A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A family of marine MUSSELS in the class BIVALVIA.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A large family of mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, known commonly as scallops. They possess flat, almost circular shells and are found in all seas from shallow water to great depths.
A family of freshwater mussels in the class BIVALVIA. They differ from ZEBRA MUSSELS in that they are larger and posses a larval stage called glochidia, which requires attachment to the GILLS or fins of particular species of FISHES.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
A genus of freshwater mussel in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. It is found in tropical and warm temperate coastal waters. Most species have green in their shells.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Atlantic Ocean" is a geographical term referring to one of the world's five oceans, covering approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and separating the continents of Europe and Africa to the east from those of North and South America to the west. It doesn't have a direct medical definition, as it is not a medical term.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.

Fluorimetric multiparameter cell assay at the single cell level fabricated by optical tweezers. (1/906)

A fluorimetric multi-parameter cell sensor at the single cell level is presented which makes it possible to observe the physiological behavior of different cell lines, different physiological parameters, and statistical data at the same time. Different cell types were immobilized at predefined positions with high accuracy using optical tweezers and adhesion promoting surface layers. The process is applicable to both adherent and non-adherent cells. Coating of the immobilization area with mussel adhesive protein was shown to be essential for the process. Intracellular proton and calcium concentrations in different cell classes were simultaneously imaged and the specific activation of T lymphocytes was demonstrated. This method should be especially useful for drug screening due to the small sample volume and high information density.  (+info)

Tumor-like lesions in the mantle of the mussel Modiolus difficilis from the Sea of Japan. (2/906)

Two inner growths in the mantle beneath the epithelium were found in 1 of 1000 mussels Modiolus difficilis from Amursky Bay, Sea of Japan, within the city precincts of Vladivostok. Both growths were about 2000 microns in maximal diameter in section and elevated slightly above the mantle surface. The mantle epithelium near the growths formed deep invaginations, and clusters of mucous cells were numerous beneath the epithelium. Histological and histochemical methods were employed. Two different kinds of growth were revealed. The off-white growth consisted of cells with thin granular or vesicular cytoplasm containing glucosaminoglycans, proteins and a small amount of neutral polysaccharides. Growth cells were pure white in color after treatment of preparations with 1% H2SO4 and differed markedly from the mantle cells. The yellow growth consisted of large granular cells with neutral polysaccharides and proteins. Although growths were composed of different kinds of cells, they seemed to be derived from subepithelial mucous cells. This was supported by histological and histochemical staining reactions of some tumor and mantle epithelial cells. Mitotic indices (MI) of growths and subepithelial mucous cells were zero, MI of ciliated mantle epithelium reached 0.07%. The lesions were areas of strongly altered mucous cells of mantle epithelium and were non-neoplastic.  (+info)

Heart action of the freshwater bivalve Anodonta anatina during activity. (3/906)

1. Heart action of Anodonta anatina (L.) was investigated by recording the electrocardiogram (ECG), heart impedance, and ventricular and pericardial cavity pressure during different aspects of the normal behaviour. The contribution of mechanical and nervous mechanisms in controlling changes in heart action is discussed. 2. Pressure recordings were generally more reliable than the other methods and it is suggested that pericardial pressure pulses indicate the stroke volume output of the ventricle. 3. During spontaneous periods of prolonged shell closure there was an initial small increase in heart activity followed by a large reduction in both heart rate and systolic pressure, indicating that total heart output was considerably reduced. When the shell reopened, heart rate increased very rapidly with an initial overshoot of the normal level; systolic pressure increased more slowly with no overshoot. 4. These major changes in heart activity appear to be associated with respiratory changes and are controlled largely by the nervous regulatory system, but some minor rhythmic variations in the amplitude of heart beat are probably caused by mechanical factors. 5. Characteristic patterns of change in heart action were recorded during burrowing. These appear to result from haemodynamic changes associated with the muscular movements of the digging cycle. Control of the heart by the nervous regulatory system is apparently of much greater importance in relation to respiratory control than in relation to the haemodynamic functioning of the fluid-muscle system in locomotion.  (+info)

Dynein is required for spindle assembly in cytoplasmic extracts of Spisula solidissima oocytes. (4/906)

Meiosis I spindle assembly is induced in lysate-extract mixtures prepared from clam (Spisula solidissima) oocytes. Unactivated lysate prepared from unactivated oocytes contain nuclei (germinal vesicles, GVs) which house condensed chromosomes. Treatment of unactivated lysate with clarified activated extract prepared from oocytes induced to complete meiosis by treatment with KCl induces GV breakdown (GVBD) and assembly of monopolar, bipolar, and multipolar aster-chromosome complexes. The process of in vitro meiosis I spindle assembly involves the assembly of microtubule asters and the association of these asters with the surfaces of the GVs, followed by GVBD and spindle assembly. Monoclonal antibody m74-1, known to react specifically with the N terminus of the intermediate chain of cytoplasmic dynein, recognizes Spisula oocyte dynein and inhibits in vitro meiosis I spindle assembly. Control antibody has no affect on spindle assembly. A similar inhibitory effect on spindle assembly was observed in the presence of orthovanadate, a known inhibitor of dynein ATPase activity. Neither m74-1 nor orthovanadate has any obvious affect on GVBD or aster formation. We propose that dynein function is required for the association of chromosomes with astral microtubules during in vitro meiosis I spindle assembly in these lysate-extract mixtures. However, we conclude that dynein function is not required for centrosome assembly and maturation or for centrosome-dependent aster formation.  (+info)

Ca2+ is required for phosphorylation of clam p82/CPEB in vitro: implications for dual and independent roles of MAP and Cdc2 kinases. (5/906)

During early development gene expression is controlled principally at the translational level. Oocytes of the surf clam Spisula solidissima contain large stockpiles of maternal mRNAs which are translationally dormant or masked until meiotic maturation. Fertilisation of the oocyte leads to rapid polysomal recruitment of the abundant cyclin and ribonucleotide reductase mRNAs at about the time they undergo cytoplasmic polyadenylation. Clam p82, a 3' UTR RNA-binding protein, and a member of the CPEB (cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein) family, functions as a translational masking factor in oocytes and as a polyadenylation factor in fertilised eggs. In meiotically maturing clam oocytes, p82/CPEB is rapidly phosphorylated on multiple residues to a 92-kDa apparent size, prior to its degradation during the first cell cleavage. Here we examine the protein kinase(s) that phosphorylates clam p82/CPEB using a clam oocyte activation cell-free system that responds to elevated pH, mirroring the pH rise that accompanies fertilisation. We show that p82/CPEB phosphorylation requires Ca2+ (<100 microM) in addition to raised pH. Examination of the calcium dependency combined with the use of specific inhibitors implicates the combined and independent actions of cdc2 and MAP kinases in p82/CPEB phosphorylation. Calcium is necessary for both the activation and the maintenance of MAP kinase, whose activity is transient in vitro, as in vivo. While cdc2 kinase plays a role in the maintenance of MAP kinase activity, it is not required for the activation of MAP kinase. We propose a model of clam p82/CPEB phosphorylation in which MAP kinase initially phosphorylates clam p82/CPEB, at a minor subset of sites that does not alter its migration, and cdc2 kinase is necessary for the second wave of phosphorylation that results in the large mobility size shift of clam p82/CPEB. The possible roles of phosphorylation for the function and regulation of p82/CPEB are discussed.  (+info)

Actin filament-membrane attachment: are membrane particles involved? (6/906)

The association of actin filaments with membranes is an important feature in the motility of nonmuscle cells. We investigated the role of membrane particles in the attachment of actin filaments to membranes in those systems in which the attachment site can be identified. Freeze fractures through the end-on attachment site of the acrosomal filament bundles in Mytilus (mussel) and Limulus (horseshoe crab) sperm and the attachment site of the microvillar filament bundles in the brush border of intestinal epithelial cells were examined. There are no particles on the P face of the membrane at these sites in the sperm systems and generally none at these sites in microvilli. In microvilli, the actin filaments are also attached along their lengths to the membrane by bridges. When the isolated brush border is incubated in high concentrations of Mg++ (15 mM), the actin filaments form paracrystals and, as a result, the bridges are in register (330 A period). Under these conditions, alignment of the particles on the P face of the membrane into circumferential bands also occurs. However, these bands are generally separated by 800-900 A, indicating that all the bridges cannot be directly attached to membrane particles. Thus membrane particles are not directly involved in the attachment of actin filaments to membranes.  (+info)

Interspecies transfer of female mitochondrial DNA is coupled with role-reversals and departure from neutrality in the mussel Mytilus trossulus. (7/906)

Mussels of the genus Mytilus have distinct and highly diverged male and female mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes with separate routes of inheritance. Previous studies of European populations of Mytilus trossulus demonstrated that 33% of males are heteroplasmic for a second mtDNA genome of increased length and that hybridization with Mytilus edulis does not block mtDNA introgression, in contrast to reports for American populations. Here, we demonstrate that the female mtDNA type of M. edulis has replaced the resident female mtDNA type of European M. trossulus. This is supported by COIII sequence data indicating that the female mtDNA of European M. trossulus is very similar to that of M. edulis and that in phylogenetic trees, the mtDNAs of these two species cluster together but separately from American M. trossulus sequences, the latter not being disturbed by introgressive hybridization. We also provide evidence that the mtDNA genome of increased length found in heteroplasmic males of European M. trossulus derives from a recent partition of an introgressed M. edulis female type into the male route of transmission. Neutrality tests reveal that European populations of M. trossulus display an excess of replacement polymorphism within the female mtDNA type with respect to conspecific American populations, as well as a significant excess of rare variants, of a similar magnitude to those previously reported for the invading European M. edulis mtDNA. Results are consistent with a nearly neutral model of molecular evolution and suggest that selection acting on European M. trossulus mtDNA is largely independent of the nuclear genetic background.  (+info)

Mytilus mitochondrial DNA contains a functional gene for a tRNASer(UCN) with a dihydrouridine arm-replacement loop and a pseudo-tRNASer(UCN) gene. (8/906)

A 2500-nucleotide pair (ntp) sequence of F-type mitochondrial (mt) DNA of the Pacific Rim mussel Mytilus californianus (class Bivalvia, phylum Mollusca) that contains two complete (ND2 and ND3) and two partial (COI and COIII) protein genes and nine tRNA genes is presented. Seven of the encoded tRNAs (Ala, Arg, His, Met(AUA), Pro, Ser(UCN), and Trp) have the potential to fold into the orthodox four-armed tRNA secondary structure, while two [tRNASer(AGN) and a second tRNASer(UCN)] will fold only into tRNAs with a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm-replacement loop. Comparison of these mt-tRNA gene sequences with previously published, corresponding M. edulis F-type mtDNA indicates that similarity between the four-armed tRNASer(UCN) genes is only 63.8% compared with an average of 92.1% (range 86.2-98. 5%) for the remaining eight tRNA genes. Northern blot analysis indicated that mature tRNAs encoded by the DHU arm-replacement loop-containing tRNASer(UCN), tRNASer(AGN), tRNAMet(AUA), tRNATrp, and tRNAPro genes occur in M. californianus mitochondria, strengthening the view that all of these genes are functional. However, Northern blot and 5' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) analyses indicated that the four-armed tRNASer(UCN) gene is transcribed into a stable RNA that includes the downstream COI sequence and is not processed into a mature tRNA. On the basis of these observations the M. californianus and M. edulis four-armed tRNASer(UCN) sequences are interpreted as pseudo-tRNASer(UCN) genes.  (+info)

Bivalvia is a class of mollusks, also known as "pelecypods," that have a laterally compressed body and two shells or valves. These valves are hinged together on one side and can be opened and closed to allow the animal to feed or withdraw into its shell for protection.

Bivalves include clams, oysters, mussels, scallops, and numerous other species. They are characterized by their simple body structure, which consists of a muscular foot used for burrowing or anchoring, a soft mantle that secretes the shell, and gills that serve both as respiratory organs and feeding structures.

Bivalves play an important role in aquatic ecosystems as filter feeders, helping to maintain water quality by removing particles and organic matter from the water column. They are also commercially important as a source of food for humans and other animals, and their shells have been used historically for various purposes such as tools, jewelry, and building materials.

Mytilidae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to a family of marine bivalve mollusks commonly known as mussels. These are filter-feeding organisms that typically attach themselves to hard surfaces in aquatic environments using byssal threads.

While not directly related to human health, certain species of mussels can accumulate toxins from their environment due to processes like biomagnification. When humans consume these contaminated mussels, it can lead to foodborne illnesses such as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Therefore, monitoring and regulating the safety of mussels and other bivalves is important in public health.

Mollusca is not a medical term per se, but a major group of invertebrate animals that includes snails, clams, octopuses, and squids. However, medically, some mollusks can be relevant as they can act as vectors for various diseases, such as schistosomiasis (transmitted by freshwater snails) and fascioliasis (transmitted by aquatic snails). Therefore, a medical definition might describe Mollusca as a phylum of mostly marine invertebrates that can sometimes play a role in the transmission of certain infectious diseases.

"Pectinidae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in the field of biology, specifically a family of marine bivalve mollusks commonly known as scallops. The members of this family are characterized by their fan-shaped shells and their ability to swim by clapping their valves together. If you have any questions about a medical term, I would be happy to help with that instead.

Unionidae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in the field of biology. It refers to a family of freshwater mussels that are primarily found in North America and Eurasia. These mussels have a unique reproductive strategy where they use fish as hosts for their larvae (glochidia) to develop and grow before settling in the riverbed as juveniles.

While Unionidae may not have a direct connection to medical terminology, it is worth noting that freshwater mussels, including those in Unionidae, play an essential role in maintaining water quality and providing habitat for many aquatic organisms. They can also serve as bioindicators of the health of aquatic ecosystems, which can have implications for public health. For instance, poor water quality can lead to the proliferation of harmful algal blooms or the spread of waterborne diseases, posing risks to human health.

Gills are specialized respiratory organs found in many aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, and some mollusks. They are typically thin, feathery structures that increase the surface area for gas exchange between the water and the animal's bloodstream. Gills extract oxygen from water while simultaneously expelling carbon dioxide.

In fish, gills are located in the gill chamber, which is covered by opercula or protective bony flaps. Water enters through the mouth, flows over the gills, and exits through the opercular openings. The movement of water over the gills allows for the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the gill filaments and lamellae, which are the thin plates where gas exchange occurs.

Gills contain a rich supply of blood vessels, allowing for efficient transport of oxygen to the body's tissues and removal of carbon dioxide. The counter-current flow of water and blood in the gills ensures that the concentration gradient between the water and the blood is maximized, enhancing the efficiency of gas exchange.

"Perna" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology. However, "Perna canaliculus" is a species of marine mussel that is native to New Zealand and is sometimes referred to as the "green-lipped mussel." This mollusk has been studied for its potential anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and other bioactive compounds.

Extracts from Perna canaliculus have been used in some dietary supplements and alternative medicine practices as a treatment for inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using these extracts.

Therefore, "Perna" in medical terms typically refers to the green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) and its potential anti-inflammatory properties.

In the context of medicine and biology, symbiosis is a type of close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms. Generally, one organism, called the symbiont, lives inside or on another organism, called the host. This interaction can be mutually beneficial (mutualistic), harmful to the host organism (parasitic), or have no effect on either organism (commensal).

Examples of mutualistic symbiotic relationships in humans include the bacteria that live in our gut and help us digest food, as well as the algae that live inside corals and provide them with nutrients. Parasitic symbioses, on the other hand, involve organisms like viruses or parasitic worms that live inside a host and cause harm to it.

It's worth noting that while the term "symbiosis" is often used in popular culture to refer to any close relationship between two organisms, in scientific contexts it has a more specific meaning related to long-term biological interactions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rivers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical term referring to large, flowing bodies of water that usually empty into a sea or an ocean. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Atlantic Ocean" is a geographical term referring to one of the five oceans on Earth. It doesn't have a medical definition. The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean, covering approximately 20% of the Earth's surface. It stretches from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, alternatively, to the Antarctica region) in the south, and is bounded by the Americas to the west and Europe and Africa to the east.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are specialized structures within cells that generate energy. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present in the cell nucleus and inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

MtDNA is a circular molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP. The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect any organ system in the body. These mutations can also be used in forensic science to identify individuals and establish biological relationships.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

The taxonomic term Bivalvia was first used by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758 to refer to animals ... A Status on Bivalvia after 250 Years of Research. ConchBooks. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-939767-28-2. Yonge, C. M. (1949). The Sea Shore ... Bivalvia (/baɪˈvælviə/), in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and ... Gofas, Serge (2012). "Bivalvia". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 30 June 2012. Carter, J. G.; Altaba, C. R ...
Classification of Class Bivalvia (under the redaction of Rüdiger Bieler, Joseph G. Carter and Eugene V. Coan) (all taxa marked ... Gofas, Serge (2012). "Bivalvia". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2012-06-30. Joseph G. Carter; Cristian R. ... In May 2010, a new taxonomy of the Bivalvia was published in the journal Malacologia. The 2010 taxonomy is known as the ... 2011). "A Synoptical Classification of the Bivalvia (Mollusca)" (PDF). Paleontological Contributions (published 27 October 2011 ...
Taxonomy follows Taxonomy of the Bivalvia (Bouchet, Rocroi, Bieler, Carter & Coan, 2010). CLASS BIVALVIA LINNAEUS, 1758 ...
Bivalvia. Pp. 105-141, in: Ponder W.F. & Lindberg D.L. (eds), Molluscan Phylogeny. Berkeley: University of California Press, xi ...
17(4): 157-189 Schiaparelli, S. (2008). Bivalvia. In: Relini G. (ed), Checklist della flora e della fauna dei mari italiani. ...
... bivalvia; and cephalopods (Orthoceras bullatum); and fish (Cephalaspis, Cyathaspis, Auchenaspis). Silurian Ireland Silurian ...
Bivalvia)"; Molluscan Research 31(1): 53-56; ISSN 1323-5818 (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
Bivalvia. pp. 141-44 In: Vol. 3, McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 10th Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York. Web ...
Lucinidae (Bivalvia) - the most diverse group of chemosymbiotic molluscs. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 148(3): 421 ... Part N. Mollusca 6. Bivalvia. Boulder, Colorado & Lawrence, Kansas : Geological Society of America & University of Kansas Press ... Molecular phylogeny of the Lucinoidea (Bivalvia): non-monophyly and separate acquisition of bacterial chemosymbiosis. Journal ... Bivalvia): Pillucina, Wallucina and descriptions of two new genera and four new species. Records of the Australian Museum 53: ...
Moore, R. C.; Teichert, C. (1969). Bivalvia. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part N, Mollusca 6. Lawrence, Kansas: ... 2011). "A Synoptical Classification of the Bivalvia (Mollusca)" (PDF). Paleontological Contributions. 4: 1-47. ...
Part N - Mollusca, Bivalvia Vol. 6. T.R. Waller, The evolution of ligament systems in the Bivalvia. In: Morton B., editor. ... ISBN 978-3-939767-28-2, at p. 59 E.R. Trueman, General features of Bivalvia. In: Moore R.C., editor. Bivalvia. Ligament. In: ... A Status on Bivalvia after 250 Years of Research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. pp. 901 pp. + CD. ... 580 p. at p. 304 Morphology and postlarval development of the ligament of Thracia phaseolina (Bivalvia: Thraciidae), with a ...
Bivalvia indet. Teuthidea indet. Ammonites Dactylioceras sp. Harpoceras sp. Plantae indet. List of fossiliferous stratigraphic ...
Bivalvia: Carditidae)". Zootaxa. 4379 (2): 223. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4379.2.4. ISSN 1175-5334. PMID 29689985. "WoRMS - World ... Pérez, Damián E.; del Río, Claudia J. (November 2017). "The family Carditidae (Bivalvia) in the early Danian of Patagonia ( ... Lockwood, Rowan; McClure, Kate J. (May 2015). "Relationships among Venericardia (Bivalvia: Carditidae) on the U.S. Coastal ... Pérez, Damián Eduardo (2019-01-15). "Phylogenetic relationships of the family Carditidae (Bivalvia: Archiheterodonta)". Journal ...
"Bivalvia Detail". Taiwan Malacofauna Database. Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica. Retrieved 6 August 2012. Sinica. ...
Bivalvia indet. Gastropoda indet. Flora Pinophyta Angiospermae indet. List of dinosaur-bearing rock formations Monte Grande ...
Nematoda: Ascaris, Caenorhabditis ; Mollusca: Bivalvia); Polyplacophora; Arthropoda/Crustacea: Artemia; Arthropoda/Insecta: ...
Bivalvia indet. Brachidontes sp. Carcharias aff. gracilis Centroscymnus praecursor Chlamydoselachus sp. Cuspidaria (Halonympha ...
Bivalvia: Mytilidae)". Environmental Microbiology. 10 (2): 433-445. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01465.x. PMID 18093159. ...
Bivalvia, Hippuritida)" (PDF). Cretaceous Research. 90: 60-79. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.04.001. S2CID 135180019. V. V. ... Bivalvia: Carditidae)". Zootaxa. 4379 (2): 215-230. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4379.2.4. PMID 29689985. Steffen Kiel (2018). "Three ... Javier H. Signorelli; J.G.M. (Han) Raven (2018). "Current knowledge of the family Cardiliidae (Bivalvia, Mactroidea)". Journal ... A. A. Berezovsky (2018). "New species of Crassatina (Bivalvia) from the Middle and Upper Eocene of Ukraine". Paleontological ...
1. Bivalvia. Petrefacta Germaniae 4(1):1-273 J. Prestwich. (1879). On the discovery of a species of Iguanodon in the Kimmeridge ...
Bivalvia: Limacea)". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 57 (4): 728-742. doi:10.1139/z79-091. ISSN 0008-4301. "Species Page". www. ...
A Status on Bivalvia after 250 Years of Research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. pp. 901 pp. + CD. ISBN 978-3-939767-28-2. Williams, J ... McMahon, R. F., Bogan, A.E. (2001). Mollusca: Bivalvia. Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates. ... Bivalvia, Unionidae)." Journal of the North American Benthological Society 133: 217-222. Nichols, S. J., Silverman, H. Dietx, T ... Bivalvia: Unionoida)?" Molecular Biology and Evolution 28(5): 1645-1659. "MUSSELpdb , family Unionidae". mussel-project.uwsp. ...
The Bivalvia. Proceedings of a Memorial Symposium in Honour of Sir Charles Maurice Yonge (1899-1986), Edinburgh, 1986. Hong ...
". "The Bivalvia". Belal, Aisha Ahmad M.; Dar, Mahmoud A. (2020). "Distribution and biodiversity of macro-benthic fauna in ...
Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the torrente Versa (Italy). - Mollusca, 25(1): 41-49, Dresden.] "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from ... Bivalvia: Unionidae). - Nachrichtenblatt der Ersten Malakologischen Gesellschaft Vorarlbergs 7: 9-10.] Fauna europaea [maps. ...
Bivalvia indet. Corbiculidae indet. Gastropoda indet. Hadrosauridae indet. Neosuchia indet. Crocodyliformes indet. Ostreidae ...
Bivalvia indet. Dinosauria indet. - "Footprints" Ornithopoda indet. - "Footprints" Siamosaurus? - "Tooth (GMNH-PV-999)" ...
Gastropoda und Bivalvia. In: Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens. Ergebnisse der Hamburger südwest-asutralischen Forschungsreise 1905 ...
Gastropoda und Bivalvia. pp. 561-596 in Michaelsen, W. & Hartmayer, R. (eds). Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens. Jena : Gustav ...
Gastropoda und Bivalvia. pp. 561-596 in Michaelsen, W. & Hartmayer, R. (eds). Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens. Jena : Gustav ...
The taxonomic term Bivalvia was first used by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758 to refer to animals ... A Status on Bivalvia after 250 Years of Research. ConchBooks. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-939767-28-2. Yonge, C. M. (1949). The Sea Shore ... Bivalvia (/baɪˈvælviə/), in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and ... Gofas, Serge (2012). "Bivalvia". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 30 June 2012. Carter, J. G.; Altaba, C. R ...
Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia. Published Name:. Bivalvia. USNM Number:. PAL653381. See more items in:. Paleogeneral Invertebrate ...
Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) on macroinvertebrate communities in a UK river. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ... Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) on macroinvertebrate communities in a UK river. ...
All images Copyright 2023 Denis Riek. All rights reserved.. ...
This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful.. ...
Recruitment pattern of commercially harvested clam, venerupis aurea (bivalvia: veneridae) at the southern region of Lake Timsah ... Recruitment pattern of commercially harvested clam, venerupis aurea (bivalvia: veneridae) at the southern region of Lake Timsah ...
... even when compared to the extreme diversity documented within Mollusca and Bivalvia. In pectinids, mitogenome rearrangements ... Bivalvia: Pectinidae) present extraordinary variance in both mitochondrial genome size, structure and content, ...
Fashion, Girls, Women, Clothes, Photography, Vintage, Retro, Nikon, Film
Bivalvia) Conservation Strategy Based on Landscape Character and Anthropogenic Activity ... Study of Mud Clam Polymesoda erosa (Bivalvia) Conservation Strategy Based on Landscape Character and Anthropogenic Activity. ... Afiati, N. (2010). Kerang Darah (Anadora granosa L.) (Bivalvia:Arcidae) Sebagai Bioindikator Lingkungan Akuatik dan Upaya ...
Dive into the research topics of Population genetic structure of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons (Bivalvia: ... Population genetic structure of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in the Northwest Pacific. ...
Signature of Postglacial Colonization on Contemporary Genetic Structure and Diversity of Quadrula quadrula (Bivalvia: Unionidae ...
Survivorship in the Bivalvia; comparing living and extinct genera and families Norman L. Gilinsky ...
Valentich-Scott, P.; Garfinkel, E.A.R. 2011: A new species of Tucetona (Bivalvia: Glycymerididae) from Mexico. Zootaxa, 2769: ...
To carry out the analysis of the benthic community present, sediment samples were collected using a "Box Core" type dredge (area 0.19 m2) at each of the stations selected according to the proposed sampling design. From the sediment sample extracted with the Box Core, two cylinders of 0.0038 m2 area were taken, whose content was poured into a duly labeled plastic bag and preserved with 10% formalin. Three replicates were taken for each station (samples from two independent hauls) and all samples were transferred to the Bentos Marino laboratory of the Simón Bolívar University ...
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Lophotrochozoa; Mollusca; Bivalvia; Pteriomorphia; Ostreoida; Ostreoidea; Ostreidae; Crassostrea [] Authors ...
Class: Bivalvia. ​Phylum: Mollusca. For more information on hard-shell clams, please contact Mitchell Tarnowski.​ ...
Population size, extinction, and speciation: the fission effect in Neogene Bivalvia. Paleobiology 12:89-110.CrossRefGoogle ...
Bivalvia). ,em,Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.,/em, 58: 97-104., available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev. ...
A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research,/i,. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (look up in IMIS) [details] ...
Simpukkasumpussa! (Bivalvia Claustraphobius) Jäit ansaan valtavan simpukkajutun sisään. Omituiset kärhet kutittelivat sinua ...
Corbicula (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) Part 1. Catalog of fossil and recent nominal species. Part 2. Compendium of zoogeographic ...
Skjell Bivalvia Klasse * Unionoida Orden * Unionoidea Overfamilie * Elvemuslinger Margaritiferidae Familie * Margaritifera ...
Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvanitidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2024). European Register of Marine Species. Autobranchia. Accessed at: https://vliz.be/vmdcdata/narms/narms.php?p=taxdetails&id=1424948 on 2024-04-19 ...
SKU 960628 Category Amusium Pleuronectes Tags Amusium Pleuronectes, Bivalvia, Mollusca, Mussels, Ostreoida, Pectinidae ... Class: BIVALVIA. Family: PECTINIDAE. Species: Amusium pleuronectes. Dive Info:. locality: Bohol. Pandanon Island. Philippines. ...
Diversity, biogeography, evolutionary relationships, and conservation of Eastern Mediterranean freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: ... Bivalvia: Unionida). Gomes-Dos-Santos A, Froufe E, Pfeiffer JM, Johnson NA, Smith CH, Machado AM, C Castro LF, Do VT, Hattori A ...
73035: Freneix S., - Daonella indica (Bivalvia) de la r gion d`Antalya (Bordure sud du Taurus, Turquie). 73036: Freneix S. & ... 72520: Duff K.L., - Bivalvia from the English Lower Oxford Clay (Middle Jurassic). 23296: Duffey E., - Difesa della natura. ... 6685: Essink K., - On the occurrence of the american jack-knife clam Ensis directus (Conrad,1843) (Bivalvia, Cultellidae) in ... 38202: Dunnill R. M. & Ellis D. V., - The distribution and ecology of sub-littoral species of Macoma (Bivalvia) off Moresby ...
Bivalvia Linnaeus, 1758 - bivalves, clams, bivalves, palourdes, bivalve, mexilh o, ostra. Subclass. Autobranchia ...
  • Pattern and process of diversification in an ecologically diverse epifaunal bivalve group Pterioidea (Pteriomorphia, Bivalvia). (marinespecies.org)
  • 2016, Thesis, Signature of Postglacial Colonization on Contemporary Genetic Structure and Diversity of Quadrula quadrula (Bivalvia: Unionidae). (cmich.edu)
  • Garfinkel, E.A.R. 2011: A new species of Tucetona (Bivalvia: Glycymerididae) from Mexico. (wikimedia.org)
  • The taxonomic term Bivalvia was first used by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758 to refer to animals having shells composed of two valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bivalvia (/baɪˈvælviə/), in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wide tolerance to environmental conditions and substrate colonization mediates the invasion of false mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) in brackish systems. (scielo.br)
  • The invasive dark false mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae): a literature review. (scielo.br)
  • MUSSEL is a marine MOLLUSC belonging to the class Bivalvia. (knowbc.com)
  • Taxonomic revision of the family Psammobiidae (Bivalvia: Tellinoidea) in the Australian and New Zealand region. (ansp.org)

No images available that match "bivalvia"