Used as feed supplement for sheep and cattle since it is a good non-protein nitrogen source. In strongly alkaline solution biuret gives a violet color with copper sulfate.
A reaction characterized by a violet color upon the addition of copper sulfate to all compounds with two amide or peptide bonds linked directly or through an intermediate carbon atom. Used in the detection and estimation of proteins and peptides having more than two amino acids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of allophanic acid to two molecules of ammonia plus two molecules of "active carbon dioxide". EC 3.5.1.54.
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
An infraorder of CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA comprising the hermit crabs and characterized by a small fifth pair of legs.
A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
A common, benign, usually self-limited viral infection of the skin and occasionally the conjunctivae by a poxvirus (MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM VIRUS). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.

Daily and alternate day supplementation of urea or biuret to ruminants consuming low-quality forage: I. Effects on cow performance and the efficiency of nitrogen use in wethers. (1/12)

Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of supplemental nonprotein N (NPN) provided daily (D) or every other day (2D) on ruminant performance and N efficiency. Treatments included an unsupplemented control (CON) and a urea (28.7% CP) or biuret (28.6% CP) supplement provided D or 2D at 0700. In Exp. 1, five wethers (39 +/- 1 kg BW) were used in an incomplete 5 x 4 Latin square with four 24-d periods to determine the influence of supplemental NPN source and supplementation frequency (SF) on the efficiency of N use in lambs consuming low-quality grass straw (4% CP). The amount of CP supplied by each supplement was approximately 0.10% of BW/d (averaged over a 2-d period). In Exp. 2, 80 Angus x Hereford cows (540 +/- 8 kg BW) in the last third of gestation were used to determine the effect of NPN source and SF on cow performance. The NPN treatments were formulated to provide 90% of the estimated degradable intake protein requirement. The supplemented treatments received the same amount of supplemental N over a 2-d period; therefore, the 2D treatments received double the quantity of supplemental N on their respective supplementation day than the D treatments. In Exp. 1, total DM, OM, and N intake; DM, OM, and N digestibility; N balance; and digested N retained were greater (P < 0.03) for supplemented than for CON wethers, with no difference (P > 0.05) between NPN sources or SF. Plasma urea-N (PUN) was increased with N supplementation compared with CON (P < 0.01), and urea treatments had greater PUN than biuret (P < 0.01). In addition, PUN was greater (P = 0.02) for D than for 2D treatments. In Exp. 2, pre- and postcalving (within 14 d and 24 h after calving, respectively) cow weight and body condition score change were more positive (P < 0.05) for supplemented groups than for CON. These results suggest that supplements containing urea or biuret as the primary source of supplemental N can be effectively used by lambs and cows consuming low-quality forage, even when provided every other day.  (+info)

Daily and alternate-day supplementation of urea or biuret to ruminants consuming low-quality forage: II. Effects on site of digestion and microbial efficiency in steers. (2/12)

Five steers (491 +/- 21 kg BW) were used in an incomplete 5 x 4 Latin square with four 24-d periods to determine the influence of supplemental non-protein N (NPN) source and supplementation frequency (SF) on nutrient intake and site of digestion in steers consuming low-quality grass straw (4% CP). Treatments (TRT) included an unsupplemented control and a urea- or biuret-containing supplement placed directly into the rumen daily (D) or every other day (2D) at 0700. The NPN treatments were formulated to provide 90% of the estimated degradable intake protein requirement. Daily TRT were supplemented CP at 0.04% of BW/d, whereas the 2D TRT were supplemented at 0.08% of BW every other day. Therefore, all supplemented TRT received the same quantity of supplemental CP over a 2-d period. Forage OM intake was not affected (P > 0.05) by NPN supplementation, NPN source, or SF; however, total OM and N intake were increased (P < 0.01) with CP supplementation. Duodenal flow of N was greater (P = 0.04) with CP supplementation compared with the control. In addition, duodenal bacterial N flow was increased with CP supplementation (P = 0.04) and for biuret compared with urea (P < 0.01). Bacterial efficiency (g bacterial N/kg OM truly digested in the rumen) was greater (P = 0.05) for biuret than for urea. Apparent total-tract N digestibility was increased with NPN supplementation (P < 0.01) but not affected by NPN source or SF. These results suggest that urea or biuret can be used effectively as a supplemental N source by steers consuming low-quality forage.  (+info)

Daily and alternate-day supplementation of urea or biuret to ruminants consuming low-quality forage: III. Effects on ruminal fermentation characteristics in steers. (3/12)

Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (491 +/- 21 kg BW) were used in an incomplete 5 x 4 Latin square with four 24-d periods to determine the influence of supplemental nonprotein N (NPN) source and supplementation frequency (SF) on the dynamics of ruminal fermentation in steers consuming low-quality grass straw (4% CP). Treatments (TRT) included an unsupplemented control (CON) and a urea or biuret supplement that were placed directly into the rumen at 0700 daily (D) or every other day (2D). The NPN treatments were formulated to provide 90% of the estimated degradable intake protein requirement; therefore, the urea and biuret treatments received the same amount of supplemental N over a 2-d period. Daily TRT were supplemented with CP at 0.04% of BW/d, whereas the 2D TRT were supplemented at 0.08% of BW every other day. Forage was provided at 120% of the previous 5-d average intake in two equal portions at 0715 and 1900. Ruminal fluid was collected 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h after supplementation on a day of and a day before supplementation for all TRT. Ruminal NH3-N increased (P < 0.04) with CP supplementation on the day all supplements were provided and on the day on which only daily supplements were provided compared with the CON. However, an NPN source x SF interaction (P = 0.03) on the day all supplements were provided indicated that NH3-N increased at a greater rate for urea as SF decreased compared with biuret. Ruminal NH3-N on the day only daily supplements were provided was greater (P = 0.02) for D compared with 2D. On the day all supplements were provided, D increased (P = 0.05) ruminal indigestible acid detergent fiber passage rate and ruminal fluid volume compared with 2D. These results suggest that urea or biuret can be used effectively as a supplemental N source by steers consuming low-quality forage without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation, even when provided every other day.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of TrzF: biuret hydrolysis by allophanate hydrolase supports growth. (4/12)

TrzF, the allophanate hydrolase from Enterobacter cloacae strain 99, was cloned, overexpressed in the presence of a chaperone protein, and purified to homogeneity. Native TrzF had a subunit molecular weight of 65,401 and a subunit stoichiometry of alpha(2) and did not contain significant levels of metals. TrzF showed time-dependent inhibition by phenyl phosphorodiamidate and is a member of the amidase signature protein family. TrzF was highly active in the hydrolysis of allophanate but was not active with urea, despite having been previously considered a urea amidolyase. TrzF showed lower activity with malonamate, malonamide, and biuret. The allophanate hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, AtzF, was also shown to hydrolyze biuret slowly. Since biuret and allophanate are consecutive metabolites in cyanuric acid metabolism, the low level of biuret hydrolase activity can have physiological significance. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain containing atzD, encoding cyanuric acid hydrolase that produces biuret, and atzF grew slowly on cyanuric acid as a source of nitrogen. The amount of growth produced was consistent with the liberation of 3 mol of ammonia from cyanuric acid. In vitro, TrzF was shown to hydrolyze biuret to liberate 3 mol of ammonia. The biuret hydrolyzing activity of TrzF might also be physiologically relevant in native strains. E. cloacae strain 99 grows on cyanuric acid with a significant accumulation of biuret.  (+info)

Electroosmotic sampling. Application to determination of ectopeptidase activity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. (5/12)

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Defining sequence space and reaction products within the cyanuric acid hydrolase (AtzD)/barbiturase protein family. (6/12)

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Effects of dextran on five biuret-based procedures for total protein in serum. (7/12)

We evaluated the effect of dextran on values for total protein in serum as measured by the biuret method with five widely used automated instruments: the American Monitor Parallel; the Du Pont aca II; the Roche Cobas-Bio; the Kodak Ektachem 400; and the Beckman Astra 8. Dextran concentrations as great as 25 or 30 g/L had relatively little or no influence on total protein measurements by the latter three instruments. Dextran concentrations exceeding 6 g/L caused falsely low results with the aca, whereas the Parallel gave falsely high results when the dextran concentration exceeded 2 g/L. The aca total protein procedure could be protected from the interference by dextran concentrations up to 30 g/L by injecting 0.4-0.8 mL of ethylene glycol directly into the reagent pack before sampling. However, we could not eliminate the interference with the Parallel procedure by any simple means; we thus recommend that it not be used for measuring total protein in serum samples from patients who are being treated with dextran.  (+info)

Application of a silver-binding assay to the determination of protein in cerebrospinal fluid. (8/12)

We evaluated a silver-binding assay for use in measuring total protein in cerebrospinal fluid. The advantage of this procedure over other methods is that, because of its sensitivity, it requires only a 0.5-microL sample. The procedure, which takes approximately 40 min to complete, involves dilution of 0.5-microL samples to 1 mL with distilled water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate, followed by addition of glutaraldehyde and an ammoniacal silver solution. After color development for 30 min, the reaction is terminated with sodium thiosulfate and the absorbance is measured at 420 nm. This assay displayed within-run and day-to-day precision (CV) of 3.1% to 13% over the range of 210 to 1370 mg/L. It showed substantially less protein-to-protein variation than the Coomassie Blue dye-binding procedure when tested with albumin, globulin, and transferrin. It also yielded an accurate estimation of hemoglobin. Moreover, preliminary studies suggested that it was capable of quantifying immunoglobulin light chains and glycoproteins. In a study of 54 human cerebrospinal fluid samples, results of the silver-binding assay corresponded more closely with those obtained with a rate biuret assay (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91) than did either the dye-binding or classical Lowry methods.  (+info)

biuret test for protein lab report pdf 7 6 7 6 of Benedict s solution the test for presence of maltose is negative meaning a reaction did not occur Toole amp Toole We will perform the biuret test on egg albumin a protein found in chicken eggs. Record your findings in Data Table 2. Then add the solution to be tested into the biuret tube 1. To each test tube add the materials listed in Table 2. Shake well and allow the mixtures to stand for 5 minutes. Biuret Test for Proteins. The Iodine test tube changed from yellow to blue black. Bradford Protein Concentration Assay Accurate protein quantitation is paramount to all experiments that are related to proteins in a lot of research topics in molecular biology developmental biology cell biology neuroscience and biochemistry. CAUTION Biuret reagent can burn your 1. This turns a mauve or purple colour when mixed with protein. CAUTION Biuret reagent is extremely caustic to the skin and clothing. D Thermo Fisher Scientific Madison WI USA Subject One ...
biuret definition: Noun (plural biurets) 1. (organic chemistry) The compound formed by condensation of two molecules of urea with the loss of a molecule of ammonia, (NH2-CO)2NH, or any of its derivatives ...
This intake and digestion study evaluated source of nonprotein nitrogen in cooked molasses blocks supplemented to 18 steers (590 lb) with ad libitum access to prairie hay, Treatments were 1) control (no block), 2) a block containing 60% crude protein with 83% from urea (UREA block), and 3) a block containing 60% crude protein with 42% from urea and 42% from biuret (UREA/BIURET block). Blocks were broken into small pieces to facilitate rapid consumption and fed once daily at .125% of body weight. Forage intake increased by 22%, total intakes (forage plus block) increased by 28%, and digestible organic matter intakes increased by 52% when either UREA or UREA/BIURET blocks were fed. Total diet digestibilities also increased with block supplementation. Intakes and digestibilities were similar for the UREA and UREA/BIURET blocks. Supplementing prairie hay with cooked molasses blocks containing high levels of nonprotein nitrogen increased intake and digestion, but replacing half of the urea with ...
Buy Low Biuret Prilled Urea 46% from Agriculture Grade Ammonium Chloride Manufacture,organic fertilizer low in nitrogen Distributor online Service suppliers.
A positive Biuret test shows a pale to intense violet color when there are two or more peptide bonds in a compound. A negative result, or lack of violet color, indicates either a lack of protein or...
Im doing a practical in biology involving the Biuret, Iodine and Benedicts tests. First I need to predict the following, so any help would be useful ...
Five steers (491 ± 21 kg BW) were used in an incomplete 5 × 4 Latin square with four 24-d periods to determine the influence of supplemental non-protein N (NPN) source and supplementation frequency (SF) on nutrient intake and site of digestion in steers consuming low-quality grass straw (4% CP). Treatments (TRT) included an unsupplemented control and a urea- or biuret-containing supplement placed directly into the rumen daily (D) or every-other-day (2D) at 0700. The NPN treatments were formulated to provide 90% of the estimated degradable intake protein requirement. Daily TRT were supplemented CP at 0.04% of BW/d while the 2D TRT were supplemented at 0.08% of BW every-other-day. Therefore, all supplemented TRT received the same quantity of supplemental CP over a 2-d period. Forage OM intake was not affected (P , 0.05) by NPN supplementation, NPN source, or SF. However, total OM and N intake were increased (P , 0.01). wi ...
Determination of protein concentration is an essential technique in all aspects of protein studies and proteomics. The Assays for Protein Quantification kit includes three of the most widely used protein assays and allows for a direct comparison of the three assays that teaches students the benefits and limitations of each assay. Each assay is available individually to allow teaching of a specific assay, without the option of comparing and contrasting with other assays. The three assays covered are the Biuret Protein Assay, Lowry Protein Assay and the Coomassie Blue Dye Protein Assay.. The Biuret assay is a copper ion based protein assay, protein solutions are mixed with an alkaline solution of copper salt, cupric ions (Cu2+). The protein assay is based on the interaction of cupric ions with protein in an alkaline solution. The interaction of cupric ions (Cu2+) with protein results in a purple color that can be read at 545nm. The amount of color produced is proportional to protein ...
Introduction. Chapter 1 ? Chemistry of Life Determining the Presence of Certain Nutrients Kieun Bae, DP2 - Biology HL Introduction The idea of this experiment was to plan the diet for a day and determine if the diet plan contains the necessary nutrients, by testing the food products with chemicals. In this way, we would have better idea about what kind of food product should be included in the daily diet. The meal-plan of the day we have made was following: 1. Breakfast 1. milk 2. cereal 1. Lunch 1. bread 2. juice 3. cheese 4. apple 1. Dinner 1. pasta 2. lattice 3. meat 4. tomato 5. yogurt 6. red wine 7. onion This was planned by discussing the actual food products we commonly take in a day. There are few diary products that are commonly known to contain a lot of protein, necessary carbohydrates for each meal (bread, pasta and cereal) as well as the vegetables that contain many various healthy nutrients including glucose (simple sugar), vitamins, minerals etc. Also, there is meat that is ...
This is probably to prevent precipitation of copper hydroxide (see Itzhaki & Gill, 1964 - they suggest adding dilute copper sulfate slowly to the NaOH solution to avoid this). If you have the protein already alkalized and ready to react youll get the color reaction before precipitate forms.. Commercial premixed solutions, like @canadianer mentioned in a comment, have tartrate present to prevent this (Geiger & Bessman, 1972 mention this).. It doesnt seem like its strictly necessary to add NaOH first, but thats probably the most reliable way to do the assay without using an additional stabilizing agent.. ...
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Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Extinguishing media: Substance is noncombustible; use agent most appropriate to extinguish surrounding fire. In case of fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam ...
A protein in solution can be quantitatively assayed by several spectrophotometric methods. Most methods are based on binding of a chromophore to specific amino acids or bonds in the protein. The resulting color development can be detected at some wavelength of visible light. The usable range of protein concentrations is determined by the sensitivity of the assay and the relationship between absorbance (A) and protein concentration. A plot of absorbance vs. protein concentration will be linear over a limited range of protein concentration depending on the protein and the Biuret method used ...
Steam-flaked corn or finely ground corn with different protein levels? What is best to feed high producing dairy cows? Researchers put several corn processing methods to the test.
When filtered alkaline extracts of pulverized bacteria of several varieties are precipitated with acid in the cold, boiled with acid, and all materials thrown down by these procedures removed, there remains a small amount of an alcohol-precipitable material which no longer gives any of the ordinary chemical reactions for proteins, such as the biuret, Hopkins-Cole, Millon, and sulfosalicylic acid reactions. The only protein reaction usually given by this material is a very weak xanthoproteic reaction. Nevertheless, the material, which is, as far as we can determine at present, free from coagulable protein, is specifically precipitable by homologous antiserum and gives specific complement fixation reactions.. Such material can also be obtained from organisms like the influenza bacillus, pneumococcus, and meningococcus by extraction without preliminary grinding of the bacteria, and is present in filtrates of young and old broth cultures of the organisms.. We believe that these acid- and ...
Újabb klinikai vizsgálatok szerint az albuminuria a cardiovascularis betegségek korai markere. Míg a proteinuria elsősorban a vesefunkció-romlás, az albuminuria a cardiovascularis rizikó paramétere. A régebbi laboratóriumi tesztek érzékenysége nem megfelelő, és a 24 órás vizeletgyűjtés pontatlansága is sok bizonytalanságot okoz. Ezért a mai nemzetközi irányelvek 24 órás gyűjtés helyett a reggeli első vizeletből az albumin/kreatinin (ACR) és protein/kreatinin (PCR) meghatározását javasolják. Klinikai laboratóriumok számára javasolhatók az újabb, nagy érzékenységű immunkémiai vizeletalbumin-reagensek. Az albuminspecifikus tesztcsíkok az albuminuria fokának meghatározására nem elég érzékenyek. A vizeletfehérje-meghatározáshoz szintén léteznek nagy érzékenységű, széles mérési tartományú reagensek, így erre nem alkalmazhatók a szérumfehérje-reagensek (például Biuret). A módszerválasztás sarkalatos pontja, hogy a kalibrátor ...
Proteins are extremely important biological molecules, both structurally (e.g. your fingernails are made of the protein keratin, whilst collagen is a very important protein in connective tissue) and functionally as enzymes catalyzing biological reactions. In part A of this prac, students determine the amount of protein in a sample, by effectively measuring the peptide bonds (as each amino acid has a peptide bond connecting it with the next) using a Biuret spectrophotometric assay. Students generate a standard curve, an extremely important tool in biochemistry.. In the second part of the prac, students do a hypothetical experiment on enzymes. Enzymes are protein molecules which act as catalysts of biochemical reactions. Enzymes act by binding the substrate (substance which reacts) and providing a pathway for the reaction, making the conversion from substrate to product faster. Without enzymes, biochemical reactions would take hours or days to proceed. During an enzymatic reaction, substrate is ...
Tratamentul termic al boabelor de soia reduce activitatea inhibitorilor tripsinei si astfel mbunatateste digestibilitatea proteinei. ncalzirea excesiva poate sa distruga sau sa reduca biodisponibilitatea unor aminoacizi termolabili si astfel sa reduca valoarea nutritiva a proteinei din soia. Cercetarile s-au efectuat pe soia toastata si soia netratata termic (granulatie 200 μ), care au fost ncalzite ntr-o etuva cu circulatie fortata a aerului, la temperatura de 120 C, perioade diferite de timp: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 si 30 minute. S-au determinat indicele de ureaza (UI), solubilitatea proteinei n KOH si indicele de dispersabilitate a proteinei (PDI). Proteina s-a determinat prin metoda biuret. Cercetarile au evidentiat ca indicele de ureaza este util pentru a determina daca faina de soia a fost tratata termic suficient pentru a reduce factorii antinutritionali, dar nu este util pentru determinarea supraprocesarii. Acest test nu este relevant pentru evidentierea ncalzirii excesive, deoarece indicele ...
June 25th 2018 Heat Thermodynamics Zemansky Solution Manual Cbcs Regulations And Syllabi For I Amp Ii Semester B Sc Manual Of Zoology Vol 1 Biuret Millons Xanthoproteic Heat And Thermodynamics Zemansky Solution Manual Free May 25th 2018
Looking for online definition of biuret reaction in the Medical Dictionary? biuret reaction explanation free. What is biuret reaction? Meaning of biuret reaction medical term. What does biuret reaction mean?
This 30 ml bottle of biuret reagent is a qualitative indicator for protein. Find the biuret reagent form, shelf life, hazard information, and more below.
It has been known for over a century that the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus is more vulnerable than the CA3 to ischemic damage. While many studies have been conducted the exact mechanism is still unknown. Ectopeptidases are membrane-bound enzymes whose catalytic domains face the extracellular space. Traditionally, their role was believed to only involve clearance of active peptides but recent studies have shown that they play an important role in regulating peptide activity. Here we report the quantitative measurement of ectopeptidase activity using electroosmotic push-pull perfusion coupled to offline capillary liquid chromatography. This method revealed a three-fold higher aminopeptidase activity hydrolyzing the neuroprotective peptide Leu-enkephalin in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. Inhibition of the higher aminopeptidase activity in the CA1 selectively protects this region from ischemic damage due to oxygen-glucose deprivation. This is the first report of spatially-resolved ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A turbidimetric method for the rapid evaluation of MWF emulsion stability. AU - Deluhery,J.. AU - Rajagopalan,N.. PY - 2005/4/22. Y1 - 2005/4/22. N2 - The stability of metalworking emulsions is a critical characteristic impacting its usefulness as a lubricant and rust inhibitor. Loss of stability usually results in replacement of the fluid leading to both economic loss and environmental discharge. In this paper, the loss of stability caused by accumulation of hardness ions is examined by a turbidimetric method. The method is based on following the change in the wavelength exponent of the emulsions caused by changing particle size. The stability as determined by this method is compared to conventional testing based on phase separation over 24 h. The turbidimetric method is shown to be a more conservative estimate of emulsion stability. The simplicity of the method makes it useful for both product formulation and process control.. AB - The stability of metalworking emulsions is a ...
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The Bradford assay, a colorimetric protein assay, is based on an absorbance shift of the dye Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250. The Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye exists in three forms: anionic (blue), neutral (green), and cationic (red).[3] Under acidic conditions, the red form of the dye is converted into its blue form, binding to the protein being assayed. If theres no protein to bind, then the solution will remain brown. The dye forms a strong, noncovalent complex with the proteins carboxyl group by van der Waals force and amino group through electrostatic interactions.[1] During the formation of this complex, the red form of Coomassie dye first donates its free electron to the ionizable groups on the protein, which causes a disruption of the proteins native state, consequently exposing its hydrophobic pockets. These pockets in the proteins tertiary structure bind non-covalently to the non-polar region of the dye via the first bond interaction (van der Waals forces) which position the ...
This study was aimed at investigating the use of seminal plasma protein concentration to predict fertility and hatchability in the domestic fowl. Forty cocks with acceptable sperm motility and morphology were used and the seminal plasma protein concentration determined by the Biuret method. The result revealed a negative significant correlation between the seminal plasma protein concentration with sperm motility (r = -0.5920, ...
Background: Etiological research in schizophrenia is actively exploring biochemical toxic factor that may be result of an innate metabolic error that factor is thought to be abnormal protein factor. Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the concentration of various protein fractions in acute schizophrenics, to find out the association of serum proteins in acute schizophrenia patients and to find out in what fraction of proteins an abnormality lies. Methods: Study consists of two groups, group one formed by healthy individuals, acting as controls and group two by acute schizophrenia patients. With all aseptic precautions, blood was collected and subjected to electrophoresis and for biuret reaction to find out fractional proteins and total proteins respectively. Analysis was done using Students
Handling biological material. Anticoagulants and their use for blood plasma separation. Communicating results of tests in clinical biochemistry: request forms and laboratory reports. • Analysis of the absorption spectra of haemoglobin, oxyhaemoglobin and carbonylhaemoglobin. Determination of haemoglobin in blood. Urine test for haemoglobin. • Determination of total bilirubin in serum. Estimation of bilirubin, urobilinogens and urobilins in urine. • Determination of total serum proteins by biuret reagent, determination of albumin. Precipitation tests for urine proteins. Detection of proteinuria by diagnostic strips. • Determination of alanine aminotransferase activity in serum. Determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in serum. • The enzymatic assay of glucose in blood and urine. Oral glucose tolerance test. Estimation of glycaemia by diagnostic strips. Detection of glucose in urine. • Determination of total cholesterol in serum. Principles of HDL-cholesterol determination and ...
The proposal that proteins were linear chains of α-amino acids was made nearly simultaneously by two scientists at the same conference in 1902, the 74th meeting of the Society of German Scientists and Physicians, held in Karlsbad. Franz Hofmeister made the proposal in the morning, based on his observations of the biuret reaction in proteins. Hofmeister was followed a few hours later by Emil Fischer, who had amassed a wealth of chemical details supporting the peptide-bond model. For completeness, the proposal that proteins contained amide linkages was made as early as 1882 by the French chemist E. Grimaux.[5]. Despite these data and later evidence that proteolytically digested proteins yielded only oligopeptides, the idea that proteins were linear, unbranched polymers of amino acids was not accepted immediately. Some well-respected scientists such as William Astbury doubted that covalent bonds were strong enough to hold such long molecules together; they feared that thermal agitations would ...
The proposal that proteins were linear chains of α-amino acids was made nearly simultaneously by two scientists at the same conference in 1902, the 74th meeting of the Society of German Scientists and Physicians, held in Karlsbad. Franz Hofmeister made the proposal in the morning, based on his observations of the biuret reaction in proteins. Hofmeister was followed a few hours later by Emil Fischer, who had amassed a wealth of chemical details supporting the peptide-bond model. For completeness, the proposal that proteins contained amide linkages was made as early as 1882 by the French chemist E. Grimaux.[5]. Despite these data and later evidence that proteolytically digested proteins yielded only oligopeptides, the idea that proteins were linear, unbranched polymers of amino acids was not accepted immediately. Some well-respected scientists such as William Astbury doubted that covalent bonds were strong enough to hold such long molecules together; they feared that thermal agitations would ...
EZBlue Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 colloidal protein stain improves protein electrophoresis results while significantly reducing staining time. Conveniently packaged, EZBlue requires no messy weigh-ups or additions of methanol or acid. As a colloidal stain, it reacts only with proteins, not the gel itself.
melamine cyanuric acid and melamine cyanuric acid manufaturers - 113 melamine cyanuric acid manufacturers & melamine cyanuric acid provide quality melamine cyanuric acid from China.
The purpose of this study is to examine and compare the effects of alternate-day reductions in calorie intake or daily calorie restriction on the risk f
Shop IAA-amino acid hydrolase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and IAA-amino acid hydrolase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Obesity is scientific quarterly journal published by Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences
CD13 is a membrane-bound ectopeptidase, highly expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD13 is involved in diverse functions, including degradation of peptide mediators, cellular adhesion, migration, viral endocytosis, signaling, and positive modulation of phagocytosis mediated by …
A 30-minute daily or alternate-day facial exercise program sustained over 20 weeks improved the facial appearance of middle-aged women
UK nutritionist Patrick Holford has teamed up with UK fitness expert and former Olympian Kate Staples for his latest book Burn Fat Fast: The Alternate-Day Low-GL Diet Plan.
The continuing thread for those of us following either the 5:2 diet or the alternate-day fasting diet. Both are two versions of Intermittent Fasting,
The continuing thread for those of us following either the 5:2 diet or the alternate-day fasting diet. Both are two versions of Intermittent Fasting,
I wrote this survey of the literature in the early 200s; there have been a few studies examining the intersection of CR and exercise since then, but none to my knowledge have been lifespan studies, and therefore dont ultimately resolve anything. The findings from existing studies are that: 1. Exercise-induced Caloric deficit (ECD) ALONE does not extend maximum lifespan (LS) (1-10). The majority (1,3-6) of studies find that it increases average LS, but a substantial minority (2,8,9,10) havent even found this. It improves health, but it does not slow aging. 2. CR alone increases max and average LS (2,5-10). It slows aging, and thus improves health. 2a. CR alone causes a greater increase in average LS than does an equal degree of CD from exercise alone (2,5,6); likewise, albeit less powerfully (because less rigorously), 40% CR ALONE causes a greater increase in average LS than does the large ECD (alone) typical of the AL, voluntary-exercising rat (2). Likewise for alternate-day fasting (EOD] vs ...
Looking for online definition of cyanuric acid in the Medical Dictionary? cyanuric acid explanation free. What is cyanuric acid? Meaning of cyanuric acid medical term. What does cyanuric acid mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Daily and alternate-day cyclosporine immunosuppressive regimens and synergism with azathioprine. AU - Yen, C. Y.. AU - Greenstein, S. M.. AU - Lipkowitz, G. S.. AU - Hong, J. H.. AU - Nitta, K.. AU - Friedman, E. A.. AU - Butt, K. M.. PY - 1987/4/29. Y1 - 1987/4/29. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023102750&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023102750&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 3547859. AN - SCOPUS:0023102750. VL - 19. SP - 1272. EP - 1275. JO - Transplantation Proceedings. JF - Transplantation Proceedings. SN - 0041-1345. IS - 1 II. ER - ...
Alternate-day fasting (ADF) is a novel diet therapy that may achieve reduction in body weight and improvement of dyslipidaemia, but the impact of this diet on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ADF on the body weight and lipid profile of individuals with NAFLD. NAFLD patients (n = 271) were randomised to the ADF group, time-restricted feeding (TRF) group, or the control group and subjected to the respective diet for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements (body weight, fat mass/fat-free mass) were performed, and plasma lipids were analysed enzymatically. Within 4 weeks, the body weight decreased significantly (P | 0.001) in the ADF group by 4.56 ± 0.41 kg (6.1 ± 0.5%) and the TRF group by 3.62 ± 0.65 kg (4.83 ± 0.9%) compared to the control group, and it decreased even more after 12 weeks in both groups (ADF: − 4.04 ± 0.54 kg, 5.4 ± 0.7%; TRF: − 3.25 ± 0.67 kg, 4.3 ± 0.9%). Fat mass was significantly
In ruminant animals a considerable amount of degradation and synthesis of protein occurs in the rumen and the material that becomes available for digestion can differ considerably from what was originally present in the food. Consequently, different approaches for evaluating protein sources are necessary for ruminant and non-ruminant animals.. Ruminants have protein requirements at two levels, with one being the nitrogen (N) requirements of rumen microbes and the other is the protein needs of the host. An important feature of ruminant animals is having rumen microbes that are able to synthesise protein using nitrogen in the diet as well as having the ability to synthesise protein from non-protein nitrogen (NPN) sources.. The protein percentage of any feed is calculated by determining the amount of nitrogen (N) in that feed and multiplying it by 6.25 (protein generally contains 16% nitrogen hence 100/16 = 6.25).. ...
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A filter media component (416, 516, 616) containing activated carbon, which undesirably filters chlorine from water in an aquatic reservoir (301) in which a minimum level of chlorine is desired to be maintained, is inserted into a fluid pumping path for water from the reservoir to reduce levels of cyanuric acid without purging the reservoir. Once levels of cyanuric acid drop below a target reduced concentration, chlorine and other required chemicals may be added to the water to restore proper water balance and increase the chlorine concentration to at least the minimum level of chlorine desired to be maintained. The process, which can be completed in a short period of time with sufficient quantities of activated carbon, need only be performed seasonally or periodically and avoids waste and potential damage associated with purging and replacing the water within the aquatic reservoir to reduce cyanuric acid levels.
Cobalamin (vitamin B12 activity) in milk-based infant formula, turbidimetric method Gaithersburg, MD, AOAC International; AOAC Official Method 986.23 ...
To determine the effect of different types of cobalt supplementation on dairy cow performance and indicators of cobalt status and the benefits of vitamin B12 supplementation in cobalt restricted cows.. Expected Outcomes. ...
The results of a randomized clinical trial for which KN associate professor Krista Varady serves as principal investigator have been published in JAMA Internal Medicine. According to the study titled, Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardioprotection Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults, alternate-day fasting diets are just as effective as diets that restrict calories every day.. The study has been covered by various media outlets including UIC News, CNN Health, US News & World Report, The Guardian, The New York Times and many more.. ...
Form-A-Feeds blog offers pertinent industry information, company updates, and other news. Read this article about a balanced amino acid diet.
Global Cyanuric Chloride Market Report gives latest insights that includes market sales, share and growth in key regions for their top manufacturers with forecast research for the Cyanuric Chloride Industry.
The next several chapters go into more detail about using fasting for specific benefits: to treat type 2 diabetes, to slow the aging process, to boost heart health.. Part Two is the how-to section of the book. I know, I know: how much how-to information do we need to learn how not eat for awhile? Well, theres more to it than you might think. Theres good advice in here on how to avoid common effects like headaches (salty broths help), who shouldnt fast (kids, pregnant or nursing women, underweight and malnourished people), and various fasting protocols.. Theres no single protocol thats best for everyone. Some people may find they do best with a four-hour eating window, some may prefer alternate-day fasting, some may prefer the 5:2 plan popularized by Dr. Michael Mosley in the U.K, and some may want go to for extended fasts lasting several days or longer. The book explains each protocol and describes the advantages.. My protocol, in case youre curious, is to mix Mosleys 5:2 with 24-hour ...
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If the cyanuric acid level is anywhere between 30 and 50 ppm then youre in good shape. You can crack open a beer and relax by the pool. You probably wont have to add cyanuric acid to your pool after your first dose of the season unless youve had a giant pool party with lots of kids or a massive rainfall, either of which may have thrown off your pools chemical balance. ...
The Bradford method is a Dye-based assay and is based on the ability of Coomassie blue G-250 to bind protein causing the dye to shift from a red color to a blue color.. ...
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How to get TRT in the UK? In this guide we discuss how to get TRT treatment in the UK, how much TRT treatment costs and places you can get TRT.
NANOPOL® C 784 shows the highest performance in scratch- and abrasion-resistance without influencing the gloss or transparency of the cured coating. ...
DYNOL 980 is a siloxane-based superwetter providing exceptional substrate wetting and good flow and leveling in waterborne coatings and inks. ...
Hey there, I know there is a few guys that are wondering about fertility and TRT Well, after a year of trying to get my fianc preggy while on TRT it
Fmoc-D-Cys(Trt)-OHNα-9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-S-trityl-D-cysteine | Fmoc-D-Cys(Trt)2405 1 g | 75.00 EUR 2405 5 g | 275.00 EUR 2405 ...
Got some in the mail the other day. Was curious whats best way to use. Also , users of NPA or any other high concentration none product
So my agent announced the other day that she has started to provide self-publishing services for her authors, and, as Ive been relatively outspoken in this area, people have asked me to comment. I think Ive made my feelings fairly clear. I believe that ...
"Feed-grade biuret". Food and Drug Administration. 1 April 2006. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 6 ... NPN are given to ruminants in the form of pelleted urea, ammonium phosphate and/or biuret. Sometimes slightly polymerized ... For example, Archer Daniels Midland manufactures an NPN supplement for cattle, which contains biuret, triuret, cyanuric acid ...
Biuret Spofford, W. A.; Amma, E. L. (1972). "Crystal and molecular structure of dithiobiuret". Journal of Crystal and Molecular ...
Mikkelsen, R.L. (2007). "Biuret in Urea Fertilizers" (PDF). Better Crops. 91 (3): 6-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 ...
Biuret, Lebanon: دار الكتب العلمية. p. 310. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Mahfouz, Muhammad (1982). تراجم ... Ibn Abi Usaibia (1995). عيون الأنباء في طبقات الأطباء (in Arabic) (first ed.). Biuret, Lebanon: دار مكتبة الحياة. p. 564. ... المؤلفين التونسيين (in Arabic). first (first ed.). Biuret, Lebanon: دار الغرب الإسلامي. p. 52. Archived from the original on 24 ...
Biuret test Smith, P.K.; et al. (1985). "Measurement of protein using bicinchoninic acid". Anal. Biochem. 150 (1): 76-85. doi: ... Bradford protein assay or biuret reagent. The total protein concentration is exhibited by a color change of the sample solution ...
Prior to winning the K-Pop India Contest, Techi toured with the Korean pop-rock band BIURET on their maiden visit to India. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "'BIURET' Tour". The Pioneer. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013. K-Pop ...
HDI is also sold oligomerized as the trimer or biuret. Although more viscous in these forms, it reduces the volatility and ...
Biuret can be viewed as the amide of allophanic acid. The compound can be prepared by treating urea with sodium bicarbonate: ...
Urea Biuret Cyanuric acid International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (2014). Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: IUPAC ...
And he obtained a patent for the use of biuret for animal feed (Kamlet, 1956). Dow Chemicals bought this patent from Kamlet ... synthesis of biuret that could be used as an element of fodder along with hundreds of other patents. His wife, Edna Yadven ...
Other more accurate spectrophotometric procedures for protein quantification include the Biuret, Lowry, BCA, and Bradford ...
Biureedireaktsioon (Biuret test). *Veterinaarne hambaravi (Veterinary dentistry). *Kasside alumiste kuseteede haigus (Feline ...
Lowry assay is similar to biuret assays, but it uses Folin reagent which is more accurate for quantification. Folin reagent is ...
Therefore, the biuret test or the ninhydrin reaction are used along with it to confirm the presence of proteins. Benedict's ...
Since biuret has the formula NH2-CO-NH-CO-NH2, that suggested the presence of similar peptide bonds in proteins. primary ... Hofmeister also argued for peptide bonds based on the biuret reaction observed with all proteins but never with free amino ...
Alternative protein assays include: Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy Biuret protein assay Lowry protein assay BCA protein assay ...
... can be synthesized by the pyrolysis of urea or the condensation reaction among 2 moles of dicyandiamide and 1 mole of biuret. 2 ...
It is a common precipitant in protein crystallography and is also an ingredient in the Biuret reagent which is used to measure ...
Franz Hofmeister made the proposal in the morning, based on his observations of the biuret reaction in proteins. Hofmeister was ...
... biuret + CO2 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are cyanuric acid and H2O, whereas its two products are biuret and CO2. ...
... sugars Rapid furfural test to distinguish between glucose and fructose The Bicinchoninic acid assay tests for proteins Biuret ...
... using primary amines must be carefully controlled as the isocyanate intermediate can react with the urea to form a biuret: R2NC ...
The addition of an isocyanate to a urea gives a biuret: R2NC(O)N(H)R' + R"NCO → R2NC(O)NR'C(O)NHR" Reaction between a di- ...
... biuret amidohydrolase EC 3.5.1.85: (S)-N-acetyl-1-phenylethylamine hydrolase EC 3.5.1.86: mandelamide amidase EC 3.5.1.87: N- ...
... is used to analyze to monitor cuprous ion presence due to its purple coloration via a biuret reactionIn this ...
The biuret test is a chemical test for proteins and polypeptides. It is based on the biuret reagent, a blue solution that turns ... The term "biuret" also describes a family of organic compounds with the functional group -(HN-CO-)2N-. Thus, dimethyl biuret is ... The test and reagent do not actually contain biuret; they are so named because both biuret and proteins have the same response ... This notice reports that biuret reacts with alkaline copper sulfate to produce a red solution -- the so-called "Biuret test" ...
In enzymology, a biuret amidohydrolase (EC 3.5.1.84) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction biuret + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is biuret amidohydrolase. This enzyme participates in atrazine degradation. Cook AM, ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } urea(CH4N2O) + CO2 + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are biuret and H2O, whereas ...
In Poland, the biuret test is also known as the Piotrowski test, in honor of the Polish physiologist, Gustaw Piotrowski (b. ... The biuret reaction can be used to assess the concentration of proteins because peptide bonds occur with the same frequency per ... The biuret (IPA: /ˌbaɪjəˈrɛt/, /ˈbaɪjəˌrɛt/) test, also known as Piotrowski's test, is a chemical test used for detecting the ... Despite its name, the reagent does not in fact contain biuret ((H2N-CO-)2NH). The test is named so because it also gives a ...
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The biuret test is a chemical test for proteins and polypeptides. It is based on the biuret reagent, a blue solution that turns ... The term "biuret" also describes a family of organic compounds with the functional group -(HN-CO-)2N-. Thus, dimethyl biuret is ... The test and reagent do not actually contain biuret; they are so named because both biuret and proteins have the same response ... This notice reports that biuret reacts with alkaline copper sulfate to produce a red solution -- the so-called "Biuret test" ...
In enzymology, a biuret amidohydrolase (EC 3.5.1.84) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction biuret + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is biuret amidohydrolase. This enzyme participates in atrazine degradation. Cook AM, ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } urea(CH4N2O) + CO2 + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are biuret and H2O, whereas ...
Biuret definition, a white crystalline substance, C2H5O2N3⋅H2O, soluble in water and alcohol, used for the identification of ... biuret. bituminous, bituminous coal, bitzer, biunique, biuniqueness, biuret, biuret reaction, bivalence, bivalent, bivalent ... biuret. *. The absence of a biuret reaction would point in that direction and the question must await further study. ... On now testing a portion of the clear filtrate for peptone by the biuret test, not a trace of a reaction could be obtained. ...
... plural biurets) 1. (organic chemistry) The compound formed by condensation of two molecules of urea with the loss of a molecule ... biuret. Noun (plural biurets). *(organic chemistry) The compound formed by condensation of two molecules of urea with the loss ... Biuret (allophanamide), NH 2 CO NH CO NH 2, is formed by heating urea; by the action of ammonia on allophanic ester; and by ... How would you define biuret? Add your definition here.. Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus.. ...
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance, instead of having the information ...
Hydrolysis: Hydrolysis of the test item is rapidly completed and neither the determination of hydrolysis rates nor the detection of hydrolysis products was possible. No test conditions could be found enabling the performance of a hydrolysis study for the substance according to OECD TG 111 (2004) (Currenta, 2010a). Biodegradation: Ready biodegradability: Within 28 days, a degradation of 0 % was determined for the substance. The substance is considered to be not readily biodegradable. (Currenta, 2009a) Inherent biodegradability: Within 27 days, a degradation of 11 % was determined for the substance. The substance is considered to be not inherently biodegradable. (Currenta, 2010b) Bioaccumulation The substance is characterised by estimated bioconcentration factors between 1.1 and 25920 covering BCF values of the parent compounds (isocyanate groups) and possible hydrolysis products (amine groups), respectively (Currenta, 2010d). Due to the chemical nature of the parent compounds (isocyanate groups) ...
... and biuret (B) with formaldehyde (F) in 1:1:2 molar ratios in presence of 2 M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. UV-Visible, IR and ... Chelation Ion Exchange Properties of 2, 4-Dihydroxyacetophenone-Biuret-Formaldehyde Terpolymer Resin,. Journal of Chemistry,. ... The terpolymer resin 2, 4-HABF has been synthesized by the condensation of 2, 4-dihydroxyacetophenone (2, 4-HA) and biuret (B) ... Chelation Ion Exchange Properties of 2, 4-Dihydroxyacetophenone-Biuret-Formaldehyde Terpolymer Resin. ...
"Biuret Reaction" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Biuret Reaction" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Biuret Reaction" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Biuret Reaction". ...
The Biuret reagent contains copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), with potassium sodium tartrate (KNaC4H4O6) ... Biuret test for proteins. The Biuret reagent contains copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), with potassium ... Here blue-coloured Biuret reagent was added to a solution of albumin (egg white) in a test tube. The solution turned violet ( ...
The mean exposure to biuret-modified hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI-BT) was 115 g/m3 in the air (range 10-385 g/m3), which ... Exposure, lung function, and symptoms in car painters exposed to hexamethylene diisocyanate and biuret modified hexamethylene ... hexamethylene diisocyanate; hexamethylene diisocyanate biuret; symptoms; exposure; vehicle repair and servicing; respiratory ...
... biuret reaction explanation free. What is biuret reaction? Meaning of biuret reaction medical term. What does biuret reaction ... Looking for online definition of biuret reaction in the Medical Dictionary? ... biuret test either of the tests done with biuret.. bi·u·ret re·ac·tion. the formation of biuret that gives a violet color as a ... biuret reaction. Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia. biuret. [bi´u-ret] a urea derivative; its presence is detected after ...
"β-Glucuronidase from Escherichia coli aqueous glycerol solution, ≥5,000,000 units/g protein, pH 6.8 (biuret); CAS Number: 9001- ... aqueous glycerol solution, ≥5,000,000 units/g protein, pH 6.8 (biuret) Synonym: β-. D. -Glucuronide glucuronosohydrolase ...
The characteristic color of a positive biuret test.. By Ozone aurora/Philip Evans - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link Protein Test ... Biuret Reagent is an aqueous solution of potassium sodium tartrate treated with cupric sulfate and sodium hydroxide. In the ... Add 3 drops of Biuret reagent solution to each test tube. Shake gently to mix. ... Biuret solution. *To a test tube, add 40 drops of liquid to be tested. ...
Comparison of Urea and Biuret as Nitrogen Supplements to Low-Quality Forage: Daily and Alternate Day Supplementation. Site of ... In addition, duodenal bacterial N flow was increased with CP supplementation (P = 0.04) and for biuret compared with urea (P , ... These results suggest that urea or biuret can be used effectively as a supplemental N source by steers consuming low-quality ... Daily and alternate-day supplementation of urea or biuret to ruminnts consuming low-quality forage: II Effects on site of ...
1. Biuret test Biuret test determines the presence of protein by showing the color purple. The results were following: § Table ... The chemical tests that are used for the experiments are: Benedict test, Biuret test and Iodine test, which test for glucose, ... Determine the presence of reducing sugar, protein and starch in the food products by using Benedict test, Biuret test and ... www.scumdoctor.com/nutrition/protein/Biuret-Test-For-Proteins.html - 21/10/10 [5] ?Iodine Test? by Rimlee Bhuyan - 7/23/2010 ? ...
... biuret explanation free. What is biuret? Meaning of biuret medical term. What does biuret mean? ... Looking for online definition of biuret in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to biuret: Biuret test, Biuret reagent. biuret. [bi´u-ret] a urea derivative; its presence is detected after addition ... biuret test either of the tests done with biuret.. bi·u·ret. (bī-yū-ret), A derivative of urea obtained by heating, ...
The reaction generated biuret, a pathway intermediate further transformed by biuret hydrolase (BiuH). The prevalence of the ... The reaction generated biuret, a pathway intermediate further transformed by biuret hydrolase (BiuH). The prevalence of the ... The reaction generated biuret, a pathway intermediate further transformed by biuret hydrolase (BiuH). The prevalence of the ... The reaction generated biuret, a pathway intermediate further transformed by biuret hydrolase (BiuH). The prevalence of the ...
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... The biuret test, also known as Piotrowskis test, is a chemical test used for detecting the presence of peptide ... Biuret reagent. The Biuret reagent is made of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrated copper(II) sulfate, together with potassium ... High sensitivity variants of the biuret test. Two major modifications of the biuret test are commonly applied in modern ... Despite its name, the reagent does not in fact contain biuret ((H2N-CO-)2NH). The test is named so because it also gives a ...
... - The categories of this image should be checked. Check them now! Remove redundant categories and try to ... carbón bituminoso biuret biuret (carbamilurea) biuretamidine sulfate sulfato de test ensayo en blanco blasticidin S ... Biuret is also used as a non-protein nitrogen source in ruminant feed, [8] where it is converted into protein by gut ... File:Reactivo de Biuret.svg. This page was last edited on 16 Novemberat Overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1 and its ...
Find the biuret reagent form, shelf life, hazard information, and more below. ... This 30 ml bottle of biuret reagent is a qualitative indicator for protein. ... This 30 ml bottle of biuret reagent is a qualitative indicator for protein. Find the biuret reagent form, shelf life, hazard ... This 30 ml bottle of biuret reagent is a qualitative indicator for protein. Find the biuret reagent form, shelf life, hazard ...
What is a biuret solution?. A: A biuret solution is a liquid mixture of potassium hydroxide and copper sulfate used to detect ...
What is a biuret reagent?. A: A biuret reagent is a mix of either sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide and copper sulfate. ... The reagent is used in the biuret test, which determines wh... Full Answer , Filed Under: * Chemistry ...
The measurement was done as follows: 180 μl of the biuret solution was mixed with 45 μl of real or standard sample; after ... For determination of the total protein content the biuret solution (15 mM potassium sodium tartrate, 100 mM NaI, 15 mM KI and 5 ... At the plants treated with silver(I) ions the changes were observable also in total content of proteins determined using biuret ... 2.4.2 Protein determination - Biuret test. Weighed plant tissues (approximately 0.2 g) were transferred to a test-tube. Then, ...
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Biuret Toxicity Symptoms in Citrus Leaves Mimics Cell Senescence Rather Than Nutritional Deficiency Chlorosis. in Journal of ... Concurrent loss of cytoplasmic content and the enlargement of the vacuolar space were also observed in the biuret affected leaf ... Permanent chlorosis of leaves on plants fertilized with urea containing high levels of the contaminant biuret has been observed ... It was concluded that 1) the cytological characteristics of the biuret-affected samples were more similar to age-related ...
Crystallographic studies of the biuret reaction. II. Structure of bis-biuret-copper(II) dichloride, Cu(NH2CONHCONH2)2C12. ...
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  • It is based on the biuret reagent, a blue solution that turns violet upon contact with proteins, or any substance with peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Biuret reagent contains copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), with potassium sodium tartrate (KNaC4H4O6) added to stabilize copper ions. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Here blue-coloured Biuret reagent was added to a solution of albumin (egg white) in a test tube. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Biuret Reagent Solution, 4oz. (sciencecompany.com)
  • Biuret Reagent Solution, 125mL (4 oz. (sciencecompany.com)
  • Biuret Reagent is an aqueous solution of potassium sodium tartrate treated with cupric sulfate and sodium hydroxide. (sciencecompany.com)
  • Add 3 drops of Biuret reagent solution to each test tube. (sciencecompany.com)
  • Despite its name, the reagent does not in fact contain biuret ((H 2 N-CO-) 2 NH). (orange.com)
  • The Biuret reagent is made of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrated copper(II) sulfate , together with potassium sodium tartrate , [5] the latter of which is added to chelate and thus stabilize the cupric ions. (orange.com)
  • The reagent is commonly used in the biuret protein assay , a colorimetric test used to determine protein concentration by UV/VIS spectroscopy at wavelength 540 nm. (orange.com)
  • This 30 ml bottle of biuret reagent is a qualitative indicator for protein. (homesciencetools.com)
  • What is a biuret reagent? (reference.com)
  • A biuret reagent is a mix of either sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide and copper sulfate. (reference.com)
  • The reagent is used in the biuret test, which determines wh. (reference.com)
  • Biuret is a method in which a reagent turns from green to violet when it comes into contact with certain amino acids (a certain sign of protein presence). (foodsafetymagazine.com)
  • Biuret reagent to test for proteins. (mcgill.ca)
  • The Biuret reagent is made of sodium hydroxide and copper sulphate. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • The absence of a biuret reaction would point in that direction and the question must await further study. (dictionary.com)
  • Amongst these is the biuret reaction: a pink colour obtained by adding a trace of copper sulphate and an excess of caustic soda. (dictionary.com)
  • On now testing a portion of the clear filtrate for peptone by the biuret test, not a trace of a reaction could be obtained. (dictionary.com)
  • Inasmuch as most natural proteins contain several such groups, the biuret reaction is a very general test for proteins. (dictionary.com)
  • In enzymology, a biuret amidohydrolase (EC 3.5.1.84) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction biuret + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } urea(CH4N2O) + CO2 + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are biuret and H2O, whereas its 3 products are urea, CO2, and NH3. (wikipedia.org)
  • and by the so-called " biuret " reaction. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Biuret Reaction" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Biuret Reaction" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Biuret Reaction" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Biuret Reaction" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Thus single AMINO ACIDS and DIPEPTIDES with only one peptide bond will not give a positive Biuret reaction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ethanolamine serves as a model for the chelate-forming portions of threonine and serine, and its reactivity in the biuret reaction was of similar magnitude. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This suggests that absorbance for the biuret reaction product of albumin was the sum of peptide backbone and sidechain interactions with copper. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The biuret reaction of amino acids and small peptides was completed by the time of the first postbaseline reading: within ~2-4 s depending on the speed of mixing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The biuret reaction commonly has been considered to selectively measure peptides 3 amino acid residues in length or longer (3), although there have been reports extending back many years indicating that amino acids, dipeptides, and other compounds are reactive (30-33). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The reaction generated biuret, a pathway intermediate further transformed by biuret hydrolase (BiuH). (umn.edu)
  • The biuret reaction can be used to assess the concentration of proteins because peptide bonds occur with the same frequency per amino acid in the peptide. (orange.com)
  • The test is named so because it also gives a positive reaction to the peptide-like bonds in the biuret molecule. (orange.com)
  • In these tests, the Cu + formed during the biuret reaction reacts further with other reagents, leading to a deeper color. (orange.com)
  • Crystallographic studies of the biuret reaction. (iucr.org)
  • The biuret reaction has been in use since the end of the 19th century and is the method of choice in clinical laboratories because of its simplicity, rapidity and reliability. (rushtermpapers.com)
  • The peptide bonds of protein react with the copper II ions in alkaline solution to form a blue-violet complex (the so-called biuret reaction), each copper ion complexing with 5 or 6 peptide bonds. (rushtermpapers.com)
  • and caustic potash and copper sulphate, which, on warming, gives a red to violet coloration (biuret reaction). (wikisource.org)
  • The biuret test is a chemical test for proteins and polypeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • they are so named because both biuret and proteins have the same response to the test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very few laboratories use the biuret method, which reacts with the peptide bonds in proteins, measuring all proteins more equally. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The water-soluble BCA/copper complex absorbs much more strongly than the peptide/copper complex, increasing the sensitivity of the biuret test by a factor of around 100: the BCA assay allows to detect proteins in the range of 0.0005 to 2 mg/mL). (orange.com)
  • Mitotic recombination in patients with ichthyosis causes reversion of dominant mutations in KRT It is based on the biuret reagenta blue solution that turns violet upon contact with proteins, or any substance with peptide bonds. (iamadek.me)
  • A biuret solution is a liquid mixture of potassium hydroxide and copper sulfate used to detect proteins and peptides in human urine. (reference.com)
  • A micro-biuret method for estimating proteins. (stackexchange.com)
  • If you want to find out is there are proteins in a substance then you would use the biuret test. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • 1, as measured by the biuret assay, the pyrogallol red assay, and nephelometry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The calibration curve for the Biuret assay, made with human albumin concentrations of 0-10 g/L, gave an absorbance range (550 nm) of 0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Two major modifications of the biuret test are commonly applied in modern colorimetric analysis of peptides: the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay and the Lowry assay. (orange.com)
  • Classical methods such as the biuret test, Bradford test, spectrophotometric assay at 280 nm, Smith test, and Lowry test are some of the most commonly used techniques in protein quantitation. (slideshare.net)
  • Feed Grade Biuret as a Protein Replacement for Ruminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feed-grade biuret. (ecfr.gov)
  • Cyanuric acid is an FDA-accepted component of feed-grade biuret, a ruminant feed additive. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bacterial efficiency (g bacterial N/kg OM truly digested in the rumen) was greater ( P = 0.05) for biuret compared with urea. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This notice reports that biuret reacts with alkaline copper sulfate to produce a red solution -- the so-called "Biuret test" Wiedemann, G. (1848). (wikipedia.org)
  • The characteristic color of a positive biuret test. (sciencecompany.com)
  • The chemical tests that are used for the experiments are: Benedict test, Biuret test and Iodine test, which test for glucose, protein and starch. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • The biuret test , also known as Piotrowski's test , is a chemical test used for detecting the presence of peptide bonds . (orange.com)
  • In Poland , the biuret test is more commonly known as the Piotrowski test, in honor of the Polish toxological chemist, Jerzy Kazimierz Piotrowski (b. 1926) of Lodz . (orange.com)
  • carbón bituminoso biuret biuret (carbamilurea) biuretamidine sulfate sulfato de test ensayo en blanco blasticidin S blasticidina S bleach blanqueo bleaching. (iamadek.me)
  • Why do protein solutions have to be alkalised in biuret test? (stackexchange.com)
  • I've never done the biuret test myself, but I can't imagine it would make a difference. (stackexchange.com)
  • To avoid these problems, the Biuret test was developed. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Biuret test is of particular interest in this study. (slideshare.net)
  • However, similar with other protein assays, the linear range for the Biuret test found in different literature varies. (slideshare.net)
  • The most common lover limit of the calibration curve for the Biuret test is 1mg/sample. (slideshare.net)
  • Biuret Test - Protein - When the Biuret solution is added to the protein solution, it produces a purple solution, while all the other macromolecules with the Biuret solution produce a blue tinted solution. (majortests.com)
  • The Biuret Test displayed a light/dark blue solution. (majortests.com)
  • The Biuret test with the unknown produced a separated light/dark blue solution like Unknown #20. (majortests.com)
  • This lab is broken down into four different sections, the Benedict's test for reducing sugars, the iodine test for the presence of starch, the Sudan III test for fatty acids, and the Biuret test for amino groups present in proteins. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Biuret test is done for? (proprofs.com)
  • Cyanuric acid Allophanic acid, the carboxylic acid derivative of biuret Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). (wikipedia.org)
  • When heated above its melting-point, it yields ammonia, cyanuric acid, biuret and ammelide. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Here, we show that most bacteria utilize a different pathway, metabolizing cyanuric acid via biuret. (umn.edu)
  • Mining a database of over 40,000 bacterial isolates with precise geospatial metadata showed that bacteria with concurrent cyanuric acid and biuret hydrolase genes were distributed throughout the United States. (umn.edu)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Determination of dipeptides in peptide mixtures using a simple biuret method. (who.int)
  • Examples of widely used polyisocyanates include HDI biuret and HDI isocyanurate. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods: Exposures to aliphatic isocyanates based on 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (1,6-HDI) and its higher oligomers (biuret, isocyanurate and uretdione) were measured among 30 workers performing painting of bridges and other metal structures in several construction sites in the Northeastern USA. (cdc.gov)
  • Results: Breathing zone concentrations were the highest for biuret (median, 18.4 microg/m3), followed by 1,6-HDI monomer (median, 3.5 microg/m3), isocyanurate (median, 3.4 microg/m3) and uretdione (median, 1.7 microg/m3). (cdc.gov)
  • Determination of total urinary protein, combining Lowry sensitivity and biuret specificity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Commercially available biuret reagents are sold as premixed solutions. (stackexchange.com)
  • Most of these methods rely either on colorimetric assays, e.g. biuret method or the use of UV absorbance method. (rushtermpapers.com)
  • The terpolymer resin 2, 4-HABF has been synthesized by the condensation of 2, 4-dihydroxyacetophenone (2, 4-HA) and biuret (B) with formaldehyde (F) in 1:1:2 molar ratios in presence of 2 M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. (hindawi.com)
  • Biuret is also used as a non-protein nitrogen source in ruminant feed, where it is converted into protein by gut microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • They give the biuret and xanthoproteic reactions, and form salts with both acids and bases. (yourdictionary.com)
  • In addition, these authors found a good correlation between the Vitros method and the biuret method, taking the latter as reference. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The protein concentration of the myofibril solution was determined by the biuret method (Gornall, Bardawill, & Maxima, 1949). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Determine the concentration of an unknown protein solution using two different spectroscopic methods (the biuret method and UV method) for the measurement of protein concentration. (rushtermpapers.com)
  • In this practical, you will determine the concentration of an unknown protein solution using two different spectroscopic methods (the biuret method and UV method) for the measurement of protein concentration. (rushtermpapers.com)
  • Methods for the determination of total urinary protein that use precipitation of protein and indirect biuret are accurate, but they also are time-consuming and, therefore, not widely used. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The progressive development of chlorosis in biuret-affected leaves was characterized by: the loss of starch, thylakoidal and granal membranes in chloroplasts along with the enlargement and increase in number of plastoglobuli or lipid bodies. (ashs.org)
  • It was concluded that 1) the cytological characteristics of the biuret-affected samples were more similar to age-related senescent samples than to chlorosis from Zn deficiency and 2) that complete loss of the lipid bodies from the chromoplasts to the cytoplasm and vacuole in the biuret-affected samples and in age-related senescence in citrus leaves was responsible for the permanent nature of the chlorosis. (ashs.org)
  • Biuret is a chemical compound with the chemical formula [H2NC(O)]2NH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zersetzungsprodukt des Harnstoffs" [Biuret: decomposition product of urea]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Branches from `Ruby Red' grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi Macfadyn) and `Hamlin' orange [ C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] were sprayed with urea solutions containing 1.05% biuret. (ashs.org)
  • In general, organic biurets (those with alkyl or aryl groups in place of one or more H atoms) are prepared by trimerization of isocyanates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Summary [ edit ] Description Reactivo de Biuret. (iamadek.me)