans (LDCBG) va mostrar una MCPyV seroprevalença significativament 6-cops mes alta (OR=6.10; 95%CI=1.88-19.75) versus controls. Els casos de càncer de bufeta van mostrar elevades seroreactivitats envers BKPyV (OR= 1.37; 95%CI=1.04-1.80) i MCPyV (OR=1.48; 95%CI=1.16-1.88). En LLC, es van observar seroprevalences més baixes per als 9 poliomavirus mesurats (OR rang=0.21-0.70). Els patrons serològics obtinguts en LDCBG y ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aggressive post-transplant monitoring of more importance to successful outcome following re-transplantation for BK virus nephropathy than absence of pretransplant viremia. AU - Womer, Karl L.. AU - Patton, Pamela R.. AU - Kaplan, Bruce. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=53749094145&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=53749094145&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2008.00721.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2008.00721.x. M3 - Letter. C2 - 18657089. AN - SCOPUS:53749094145. VL - 21. SP - 1103. EP - 1104. JO - Transplant International. JF - Transplant International. SN - 0934-0874. IS - 11. ER - ...
Co-Director, Brain Cancer Research Program, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center. Expertise, Disease and Conditions: Brain Tumors, Medical Oncology, Neuro-Oncology, Pain Management. Research Interests: brain cancer, cancer pain, brain cancer, cancer pain. ...
Vol 4: Bladder Cancer versus Hemorrhagic Cystitis: A Case of Mistaken Identity in a 34-Year-Old Male Undergoing Therapy for Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis.. This article is from Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology, volume 4.AbstractA 34-year-old male was referred for manage. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain response detection of BK virus utilizing labeled primers. BACKGROUND BK virus infections amongst immunocompromised sufferers are related to illness of the kidney or urinary bladder. Excessive viral hundreds, decided by quantitative polymerase chain response (PCR), have been correlated with medical illness. OBJECTIVE To develop and consider a novel technique for real-time PCR detection and quantification of BK virus utilizing…. ...
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain response detection of BK virus utilizing labeled primers. BACKGROUND BK virus infections amongst immunocompromised sufferers are related to illness of the kidney or urinary bladder. Excessive viral hundreds, decided by quantitative polymerase chain response (PCR), have been correlated with medical illness. OBJECTIVE To develop and consider a novel technique for real-time PCR detection and quantification of BK virus utilizing…. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The kinetics of urinary shedding of BK virus in children with renal disease. AU - Yamamoto, Yasuto. AU - Morooka, Masashi. AU - Ihira, Masaru. AU - Yoshikawa, Tetsushi. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Children with renal diseases are typically treated with immunosuppressive drugs, which place them at high risk of reactivation of the BK virus (BKV). Currently, little is known about the impact of immunosuppressive drugs on the kinetics of urinary shedding of BKV and viral reactivation in pediatric patients with renal diseases. Urine samples were collected monthly for 1 year from 20 children (median age, 9 years; range, 4-15 years) with renal diseases and subjected to real-time PCR. Urinary shedding of BKV was detected in 35% (7/20) of the patients, three of these patients having persistent viral DNA excretion (two cases, twelve times, one case, four times) and four having intermittent viral DNA excretion. Thirty-four of the 240 urine samples contained BKV DNA (median copy ...
See the latest news from the NCCR Kidney.CH below.. The NCCR also regularly organizes educational, networking and outreaching events. Information on upcoming and past events of the NCCR Kidney.CH and other organizers can be found below. Please use the drop-down menu to confine your search.. ...
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Feature :. accelerated thymic involution; ectopic FDC-M1+ cells in the T-cell zone, enlarged MLN and increased chemokine expression. ...
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Human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus B19 and BK virus are known to induce these antibodies. There is little evidence ... Reploeg MD, Storch GA, Clifford DB (July 2001). "Bk virus: a clinical review". Clin. Infect. Dis. 33 (2): 191-202. doi:10.1086/ ... Epstein-Barr virus is also known to induce dsDNA antibodies, as seen after immunisation of animals with EBNA-1 epitopes. Anti- ... Poole BD, Scofield RH, Harley JB, James JA (February 2006). "Epstein-Barr virus and molecular mimicry in systemic lupus ...
Most of these viruses, such as BK virus and JC virus, are very common and typically asymptomatic in most human populations ... most notably BK virus, JC virus, and SV40. It is essential for proliferation in the viruses that express it and is thought to ... BK virus is associated with nephropathy in renal transplant and non-renal solid organ transplant patients, JC virus with ... A fourteenths virus has been desciribed. Lyon IARC polyoma virus is related to raccoon polyoma virus. The following 13 ...
BK virus is now being increasingly recognised. Infection is the cause of death in about one third of people with renal ...
BK virus nephropathy remains a significant post transplantation complication. Decoy cells alone do not need to be treated since ... Purighalla, R; Shapiro, R; McCauley, J; Randhawa, P (1995). "BK virus infection in a kidney allograft diagnosed by needle ... In patients with decoy cells detected, their sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive value for BK virus ... Van Aalderen, MC; Heutinck, KM; Huisman, C; Ten Berge, IJ (2012). "BK virus infection in transplant recipients: Clinical ...
... shows anti-BK virus activity in a subgroup of transplant recipients. Cidofovir is being investigated as a ... "Intermediate-dose cidofovir without probenecid in the treatment of BK virus allograft nephropathy". Pediatr Transplant. 10 (1 ... It has inhibitory effects on varicella-zoster virus replication in vitro although no clinical trials have been done to date, ... Magee, WC; Hostetler, KY; Evans, DH (August 2005). "Mechanism of Inhibition of Vaccinia Virus DNA Polymerase by Cidofovir ...
Throughout his career, Major has conducted research on viruses including BK virus, adenoviruses, JC virus, simian virus 40 ( ... Olive, DM; Lampert, M; Major, EO (1980). "Comparison of wild-type BK virus DNA and BK virion DNA rescued from virus-transformed ... Major, E. O.; Di Mayorca, G. (1973). "Malignant Transformation of BHK21 Clone 13 Cells by BK Virus-A Human Papovavirus". ... where he researched papovaviruses such as BK virus with Giampiero Di Mayorca. (The papovaviruses have since been split into two ...
Immunosuppression BK virus Behcet's Disease Discovery and development of mTOR inhibitors N A Gillett; C Chan (2000). " ...
BK virus or Simian virus. The Ebola virus may also be found in urine from an infected person. The exact survival time of this ... Vanchiere, John A. (12 January 2005). "Detection of BK virus and simian virus 40 in the urine of healthy children". Journal of ... "Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)Transmission, Q&As on Transmission". CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention). 20 November ... particular virus in human urine outside of the human body is unclear but probably "up to several days" like with other body ...
It furthermore enables detection for CMV-, EBV-, influenza-, and BK virus specific CD8+ T cells. Dextramer CMV kit - These MHC ... Virus Dextramer collection 1 - provides reagents for detection, quantification and isolation of virus specific T cells. ...
... including two human viruses - BK virus and JC virus - and the simian virus SV40; the BK, JC, and SV40 examples are by far the ... BK virus and JC virus, as well as the simian polyomavirus SV40. Agnoprotein is typically quite short: examples from BK virus, ... Among sequenced BK virus genomes, agnoprotein is the most variable viral protein in amino acid sequence. Differences in tissue ... Its functions are poorly characterized even in well-studied viruses. Null mutant viruses without agnoprotein are generally ...
degree: At Least Two Types of Control Regions Can Be Found among Naturally Occurring BK Virus Strains". Journal of Virology, ...
BK; Strong, JE; Grolla, A; Wolz, A; Kargbo, B; Kargbo, DK; Formenty, P; Sanders, DA; Kobinger, GP (19 February 2015). " ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
BK virus infection BK virus Black piedra Piedraia hortae Blastocystosis Blastocystis species ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... Human parainfluenza virus infection Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) Hymenolepiasis Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta ...
BK virus, smallpox, and herpes simplex viruses. Preliminary in vitro tests have also shown it to have potential for the ... Brincidofovir was administered to the first patient diagnosed in the Ebola virus disease outbreak in the US in 2014. The ... "Development of CMX001 (Brincidofovir) for the treatment of serious diseases or conditions caused by dsDNA viruses". Expert Rev ... treatment of Ebola virus disease, which is somewhat paradoxical, as Ebola is not a DNA virus. Brincidofovir is currently in ...
Epstein-Barr virus infection BK virus Glomerulosclerosis--WebMD. ...
Immunosuppressive drug Discovery and development of mTOR inhibitors BK virus Interleukin-2 immunotherapy B cell deficiency T ... and viruses Immunodeficiency is also a potential adverse effect of many immunosuppressant drugs, in this sense, the scope of ... and certain chronic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The unwanted effect in non-deliberate ...
"BK Virus, JC Virus and Simian Virus 40 Infection in Humans, and Association with Human Tumors". Polyomaviruses and Human ... The virus causing this illness was isolated in 1937. The rash typical of Lyme borreliosis was identified the early 1900s. ... Natelson, BH; Ye, N; Moul, DE; Jenkins, FJ; Oren, DA; Tapp, WN; Cheng, YC (1994). "High titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus DNA ... Atkinson, RL (2007). "Viruses as an etiology of obesity". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 82 (10): 1192-8. doi:10.4065/82.10.1192. ...
... and may be more susceptible to certain viruses including Epstein-Barr virus, BK virus, and molluscum contagiosum. BENTA disease ... Some patients may not mount protective antibody titers to other vaccines, such as measles and varicella zoster virus. T cell ...
... most relevantly with the nephropathy associated in kidney transplant recipients with the polyomavirus BK virus. Antiviral drugs ... used electron microscopy to identify the presence of virus particles in affected cells consistent with what were at the time ... There is evidence that exposure to the virus is common among healthy adults; estimates of seroprevalence (that is, prevalence ... but viral DNA is rarely detectable there in asymptomatic individuals even if they possess antibodies to the virus indicating ...
... though it can result from BK virus as well. A chemical hemorrhagic cystitis can develop when vaginal products are inadvertently ... system are at risk for hemorrhagic cystitis due to either the direct effects of chemotherapy or activation of dormant viruses ...
... and is genetically similar to BK virus and SV40. It was identified by electron microscopy in 1965 by ZuRhein and Chou, and by ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus) ... and axons suggests that the virus may travel through axons to increase infectivity. The JCV virus may also be a causative agent ... The virus is very common in the general population, infecting 70% to 90% of humans; most people acquire JCV in childhood or ...
... bk virus MeSH B04.909.204.210.620.615.400 --- jc virus MeSH B04.909.204.210.620.615.700 --- simian virus 40 MeSH B04.909. ... bk virus MeSH B04.909.574.204.670.615.400 --- jc virus MeSH B04.909.574.204.670.615.700 --- simian virus 40 MeSH B04.909. ... bk virus MeSH B04.280.640.615.400 --- jc virus MeSH B04.280.640.615.700 --- simian virus 40 MeSH B04.280.650.160 --- ... bk virus MeSH B04.909.675.615.400 --- jc virus MeSH B04.909.675.615.700 --- simian virus 40 MeSH B04.909.777.080 --- ...
BK virus and JC virus, among others. Founded in 1983, IBT's deep expertise in the fields of immunology and allergy enabled the ...
Montreal type Birdshot chorioretinopathy Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome Bixler-Christian-Gorlin syndrome Björnstad syndrome BK virus ...
JC virus & BK virus only cause disease in immunocompromised patients Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), ... A slow virus is a virus, or a viruslike agent, etiologically associated with a disease, having a long incubation period of ... in protection from these slow viruses. This may be in part because the host has acclimated to the virus, or more likely because ... A slow virus disease is a disease that, after an extended period of latency, follows a slow, progressive course spanning months ...
... and BK virus associated nephropathy. In addition the FDA is investigating 16 patients that developed a rare neurological ... Takhampunya R, Ubol S, Houng HS, Cameron CE, Padmanabhan R (July 2006). "Inhibition of dengue virus replication by mycophenolic ... Diamond MS, Zachariah M, Harris E (2002). "Mycophenolic acid inhibits dengue virus infection by preventing replication of viral ... A combination of mycophenolate and ribavirin has been found to stop infection by and replication of dengue virus in vitro. ...
... and BK virus (causative agent of hemorrhagic cystitis in immunocompromised patients). Page 23a in: Merriam-Webster's collegiate ... simian vacuolating virus 40 or SV40, which is now known to be part of the polyomavirus genus). Papovaviruses are DNA viruses ... A papovavirus is any member of the former virus family of Papovaviridae. They are mainly associated with various neoplasms in ... Referring to the Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ...
JC virus, BK virus Family Poxviridae-includes Cowpox virus, smallpox Family Sphaerolipoviridae Family Tectiviridae Family ... Another virus - porcine stool associated virus 4 - has been isolated. It appears to be related to the fur seal virus. Two ... A virus - Boiling Springs Lake virus - appears to have evolved by a recombination event between a DNA virus (circovirus) and an ... Satellite viruses are small viruses with either RNA or DNA as their genomic material that require another virus to replicate. ...
doi:10.1128/CMR.00017-06 PMC 1539106 Sumibcay, L; Kadjo, B; Gu, SH; Kang, HJ; Lim, BK; Cook, JA (2012). "Divergent lineage of a ... Ebola virus and Marburg virus. Bat-borne viruses are among the most important of the emerging viruses. Bat-borne viruses are ... A bat-borne virus is any virus whose primary reservoir is any species of bat. The viruses species include coronaviruses, ... Like rabies virus, newly emerging bat-borne viruses can be transmitted to humans directly by bats. These include Ebola virus, ...
doi:10.1021/bk-1995-0605.ch012. ISBN 0-8412-3320-9.. *^ Chan, Y.; Yang, A.; Chen, J.; Yeh, K.; Chan, M. (2010). "Heterologous ... anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against ...
Nogometaši Lyngbyja BK. *Nogometaši ADO Den Haaga. *Nogometaši ND Mure 05. *Murskosobočani ...
... can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... Lange, M; Westermann, P; Ahring, BK (2005). "Archaea in protozoa and metazoa". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 66 (5): ... the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference ... One group is exemplified by the Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 ("Pleolipoviridae") infecting halophilic archaea[137] and the ...
Smith BK, Timby NE (2005). Essentials of nursing : care of adults and children. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 338. ISBN 978 ... viruses in 23%, and both in 25%.[65] Environmental pollutants include both poor indoor and outdoor air quality.[63] Exposure to ...
... certain Epstein-Barr virus gene products bearing this sequence can stall the proteasome, helping the virus propagate by ... Witt S, Kwon YD, Sharon M, Felderer K, Beuttler M, Robinson CV, Baumeister W, Jap BK (July 2006). "Proteasome assembly triggers ... Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ... the 11S may play a role in degradation of foreign peptides such as those produced after infection by a virus.[16] ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus is believed to be taken up by the autophagosome from the cytosol and translocated to the endosomes ... Arndt V, Dick N, Tawo R, Dreiseidler M, Wenzel D, Hesse M, Fürst DO, Saftig P, Saint R, Fleischmann BK, Hoch M, Höhfeld J ( ... A subset of viruses and bacteria subvert the autophagic pathway to promote their own replication.[63] Galectin-8 has recently ... "Subversion of cellular autophagosomal machinery by RNA viruses". PLoS Biol. 3 (5): e156. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030156. PMC ...
Pedersen BK (December 2009). "The diseasome of physical inactivity - and the role of myokines in muscle-fat cross talk". J ... response to virus. • positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in ... Starkie R, Ostrowski SR, Jauffred S, Febbraio M, Pedersen BK (2003). "Exercise and IL-6 infusion inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF- ...
It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... Mahendradas P, Ranganna SK, Shetty R, Balu R, Narayana KM, Babu RB, Shetty BK (February 2008). "Ocular manifestations ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ... Chikungunya virus is passed to humans when a bite from an infected mosquito breaks the skin and introduces the virus into the ...
ViriUredi. *. Bhargava, Alok; Guthrie, J. (2002). "Unhealthy eating habits, physical exercise and macronutrient intakes are ... Weng HH, Bastian LA, Taylor DH, Moser BK, Ostbye T (2004). "Number of children associated with obesity in middle-aged women and ... da so glavni viri predelane hrane poceni v primerjavi s sadjem in zelenjavo.[85] Zakonski predpisi o obveznem navajanju kalorij ... Primarni viri teh dodatnih ogljikovih hidratov so sladkane pijače, ki pri mladih odraslih Američanih predstavljajo 25 odstotkov ...
Walian P, Cross TA, Jap BK (2004). "Structural genomics of membrane proteins". Genome Biology. 5 (4): 215. doi:10.1186/gb-2004- ... Eukaryotes have 15,000, bacteria have 3,200, archaea have 2,400, and viruses have 42 proteins on average coded in their ... including assembled viruses;[58] a variant known as electron crystallography can also produce high-resolution information in ...
Pedersen BK (January 2011). "Muscles and their myokines". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 214 (Pt 2): 337-46. doi:10.1242/ ... Epstein-Barr virusEdit. In humans with history of acute infectious mononucleosis (the syndrome associated with primary Epstein- ... regulation of defense response to virus by host. • positive regulation of inflammatory response. • response to nutrient levels ... Xu X, Sun Q, Yu X, Zhao L (April 2017). "Rescue of nonlytic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) expressing IL-15 for cancer ...
Law BK, Chytil A, Dumont N, Hamilton EG, Waltner-Law ME, Aakre ME, Covington C, Moses HL (December 2002). "Rapamycin ... significantly limiting production of new viruses.[36] ...
Gene therapy typically involves the use of a non-infectious virus (i.e., a viral vector such as the adeno-associated virus) to ... Harvey BK, Wang Y, Hoffer BJ (2008). "Transgenic rodent models of Parkinson's disease". Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement. Acta ...
Another virus, BK polyomavirus has been detected in the same tissues, but with lesser extent.[8] ... "Footprints of BK and JC polyomaviruses in specimens from females affected by spontaneous abortion". Hum Reprod. 34 (3): 433- ... "Footprints of BK and JC polyomaviruses in specimens from females affected by spontaneous abortion". Hum Reprod. 34 (3): 433- ...
Kim SG, Kim BK, Kim K, Fang S (December 2016). "Bile Acid Nuclear Receptor Farnesoid X Receptor: Therapeutic Target for ... Ivermectin is also being studied as a potential antiviral agent against the viruses chikungunya and yellow fever.[66] ...
For example, the word "protist pathogen" may be used to denote any disease-causing microbe that is not bacteria, virus, viroid ... Sullivan BK, Neuhauser S (April 2018). "Not in your usual Top 10: protists that infect plants and algae". Molecular Plant ... Recent papers have proposed the use of viruses to treat infections caused by protozoa.[62][63] ...
In vitro virus high-throughput sequencing[edit]. A method has been developed to analyze full sets of protein interactions using ... Peterson BK, Weber JN, Kay EH, Fisher HS, Hoekstra HE (2012). "Double digest RADseq: an inexpensive method for de novo SNP ... "The Next Frontier: Human Viruses" , whatisbiotechnology.org, Retrieved May 3, 2017. *^ Beck S, Pohl FM (1984). "DNA sequencing ... In some viruses (specifically, bacteriophage), cytosine may be replaced by hydroxy methyl or hydroxy methyl glucose cytosine.[5 ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ... RNA virus. HCV Hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. HTLV-I Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ...
Fribley AM، Evenchik B، Zeng Q، Park BK، Guan JY، Zhang H، Hale TJ، Soengas MS، Kaufman RJ، Wang CY (Oct 2006). "Proteasome ... which can be overcome by helper adenovirus type 5 virus-associated RNA". Journal of Virology. 81 (21): 11908-16. PMC 2168773. ... "Adeno-associated viruses can induce phosphorylation of eIF2alpha via PKR activation, ...
Tyler KL (June 2004). "Herpes simplex virus infections of the central nervous system: encephalitis and meningitis, including ...
Yao Y, Zhao Y, Xu H, Smith LP, Lawrie CH, Watson M, Nair V (April 2008). "MicroRNA profile of Marek's disease virus-transformed ... Lui WO, Pourmand N, Patterson BK, Fire A (July 2007). "Patterns of known and novel small RNAs in human cervical cancer". Cancer ... T-cell line MSB-1: predominance of virus-encoded microRNAs". Journal of Virology. 82 (8): 4007-15. doi:10.1128/JVI.02659-07. ...
Dog har nye genetiske undersøgelser ændret denne opfattelse, da det har vist sig at virus nedstammer fra en fælles stamform med ... Bk. Cf. Es. Fm. Md. No De fire elementære biokemiske grundstoffer Andre vigtige biokemiske grundstoffer ... Viruses ARE alive, and they're older than modern cells, new study suggests. Science Alert 2015 ... Denne definition får straks frøet og bakterien fra ovenstående eksempel til at "passe bedre ind". Virus bliver typisk ikke ...
Klein BK, Feng Y, McWherter CA, et al., The receptor binding site of human interleukin-3 defined by mutagenesis and molecular ... Than S, Oyaizu N, Pahwa RN, et al., Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 on cytokine ... Feng Y, Klein BK, McWherter CA, Three-dimensional solution structure and backbone dynamics of a variant of human interleukin-3. ...
Kellett HA, Sawers JS, Boulton FE, Cholerton S, Park BK, Toft AD (January 1986). "Problems of anticoagulation with warfarin in ... "Viruses. 6 (5): 1911-28. doi:10.3390/v6051911. PMC 4036541. PMID 24784570.. ...
可能感染白蟻的病毒包括 Entomopoxvirinae(英语:Entomopoxvirinae) 和核多角病毒[139][140](Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus(英语:Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus))。 ... Neoh, K.-B.; Yeap, B.-K.; Tsunoda, K.; Yoshimura, T.; Lee, C.Y.; Korb, J. Do termites avoid carcasses? behavioral responses ... Al Fazairy, A.A.; Hassan, F.A. Infection of Termites by Spodoptera littoralis Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus. International Journal ... Chouvenc, T.; Mullins, A.J.; Efstathion, C.A.; Su, N.-Y. Virus-like symptoms in a termite (Isoptera:
The herpes simplex virus-derived AD, VP16 and yeast Gal4 AD have been used with success in yeast[1] whilst a portion of the α- ... Lee JA, Lee SH, Lee C, Chang DJ, Lee Y, Kim H, Cheang YH, Ko HG, Lee YS, Jun H, Bartsch D, Kandel ER, Kaang BK (September 2006 ... Choi JH, Lee JA, Yim SW, Lim CS, Lee CH, Lee YD, Bartsch D, Kandel ER, Kaang BK (2003). "Using an aplysia two-hybrid system to ... "A physical interaction network of dengue virus and human proteins". Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. 10 (12): M111.012187. doi ...
... virus, ex Human Papilloma virus) ஏற்படும் நோய் ஆகும்.உயிரணு பிரிதலை கட்டுப்படுத்தும் (Ex. Retinoblastoma protein) அல்லது புற்று ... English DR, Armstrong BK, Kricker A, Fleming C (May 1997). "Sunlight and cancer". Cancer causes & control : CCC 8 (3): 271-83. ... zur Hausen H (1991). "Viruses in human cancers". Science 254 (5035): 1167-73. doi:10.1126/science.1659743. பப்மெட் 1659743. ... transformation of mammalian cells induced by a normal human gene homologous to the oncogene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus". ...
이전에는 인간 T-세포 림프종 바이러스-III(Human T-Lymphotropic Virus-III, HTLV-III), 림프절 종창 연관 바이러스(Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus, LAV), ... McGovern SL, Caselli E, Grigorieff N, Shoichet BK (2002). "A common mechanism underlying promiscuous inhibitors from virtual ... 인간면역결핍 바이러스(人間免疫缺乏 바이러스, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV)는, 발병하게 되면 AIDS로 진행하는, 인간의 면역체계를 파괴하는 레트로바이러스이다. 기회감염에 의한 사망에 이를 수 ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. "61.0.6. Lentivirus". 미국 국립 보건원. 2006년 2월 28일에 확인함.. 지원되지 않는 변수 무시됨: , ...
... s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk ... Brothel owners may be held liable if customers become infected with HIV after a prostitute has tested positive for the virus.[ ...
Simian virus 40 (SV-40), JC virus (JCV), and BK virus (BKV). SV-40 naturally infects rhesus monkeys but can infect humans, ... DNA-containing viruses and include 3 closely related viruses of clinical significance: ... Simian virus 40 (SV-40), JC virus (JCV), and BK virus (BKV). SV-40 naturally infects rhesus monkeys but can infect humans, ... To supplement the above data, 30 negative plasma and urine specimens were spiked with BK virus (BKV)-positive control plasmid ...
Although polyoma BK virus (BKV)-associated interstitial nephritis has received increasing attention because of its clinical ... Retransplantation after kidney graft loss due to polyoma BK virus nephropathy: successful outcome without original allograft ...
BK polyomavirus: virus-cell interactions, host immune response, and viral pathogenesis Volume 19, issue 5, September-October ... Home , Journals , Virologie , BK polyomavirus: virus-cell interactions, host immune response, and viral pathogenesis ... Schematic representation of the BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) genome.. The circular double-stranded DNA genome is organized in three ... BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) replication cycle.. 1. Attachment to host-cell ganglioside receptors. 2. Internalisation by caveolin- ...
Background.: BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is an important cause of renal graft loss in recent years. The aims of this study are ... N2 - Background.: BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is an important cause of renal graft loss in recent years. The aims of this study ... AB - Background.: BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is an important cause of renal graft loss in recent years. The aims of this study ... abstract = "Background.: BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is an important cause of renal graft loss in recent years. The aims of ...
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify BK virus proteins in clinical samples by MS and that this approach makes it ... Following reactivation of latent virus, impaired cellular immunity enables sustained viral replication to occur in urothelial ... The diagnosis and management of BK virus (BKV) reactivation following renal transplantation continues to be a significant ... Detection of BK virus in urine from renal transplant subjects by mass spectrometry. ...
He was eventually diagnosed with BK virus-associated HC.. Introduction. BK viruses belong to a class of viruses called human ... However, BK virus-associated HC has not been described in liver transplant (LT) recipients. We present a case of BK virus- ... BK virus can cause specific syndromes with significant morbidity. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) secondary to BK virus in ... 8 This case reflects the emerging pathogenic potential of BK virus and shows the importance of considering BK virus-induced HC ...
Prevalence of BK virus associated ureteral stenosis occurs in up to 3% of renal transplant patients, and BK virus associated ... Most individuals have been infected by BK virus. However, host immune factors may be associated with increased risk of BK virus ... BK virus reactivates and proliferates. Although BK virus rarely infects the native kidneys, PVAN can be detected in up to 10% ... BK virus is ubiquitous and infects up to 90% of individuals. The virus resides in the kidney epithelial cells, and asymptomatic ...
Changes in allograft function and allograft survival rate after BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) diagnosis. (A) ... Bottom Line: BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is an important cause of allograft dysfunction in kidney transplant ... Bottom Line: BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is an important cause of allograft dysfunction in kidney transplant ... Background/aims: BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is an important cause of allograft dysfunction in kidney transplant ...
The BK virus was first isolated in 1971 from the urine of a renal transplant patient, initials B.K. The BK virus is similar to ... The BK virus is a member of the polyomavirus family. Past infection with the BK virus is widespread, but significant ... Overview of the BK virus MicrobiologyBytes: Polyomaviruses Reploeg MD, Storch GA, Clifford DB (July 2001). "Bk virus: a ... a disease called BK nephropathy. From 1-10% of renal transplant patients progress to BK virus associated nephropathy (BKVAN) ...
... Syed Hassan,1 Zaid Alirhayim,1 Syed Ahmed,2 and Syed Amer3 ... Syed Hassan, Zaid Alirhayim, Syed Ahmed, and Syed Amer, "Polyoma BK Virus: An Oncogenic Virus?," Case Reports in Nephrology, ...
BK virus synonyms, BK virus pronunciation, BK virus translation, English dictionary definition of BK virus. n. pl. vi·rus·es 1 ... virus. → فَيْرُوس vir virus Virus ιός virus virus virus virus virus ウイルス 바이러스 virus virus wirus vírus вирус virus เชื้อไวรัส ... virus فيروس، جُرْثومَه вирус vírus virus das Virus virus ιόςvirus viirus ویروس virus virusוירוס छूत के रोग पैदा करने वाले ... virus فيروس في الكومبيوتر комп. вирус vírus virus der Virus virus ιός Η/Υ virus arvutiviirus
For quantitative detection of BK virus specific DNA using real-time PCR Show details ... QIAsymphony DSP Virus/Pathogen Kit For automated purification of viral nucleic acids or bacterial/pathogen DNA from 1-96 ...
Care guide for Bk Virus Infection (Inpatient Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options ... A BK virus (BKV) infection is a common viral infection that usually does not cause problems. The virus normally remains ... Antiviral medicine may be used to kill the BK virus.. *Antirheumatic drugs may be used to help your immune system and kill the ... A kidney biopsy is a procedure to remove a small amount of tissue from your kidney to see if you are infected with the BK virus ...
Antibodies to JC and BK viruses among persons with non-Hodgkin lymphoma ... Antibodies to JC and BK viruses among persons with non-Hodgkin lymphoma Cached. * ... title = {Antibodies to JC and BK viruses among persons with non-Hodgkin lymphoma},. year = {}. }. ... Antibodies to JC and BK viruses among persons with non-Hodgkin lymphoma ...
BK Virus Encephalitis in HIV-Infected Patients: Case Report and Review. Luciana Antoniolli, Rafael Borges, and Luciano Z. ...
Anti-BK Virus Immune Response and Kidney Transplantation (BKv). The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion ... BK virus infections are very frequent during months following a kidney transplantation: a viral reactivation is observed for ... Role of Specific Immune Cellular Response in the Control of BK Virus Infection: Prospective Study, Monocentric and Longitudinal ...
Anti-BK Virus Immune Response and Kidney Transplantation (BKv). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... BK virus infections are very frequent during months following a kidney transplantation: a viral reactivation is observed for ... Role of Specific Immune Cellular Response in the Control of BK Virus Infection: Prospective Study, Monocentric and Longitudinal ...
Your account has been temporarily locked Your account has been temporarily locked due to incorrect sign in attempts and will be automatically unlocked in 30 mins. For immediate assistance, contact Customer Service: 800-638-3030 (within USA), 301-223-2300 (international) [email protected] ...
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Intravenous immunoglobulin as rescue therapy for BK virus nephropathy. Pediatric Transplantation, 13: 123-129. doi: 10.1111/j. ...
How does BK virus cause disease? * What other clinical manifestations may help me to diagnose and manage BK virus associated ... BK virus is a human polyomavirus that resides in the kidneys of up to 90% of healthy individuals. Reactivation of the BK virus ... BK virus PCR is checked in the blood every 4 weeks until BK virus is completely suppressed. Studies have shown decreased ... In a patient with BK virus associated diseases, what if a rise of BK serology is detected? *. A rise of BK serology is ...
b,BK virus has been detected both in blood and urine.,/b, What is BK virus? How can my creatinine level be managed? ... BK virus has been detected both in blood and urine. What is BK virus? How can my creatinine level be managed? ... A:BK virus can infect and result in kidney allograft (transplanted) dysfunction, prevalence rate being around 5% within 10-12 ... After the diagnosis of BK virus disease or the nephropathy in the transplanted kidney, first line of approach is to reduce the ...
How does BK virus cause disease? * What other clinical manifestations may help me to diagnose and manage BK virus associated ... BK virus is a human polyomavirus that resides in the kidneys of up to 90% of healthy individuals. Reactivation of the BK virus ... BK virus PCR is checked in the blood every 4 weeks until BK virus is completely suppressed. Studies have shown decreased ... BK Virus Screening in Transplant Patients May Be Suboptimal. *Active Surveillance for BK Virus May Help Minimize Nephropathy in ...
For BK virus nephropathy, cidofovir, and leflunomide are effective antiviral drugs, with both BK virus and JC virus responding ... BK virus can cause hemorrhagic cystitis in patients with bone marrow transplants (up to 25-60%). BK virus nephropathy is seen ... The main polyomaviruses causing disease in humans are the BK, MK (Merkel cell virus), SV40 (simian vacuolating virus), and JC ( ... John Cunningham and BK)?*What is the role of and impact of viruses - polyomaviruses (John Cunningham and BK) or infections and ...
Troj/Tesla-BK. Category: Viruses and Spyware. Protection available since:. 02 Sep 2020 22:18:03 (GMT). ... Troj/Tesla-BK exhibits the following characteristics: File Information. Size. 494K. SHA-1. ... Download our free Virus Removal Tool - Find and remove threats your antivirus missed ...
BK viremia was defined as a BK viral load ,100 copies/mL in blood. Among 168 patients assessed for BK virus status, 30 patients ... Every patient with BK viremia and Alport syndrome developed BKVN, while only 11.1% of patients with BK viremia progressed to ... The study investigated the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of BK viremia and BKVN in a Korean population of ... BKVN was defined as biopsy-proven BKVN or plasma BK viral loads ,10,000 copies/mL for ,3 weeks. ...
BK virus (BKV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family, which also includes the well-studied simian virus 40 (SV40) and human ... Discovery and epidemiology of the human polyomaviruses BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV). Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 577:19-45. ... Early Events during BK Virus Entry and Disassembly. Mengxi Jiang, Johanna R. Abend, Billy Tsai, Michael J. Imperiale ... Early Events during BK Virus Entry and Disassembly Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ...
I have 3 different viruses post transplant - BK virus, EB virus and CM virus and they knew I had at least one of these at low ( ... BK virus. by olive » Thu May 19, 2016 5:39 pm Hi everyone, im new to this group can anyone tell me about the bk virus as ive ... How are you all going witb the bk virus? He has me to ask you all....when he was first told he had BK he had a sore throat and ... BK virus. This is the forum for the Kidney Patient Guide. We welcome feedback about the site and any information that may be of ...
Bk virus. About 357 results for "bk virus" (0.00 seconds) - 57 Topics - 300 Posts ... West Nile Virus, Herpes Zoster Oticus, Fifth Disease, Cytomegalovirus Infections, Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections ... They told him he was coming down with a virus. Well we saw a doctor - 90% more... Tynkerbelle- over a year ago - 2 Replies - in ... Ruth 60 I have had PMR and TA since 2009, probably triggered by a swine flu virus and both my late mother and her father had it ...
BK virus is a human polyomavirus that resides in the kidneys of up to 90% of healthy individuals. Reactivation of the BK virus ... How does BK virus cause disease?*What other clinical manifestations may help me to diagnose and manage BK virus associated ... How does BK virus cause disease?. * BK virus primary infection occurs in childhood. Primary infection is asymptomatic. ... BK virus PCR is checked in the blood every 4 weeks until BK virus is completely suppressed. Studies have shown decreased ...
... Hellström, Vivan Uppsala University, ... Five of eleven cancers of the urinary tract were BK-virus positive. Allograft immune response against these tumours offer new ...
Shah K. V. Polyoma viruses (JC virus, BK virus, and simain virus 40) and human cancer Goedert J. J. eds. . Infectious Causes of ... Serum Antibodies to JC Virus, BK Virus, Simian Virus 40, and the Risk of Incident Adult Astrocytic Brain Tumors. Dana E. M. ... Genomic sequences of the human polyomaviruses, JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV), and simian virus 40 (SV40) have been reported ... Serum Antibodies to JC Virus, BK Virus, Simian Virus 40, and the Risk of Incident Adult Astrocytic Brain Tumors ...
BK virus (BKV) is a ubiquitous virus and its primary infection is generally asymptomatic. It occurs in childhood [2] and, as ... Reploeg MD, Storch GA, Clifford DB (2001) BK virus: a clinical review. Clin Infect Dis 33:191-202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Gupta N, Lawrence RM, Nguyen C, Modica RF (2015) Review article: BK virus in systemic lupus erythematosus. Pediatr Rheumatol 13 ... Hix JK et al (2004) Delirium in a renal transplant recipient associated with BK virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. ...
BK virus is a significant risk factor for kidney allograft dysfunction and loss among renal transplant recipients. Currently, ... BK can also be seen in the native kidneys of pancreas, heart, lung and liver transplant recipients, suggesting that BK ... Early screening for BK combined with reduction of immunosuppression remains the mainstay of treatment for BK viraemia. New ... In this review, we discuss diagnostic challenges and current treatment options for BK in kidney transplant recipients. ...
Does this patient have BK virus infection?. BK virus (BKV) is a DNA virus that typically infects children and remains latent in ... Does this patient have BK virus infection?*What tests to perform?*How should patients with BK virus infection be managed?*What ... "BK virus nephropathy and kidney transplantation". Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. vol. 2. 2007. pp. S36-46. (Nice comprehensive review ... How should patients with BK virus infection be managed?. * Early removal of uretral stents in all renal tranplant patients. ...
BK Virus DNA, Quant Source. PROMPT. N. 31208-2. 2002302. BK Virus DNA, Quant copy/mL. Resultable. N. cpy/mL. XXXXXXXXX. 48309-9 ... BK Virus DNA, Quant Interp. Resultable. N. 47251-4. For questions regarding the Interface Map, please contact interface.support ... BK Virus DNA, Quant copy/mL. 48309-9. * Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided here is ... BK Virus DNA, Quantitation. Resultable. N. log. X.X. 43201-3. 0093241. ...
  • Increasing copy levels of BK virus (BKV) DNA in serial specimens may indicate possible BKV- associated nephropathy (BKVAN) in kidney transplant patients. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Retransplantation after kidney graft loss due to polyoma BK virus nephropathy: successful outcome without original allograft nephrectomy. (nih.gov)
  • BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is an important cause of renal graft loss in recent years. (elsevier.com)
  • Following reactivation of latent virus, impaired cellular immunity enables sustained viral replication to occur in urothelial cells, which potentially leads to the development of BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN). (ox.ac.uk)
  • BK virus, a human polyomavirus that can cause hemorrhagic cystitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients and ureteral stenosis and polyomavirus associated nephropathy (PVAN) in renal transplantation patients. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Risk factors in the progression of BK virus-associated nephropathy in renal transplant recipients. (nih.gov)
  • BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is an important cause of allograft dysfunction in kidney transplant recipients.Advanced stages of BKVAN, increased creatinine levels, and accompanying acute rejection at the time of BKVAN diagnosis increased the risk of allograft failure.The clinical outcomes in patients with biopsy-proven BKVAN were unfavorable in the present study, especially in patients with advanced-stage BKVAN, poor renal function, and acute allograft rejection. (nih.gov)
  • BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is an important cause of allograft dysfunction in kidney transplant recipients. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in allograft function and allograft survival rate after BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • The aims of this study are to (1) describe the management of patients undergoing retransplantation after allograft loss in the setting of BKVN and (2) to identify risk factors for BK virus replication in the retransplant. (elsevier.com)
  • Fluoroquinolones are antibacterial agents that showed in vitro inhibitor of BK virus replication. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • BK virus' primary infection is asymptomatic, and the virus remains clinically latent in kidney epithelial cells. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Background: The study evaluated the relationship of pretransplantation BK virus (BKV)-specific donor and recipient serostatus to posttransplantation BKV infection. (notifylibrary.org)
  • Results from this real-time PCR assay on the LightCycler (LC PCR) were compared to a previous PCR assay (directed to VP2 region of the polyoma virus based on a published method) on 112 plasma specimens and 108 urine specimens. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • To supplement the above data, 30 negative plasma and urine specimens were spiked with BK virus (BKV)-positive control plasmid at the approximate limit of detection (LoD). (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Detection of BK virus in urine from renal transplant subjects by mass spectrometry. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Pre-emptive screening of BK virus in blood and urine after renal transplant are implemented to detect any signs of BK proliferation. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • However, small nonrandomized studies showed decreased BK viral load in the urine in less than one-half of the patients. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • BK virus infects humans starting in early childhood via urine-oral route. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Although polyoma BK virus (BKV)-associated interstitial nephritis has received increasing attention because of its clinical relevance in kidney allograft recipients, data on risk for repeated renal transplantation after BKV-related allograft loss are limited, and the need to perform an original graft nephrectomy is the object of debate. (nih.gov)
  • Retransplantation is safe and effective for patients with previous graft loss due to BKVN preferably post-BK viral clearance. (elsevier.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify BK virus proteins in clinical samples by MS and that this approach makes it possible to distinguish between different viral subtypes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although BK virus rarely infects the native kidneys, PVAN can be detected in up to 10% of patients with renal transplantation. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and management of BK virus (BKV) reactivation following renal transplantation continues to be a significant clinical problem. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BK, JC, TS, and Merckel cell carcinoma viruses are linked to specific human diseases. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • BK are the initials of a patient who presented with ureteral stenosis several months after renal transplantation. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • The BK virus is a member of the polyomavirus family. (wikipedia.org)
  • BK virus (BKV) is a nonenveloped, ubiquitous human polyomavirus that establishes a persistent infection in healthy individuals. (asm.org)
  • Genomic sequences of the human polyomaviruses, JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV), and simian virus 40 (SV40) have been reported from several types of human brain tumors, but there have been no population-based seroepidemiologic studies to evaluate the association between polyomavirus infection and brain tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The polyomavirus family includes two human viruses, JCV 3 and BKV. (aacrjournals.org)
  • BK polyomavirus (BKV)-associated nephropathy is a threat to kidney allograft survival affecting up to 15% of renal transplant patients. (ovid.com)
  • Schematic representation of the BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) genome. (jle.com)
  • BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) replication cycle. (jle.com)
  • Flow diagram for screening and management of BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infections in kidney transplantation (from [55] ). (jle.com)
  • The BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is one of the main human polyomaviruses. (jle.com)
  • Background: BK virus, genus polyomavirus, is known as an important cause of nephropathy (BKVN) in renal transplant patients. (eur.nl)
  • Human polyomavirus BK (BKV) asymptomatically infects 80~90% of people during early childhood, and establishes a life-long persistent infection without causing overt clinical symptoms. (umsystem.edu)
  • Polyomavirus hominis 1 (genus Polyomaviridae ), the BK virus, is a non-encapsulated DNA virus that is highly prevalent in healthy adults with up to 90% seropositivity. (haematologica.org)
  • In this brief commentary, we wish to point out recent advancements done on the role of the human polyomavirus BK (BKPyV) in the development of PCa by harnessing both humoral and cellular immune responses. (uzh.ch)
  • BK virus is a polyomavirus that infects the majority of the population and subsequently remains dormant in the kidney without consequence. (asnjournals.org)
  • The most divergent BKV CAP clones differed at 0·55 % of sites, implying a rate of nucleotide substitution of approximately 5×10 −5 substitutions per site per year, which is two orders of magnitude faster than estimated for the other human polyomavirus, JC virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Leflunomide therapy for polyomavirus-induced allograft nephropathy: efficient BK virus elimination without increased risk of rejection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • BK Polyomavirus: Clinical Aspects, Immune Regulation, and Emerging Therapies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The human polyomavirus BK (BKPyV): virological background and clinical implications. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Correlates of quantitative measurement of BK polyomavirus (BKV) DNA with clinical course of BKV infection in renal transplant patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy is an important cause of post-transplantation renal failure. (altmetric.com)
  • We present two cases of BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy who were submitted to contrasting strategies of clinical follow-up to BK polyomavirus reactivation, but progressed to a similar final outcome. (altmetric.com)
  • stage B BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy was diagnosed by biopsy at 14 months post-transplant. (altmetric.com)
  • Despite clinical treatment (dosage decrease and immunosuppressive drug change), he progressed to stage C BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and loss of graft function 30 months post-transplant. (altmetric.com)
  • Even with decreasing immunosuppression, he developed BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy 1-year post-transplant. (altmetric.com)
  • Decoy cell shedding may be related to BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy when extensive and persistent. (altmetric.com)
  • The presence of associated tacrolimus nephrotoxicity may be a confounding factor for the clinical diagnosis of BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy. (altmetric.com)
  • BK virus is a polyomavirus that occurs worldwide with a prevalence of 60 to 80% in the general population[ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BK polyomavirus in solid organ transplantation. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Polyomavirus (BK) in pediatric renal transplants: evaluation of viremic patients with and without BK associated nephritis. (jamanetwork.com)
  • BK Polyoma(SV-40) is vital to evaluate renal allograft biopsies as a marker of Polyomavirus infection. (apollodiagnostics.in)
  • Urine samples and blood samples are assessed to determine the presence of BK virus (BK polyomavirus). (apollodiagnostics.in)
  • While the development of potent immunosuppressant medications has reduced the incidence of acute rejection to less than 10 percent, it can also lead to the reactivation of the BK virus, a polyomavirus with a prevalence rate of 60 to 80 percent in the general population. (healthmanagement.org)
  • BK polyomavirus (BKV) establishes persistent, low-level, and asymptomatic infections in most humans and causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) and other pathologies in some individuals. (ucd.ie)
  • Past infection with the BK virus is widespread, but significant consequences of infection are uncommon, with the exception of the immunocompromised and the immunosuppressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A BK virus (BKV) infection is a common viral infection that usually does not cause problems. (drugs.com)
  • A BK infection may cause your kidneys or other organs to fail, and may become life-threatening. (drugs.com)
  • After asymptomatic BK virus primary infection in childhood of up to 90% of the general population, BK virus establishes lifelong residence in kidney epithelial cells. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • A retrospective review was performed to assess the risk factors and outcomes of BK virus infection and nephropathy (BKVN), an early complication in pediatric kidney allograft recipients. (mdpi.com)
  • Primary infection with BKV is followed by dissemination to the kidney and urinary tract, in particular to kidney tubule epithelial cells and urinary tract epithelial cells, where the virus establishes a lifelong persistent infection ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • BK virus infection is considered to be contagious between people. (kidneypatientguide.org.uk)
  • BK virus (BKV) is a ubiquitous virus and its primary infection is generally asymptomatic. (springer.com)
  • Does this patient have BK virus infection? (renalandurologynews.com)
  • How should patients with BK virus infection be managed? (renalandurologynews.com)
  • BKV infection of primary human TEC did not induce an antiviral response, whereas infection with influenza A virus, herpes simplex virus 1, or cytomegalovirus induced a strong antiviral response measured by upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes, such as CXCL10 and DAI. (ovid.com)
  • Much progress has been made in recent years in the description of virus-cell interactions, but many aspects of viral physiopathology remain mysterious, principally due to the asymptomatic nature of infection in immunocompetent individuals and the lack of an animal model. (jle.com)
  • Background Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common cause of morbidity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, frequently associated with BK virus infection. (haematologica.org)
  • BK virus infection has been connected with development of hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic transplant, but most studies detected the virus at the time of bleeding, therefore not allowing the risk imposed by asymptomatic infection to be estimated. (haematologica.org)
  • Leflunomide efficacy and pharmacodynamics for the treatment of BK viral infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Treatment of renal allograft polyoma BK virus infection with leflunomide. (semanticscholar.org)
  • More detailed information about the symptoms , causes , and treatments of BK virus infection is available below. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Wrongly Diagnosed with BK virus infection? (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Visit our research pages for current research about BK virus infection treatments . (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Greenlee, JE, Narayan, O & Johnson, R 1978, ' Effects of BK virus infection on primary cultures of rodent and primate cells ', Experimental Biology and Medicine , vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 437-441. (elsevier.com)
  • BK virus infection has emerged as a major complication in kidney transplantation leading to a significant reduction in graft survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are currently no proven strategies to prevent or treat BK virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesize that administration of a quinolone antibiotic, when given early post-transplantation, will prevent the establishment of BK viral replication in the urine and thus prevent systemic BK virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If the full trial shows that levofloxacin significantly reduces BK infection and improves outcomes, its use in kidney transplantation will be strongly endorsed given the lack of proven therapies for this condition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This major advancement in care, however, has been replaced by a new threat, BK virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We propose to conduct a RCT to determine if we can prevent BK virus infection from occurring rather than trying to treat the virus once replication has been established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis in kidney transplant recipients reduces BK virus infection at 3 months but not at 1 year. (jamanetwork.com)
  • BK virus infection is a significant complication of modern immunosuppression used in kidney transplantation. (meta.org)
  • Discover the latest research on BK virus infection here. (meta.org)
  • BK virus infection remains asymptomatic for a long time. (medindia.net)
  • But BK virus infection after kidney transplant can harm the patient due to reduction in immunity with potent immunosuppressive agents. (medindia.net)
  • The BK virus infection first appears in the urine (BK viruria) which is often associated with a high risk of transplant failure. (healthmanagement.org)
  • Quinolone antibiotics are known to have antiviral properties against the BK virus, but their efficacy at preventing this infection has not been shown in prospective controlled studies. (healthmanagement.org)
  • The study findings thus do not support the use of levofloxacin for the prevention of post-transplantation BK virus infection. (healthmanagement.org)
  • In recent survey, we found that people faces lots of PC trouble due to the BK LPD Virus infection. (us.com)
  • BK virus (BKV) infection is one of the most important opportunistic infections in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and can cause serious allograft dysfunction [ 1 ]. (kjim.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to measure the rates of continuing viral presence, following anti-viral therapy with combined Peg-Interferon and Ribavirin in patients that have had a liver transplant, are immune suppressed with Neoral or tacrolimus, and have a recurring infection with the Hepatitis C virus. (mayo.edu)
  • Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) gene polymorphisms have been associated with parvovirus B19, hepatitis C virus, HIV-1/AIDS infection, cytomegalovirus viremia, and disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The BK virus was first isolated in 1971 from the urine of a renal transplant patient, initials B.K. The BK virus is similar to another virus called the JC virus (JCV), since their genomes share 75% sequence similarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that this virus may be transmitted through respiratory fluids or urine, since infected individuals periodically excrete virus in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This virus can be diagnosed by a BKV blood test or a urine test for decoy cells, in addition to carrying out a biopsy in the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood and urine tests will show if you are infected with the BK virus. (drugs.com)
  • Urine cytology for BK, Adenovirus, and CMV can contain decoy cells, which are enlarged nuclei with single basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Use urine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to make a diagnosis of the culprit virus. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • BK virus has been detected both in blood and urine. (ndtv.com)
  • Results from this real-time PCR assay on the LightCycler (LC PCR) were compared to a previous PCR assay (directed to VP2 region of the polyoma virus based on a published method) on 112 plasma specimens and 108 urine specimens. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • To supplement the above data, 30 negative plasma and urine specimens were spiked with BK virus (BKV)-positive control plasmid at the approximate limit of detection (LoD). (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Blood and urine BK polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the favored screening tests. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Detect and quantify BK virus in blood or urine. (aruplab.com)
  • An indirect immunofluorescence method for detection of infectious BK virus in urine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Knowles1989AnII, title={An indirect immunofluorescence method for detection of infectious BK virus in urine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An indirect immunofluorescence (IF) method is described for the detection of infectious BK virus in urine within seven days in contrast to up to three months or longer using routine tissue culture. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Virus is pelleted from the urine, inoculated onto pre-formed monolayers of human embryo lung (HEL) fibroblasts, and infected cells are detected in an indirect fluorescent antibody test using a human serum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To determine the variability of BK virus (BKV) in vivo , the sequences of nine full-length molecular clones from the striated muscle and heart DNA of a patient with BKV-associated capillary leak syndrome (BKV CAP ), as well as three clones each from the urine of one human immunodeficiency virus type 2-positive (BKV HI ) and one healthy control subject (BKV HC ), were analysed. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The BK virus causes the tubes in the kidneys that allow urine to drain to the bladder (ureters) to swell. (osu.edu)
  • If levofloxacin significantly reduces BK viruria and urine viral loads in kidney transplantation, it will provide important justification to progress to the larger trial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BK virus replication progresses through specific stages: appearing first in the urine (BK viruria), then in the blood (BK viremia) and finally in the kidney transplant as an inflammatory nephritis (BK virus nephropathy)[ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to a new study, a three-month course of levofloxacin following kidney transplantation did not prevent the BK virus from appearing in the urine. (healthmanagement.org)
  • Other measures including occurrence of BK viremia (virus in the blood), peak urine and blood viral loads, and time to sustained viruria were not significantly different between groups. (healthmanagement.org)
  • Skin infections: Rash site and, depending on the virus, serum and urine b. (issuu.com)
  • Although polyoma BK virus (BKV)-associated interstitial nephritis has received increasing attention because of its clinical relevance in kidney allograft recipients, data on risk for repeated renal transplantation after BKV-related allograft loss are limited, and the need to perform an original graft nephrectomy is the object of debate. (nih.gov)
  • BK virus is a significant risk factor for kidney allograft dysfunction and loss among renal transplant recipients. (ovid.com)
  • In this review, we discuss diagnostic challenges and current treatment options for BK in kidney transplant recipients. (ovid.com)
  • In addition, novel therapeutic regimens such as adoptive transfer of targeted T cells have been described as possible treatment options for recipients with BK nephropathy. (ovid.com)
  • BK can also be seen in the native kidneys of pancreas, heart, lung and liver transplant recipients, suggesting that BK screening measures should be employed to other solid organ transplant recipients. (ovid.com)
  • BK virus (BKV) belongs to the genus Polyomaviridae and is now a well-recognized pathogen in kidney transplant recipients. (asm.org)
  • BKV reactivation with urinary excretion of virus occurs in 10 to 60% of kidney transplant recipients. (asm.org)
  • There has been a notable rise of BK virus among kidney transplant recipients. (eurekamag.com)
  • This study utilized newly collected follow-up information from the national SRTR database to investigate incidence, risk factors and outcomes for solitary kidney transplant recipients associated with treatment for BK virus (TBKV) from 2004 to 2006. (eurekamag.com)
  • First reported in 1995 ( 1 ), and in subsequent case series ( 2 , 3 ) BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is estimated to occur in 2% to 10% of all kidney transplant recipients ( 4 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetic Monitoring of Leflunomide in Renal Transplant Recipients with BK Virus Reactivation: A Review of the Literature. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In kidney transplant recipients, immunosuppression leads to reactivation of the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Does reduction in immunosuppression in viremic patients prevent BK virus nephropathy in de novo renal transplant recipients? (jamanetwork.com)
  • Ryan J, Zanabli A, Cosio F, Stegall M, Larson T, Griffin M. Outcomes of immunosuppression reduction in BK viremic kidney transplant recipients screened at 4 months post-transplant. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Impact of preemptive reduction of immunosuppression with serial monitoring for BK virus replication in renal transplant recipients undergoing short-term evaluation. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Pre- transplant BK Screening of donors might identify the risked recipients post transplant. (nephronpower.com)
  • BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is an important cause of allograft dysfunction in kidney transplant recipients. (kjim.org)
  • BK virus nephropathy is one of the most common viral infections that affect up to 10% of renal transplant recipients (RTRs), causing allograft dysfunction and graft loss. (cdc.gov)
  • Antiviral medicine may be used to kill the BK virus. (drugs.com)
  • If the kidney function doesn't improve over a period of few weeks to months, then one would be treated with antiviral agents against the BK virus. (ndtv.com)
  • There is no definite set of antiviral drugs known to be effective against the virus. (ndtv.com)
  • Antiviral and antibiotic therapies have been employed for BK viraemia with variable efficacy. (ovid.com)
  • An antiviral would be necessary to rid me of the virus completely. (blogspot.com)
  • many people who are infected with this virus are asymptomatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • A negative result (less than 2.6 log copies/mL or less than 390 copies/mL) does not rule out the presence of PCR inhibitors in the patient specimen or BK virus DNA concentrations below the level of detection of the assay. (aruplab.com)
  • Conclusions: The results document a pathogenic role for BK virus in native kidneys of immuno-compromised CLL patients and indicate a role for quantitative BK virus DNA detection for early management of BKVN in native kidneys. (eur.nl)
  • When I uploaded the LLC BK UKRBUDMONTAZH file to VirusTotal , it came up with a 11% detection rate. (freefixer.com)
  • BK virus DNA detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction in clinical specimens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Detection or quantitation of BK virus DNA. (umich.edu)
  • We treated twenty-six patients with biopsy proven NK virus nephropathy (BKN) with either leflunomide alone (n = 17) or leflunomide plus a course of cidofovir (n = 9) and followed them for six to forty months. (elsevier.com)
  • Four patients who did not consistently have blood levels of active drug (A77 1726) above 40 μg/ml did not clear the virus until these levels were attained or cidofovir was added. (elsevier.com)
  • Yi, SG , Knight, RJ & Lunsford, KE 2017, ' BK virus as a mediator of graft dysfunction following kidney transplantation ', Current opinion in organ transplantation , vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 320-327. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Children with renal diseases are typically treated with immunosuppressive drugs, which place them at high risk of reactivation of the BK virus (BKV). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Cytological urinary monitoring was an efficient strategy for monitoring BK virus reactivation. (altmetric.com)
  • The main polyomaviruses causing disease in humans are the BK, MK (Merkel cell virus), SV40 (simian vacuolating virus), and JC (John Cunningham) viruses. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • BK virus (BKV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family, which also includes the well-studied simian virus 40 (SV40) and human JC virus (JCV) ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • BK virus can infect and result in kidney allograft (transplanted) dysfunction, prevalence rate being around 5% within 10-12 months after having received the transplant, though it can occur much sooner as in your case. (ndtv.com)
  • Nice comprehensive review of BK virus nephropathy and transplantation to include virology, epidemiology, pathology, treatment and outcomes. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • From 1-10% of renal transplant patients progress to BK virus associated nephropathy (BKVAN) and up to 80% of these patients lose their grafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasing copy levels of BK virus (BKV) DNA in serial specimens may indicate possible BKV- associated nephropathy (BKVAN) in kidney transplant patients. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) causes renal allograft dysfunction. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Both of these viruses can be identified and differentiated from each other by carrying out serological tests using specific antibodies or by using a PCR based genotyping approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • JC virus causes PML in patients with HIV/AIDS and those on monoclonal antibodies such as natalizumab. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • As part of an epidemiological study of cancer in Uganda, we investigated the titre of antibodies against BK virus among 821 people with different cancer types and benign tumours. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Among study participants, 790 were considered seropositive for anti-BK virus antibodies and all analyses were conducted on transformed data. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Otherwise, there were few consistent associations between anti-BK virus antibodies and any social and lifestyle factor investigated. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Epstein-Barr virus is also known to induce dsDNA antibodies, as seen after immunisation of animals with EBNA-1 epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite frequent reactivation of BK virus in AIDS patients, clinical manifestations are extremely rare. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • What are the key conclusions for available clinical trials and meta-analyses that inform control of viruses - polyomaviruses (John Cunningham and BK)? (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Tan SC et al (2010) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and other disorders caused by JC virus: clinical features and pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Reploeg MD, Storch GA, Clifford DB (2001) BK virus: a clinical review. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to use renal and kidney plus pancreas transplant patient samples to validate both the clinical utility of the CMV scoring algorithm and develop a clinically useful scoring guide for the BK virus immune competence assay. (mayo.edu)
  • If the assay DETECTED the presence of the virus but was not able to accurately quantify the number of copies, the test result will be reported as 'Not Quantified. (aruplab.com)
  • Levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA against BKV capsids were measured at five time points for 535 serial samples from 107 patients by using a virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
  • The virus then disseminates to the kidneys and urinary tract where it persists for the life of the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five of eleven cancers of the urinary tract were BK-virus positive. (diva-portal.org)
  • Primary human urinary cells support growth and plaque formation by papovavirus BK, permitting plaque purification of the virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Factors associated with increased risk of BK virus reactivation include prior exposure to BK virus, older age of the host, and high anti-BK virus IgG levels prior to transplantation. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • No other cancer site or type was significantly associated with low, or with high anti-BK virus antibody titres. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In some renal transplant patients, the necessary use of immunosuppressive drugs has the side-effect of allowing the virus to replicate within the graft, a disease called BK nephropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retransplantation after kidney graft loss due to polyoma BK virus nephropathy: successful outcome without original allograft nephrectomy. (nih.gov)
  • BK virus nephropathy is seen in patients with renal transplantation and can cause worsening renal function, tubulointerstitial nephritis, ureteric stenosis, and eventual graft loss. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • BACKGROUND: BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVN) is associated with an increased risk of graft failure. (elsevier.com)
  • Polyoma BK virus produces an aggressively destructive nephropathy in approximately 3% to 8% of renal allografts, is associated with graft loss within one year in 35% to 67% of those infected and there is no therapy of proven efficacy. (elsevier.com)
  • Lunsford, Keri E. / BK virus as a mediator of graft dysfunction following kidney transplantation . (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Study design: Quantitative BK virus DNA in plasma and relevant immune parameters were recorded in one CLL patient with BKVN and ten consecutive CLL patients without BKVN. (eur.nl)
  • The next step is to have another kidney biopsy to determine if the virus is still causing active inflammation in my kidneys. (blogspot.com)
  • Central nervous system (e.g., meningitis and encephalitis): For diagnosis of meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum, as well as stool or throat swabs, can be collected because viruses are sometimes shed into these sites. (issuu.com)
  • The crystal structure of the NS3 protease of the hepatitis C virus (BK strain) has been determined in the space group P6(3)22 to a resolution of 2.2 A. This protease is bound with a 14-mer peptide representing the central region of the NS4A protein. (rcsb.org)
  • There are several courses of treatment for BK virus. (osu.edu)
  • JC virus causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with HIV/AIDS. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Daveson KL (2013) BK virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. (springer.com)
  • Chu J et al BK virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. (springer.com)
  • The virus causes a condition called BK Viral Nephritis or BKVN. (osu.edu)
  • BK virus (BKV) is a DNA virus that typically infects children and remains latent in the immunocompetent host. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • At engraftment of stem cells, the newly reconstituted immune response can result in an influx of BK virus-specific immune cells and cause further damage by the inflammatory response. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The viruses remain latent in multiple organ systems, particularly the genitourinary system and the central nervous system. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • BKV specifically evades innate immunity in TEC and is not susceptible to an intrinsic interferon response, which may facilitate latent presence of the virus in this cell type. (ovid.com)
  • Aproximately 80% of the population contains a latent form of BK virus, which manifests in cases of immunosupression. (lalpathlabs.com)
  • the virus thereafter remains latent in the renal tubules and uroepithelial cells, which are the most important sites epidemiologically [ 2 ]. (kjim.org)
  • Nephropathy (PVAN): Transplanted kidney rejection can also present with similar symptoms and signs as BK virus associated nephropathy. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • BK viral load levels in the patient steadily increased and exceeded those of the control CLL patients. (eur.nl)
  • 2. Croup and bronchitis can be caused by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, RSV, and adenovirus. (issuu.com)
  • 3. Pneumonia in children can be caused by RSV, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). (issuu.com)
  • Specimens sent for BK Virus DNA testing require a dedicated sample and cannot be shared with other laboratories. (umich.edu)
  • Specimens with unknown levels of BKV DNA are then compared to the standard curve to determine the copy level of the virus. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • A kidney biopsy is a procedure to remove a small amount of tissue from your kidney to see if you are infected with the BK virus. (drugs.com)
  • determining BK virus reactivation disease in bone marrow and renal transplant patients. (umich.edu)