A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Bixa contains bixin. Cochlospermum contains arjunolic acid and gum kondagogu (POLYSACCHARIDES).

Pit membrane porosity and water stress-induced cavitation in four co-existing dry rainforest tree species. (1/18)

Aspects of xylem anatomy and vulnerability to water stress-induced embolism were examined in stems of two drought-deciduous species, Brachychiton australis (Schott and Endl.) A. Terracc. and Cochlospermum gillivraei Benth., and two evergreen species, Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzal) Benth. and Austromyrtus bidwillii (Benth.) Burret., growing in a seasonally dry rainforest. The deciduous species were more vulnerable to water stress-induced xylem embolism. B. australis and C. gillivraei reached a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at -3.17 MPa and -1.44 MPa, respectively; a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity occurred at -5.56 MPa in A. excelsa and -5.12 MPa in A. bidwillii. To determine whether pit membrane porosity was responsible for greater vulnerability to embolism (air seeding hypothesis), pit membrane structure was examined. Expected pore sizes were calculated from vulnerability curves; however, the predicted inter-specific variation in pore sizes was not detected using scanning electron microscopy (pores were not visible to a resolution of 20 nm). Suspensions of colloidal gold particles were then perfused through branch sections. These experiments indicated that pit membrane pores were between 5 and 20 nm in diameter in all four species. The results may be explained by three possibilities: (a) the pores of the expected size range were not present, (b) larger pores, within the size range to cause air seeding, were present but were rare enough to avoid detection, or (c) pore sizes in the expected range only develop while the membrane is under mechanical stress (during air seeding) due to stretching/flexing.  (+info)

Induction of liver monooxygenases by annatto and bixin in female rats. (2/18)

Annatto or urucum is an orange-yellow dye obtained from Bixa orellana seeds. It has been used as a natural dye in a variety of food products, drugs and cosmetics, and also in Brazilian cuisine as a condiment ('colorau'). Bixin, a carotenoid devoid of provitamin A activity, is the main pigment found in annatto. Some carotenoids (canthaxanthin, astaxanthin and beta-Apo-8'-carotenal) are known to be potent inducers of CYP1A1, a property not shared by others (beta-carotene, lycopene and lutein). Little is known, however, about the CYP1A1-inducing properties of bixin and annatto. The present study was performed to determine the effects of an annatto extract (28% bixin) and bixin (95% pure) on rat liver monooxygenases. Adult female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with daily doses of annatto (250 mg/kg body weight, which contains approximately 70 mg bixin/kg body weight), bixin (250 mg/kg body weight) or the vehicle only (corn oil, 3.75 g/kg body weight) for 5 consecutive days, or were not treated (untreated control). The activities of aniline-4-hydroxylase (A4H), ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD), ethoxy- (EROD), methoxy- (MROD), pentoxy- (PROD) and benzyloxy- (BROD) resorufin-O-dealkylases were measured in liver microsomes. Annatto (250 mg/kg containing 70 mg bixin/kg) induced EROD (3.8x), MROD (4.2x), BROD (3.3x) and PROD (2.4x). Bixin (250 mg/kg) was a weaker inducer of EROD (2.7x), MROD (2.3x) and BROD (1.9x) and did not alter PROD, A4H or ECOD activities. These results suggest that constituents of the extract other than bixin play an important role in the induction of CYP1A and CYP2B observed with annatto food colorings.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of the food and cosmetic plant pigment bixin (annatto). (3/18)

Bixin, also known as annatto, is a seed-specific pigment widely used in foods and cosmetics since pre-Columbian times. We show that three genes from Bixa orellana, native to tropical America, govern bixin biosynthesis. These genes code for lycopene cleavage dioxygenase, bixin aldehyde dehydrogenase, and norbixin carboxyl methyltransferase, which catalyze the sequential conversion of lycopene into bixin. Introduction of these three genes in Escherichia coli engineered to produce lycopene induced bixin synthesis, thus expanding the supply of this economically important plant product.  (+info)

Antigenotoxic and antimutagenic potential of an annatto pigment (norbixin) against oxidative stress. (4/18)

Carotenoids are 40-carbon molecules with conjugated double bonds, making them particularly effective for quenching free radicals. They have always been believed to possess anticancer properties, which could be due to their antioxidant potential. Norbixin is an unusual dicarboxylic water-soluble carotenoid present as a component in the pericarp of the seeds of Bixa orellana L. (from the Bixaceae family), a tropical shrub commonly found in Brazil. The main carotenoids present in these seeds, bixin and norbixin, form a coloring material, known as annatto, which is mainly used in the food industry. As annatto is only used as a coloring material, most studies of annatto pigments have focused on the determination of annatto levels in food. However, little attention has been given to the biological properties of bixin and norbixin. We evaluated the effect of norbixin on the response of Escherichia coli cells to DNA damage induced by UV radiation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anions (O2*-)) and found that norbixin protects the cells against these agents. Norbixin enhanced survival at least 10 times. The SOS induction by UVC was inhibited 2.3 times more when cells were grown in the presence of norbixin. We also found that norbixin has antimutagenic properties, with a maximum inhibition of H2O2-induced mutagenic activity of 87%, based on the Salmonella mutagenicity test.  (+info)

Ethnopharmacological survey of different uses of seven medicinal plants from Mali, (West Africa) in the regions Doila, Kolokani and Siby. (5/18)

An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information on the use of seven medicinal plants in rural areas in the nearby regions of Bamako, Mali. The plants were Opilia celtidifolia, Anthocleista djalonensis, Erythrina senegalensis, Heliotropium indicum, Trichilia emetica, Piliostigma thonningii and Cochlospermum tinctorium. About 50 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequent ailments reported were malaria, abdominal pain and dermatitis. The highest number of usages was reported for the treatment of malaria (22%). The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. They were mainly taken orally, but some applications were prepared with a mixture of plants or ingredients such as honey, sugar, salt, ginger and pepper. Decoction of the leaves was the main form of preparation (65%) and leaf powder was mostly used for the preparation of infusions (13%). The part of the plants most frequently used was the leaves. There was a high degree of informant consensus for the species and their medicinal indications between the healers interviewed. The results of this study showed that people are still dependent on medicinal plants in these rural areas of Mali.  (+info)

Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: a possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections. (6/18)

BACKGROUND: The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus beta hemolitic, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), and one yeast (Candida albicans). These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. METHODS: Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 microg/ml), clindamycin (0.3 microg/ml) and nystatin (1.0 microg/ml) were used as positive controls. RESULTS: The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 microg/ml, respectively) compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8 g/ml). Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 microg/ml, respectively) compared to nystatin (0.6 microg/ml). Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 microg/ml) than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 microg/ml). CONCLUSION: This in vitro study corroborated the antimicrobial activity of the selected plants used in folkloric medicine. All these plants were effective against three or more of the pathogenic microorganisms. However, they were ineffective against Streptococcus beta hemolytic and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their medicinal use in infections associated with these two species is not recommended. This study also showed that Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.  (+info)

Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of Bixa orellana in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated to benign prostatic hyperplasia. (7/18)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of Bixa Orellana (BO) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) presenting moderate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. One thousand four hundred and seventy eight patients presenting moderate LUTS associated to BPH were interviewed, from whom we selected 136 to fulfill the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Assignation was performed at random in blocks of four to receive B0 at a dose of 250 mg 3 times a day or placebo (Pbo) for 12 months, 68 patients were assigned to each group. From the patients in the study we obtained data of demographic, epidemiologic, symptom score, uroflowmetry and post void residual urine variables. RESULTS: Basically both groups were compared clinically, demographically and biochemically. Throughout the study variations of symptom score, mean delta symptom score during each visit and the final average delta were similar for both groups (BO - 0.79 +/- 1.87 and Pbo - 1.07 +/- 1.49) (p = 0.33). Similarly variations of Qmax mean, Qmax average delta and final average delta were similar (BO 0.44 +/- 1.07 and Pbo 0.47 +/- 1.32) (p = 0.88). Variations of post void residual urine mean, post void residual urine average delta in each visit and the final average delta were similar for both groups (BO 4.24 +/- 11.69 and Pbo 9.01 +/- 18.66) (p = 0.07). No differences were found in the answers of clinically significant improvement assessed with relative risk and risk differences, even though the proportion of adverse effects was similar for both groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with BPH that present moderate LUTS did not show any benefit receiving BO when compared to placebo.  (+info)

Absence of antimutagenicity of Cochlospermum regium (Mart. and Schr.) Pilger 1924 by micronucleus test in mice. (8/18)

Cochlospermum regium (Mart. and Schr.) Pilger, popularly known as "algodaozinho do campo", is a medicinal plant that grows in the Cerrado of Brazil. This plant has been used in traditional medicine against various diseases such as leucorrhoea, gastritis and ulcers. It has also been effective in treating skin problems like pimples, boils and blotches. In the present study, the in vivo antimutagenicity of aqueous extract of C. regium was evaluated. The Micronucleus Test was performed in polychromatic erythrocytes from Swiss male mice treated with one of the four doses of extract of the plant (19, 38, 76 and 114 mg.kg(-1) body weight), administered by intraperitonial injection (i.p.) simultaneously with cyclophosphamide (24 mg.kg(-1) b.w.) or mitomycin C (4 mg.kg(-1) b.w.). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes ratio (PCE/NCE). The results showed no significant reduction of the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes frequency (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the data indicate that C. regium roots aqueous extract, for the conditions used, did not exhibit the antimutagenic effect.  (+info)

Bixaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes several genera and species, such as Bixa, Diegodendron, and Cochlospermum. These plants are native to tropical regions of the world and are known for their showy flowers and often woody or semi-woody stems. One well-known member of this family is Bixa orellana, also known as the annatto plant, which produces seeds that are used as a food coloring and flavoring agent.

Here's a medical definition of Bixaceae:

Bixaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Malvales, characterized by having palmately lobed leaves, large showy flowers with numerous stamens, and fruit that is usually a capsule or schizocarp. Some members of this family have economic importance, such as Bixa orellana, whose seeds are used to produce annatto, a natural food coloring and flavoring agent.

All plants within the Bixaceae produce a red, orange, or yellow latex. The Bixaceae include three genera and a total of 25 ... The Bixaceae are a family of dicotyledonous plants commonly called the achiote family. Under the Cronquist system, the family ... Bixaceae in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, ...
BIXACEAE". NT Flora: eflora. Government of the Northern Territory. Retrieved 1 May 2023. "Kapok bush". parksaustralia.gov.au. ...
IPNI, Bixaceae, Type. POWO, Bixaceae. Stearn 2002, p. 71. Coombes 2012, p. 70. IPNI, Brassicaceae, Type. Kubitzki 2003, p. 11. ...
Bixaceae (1975). Bridson, Diane Mary; Polhill, Roger Marcus. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Flore des plantes ligneuses du Rwanda ...
Bixaceae, Lipsticktree Family. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 27-188-189. Flowers of Guatemala, by Carol ... Bixaceae, Flora of Arizona, Flora of New Mexico, Flora of Mexico, Flora of Colombia, Flora of Central America, Flora of the ...
Bixaceae Kunth, nom. cons. Cistaceae Juss., nom. cons. * (including Pakaraimaea Maguire & P.S.Ashton) Sarcolaenaceae Caruel, ...
Malvanae order 1. Cistales family 1. Bixaceae family 2. Cochlospermaceae family 3. Cistaceae family 4. Diegodendraceae order 2 ...
1. Bixa (Bixaceae) 2. Cochlospermum (Cochlospermaceae) 3. Oncoba (Flacourtiaceae) 4. Clusia (Guttiferae) 5. Psidium (Myrtaceae ...
Food plants are species of family Bixaceae. It has been recorded breeding on Flacourtia indica, Flacourtia montana, Smilax, ...
J.Presl $Bixaceae Kunth (including Cochlospermaceae Planch., Diegodendraceae Capuron) Cistaceae Juss. *Cytinaceae A.Rich. ...
Bixaceae sens.str., Burmanniaceae, Callitrichaceae, Cannabinaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, ...
... is a tree in the family Bixaceae. It is native to the Americas: from Mexico to Brazil. Botanic Gardens ...
... is a tree in the family Bixaceae. It is native to Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. An ...
... is a genus of trees in the Bixaceae family; some classifications place this genus in the family Cochlospermaceae ...
... is a genus of plants in the family Bixaceae. It is native to Mexico, Central America, Caribbean, and South America, and ... Bixaceae, Malvales genera, Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus). ...
... is a genus of flowering plants in the achiote family, Bixaceae. It was formerly placed in the family Cochlospermaceae ... Bixaceae, Malvales genera, All stub articles, Malvales stubs). ...
They have been included in the Bixaceae from the APG III system onwards. The older APG II system treated this family as an ... Bixaceae, Historically recognized angiosperm families, All stub articles, Malvales stubs). ... optional segregate of Bixaceae. They occur widely throughout the tropical regions of the world, but are curiously absent from ...
... is a monotypic genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Bixaceae. The only known species is Diegodendron ... Bixaceae, Monotypic Malvales genera, Flora of Madagascar, Taxa described in 1963, Taxa named by René Paul Raymond Capuron). ...
... is a tree in the family Bixaceae with common names cotton tree, kapok bush, and kapok tree. It is native ... NTflora 'Flora of the Darwin Region, Vol 1, Bixaceae Retrieved 27 May 2018. Brock, John (2001) [First published 1988]. Native ...
... is a tree in the family Bixaceae, with the common name kapok. It is native to Northern Australia. The ...
Otherwise, it has been placed in Bixaceae, though there is reason to suspect that it might be closer to Sphaerosepalaceae. All ...
... is a rare species of flowering plant in the Bixaceae known by the common names Santa Rita mountain ... Bixaceae, Flora of Arizona, Flora of Baja California Sur, Flora of Jalisco, Flora of Sinaloa, Flora of Sonora, Plants described ...
Bixaceae, Burseraceae, Combretaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Ericaceae, Grossulariaceae, Myricaceae for dicot and Najadaceae and ...
Bixaceae, Cochlospermaceae Volume 10 (1969): Combretaceae: O.Lecompte Volume 9 (1969): Campanulaceae Volume 8 (1968): Nyssaceae ...
Bixaceae - F. Pilger, Cochlospermaceae - E. Gilg, Canellaceae - H. Melchior, Violaceae - W. Becker, Viola - E. Gilg, ...
Eucryphiaceae Ochnaceae Dipterocarpaceae Caryocaraceae Quiinaceae Marcgraviaceae Flacourtiaceae Bixaceae Cochlospermaceae ...
Bixaceae, Bombacaceae, Burmanniaceae, Cactaceae, Campanulaceae, Caricaceae, Cartonemataceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, ...
... a tree of the Bixaceae family, named for the explorer Augustus Charles Gregory and native to the Northern Territory and ...
Stachyuraceae Scyphostegiaceae Peridiscaceae Hoplestigmataceae Loasaceae Cucurbitaceae Ordo Cistales Cistaceae Bixaceae ...
... bixaceae MeSH B06.388.100.148 - bombacaceae MeSH B06.388.100.148.500 - adansonia MeSH B06.388.100.148.750 - bombax MeSH B06.388 ...
All plants within the Bixaceae produce a red, orange, or yellow latex. The Bixaceae include three genera and a total of 25 ... The Bixaceae are a family of dicotyledonous plants commonly called the achiote family. Under the Cronquist system, the family ... Bixaceae in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, ...
Bixaceae. 红木科. 1. FOC Vol. 13. 10108. Blechnaceae. 乌毛蕨科. 8. FOC Vol. 2-3. ...
Bixaceae, (incl.: [+Cochlospermaceae], [+Diegodendraceae]), Cistaceae, Cytinaceae*, Dipterocarpaceae, Malvaceae (incl.: ...
Bixaceae Family description, Sample image. Checklist. Boraginaceae Family description, Sample image. Checklist. ...
Bixaceae. J. Ariz. - Nev. Acad. Sci. Volume 27, 190-194. FNA 2009, Kearney and Peebles 1969 ...
Other foods that contain annatto (bixin, Bixa orellana, and bixaceae):. *Yellow cheeses: American, Cheddar, and Velveeta. White ...
Bixa orellana (Bixaceae) doca Spanish Carpobrotus edulis (Aizoaceae) dock English Rumex crispus (Polygonaceae) ...
Cochlospermum palmatifidum (Mexican Yellowshow) is a species of perennial herb in the family Bixaceae. They have a self- ...
Family: Bixaceae Native Range: Tropical Americas Zone: 10 to 12 Height: 6.00 to 12.00 feet ...
Bixaceae Homoeopathic globules offered by Remedia Homeopathy and Team Santé Salvator pharmacy are made of saccharose. Dilutions ...
Bixaceae. * Arrowleaf Philodendron. This plant has a stem 4 to 6 cm in diameter, divided into nodes every 15 cm. Thick, long, ...
Chemical, nutritional, and biological composition of three seed morphotypes of Bixa orellana L. Bixaceae (Achiote) in the ...
Bixaceae. 4/4. 100%. Blandfordiaceae. 1/1. 100%. Blechnaceae. 2/?. Bonnetiaceae. 2/3. 66%. ...
Bixaceae. *Bixa orellana - Tropical America Bromeliaceae. Subfamily Brochinioideae *Brocchinia reducta - Venezuela (Bolívar) to ...
World flora (Plants of the world flora): 科
Bixaceae. Genus: Cochlospermum. Specific epithet: Cochlospermum vitifolium (C.L. von Willdenow) C.P.J. Sprengel. ...
Bixaceae. Amoreuxia palmatifida DC.. Prodr. 2: 638. 1825.. M. Node-Veran [de Montpellier]. Fl. Dames: vol. 12: 1171; Torner 208 ...
Family: Bixaceae. Parts Used: Seeds. Annatto is an orange-red food colour or condiment made from the seeds of the achiote. It ...
Home ,, Checklist: Pat Hills Desert Grassland ,, Previous version of Key ,, Identification Key (new version): Pat Hills Desert Grassland ...
Bixaceae. Including species:. *Blyxa aubertii Rich.. Key to species:. Genus Identification Features:. ...
MeSH headings : Aldehydes / analysis; Benzoyl Peroxide / chemistry; Bixaceae; Bleaching Agents / chemistry; Carotenoids / ...
Bixaceae (2) * Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular (2) * Colorantes de Alimentos (2) * Frutas (2) ...
Diese Webseite verwendet Cookies, um die Bedienfreundlichkeit zu erhöhen. Weitere Informationenen finden auf unser Hauptseite www.i-flora.com/datenschutz.html OK ...
E.M.McClint.; E. M. McClintock; Elizabeth McClintock. * July 07, 1912 - October 19, 2004 †. botanist, botanical collector, scientist American botanist (1912-2004) ...
Diese Webseite verwendet Cookies, um die Bedienfreundlichkeit zu erhöhen. Weitere Informationenen finden auf unser Hauptseite www.i-flora.com/datenschutz.html OK ...
  • The annatto tree belongs to the genus Bixa in the family Bixaceae. (thenaturalplants.com)
  • Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Lipstick from Color Pigments of Bixa Orellana (Bixaceae) Seeds. (ijpsjournal.com)
  • The Bixaceae include three genera and a total of 25 species, although Cochlospermum is sometimes placed into its own family Cochlospermaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cochlospermum palmatifidum (Mexican Yellowshow) is a species of perennial herb in the family Bixaceae . (eol.org)
  • The Bixaceae are a family of dicotyledonous plants commonly called the achiote family. (wikipedia.org)
  • All plants within the Bixaceae produce a red, orange, or yellow latex. (wikipedia.org)
  • A plant genus of the family BIXACEAE that contains arjunolic acid and gum kondagogu (POLYSACCHARIDES). (bvsalud.org)
  • A plant genus of the family BIXACEAE that contains bixin and is the source of annatto food coloring. (bvsalud.org)
  • Achiote, also commonly known as annatto, bija, or urucum, is a lovely evergreen shrub in the Bixaceae family that is. (sierraycielo.org)
  • Bixaceae" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • The Bixaceae are a family of dicotyledonous plants commonly called the achiote family. (wikipedia.org)
  • All plants within the Bixaceae produce a red, orange, or yellow latex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bixaceae" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bixaceae" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (childrensmercy.org)