"Bites and stings refer to tissue damage or toxic reactions caused by the teeth, mouthparts, or venomous secretions of animals such as insects, spiders, snakes, and mammals during predatory or defensive attacks."
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
Bites inflicted by humans.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.
A condition in which certain opposing teeth fail to establish occlusal contact when the jaws are closed.
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of TICKS.
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
A registration of any positional relationship of the mandible in reference to the maxillae. These records may be any of the many vertical, horizontal, or orientation relations. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A malocclusion in which maxillary incisor and canine teeth project over the mandiblar teeth excessively. The overlap is measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane and is also called vertical overlap. When the overlap is measured parallel to the occlusal plane it is referred to as overjet.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Sucking of the finger. This is one of the most common manipulations of the body found in young children.
Acquired responses regularly manifested by tongue movement or positioning.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that require SERUM; ASCITIC FLUID; or BLOOD for growth. Its organisms inhabit the THROAT; and NASOPHARYNX of wild and laboratory rats and cause one form of RAT-BITE FEVER in man.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Aerobic bacteria are types of microbes that require oxygen to grow and reproduce, and use it in the process of respiration to break down organic matter and produce energy, often found in environments where oxygen is readily available such as the human body's skin, mouth, and intestines.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
A gram-negative gliding bacterium isolated from the oral cavity. It is a pathogen often causing PERIODONTITIS.
Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.
Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
Devices that babies can suck on when they are not feeding. The extra sucking can be comforting to the babies and pacify them. Pacifiers usually are used as a substitute for the thumb in babies who suck on their thumb or fingers almost constantly.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
A syndrome characterized by recurring fever, rash, and arthralgias occurring days to weeks after a rat bite. The causative agents are either Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus.
A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)

A look at forensic dentistry--Part 2: teeth as weapons of violence--identification of bitemark perpetrators. (1/52)

Teeth are often used as weapons when one person attacks another or when a victim tries to ward off an assailant. It is relatively simple to record the evidence from the injury and the teeth for comparison of the shapes, sizes and pattern that are present. However, this comparative analysis is often very difficult, especially since human skin is curved, elastic, distortable and undergoing oedema. In many cases, though, conclusions can be reached about any role a suspect may have played in a crime. Additionally, traces of saliva deposited during biting can be recovered to acquire DNA evidence and this can be analyzed to determine who contributed this biological evidence. If dentists are aware of the various methods to collect and preserve bitemark evidence from victims and suspects it may be possible for them to assist the justice system to identify and prosecute violent offenders. This paper reviews the recognition and recovery of this evidence and provides insight into modern methods used to investigate bitemark evidence from heinous crimes.  (+info)

Comparative in vitro activity of ertapenem and 11 other antimicrobial agents against aerobic and anaerobic pathogens isolated from skin and soft tissue animal and human bite wound infections. (2/52)

We studied the comparative in vitro activity of ertapenem, a new carbapenem, against 240 aerobic and 180 anaerobic recent clinical bite isolates using an agar dilution method and an inoculum of 10(4) cfu/spot for aerobes and 10(5) cfu/spot for anaerobes. Ertapenem inhibited 410/420 (98%) of the isolates tested at < or = 4 mg/L with only 4/5 Campylobacter gracilis and 1/3 Campylobacter rectus strains requiring . or = 16 mg/L for inhibition. Ertapenem was only moderately active (MIC 8 mg/L) against 4/6 Enterococcus faecalis and 1/11 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. All Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella septica, Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella dagmatis, Moraxella spp. and EF-4 isolates were inhibited at < or = 0.015 mg/L. MIC(90)s for other aerobic genera and species were as follows: Corynebacterium spp., 4 mg/L; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.25 mg/L; Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 mg/L; other coagulasenegative staphylococci, 0.25 mg/L; Streptococcus milleri group, 0.5 mg/L; Eikenella corrodens, 0.03 mg/L; and Bergeyella zoohelcum, 0.5 mg/L. For anaerobes the range of MICs and MIC(90)s were: Prevotella ssp., < or = 0.015-0.5, 0.125 mg/L; Porphyromonas spp., < or = 0.015-0.03, 0.015 mg/L; Fusobacterium spp., 0.015-0.125, 0.03 mg/L; Bacteroides tectum, 0.03-0.125, 0.125 mg/L; and Peptostreptococcus spp., 0.01-2, 1 mg/L. Ertapenem showed excellent potency against the full range of animal and human bite wound pathogens.  (+info)

Strangulation injuries. (3/52)

Strangulation accounts for 10% of all violent deaths in the United States. Many people who are strangled survive. These survivors may have minimal visible external findings. Because of the slowly compressive nature of the forces involved in strangulation, clinicians should be aware of the potential for significant complications including laryngeal fractures, upper airway edema, and vocal cord immobility. Survivors are most often assaulted during an incident of intimate partner violence or sexual assault, and need to be specifically asked if they were strangled. Many survivors of strangulation will not volunteer this information. Accurate documentation in the medical chart is essential to substantiate a survivor's account of the incident. Medical providers are a significant community resource with the responsibility to provide expert information to patients and other systems working with survivors of strangulation. This case study reviews a strangulation victim who exhibited some classic findings.  (+info)

Clinical presentation and bacteriologic analysis of infected human bites in patients presenting to emergency departments. (4/52)

Previous studies of infected human bites have been limited by small numbers of patients and suboptimal microbiologic methodology. We conducted a multicenter prospective study of 50 patients with infected human bites. Seventy percent of the patients and assailants were young adult men. Fifty-six percent of injuries were clenched-fist injuries and 44% were occlusional bites. Most injuries were to the hands. Fifty-four percent of patients were hospitalized. The median number of isolates per wound culture was 4 (3 aerobes and 1 anaerobe); aerobes and anaerobes were isolated from 54% of wounds, aerobes alone were isolated from 44%, and anaerobes alone were isolated from 2%. Isolates included Streptococcus anginosus (52%), Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Eikenella corrodens (30%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (32%), and Prevotella melaninogenica (22%). Candida species were found in 8%. Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Candida species were isolated more frequently from occlusional bites than from clenched-fist injuries. Many strains of Prevotella and S. aureus were beta-lactamase producers. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and moxifloxacin demonstrated excellent in vitro activity against common isolates.  (+info)

Common acute hand infections. (5/52)

Hand infections can result in significant morbidity if not appropriately diagnosed and treated. Host factors, location, and circumstances of the infection are important guides to initial treatment strategies. Many hand infections improve with early splinting, elevation, appropriate antibiotics and, if an abscess is present, incision and drainage. Tetanus prophylaxis is indicated in patients who have at-risk infections. Paronychia, an infection of the epidermis bordering the nail, commonly is precipitated by localized trauma. Treatment consists of incision and drainage, warm-water soaks and, sometimes, oral antibiotics. A felon is an abscess of the distal pulp of the fingertip. An early felon may be amenable to elevation, oral antibiotics, and warm water or saline soaks. A more advanced felon requires incision and drainage. Herpetic whitlow is a painful infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. Early treatment with oral antiviral agents may hasten healing. Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis and clenched-fist injuries are more serious infections that often require surgical intervention. Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis is an acute synovial space infection involving a flexor tendon sheath. Treatment consists of parenteral antibiotics and sheath irrigation. A clenched-fist injury usually is the result of an altercation and often involves injury to the extensor tendon, joint capsule, and bone. Wound exploration, copious irrigation, and appropriate antibiotics can prevent undesired outcomes.  (+info)

Hand and wrist injuries: Part II. Emergent evaluation. (6/52)

Primary care physicians must be able to recognize wrist and hand injuries that require immediate attention. A complete history and physical examination, including assessment of distal limb function, are essential. Hemorrhage control is necessary in patients with vessel lacerations and amputations. Amputations require an understanding of the indications and contraindications in the management of the amputated limb. High-pressure injection injuries and compartment syndromes require a high index of suspicion for early recognition. Infectious entities include "fight bite," open fractures, purulent tenosynovitis, animal bites, and retained foreign bodies. Tendon disruptions should be recognized early to optimize management.  (+info)

Forensic odontology: the roles and responsibilities of the dentist. (7/52)

Dentistry has much to offer law enforcement in the detection and solution of crime or in civil proceedings. Forensic dental fieldwork requires an interdisciplinary knowledge of dental science. Most often the role of the forensic odontologist is to establish a person's identity. Teeth, with their physiologic variations, pathoses and effects of therapy, record information that remains throughout life and beyond. The teeth may also be used as weapons and, under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Forensic odontology has an important role in the recognition of abuse among persons of all ages. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identify unknown humans.  (+info)

Best evidence topic report. Are antibiotics indicated following human bites? (8/52)

A short cut review was carried out to establish whether antibiotics are indicated for human bites. Eighty nine papers were found using the reported search, of which two represent the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results, and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. Prophylactic antibiotics should be given to all patients with human bites to the hands, feet, and skin overlying joints or cartilaginous structures, and to all patients with bites that penetrate deeper than the epidermal layer.  (+info)

"Bites and stings" is a general term used to describe injuries resulting from the teeth or venomous secretions of animals. These can include:

1. Insect bites: The bite marks are usually small, punctate, and may be accompanied by symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, and pain. Examples include mosquito, flea, bedbug, and tick bites.

2. Spider bites: Some spiders possess venomous fangs that can cause localized pain, redness, and swelling. In severe cases, systemic symptoms like muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing may occur. The black widow and brown recluse spiders are notorious for their venomous bites.

3. Snake bites: Venomous snakes deliver toxic saliva through their fangs, which can lead to local tissue damage, swelling, pain, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects such as paralysis, bleeding disorders, and respiratory failure.

4. Mammal bites: Animal bites from mammals like dogs, cats, and wild animals can cause puncture wounds, lacerations, and crush injuries. They may also transmit infectious diseases, such as rabies.

5. Marine animal stings: Stings from jellyfish, sea urchins, stingrays, and other marine creatures can result in localized pain, redness, swelling, and systemic symptoms like difficulty breathing, muscle cramps, and altered heart rhythms. Some marine animals' venoms can cause severe allergic reactions or even death.

Treatment for bites and stings varies depending on the type and severity of the injury. It may include wound care, pain management, antibiotics to prevent infection, and in some cases, antivenom therapy to counteract the effects of venom. Seeking immediate medical attention is crucial in severe cases or when systemic symptoms are present.

A snake bite is a traumatic injury resulting from the puncture or laceration of skin by the fangs of a snake, often accompanied by envenomation. Envenomation occurs when the snake injects venom into the victim's body through its fangs. The severity and type of symptoms depend on various factors such as the species of snake, the amount of venom injected, the location of the bite, and the individual's sensitivity to the venom. Symptoms can range from localized pain, swelling, and redness to systemic effects like coagulopathy, neurotoxicity, or cardiotoxicity, which may lead to severe complications or even death if not treated promptly and appropriately.

'Human bites' refer to wounds or injuries resulting from the human mouth coming into contact with another person's body tissue. These bites can occur during fights, accidents, or intentional acts and can cause damage ranging from minor abrasions to serious tissue injury or infection. Human bite wounds may also pose a risk of transmission for various pathogens, including bacteria like Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species, hepatitis B and C viruses, and herpes simplex virus. Proper evaluation, wound care, and potential antibiotic treatment are crucial to prevent complications associated with human bites.

Insect bites and stings refer to the penetration of the skin by insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, or bees, often resulting in localized symptoms including redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The reaction can vary depending on the individual's sensitivity and the type of insect. In some cases, systemic reactions like anaphylaxis may occur, which requires immediate medical attention. Treatment typically involves relieving symptoms with topical creams, antihistamines, or in severe cases, epinephrine. Prevention measures include using insect repellent and protective clothing.

Bite force refers to the amount of force or pressure that can be exerted by the teeth and jaw when biting down or clenching together. It is a measure of an individual's maximum biting strength, typically expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or newtons (N). Bite force is an important factor in various biological and medical contexts, including oral health, nutrition, and the study of animal behavior and evolution.

In humans, bite force can vary widely depending on factors such as age, sex, muscle strength, and dental health. On average, a healthy adult human male may have a maximum bite force of around 150-200 pounds (670-890 newtons), while an adult female may have a bite force of around 100-130 pounds (445-578 newtons). However, these values can vary significantly from person to person.

Abnormalities in bite force can be indicative of various medical conditions or injuries, such as temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), muscle weakness, or neurological disorders affecting the facial muscles. Assessing and measuring bite force may also be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of dental treatments or appliances, such as dentures or orthodontic devices.

A spider bite is not a medical condition in and of itself, but rather an injury caused by the puncture of the skin by the fangs of a spider. Not all spiders are capable of penetrating human skin, and only a small number of species found in certain parts of the world have venom that can cause harmful reactions in humans.

The symptoms of a spider bite can vary widely depending on the species of spider, the amount of venom injected, the sensitivity of the person bitten, and the location of the bite. Some common symptoms include redness, swelling, pain, itching, and formation of a blister at the site of the bite. In more severe cases, symptoms such as muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing can occur.

It is important to note that many skin reactions that are attributed to spider bites may actually be caused by other factors such as bacterial infections or allergic reactions. Accurate identification of the spider responsible for a bite is often difficult, and in most cases, treatment is directed at relieving symptoms and preventing complications.

An open bite, in dental terminology, refers to a type of malocclusion (or misalignment) where the upper and lower teeth do not make contact with each other when the jaw is closed. More specifically, the front teeth of both the upper and lower jaws fail to meet or overlap normally, creating an opening in the bite. This condition can lead to various problems such as difficulty in biting, chewing, speaking clearly, and even cause temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). Open bite can be caused by several factors including thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, genetic factors, or abnormal jaw development. Treatment usually involves orthodontic intervention, possibly with the use of appliances or even surgery in severe cases.

Antivenins, also known as antivenoms, are medications created specifically to counteract venomous bites or stings from various creatures such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, and marine animals. They contain antibodies that bind to and neutralize the toxic proteins present in venom. Antivenins are usually made by immunizing large animals (like horses) with small amounts of venom over time, which prompts the animal's immune system to produce antibodies against the venom. The antibody-rich serum is then collected from the immunized animal and purified for use as an antivenin.

When administered to a victim who has been envenomated, antivenins work by binding to the venom molecules, preventing them from causing further damage to the body's tissues and organs. This helps minimize the severity of symptoms and can save lives in life-threatening situations. It is essential to seek immediate medical attention if bitten or stung by a venomous creature, as antivenins should be administered as soon as possible for optimal effectiveness.

A "tick bite" refers to the penetration of the skin by a tick, a small arachnid, for the purpose of feeding on the host's blood. This process often involves the tick's mouthparts piercing the skin and attaching themselves securely to the host. Tick bites can potentially transmit diseases, such as Lyme disease or Rocky Mountain spotted fever, depending on the type of tick and the length of time it remains attached. It is important to check for and promptly remove ticks from the body to reduce the risk of infection.

Viperidae is not a term that has a medical definition per se, but it is a term used in the field of biology and zoology. Viperidae is the family name for a group of venomous snakes commonly known as vipers. This family includes various types of pit vipers, adders, and rattlesnakes.

While Viperidae itself may not have direct medical relevance, understanding the biology and behavior of these creatures is important in the context of medical fields such as toxicology and emergency medicine. Knowledge about the venomous properties of viper snakes and their potential to cause harm to humans is crucial for appropriate treatment and management of snakebites.

A Jaw Relation Record (also known as a "mounted cast" or "articulated record") is a dental term used to describe the process of recording and replicating the precise spatial relationship between the upper and lower jaws. This information is crucial in various dental treatments, such as designing and creating dental restorations, dentures, or orthodontic appliances.

The Jaw Relation Record typically involves these steps:

1. Determining the optimal jaw position (occlusion) during a clinical procedure called "bite registration." This is done by using various materials like waxes, silicones, or impression compounds to record the relationship between the upper and lower teeth in a static position or at specific movements.
2. Transferring this bite registration to an articulator, which is a mechanical device that simulates jaw movement. The articulator holds dental casts (replicas of the patient's teeth) and allows for adjustments based on the recorded jaw relationship.
3. Mounting the dental casts onto the articulator according to the bite registration. This creates an accurate representation of the patient's oral structures, allowing dentists or technicians to evaluate, plan, and fabricate dental restorations that will fit harmoniously in the mouth and provide optimal function and aesthetics.

In summary, a Jaw Relation Record is a critical component in dental treatment planning and restoration design, as it captures and replicates the precise spatial relationship between the upper and lower jaws.

Mastication is the medical term for the process of chewing food. It's the first step in digestion, where food is broken down into smaller pieces by the teeth, making it easier to swallow and further digest. The act of mastication involves not only the physical grinding and tearing of food by the teeth but also the mixing of the food with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin to break down carbohydrates. This process helps to enhance the efficiency of digestion and nutrient absorption in the subsequent stages of the digestive process.

A wound infection is defined as the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in a part of the body tissue, which has been damaged by a cut, blow, or other trauma, leading to inflammation, purulent discharge, and sometimes systemic toxicity. The symptoms may include redness, swelling, pain, warmth, and fever. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics and proper wound care. It's important to note that not all wounds will become infected, but those that are contaminated with bacteria, dirt, or other foreign substances, or those in which the skin's natural barrier has been significantly compromised, are at a higher risk for infection.

Insect repellents are substances that are applied to the skin, clothing, or other surfaces to deter insects from landing or crawling on that surface. They work by masking the scents that attract insects or by repelling them with unpleasant odors. Insect repellents can be chemical-based, such as those containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), picaridin, or IR3535, or they can be natural, such as those containing oil of lemon eucalyptus or citronella. These substances work by interfering with the insect's ability to detect human scent, making it less likely that they will come into contact with the person using the repellent. Insect repellents are an important tool in preventing insect-borne diseases such as Lyme disease, West Nile virus, and Zika virus.

An overbite, also known as "malocclusion of class II division 1" in dental terminology, is an orthodontic condition where the upper front teeth excessively overlap the lower front teeth when biting down. This means that the upper incisors are positioned too far forward or the lower incisors are too far back. A slight overbite is considered normal and healthy, as it allows the front teeth to perform their functions properly, such as biting and tearing food. However, a significant overbite can lead to various problems like difficulty in chewing, speaking, and maintaining good oral hygiene. It may also cause wear and tear on the teeth, jaw pain, or even contribute to temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). Orthodontic treatment, such as braces or aligners, is often recommended to correct a severe overbite and restore proper bite alignment.

A medical definition of "ticks" would be:

Ticks are small, blood-sucking parasites that belong to the arachnid family, which also includes spiders. They have eight legs and can vary in size from as small as a pinhead to about the size of a marble when fully engorged with blood. Ticks attach themselves to the skin of their hosts (which can include humans, dogs, cats, and wild animals) by inserting their mouthparts into the host's flesh.

Ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. It is important to remove ticks promptly and properly to reduce the risk of infection. To remove a tick, use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this can cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin. After removing the tick, clean the area with soap and water and disinfect the tweezers.

Preventing tick bites is an important part of protecting against tick-borne diseases. This can be done by wearing protective clothing (such as long sleeves and pants), using insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors.

Masticatory muscles are a group of skeletal muscles responsible for the mastication (chewing) process in humans and other animals. They include:

1. Masseter muscle: This is the primary muscle for chewing and is located on the sides of the face, running from the lower jawbone (mandible) to the cheekbone (zygomatic arch). It helps close the mouth and elevate the mandible during chewing.

2. Temporalis muscle: This muscle is situated in the temporal region of the skull, covering the temple area. It assists in closing the jaw, retracting the mandible, and moving it sideways during chewing.

3. Medial pterygoid muscle: Located deep within the cheek, near the angle of the lower jaw, this muscle helps move the mandible forward and grind food during chewing. It also contributes to closing the mouth.

4. Lateral pterygoid muscle: Found inside the ramus (the vertical part) of the mandible, this muscle has two heads - superior and inferior. The superior head helps open the mouth by pulling the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) downwards, while the inferior head assists in moving the mandible sideways during chewing.

These muscles work together to enable efficient chewing and food breakdown, preparing it for swallowing and digestion.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "fingersucking" as it is more of a behavior rather than a medical condition. However, fingersucking can sometimes be associated with certain medical or developmental issues in children. For example, persistent fingering sucking beyond the age of 5 years may indicate a developmental issue such as a sensory processing disorder or a behavioral problem like attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Prolonged fingersucking can also lead to dental problems such as malocclusion and dental caries.

Tongue habits refer to the specific and repetitive ways in which an individual's tongue moves or rests inside their mouth. These habits can include things like tongue thrusting, where the tongue presses against the front teeth during speech or swallowing; tongue sucking, where the tongue is placed against the roof of the mouth; or improper tongue positioning during rest, where the tongue may be positioned too far forward in the mouth or rest against the bottom teeth.

Tongue habits can have an impact on dental and oral health, as well as speech development and clarity. For example, persistent tongue thrusting can lead to an open bite, where the front teeth do not come together when the mouth is closed. Improper tongue positioning during rest can also contribute to the development of a deep overbite or an anterior open bite.

In some cases, tongue habits may be related to underlying conditions such as muscle weakness or sensory integration disorders. Speech-language pathologists and orthodontists may work together to assess and address tongue habits in order to improve oral function and overall health.

Russell's Viper is not a medical condition or term. It is a type of venomous snake, scientifically known as Daboia russelii, found in parts of Asia. The bite of this viper can cause severe symptoms such as pain, swelling, bleeding, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects like kidney failure, blood clotting problems, and cardiac arrest. Medical personnel should be notified immediately in case of a snakebite, and appropriate antivenom therapy should be initiated as soon as possible to reduce the risk of complications or mortality.

Elapidae is a family of venomous snakes, also known as elapids. This family includes many well-known species such as cobras, mambas, death adders, and sea snakes. Elapids are characterized by their fixed fangs, which are located at the front of the upper jaw and deliver venom through a hollow canal. The venom of these snakes is typically neurotoxic, causing paralysis and respiratory failure in prey or attackers.

Elapids are found throughout the world, with the greatest diversity occurring in tropical regions. They vary widely in size, from small species like the death adders that measure only a few inches long, to large species like the king cobra, which can reach lengths of up to 18 feet (5.5 meters).

Elapids are generally shy and avoid confrontations with humans whenever possible. However, they will defend themselves aggressively if threatened or cornered. Bites from elapid snakes can be medically significant and may require antivenom treatment.

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a group of illnesses that can be transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected ticks. These diseases are caused by various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Some common TBDs include Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Tularemia. The symptoms of TBDs can vary widely depending on the specific disease but may include fever, rash, fatigue, muscle aches, and headaches. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment are crucial to prevent potential long-term complications associated with some TBDs. Preventive measures such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after being outdoors can help reduce the risk of TBDs.

Malocclusion is a term used in dentistry and orthodontics to describe a misalignment or misrelation between the upper and lower teeth when they come together, also known as the bite. It is derived from the Latin words "mal" meaning bad or wrong, and "occludere" meaning to close.

There are different types of malocclusions, including:

1. Class I malocclusion: The most common type, where the upper teeth slightly overlap the lower teeth, but the bite is otherwise aligned.
2. Class II malocclusion (overbite): The upper teeth significantly overlap the lower teeth, causing a horizontal or vertical discrepancy between the dental arches.
3. Class III malocclusion (underbite): The lower teeth protrude beyond the upper teeth, resulting in a crossbite or underbite.

Malocclusions can be caused by various factors such as genetics, thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, premature loss of primary or permanent teeth, and jaw injuries or disorders. They may lead to several oral health issues, including tooth decay, gum disease, difficulty chewing or speaking, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction. Treatment for malocclusions typically involves orthodontic appliances like braces, aligners, or retainers to realign the teeth and correct the bite. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

The term "vertical dimension" is used in dentistry, specifically in the field of prosthodontics, to refer to the measurement of the distance between two specific points in the vertical direction when the jaw is closed. The most common measurement is the "vertical dimension of occlusion," which is the distance between the upper and lower teeth when the jaw is in a balanced and comfortable position during resting closure.

The vertical dimension is an important consideration in the design and fabrication of dental restorations, such as dentures or dental crowns, to ensure proper function, comfort, and aesthetics. Changes in the vertical dimension can occur due to various factors, including tooth loss, jaw joint disorders, or muscle imbalances, which may require correction through dental treatment.

Dental occlusion refers to the alignment and contact between the upper and lower teeth when the jaws are closed. It is the relationship between the maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) teeth when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or biting.

A proper dental occlusion, also known as a balanced occlusion, ensures that the teeth and jaw joints function harmoniously, reducing the risk of tooth wear, damage, and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Malocclusion, on the other hand, refers to improper alignment or contact between the upper and lower teeth, which may require orthodontic treatment or dental restorations to correct.

'Bungarus' is a genus of venomous elapid snakes commonly known as kraits, which are native to South and Southeast Asia. The term 'Bungarus' comes from the natural history classification system used in biology, specifically in the field of herpetology (the study of amphibians and reptiles).

Kraits are known for their highly potent neurotoxic venom, which can cause respiratory failure and death if left untreated. They are typically nocturnal and have a distinctive pattern of alternating black, white, and yellow bands. Some of the more well-known species in this genus include the banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus) and the Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus).

It's worth noting that 'Bungarus' is not a medical term per se, but rather a taxonomic designation used by biologists to classify a group of related organisms. However, understanding the properties and behaviors of venomous snakes like kraits can be important for medical professionals who may encounter patients who have been bitten or envenomated by these creatures.

Cephalometry is a medical term that refers to the measurement and analysis of the skull, particularly the head face relations. It is commonly used in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery to assess and plan treatment for abnormalities related to the teeth, jaws, and facial structures. The process typically involves taking X-ray images called cephalograms, which provide a lateral view of the head, and then using various landmarks and reference lines to make measurements and evaluate skeletal and dental relationships. This information can help clinicians diagnose problems, plan treatment, and assess treatment outcomes.

'Anopheles' is a genus of mosquitoes that are known for their role in transmitting malaria parasites to humans. These mosquitoes have a distinctive resting posture, with their abdomens raised and heads down, and they typically feed on human hosts at night. Only female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the malaria parasite, as they require blood meals to lay eggs.

There are over 400 species of Anopheles mosquitoes worldwide, but only about 30-40 of these are considered significant vectors of human malaria. The distribution and behavior of these mosquitoes can vary widely depending on the specific species and geographic location.

Preventing and controlling the spread of malaria involves a variety of strategies, including the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, antimalarial drugs, and vaccines. Public health efforts to reduce the burden of malaria have made significant progress in recent decades, but the disease remains a major global health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.

Streptobacillus is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic bacteria that are typically shaped like rods or coccobacilli. They are part of the family Streptobacillaceae and are known to be normal flora in the upper respiratory tract of some animals, including rodents.

One species of this genus, Streptobacillus moniliformis, is a significant human pathogen and is the causative agent of streptobacillary rat-bite fever, also known as Haverhill fever or epidemic arthritic erythema. This bacterium can be transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected rodent or by ingesting food or water contaminated with the urine or feces of infected animals.

The infection caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and a rash that may appear on the hands and feet. In severe cases, it can lead to serious complications such as endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia.

It's important to note that Streptobacillus species are fastidious bacteria, which means they require specific growth conditions and may be difficult to culture in the laboratory. Therefore, diagnosis of streptobacillary rat-bite fever often relies on clinical presentation and serological tests.

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

'Culicidae' is the biological family that includes all species of mosquitoes. It consists of three subfamilies: Anophelinae, Culicinae, and Toxorhynchitinae. Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and other animals, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The medical importance of Culicidae comes from the fact that only female mosquitoes require blood meals to lay eggs, and during this process, they can transmit pathogens between hosts.

Facial injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the face, which may include the bones of the skull that form the face, teeth, salivary glands, muscles, nerves, and skin. Facial injuries can range from minor cuts and bruises to severe fractures and disfigurement. They can be caused by a variety of factors such as accidents, falls, sports-related injuries, physical assaults, or animal attacks.

Facial injuries can affect one or more areas of the face, including the forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, ears, mouth, and jaw. Common types of facial injuries include lacerations (cuts), contusions (bruises), abrasions (scrapes), fractures (broken bones), and burns.

Facial injuries can have significant psychological and emotional impacts on individuals, in addition to physical effects. Treatment for facial injuries may involve simple first aid, suturing of wounds, splinting or wiring of broken bones, reconstructive surgery, or other medical interventions. It is essential to seek prompt medical attention for any facial injury to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spiders" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a common name used to refer to arachnids of the order Araneae, characterized by having two main body parts (the cephalothorax and abdomen), eight legs, and fangs that inject venom.

However, in a medical context, "spider" or "spider bite" may be used to describe skin lesions or reactions resulting from the bite of certain spiders, particularly those with medically significant venoms. For example, necrotic arachnidism is a condition caused by the bite of some spider species, such as recluse spiders (Loxosceles spp.). The bites can cause skin necrosis and other systemic symptoms in severe cases.

If you are looking for information on a specific medical topic or condition, please provide more details so I can offer a more accurate response.

DEET is a common abbreviation for N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, which is a widely used active ingredient in insect repellents. It works by blocking the ability of insects to sense the presence of humans, making it difficult for them to land and bite. DEET can provide long-lasting protection against a variety of insects, including mosquitoes, ticks, and other arthropods.

DEET is available in various forms, such as lotions, sprays, and wipes, and its concentration can range from 5% to 100%. Higher concentrations provide longer protection but may also increase the risk of skin irritation and other adverse effects. It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions when using DEET-containing products and avoid applying them to broken or damaged skin, eyes, mouth, and mucous membranes.

DEET has been extensively studied for its safety and efficacy, and it is considered safe for use by people of all ages, including pregnant and breastfeeding women. However, it should be used with caution in young children due to their higher surface area-to-mass ratio and the potential for accidental ingestion or eye contact. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends using DEET products with a concentration of no more than 30% on children over two months of age.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria use oxygen as the final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain to generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Aerobic bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the air, as well as on the surfaces of living things. Some examples of aerobic bacteria include species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus.

It's worth noting that some bacteria can switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen. These bacteria are called facultative anaerobes. In contrast, obligate anaerobes are bacteria that cannot tolerate oxygen and will die in its presence.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

"Viper venoms" refer to the toxic secretions produced by members of the Viperidae family of snakes, which include pit vipers (such as rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths) and true vipers (like adders, vipers, and gaboon vipers). These venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, enzymes, and other bioactive molecules that can cause a wide range of symptoms in prey or predators, including local tissue damage, pain, swelling, bleeding, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects such as coagulopathy, cardiovascular shock, and respiratory failure.

The composition of viper venoms varies widely between different species and even among individuals within the same species. However, many viper venoms contain a variety of enzymes (such as phospholipases A2, metalloproteinases, and serine proteases) that can cause tissue damage and disrupt vital physiological processes in the victim. Additionally, some viper venoms contain neurotoxins that can affect the nervous system and cause paralysis or other neurological symptoms.

Understanding the composition and mechanisms of action of viper venoms is important for developing effective treatments for venomous snakebites, as well as for gaining insights into the evolution and ecology of these fascinating and diverse creatures.

Capnocytophaga is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the normal oral flora of humans and some animals. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in both the presence and absence of oxygen. They are known to cause various types of infections, including bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. The infection can be acquired through animal bites or scratches, or through close contact with saliva from infected animals. In humans, Capnocytophaga can also be part of the normal oral flora, but it rarely causes disease.

It is important to note that while Capnocytophaga can cause serious infections, they are relatively rare and proper hygiene and handling of pets can help reduce the risk of infection. If you have a weakened immune system or if you develop symptoms such as fever, chills, or severe illness after being bitten or scratched by an animal, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Bedbugs are small, wingless insects that belong to the family Cimicidae. The scientific name for the most common species of bedbug is Cimex lectularius. Adult bedbugs are oval-shaped, flat, and reddish-brown in color, while nymphs (immature bedbugs) are smaller, lighter in color, and translucent.

Bedbugs feed on the blood of humans and other warm-blooded animals, usually at night when their hosts are asleep. They are attracted to body heat and carbon dioxide exhaled by their hosts. Bedbug bites can cause itchy red welts or bumps on the skin, but they are not known to transmit any diseases.

Bedbugs can be found in a variety of places where people sleep or rest for extended periods, including homes, hotels, hostels, and college dormitories. They can hide in cracks and crevices in furniture, walls, floors, and bedding, making them difficult to detect and eliminate.

To prevent bedbug infestations, it is recommended to inspect second-hand furniture carefully before bringing it into your home, use protective encasements on mattresses and box springs, and avoid storing items under beds or near walls. If you suspect a bedbug infestation, contact a pest management professional for assistance.

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive compounds produced by specialized glands in snakes. They primarily consist of proteins and peptides, including enzymes, neurotoxins, hemotoxins, cytotoxins, and cardiotoxins. These toxins can cause a variety of pharmacological effects on the victim's body, such as disruption of the nervous system, blood coagulation, muscle function, and cell membrane integrity, ultimately leading to tissue damage and potentially death. The composition of snake venoms varies widely among different species, making each species' venom unique in its toxicity profile.

Forensic dentistry, also known as forensic odontology, is a specialty in forensic science that involves the examination, identification, and evaluation of dental evidence for legal purposes. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Identification of deceased individuals through dental records comparison (e.g., during mass disasters or unidentified human remains).
2. Analysis of bite marks found on victims or objects related to criminal investigations.
3. Assessment of age, sex, ancestry, and other personal characteristics based on dental features.
4. Examination of cases of abuse, neglect, or malpractice in dentistry.
5. Evaluation of occupational dental injuries and diseases.

Forensic dentists often work closely with law enforcement agencies, medical examiners, and other legal professionals to provide expert testimony in court proceedings.

Malocclusion, Angle Class II is a type of dental malocclusion where the relationship between the maxilla (upper jaw) and mandible (lower jaw) is such that the lower molar teeth are positioned posteriorly relative to the upper molar teeth. This results in an overbite, which means that the upper front teeth overlap the lower front teeth excessively. The classification was proposed by Edward Angle, an American orthodontist who is considered the father of modern orthodontics. In this classification system, Class II malocclusion is further divided into three subclasses (I, II, and III) based on the position of the lower incisors relative to the upper incisors.

"Ixodes" is a genus of tick that includes several species known to transmit various diseases to humans and animals. These ticks are often referred to as "hard ticks" because of their hard, shield-like plate on their backs. Ixodes ticks have a complex life cycle involving three stages: larva, nymph, and adult. They feed on the blood of hosts during each stage, and can transmit diseases such as Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, and Powassan virus disease.

The most common Ixodes species in North America is Ixodes scapularis, also known as the black-legged tick or deer tick, which is the primary vector of Lyme disease in this region. In Europe, Ixodes ricinus, or the castor bean tick, is a widespread and important vector of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and several other tick-borne pathogens.

Ixodes ticks are typically found in wooded or grassy areas with high humidity and moderate temperatures. They can be carried by various hosts, including mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can survive for long periods without feeding, making them efficient disease vectors.

The temporalis muscle is a fan-shaped muscle located in the lateral aspect of the head, in the temporal fossa region. It belongs to the group of muscles known as muscles of mastication, responsible for chewing movements. The temporalis muscle has its origin at the temporal fossa and inserts into the coronoid process and ramus of the mandible. Its main function is to retract the mandible and assist in closing the jaw.

A pacifier, also known as a soother or dummy, is a rubber, plastic, or silicone teething device that is designed to be sucked upon. It has a nipple-like part that the baby or infant sucks on to derive a sense of security, comfort, and relaxation. Pacifiers are often used to help soothe a crying or fussy baby, to help them fall asleep, or to calm them during stressful situations. They come in various shapes, sizes, and colors, and can be orthodontic or non-orthodontic. It is recommended that pacifier use should be stopped by the age of 2-3 years to prevent dental and speech development issues.

The masseter muscle is a strong chewing muscle in the jaw. It is a broad, thick, quadrilateral muscle that extends from the zygomatic arch (cheekbone) to the lower jaw (mandible). The masseter muscle has two distinct parts: the superficial part and the deep part.

The superficial part of the masseter muscle originates from the lower border of the zygomatic process of the maxilla and the anterior two-thirds of the inferior border of the zygomatic arch. The fibers of this part run almost vertically downward to insert on the lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible and the coronoid process.

The deep part of the masseter muscle originates from the deep surface of the zygomatic arch and inserts on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible, blending with the temporalis tendon.

The primary function of the masseter muscle is to elevate the mandible, helping to close the mouth and clench the teeth together during mastication (chewing). It also plays a role in stabilizing the jaw during biting and speaking. The masseter muscle is one of the most powerful muscles in the human body relative to its size.

Salivary proteins and peptides refer to the diverse group of molecules that are present in saliva, which is the clear, slightly alkaline fluid produced by the salivary glands in the mouth. These proteins and peptides play a crucial role in maintaining oral health and contributing to various physiological functions.

Some common types of salivary proteins and peptides include:

1. **Mucins**: These are large, heavily glycosylated proteins that give saliva its viscous quality. They help to lubricate the oral cavity, protect the mucosal surfaces, and aid in food bolus formation.
2. **Amylases**: These enzymes break down carbohydrates into simpler sugars, initiating the digestive process even before food reaches the stomach.
3. **Proline-rich proteins (PRPs)**: PRPs contribute to the buffering capacity of saliva and help protect against tooth erosion by forming a protective layer on tooth enamel.
4. **Histatins**: These are small cationic peptides with antimicrobial properties, playing a significant role in maintaining oral microbial homeostasis and preventing dental caries.
5. **Lactoferrin**: An iron-binding protein that exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities, contributing to the overall oral health.
6. **Statherin and Cystatins**: These proteins regulate calcium phosphate precipitation, preventing dental calculus formation and maintaining tooth mineral homeostasis.

Salivary proteins and peptides have attracted significant interest in recent years due to their potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Alterations in the composition of these molecules can provide valuable insights into various oral and systemic diseases, making them promising biomarkers for disease detection and monitoring.

"Sucking behavior" is not a term typically used in medical terminology. However, in the context of early childhood development and behavior, "non-nutritive sucking" is a term that may be used to describe an infant or young child's habitual sucking on their thumb, fingers, or pacifiers, beyond what is necessary for feeding. This type of sucking behavior can provide a sense of security, comfort, or help to self-soothe and manage stress or anxiety.

It's important to note that while non-nutritive sucking is generally considered a normal part of early childhood development, persistent sucking habits beyond the age of 2-4 years may lead to dental or orthodontic problems such as an overbite or open bite. Therefore, it's recommended to monitor and address these behaviors if they persist beyond this age range.

The stomatognathic system is a term used in medicine and dentistry to refer to the coordinated functions of the mouth, jaw, and related structures. It includes the teeth, gums, tongue, palate, lips, cheeks, salivary glands, as well as the muscles of mastication (chewing), swallowing, and speech. The stomatognathic system also involves the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated structures that allow for movement of the jaw. This complex system works together to enable functions such as eating, speaking, and breathing. Dysfunction in the stomatognathic system can lead to various oral health issues, including temporomandibular disorders, occlusal problems, and orofacial pain.

In the context of dentistry, a molar is a type of tooth found in the back of the mouth. They are larger and wider than other types of teeth, such as incisors or canines, and have a flat biting surface with multiple cusps. Molars are primarily used for grinding and chewing food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow. Humans typically have twelve molars in total, including the four wisdom teeth.

In medical terminology outside of dentistry, "molar" can also refer to a unit of mass in the apothecaries' system of measurement, which is equivalent to 4.08 grams. However, this usage is less common and not related to dental or medical anatomy.

Rat-Bite Fever (RBF) is a bacterial infection that can be transmitted to humans through the bite or scratch of an infected rodent, such as a rat, mouse, or squirrel. It can also be contracted by consuming food or drink contaminated with the bacteria. The disease is caused by two different types of bacteria: Streptobacillus moniliformis (in North America) and Spirillum minus (in Asia).

The symptoms of Rat-Bite Fever typically appear within a week after exposure and can include fever, headache, muscle pain, vomiting, and joint pain. A rash may also develop, usually on the hands and feet. If left untreated, Rat-Bite Fever can lead to serious complications such as endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), and pneumonia.

Rat-Bite Fever is treated with antibiotics, and prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications. It's important to seek medical attention if you have been bitten or scratched by a rodent, especially if you develop symptoms of Rat-Bite Fever. Additionally, it's recommended to avoid contact with wild rodents and to handle pet rodents with care, washing hands thoroughly after handling them.

Bruxism is the medical term for grinding or clenching your teeth. It's often an unconscious habit that can occur during the day or at night (nocturnal bruxism). Mild bruxism may not require treatment, but chronic, severe grinding can lead to jaw disorders, headaches, and damaged teeth.

There are several potential causes of bruxism, including stress, anxiety, certain medications, alcohol and drug use, and sleep disorders. Dentists often diagnose bruxism based on the visible signs of wear on your teeth, or they may ask you about symptoms you're experiencing. Treatment for bruxism can include stress management techniques, dental guards to protect your teeth during sleep, and in some cases, medication.

Lyme disease is not a "medical definition" itself, but it is a medical condition named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut, where it was first identified in 1975. Medical definitions for this disease are provided by authoritative bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to the CDC, Lyme disease is a "infection caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks."

The WHO defines Lyme borreliosis (LB), also known as Lyme disease, as "an infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes spp. ticks."

Both definitions highlight that Lyme disease is a bacterial infection spread by tick bites, specifically from black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast) or deer ticks (Ixodes ricinus in Europe). The primary cause of the disease is the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.

Rabies vaccines are medical products that contain antigens of the rabies virus, which stimulate an immune response in individuals who receive them. The purpose of rabies vaccines is to prevent the development of rabies, a viral disease that is almost always fatal once symptoms appear.

There are two primary types of rabies vaccines available:

1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) vaccines: These vaccines are given to individuals who are at high risk of coming into contact with the rabies virus, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, and travelers visiting areas where rabies is common. The vaccine series typically consists of three doses given over a period of 28 days.
2. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccines: These vaccines are administered to individuals who have already been exposed to the rabies virus, usually through a bite or scratch from an infected animal. The vaccine series typically consists of four doses given over a period of 14 days, along with a dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG) to provide immediate protection while the immune system responds to the vaccine.

Both types of rabies vaccines are highly effective at preventing the disease, but it is essential to receive them as soon as possible after exposure or before potential exposure, as the virus can be fatal if left untreated.

"Bothrops" is a genus of venomous snakes commonly known as lancehead vipers, found primarily in Central and South America. The name "Bothrops" comes from the Greek words "bothros," meaning pit, and "ops," meaning face, referring to the deep pits on the sides of their heads that help them detect heat and locate prey. These snakes are known for their aggressive behavior and potent venom, which can cause severe pain, swelling, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects if left untreated.

The genus "Bothrops" includes over 30 species of pit vipers, many of which are considered medically important due to their ability to inflict serious envenomations in humans. Some notable examples include Bothrops asper (the terciopelo or fer-de-lance), Bothrops atrox (the common lancehead), and Bothrops jararaca (the jararaca).

If you encounter a snake of this genus, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately if bitten, as the venom can cause significant harm if not treated promptly.

Dental models are replicas of a patient's teeth and surrounding oral structures, used in dental practice and education. They are typically created using plaster or other materials that harden to accurately reproduce the shape and position of each tooth, as well as the contours of the gums and palate. Dental models may be used for a variety of purposes, including treatment planning, creating custom-fitted dental appliances, and teaching dental students about oral anatomy and various dental procedures. They provide a tactile and visual representation that can aid in understanding and communication between dentists, patients, and other dental professionals.

The maxilla is a paired bone that forms the upper jaw in vertebrates. In humans, it is a major bone in the face and plays several important roles in the craniofacial complex. Each maxilla consists of a body and four processes: frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar process, and palatine process.

The maxillae contribute to the formation of the eye sockets (orbits), nasal cavity, and the hard palate of the mouth. They also contain the upper teeth sockets (alveoli) and help form the lower part of the orbit and the cheekbones (zygomatic arches).

Here's a quick rundown of its key functions:

1. Supports the upper teeth and forms the upper jaw.
2. Contributes to the formation of the eye sockets, nasal cavity, and hard palate.
3. Helps shape the lower part of the orbit and cheekbones.
4. Partakes in the creation of important sinuses, such as the maxillary sinus, which is located within the body of the maxilla.

The dental arch refers to the curved shape formed by the upper or lower teeth when they come together. The dental arch follows the curve of the jaw and is important for proper bite alignment and overall oral health. The dental arches are typically described as having a U-shaped appearance, with the front teeth forming a narrower section and the back teeth forming a wider section. The shape and size of the dental arch can vary from person to person, and any significant deviations from the typical shape or size may indicate an underlying orthodontic issue that requires treatment.

Functional Orthodontic Appliances are removable or fixed devices used in orthodontics to correct the alignment and/or positioning of jaw bones and/or teeth. They work by harnessing the power of muscle function and growth to achieve desired changes in the dental arches and jaws. These appliances are typically used in growing children and adolescents, but can also be used in adults in certain cases. Examples of functional orthodontic appliances include activators, bionators, twin blocks, and Herbst appliances. The specific type of appliance used will depend on the individual patient's needs and treatment goals.

The skull is the bony structure that encloses and protects the brain, the eyes, and the ears. It is composed of two main parts: the cranium, which contains the brain, and the facial bones. The cranium is made up of several fused flat bones, while the facial bones include the upper jaw (maxilla), lower jaw (mandible), cheekbones, nose bones, and eye sockets (orbits).

The skull also provides attachment points for various muscles that control chewing, moving the head, and facial expressions. Additionally, it contains openings for blood vessels, nerves, and the spinal cord to pass through. The skull's primary function is to protect the delicate and vital structures within it from injury and trauma.

Spider venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive compounds produced by the specialized glands of spiders. These venoms are primarily used for prey immobilization and defense. They contain a variety of molecules such as neurotoxins, proteases, peptides, and other biologically active substances. Different spider species have unique venom compositions, which can cause different reactions when they bite or come into contact with humans or other animals. Some spider venoms can cause mild symptoms like pain and swelling, while others can lead to more severe reactions such as tissue necrosis or even death in extreme cases.

'Crotalus' is a genus of venomous snakes commonly known as rattlesnakes. These snakes are native to the Americas, ranging from southern Canada to Argentina. They are characterized by the distinctive rattle on the end of their tails, which they use to warn potential predators before striking. The venom of Crotalus species is hemotoxic, meaning that it causes damage to blood vessels and tissue.

Some examples of species in this genus include the Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), and the sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes). It is important to note that all rattlesnakes are potentially dangerous and should be treated with caution. If you encounter a rattlesnake in the wild, it is best to leave it alone and avoid approaching it.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.

It is assumed that any species of mosquito that causes an ordinary mosquito bite reaction in humans is capable of causing ... Mosquito bite allergies occur more often where insect bites are frequent. Consequently, cases (as well as various other ... After repetitive mosquito bites, individuals may become less sensitive or completely insensitive to the bites in the natural ... Direct mosquito bite testing is perhaps the best method for diagnosing mosquito bite allergy but difficulty in determining ...
Cat bites are bites inflicted upon humans, other cats, and other animals by the domestic cat (Latin: Felis catus). Data from ... After a cat bite, the skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and may trap microorganisms. The bite from a cat can infect a ... Over 400,000 cat bites are reported each year in the US, though the actual number of bites is much higher since many such bites ... The time the bite was experienced, the location of the bite, and examination of the bite is noted. The person may have drainage ...
Coyote attacks on humans Wolf attacks on humans Cat bite Rabies Man bites dog, an aphorism in journalism related to dog bites " ... A dog bite is a bite upon a person or other animal by a dog, including from a rabid dog. More than one successive bite is often ... Another type of dog bite is the "soft bite" displayed by well-trained dogs, by puppies, and in non-aggressive play. Dog bites ... Approximately twenty percent of dog bites become infected. In a survey of dog bites in Pennsylvania, the rate of dog bites was ...
all the '32 bit capable' DAC chips existent today have an actual resolution less than 24 bit. D. R. Campbell. "Aspects of Human ... Therefore, a 16-bit signal sampled at 176 kHz would have a bit depth equal to a 21-bit signal sampled at 44.1 kHz without noise ... Bit depth also affects bit rate and file size. Bit depth is useful for describing PCM digital signals. Non-PCM formats, such as ... Bit depth affects bit rate and file size. Bits are the basic unit of data used in computing and digital communications. Bit ...
... can bite humans, but its venom is not known to have any effects beyond mild discomfort at the site of the bite. The arachnids ... In humans, bites of this spider may also result in prolonged painful penile erections (priapism). Scientists are attempting to ... It is known that the bite of L. tarantula, while sometimes painful, has no serious medical consequences for humans. It is also ... One other genus in the family Hexathelidae has been reported to cause severe symptoms in humans. Severe bites have been ...
Some discussion of human biting appears in The Kinsey Report on Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Biting may also occur in ... African tick bite fever, Tick-borne encephalitis, etc. Biting is also an age appropriate behavior and reaction for human ... Bites are then analyzed to determine whether the biter was human, self-inflicted or not, and whether DNA was left behind from ... In modern human societies, dog bites are the most common types, with children the most common victims and faces the most common ...
Quasi-Robot - The Quasi-Robot is an android, a robot that has human qualities and may even pass for a human. Quasi-Robot ... Biting the Sun. Don't Bite the Sun, as well as Biting the Sun, is one of the many books Tanith Lee has written that has been ... Don't Bite the Sun. (1976) Mass-market paperback. Cover Illustration by Brian Froud DAW Books, Inc. New York. Don't Bite the ... In total, Don't Bite the Sun and Biting the Sun has been translated into 8 different languages including English, French, ...
They potentially concern all horses wearing a bit manipulated by a human being via reins, whether mounted or harnessed, in ... The bit is often invasive for the animal. The setup of the bit and the forces exerted by the reins play a crucial role in the ... The snaffle bit rests on the corner of the mouth. The palate or tongue bit acts on the palate, the upper wall of the mouth. The ... Signals of bit-related pain overlap those observed in horses ridden in conflict with their rider, suggesting that bit-related ...
Human bites are the third most frequent type of bite after dog and cat bites. Dog bites are commonplace, with children the most ... The US estimated annual count of animal bites is 250,000 human bites, 1 to 2 million dog bites, 400,000 cat bites, and 45,000 ... may bite humans. Wildlife may sometimes bite humans. The bites of various mammals such as bats, skunks, wolves, raccoons, etc. ... Boys are bitten by dogs two times more often than girls are bitten by dogs. The bites of humans are recorded during the ...
The mechanical injury from a spider bite is not a serious concern for humans. Some spider bites do leave a large enough wound ... More bites had been reported in Florida than recluses ever found in the area. * This value is based on experience with human ... Not all spider bites inject venom - a dry bite, and the amount of venom injected can vary based on the type of spider and the ... The LD50 of many poisons is known for humans but not that of spider venom.[citation needed] Serious bites develop symptoms ...
"Biting My Tongue" was announced by The Veronicas in late June 2020 along with the title of their fifth studio album Human. On ... "Biting My Tongue" - 3:06 "Biting My Tongue - Single by The Veronicas". Apple Music. 3 July 2020. Retrieved 3 July 2020. TIDAL ... "Biting My Tongue" is a song by Australian pop duo The Veronicas, released as a single on 3 July 2020 through Sony Music ... Rolling Stone described "Biting My Tongue" as an "exuberant pop anthem which captures the pair at their absolute best". Digital ...
Rarely, bites may cause widespread symptoms, with occasional fatalities. There are a few spiders that can bite human skin and ... Most spiders have fangs too small to penetrate human skin. Most bites by species large enough for their bites to be noticeable ... A spider bite, also known as arachnidism, is an injury resulting from the bite of a spider. The effects of most bites are not ... Spider bites may be overdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. In many reports of spider bites it is unclear if a spider bite actually ...
"Human rabies following a non-human primate bite in India". Journal of Travel Medicine. 23 (3): taw007. doi:10.1093/jtm/taw007. ... A monkey bite is the bite of a monkey and is the second most common animal bite after dogs in India. Monkey bites account for 2 ... of animal bite injuries. Monkey bites are an important risk among travelers and after dog bites is the most common animal bite ... From 1960 to 2013, 159 cases of rabies infections in humans have been documented as a result of monkey bites. These numbers ...
Somehow she manages to bring out something semi-human in him. [...] Things are finally picking up in terms of plot and ... "Friday Night Bites". Heard on TV. Retrieved January 30, 2014. Kafka, Josie. "Vampire Diaries: Friday Night Bites". Doux Reviews ... "Friday Night Bites" is the third episode of the first season of The CW television series, The Vampire Diaries and the third ... "Friday Night Bites" uses the following songs: "Slow Poison" by The Bravery "Blue Day" by Darker My Love "Starstrukk" by 3OH!3 " ...
"Human Speech May Have a Universal Transmission Rate: 39 Bits Per Second". science.org. 2019-09-04. Retrieved 2022-06-24. All ... SIMM modules connect to the computer via an 8-bit- or 32-bit-wide interface. RIMM modules used by RDRAM are 16-bit- or 32-bit- ... Bit rates of multi-channel configurations are the product of the module bit-rate (given below) and the number of channels. a ... Over the years, bus widths rose from 64-bit to 512-bit and beyond: e.g. HBM is 1024 bits wide. Because of this variability, ...
All their attempts end without success because a vampire needs fresh human blood. Jack also must find places to hide the bodies ... Shaffer, R. L. (2010-07-08). "Bitten DVD Review". IGN. Retrieved 2015-09-11. Barton, Steve (2010-07-14). "Bitten (DVD)". Dread ... Blitz, Jeremy (2010-07-06). "Bitten". DVD Talk. Retrieved 2015-09-11. Bitten at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short ... Bitten is a 2008 Canadian black comedy vampire film directed by Harv Glazer. It stars Jason Mewes as a paramedic who rescues ...
A bite is a wound received from the mouth of an animal or human; it is also a verb describing that action. Bite or BITE may ... All pages with titles beginning with bite All pages with titles containing bites All pages with titles containing bite Bight ( ... or BITE, a concept in aviation The Bite, or the Adelaide Bite, a baseball team now known as the Adelaide Giants Bitė Group, a ... "bite" (e.g., as in "overbite" or "underbite"), the contact between teeth Bite (album), a 1983 album by Altered Images Bites ( ...
Norman, Donald (1993). Things that make us smart : defending human attributes in the age of the machine. Reading, Mass: Addison ... Why Things Bite Back at Randomhouse.com Why Things Bite Back's Author Interview by AmericanHeritage.com v t e (1997 non-fiction ... Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences is a 1997 book by former executive editor for ... Tenner, Edward (1997). Why things bite back : technology and the revenge of unintended consequences. New York: Vintage Books. ...
"What happens when it's 'love at first bite' between a vampire and a human?". Telegraph India. 23 March 2023. Retrieved 27 March ... allowing these vampires to live underground without killing the humans above. Living outside of the human world has also kept ... Tooth Pari: When Love Bites is a 2023 Indian Hindi-language romantic thriller fantasy series created, written and directed by ... "New series 'Tooth Pari: When Love Bites' to premiere on Netflix next month". The Economic Times. 20 March 2023. Retrieved 27 ...
Many species of arthropods (insects, arachnids, millipedes and centipedes) can bite or sting human beings. These bites and ... A bite is defined as coming from the mouthparts of the arthropod. The bite consists of both the bite wound and the saliva. The ... In ants that bite instead of sting, such as the Formicinae, the bite causes the wound, but during the bite the abdomen bends ... Feeding bites may also contain anaesthetic, to prevent the bite from being felt. Feeding bites may also contain digestive ...
A vampire woman takes her human boyfriend to her home, explaining to him how vampires operate. Planning to start a new life ... "Bit (2019)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved October 10, 2021. Harvey, Dennis (April 25, 2020). "'Bit': Film Review". ... Bit is a 2019 vampire film written and directed by Brad Michael Elmore. The film stars Nicole Maines as Laurel, a girl who is ... Bit at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, 2019 films, Template film date with ...
Human League, and Cabaret Voltaire. Mike Abrams of the Ottawa Citizen thought Bites was depressing and for people with " ... Bites was certified gold by Music Canada on August 5, 1994. The first CD release of Bites was on the compilation Bites and ... "Bites - Skinny Puppy". AllMusic. "Skinny Puppy 'Bites' Review" (PDF). Billboard. Vol. 97, no. 40. October 5, 1985. p. 64. ... Abrams, Mike (June 27, 1986). "Skinny Puppy - Bites". Ottawa Citizen: F5. Muretich, James (June 21, 1986). "Skinny Puppy: Bites ...
Amblyomma ticks actively attack cattle or humans and can bite more than once. In African tick bite fever, unlike what is ... After the rickettsia bacteria infects humans through a tick bite, it invades endothelial cells in the circulatory system (veins ... African tick bite fever (ATBF) is a bacterial infection spread by the bite of a tick. Symptoms may include fever, headache, ... African tick bite fever is usually mild, and most patients do not need more than at-home treatment with antibiotics for their ...
... (RBF) is a zoonotic disease. It can be directly transmitted by rats, gerbils, and mice (the vectors) to humans ... Rat-bite fever (RBF) is an acute, febrile human illness caused by bacteria transmitted by rodents, in most cases, which is ... Rat-bite fever Rat Bite Fever Spirochetes at Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy Professional Edition "Fatal Rat-Bite Fever ... "Rat Bite Fever , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2018-11-15. Retrieved 2018-12-03. "Signs and Symptoms , Rat-bite Fever (RBF) , CDC". www. ...
... to hairdos and within the human body, so it is natural to have a fear of invasion. Bengt af Klintberg's work in urban legends ... she is bitten on the cheek by a spider. The bite swells into a large boil and she rushes home to seek medical treatment. She ... The Spider Bite or The Red Spot is a modern urban legend that emerged in England during the 1970s. The legend features a young ... The next morning, she asks her mother about the red spot on her cheek and the mother responds, "It looks like a spider bite. It ...
Compulsive disorder (CD) is a canine disorder similar to obsessive-compulsive disorder in humans. It is characterized by ... Fly biting (also called fly catching or fly snapping) refers to episodes of intentional focused biting at the air, as if the ... It was suggested that dogs who fly bite were biting at floaters in their vision. No research exists to substantiate this ... the fly biting behavior decreased, and in some cases went into remission. One study found an increase in fly biting in some ...
Kendall says Zachary was more human when he was a vampire and wants him out of her life. Nerissa says that the only solution is ... Love Bites (also known as Love Bites: The Reluctant Vampire) is a 1993 comedy film starring 1980s pop star Adam Ant, Kimberly ... When the two meet, it isn't quite love at first bite, but Zachary spends the next day in her bed anyway. This angers Dwight ... Within a short time, Zachary is using his bloodthirsty skills to put the bite on potential clients, proving that he can make a ...
... is a type of bite seen in some mammals such as dogs and humans. This type of bite involves outward positioning of ... has been shown to correct the scissor bite in humans. Jung, Min-Ho (2011-04-01). "Treatment of severe scissor bite in a middle- ... In humans, a scissor bite does not have any significant influence on the facial profile. However, the chewing habits is ... Treatment of scissor bite may involve expansion device of the lower arch, usage of cross-elastics in an orthodontic treatment. ...
The show featured vampire mythology with classic rock music, human flying, magic, dancing, live singing, martial arts, and ... Bite was an 18 years or older show and featured topless dancers. Bite was produced by Molyneux Entertainment and played six ... Las Vegas Sun article, Transfusion enlivens 'Bite' at Stratosphere Theater of the Stars [1] Bite Celebrates Six Years Press ... Official website Las Vegas Sun Vegas.com BITE at the Stratosphere Bite on the Travel Channel (Articles lacking in-text ...
... monetary or human); reduce average per-bit delivery cost. CTU Bulletin on the Proliferation of Internet Exchange Points in the ... Average Per-Bit Delivery Cost divides the cost of however many bits were actually modulated across a network or component of a ... Average Per-Bit Delivery Cost was first described under that name by Bill Woodcock in 2004, but built upon his previous work on ... Average Per-Bit Delivery Cost, or APBDC, is the cost accounting method by which Internet Service Providers (ISPs) calculate ...
Bites that break the skin can be very serious because of the risk for infection. ... Bites that break the skin can be very serious because of the risk for infection. ... A human bite can break, puncture, or tear the skin. ... A human bite can break, puncture, or tear the skin. ... Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. Certain germs in some human mouths can cause hard-to-treat infections. You ...
... of human bite wounds become infected because of multiple factors. The bacterial inoculum of human bite wounds is rich in oral ... Human bites are ranked as the third leading cause of all bites seen in hospital emergency departments (after dog and cat bites ... encoded search term (Human Bites) and Human Bites What to Read Next on Medscape ... Approximately 10%-15% of human bite wounds become infected owing to multiple factors. The bacterial inoculum of human bite ...
Covers bites by adults and kids, dogs and cats, ... Discusses what to do for animal or human bites. Covers puncture ... Human bites. *Prevent human bites by controlling behaviour that may lead to fights or abuse. For more information, see the ... Animal and human bites may cause puncture wounds, cuts, scrapes, or crushing injuries. Most animal and human bites cause minor ... Human bites. Adult bites that cause a wound to the hand can be serious. A clenched fist striking another person in the mouth ...
Instances of sharks biting humans are rare, and researchers think they may happen when the marine predators confuse us for ... Sharks may bite humans because they mistake us for seals and sea lions. Instances of sharks biting humans are rare, and ... Humans and seals look remarkably similar in the water from a great white sharks perspective, suggesting that shark bites on ... Although shark bites on humans are extremely rare, they cause a significant and disproportionate amount of public concern. ...
... the human race is quite a weird species. Just look at everything we have accomplished so far, and were never satisfied. That ... When it comes to the human body, we seem to keep working it over as if it was full of mistakes and errors. Nature is a ... If you think about it, the human race is quite a weird species. Just look at everything we have accomplished so far, and were ... 2023 Bit Rebels. All rights reserved. Reproduction without explicit permission is prohibited. ...
... Jul 16, 2015 01:27 PM. By Steve Smith ... But what does that mean for us, regular humans who dont want to get bitten every time we step outside in the summer? The ... So, what do you do to avoid mosquito bites? Hide inside? Thats no fun. Craft an elaborate cage that keeps bugs out for you and ... "Even if it were possible to hold ones breath indefinitely," the authors note toward the end of the paper, "another human ...
The seminar, Forensic Investigative Genetic Genealogy - Part I , Branching Out - The Use of FIGG in Forensic Investigations; From the Science to the Solutions, is scheduled for October 11 at 1:00pm ET. The seminar will be presented by Claire Glynn, Professor, Founding Director of FIGG, University of New Haven, Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice & Forensic Sciences University of New Haven. ...
... this means you could also be at risk for painful flea bites. Contact your local Ehrlich Pest control now. ... Fleas can bite humans, but if your pet has fleas, ... Do fleas bite and live on humans? * Flea Control For Dogs and ... Do fleas bite humans? The simple answer to the question of, do fleas bite humans, is yes. ... This includes pets, sure, and other animals, but they are more than willing to feed on humans, too. Fleas will bite a human to ...
Detection of Endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii and Tickborne Pathogens in Humans Exposed to Tick Bites, Italy ... Detection of Endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii and Tickborne Pathogens in Humans Exposed to Tick Bites, Italy. ... Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the ...
are these love bites? General Forum for cats and dogs ... are these love bites? What does it mean when a cat nibbles on ... The bites dont hurt at first, but I have to keep telling him no. Ive heard of love bites; could he be doing this, and if ... Pet forum for dogs cats and humans - Pets.ca , Discussion Groups - mainly cats and dogs , General Forum for cats and dogs ...
Soldier termites are pests can bite humans. Read this blog to learn about other insects that commonly bite. ... Do Termites Bite People?. If you have never dealt with termites before and are worried about a pest in your home thats biting ... What Insect is Biting Me?. If you or someone in your home is being bitten by an unwelcome guest, it probably is not a termite. ... If you do get bitten by a termite, it will probably resemble a mosquito bite in size, itchiness, and redness. There have been ...
This review examines the major human-biting ixodid tick species and transmitted pathogens of North America. Topics addressed ... while limited attention has been directed to other human-biting ticks for decades, resulting in questions about current ... Human-Biting Tick. Human Infectious Agents Transmitted Amblyomma americanum. Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Ehrlichia ewingii. Panola ... Table 2 lists major human-biting ixodid ticks of Canada and the United States and the human infectious agents for which their ...
New Study Supports One Health Approach to Eliminate Dog Bite-Transmitted Rabies in Humans by 2030. March 2017 ... More than 99 percent of all human cases worldwide result from the bite of a domestic dog. Mass canine vaccination programs in ... New Study Supports One Health Approach to Eliminate Dog Bite-Transmitted Rabies in Humans by 2030. ... jointly advocate for a global One Health framework with the goal of eliminating dog bite-transmitted human rabies in ...
dog biting with growling Dog training - dog behavior ... Pet forum for dogs cats and humans - Pets.ca , Discussion ... Talked to my mom today and she said that she has stopped yelling at him and he did bite her yesterday when she brought him ... Normally a dog that has learned to associate his own waste with his human suddenly becoming violent will learn to hide his ... waste - in his mind its not WHERE he went, but that his human saw it so he will make every effort to make sure they dont see ...
pets.ca is Canadas source for info on pets including dogs cats birds and more. We have articles and information, pet store, free petsites, ask the vet, contests, breeds and breeders, bulletin board, dog parks, lost and found, pet cemetery and more.
A 2015 study examines dog bites to the face. ... Facial dog bites are often traumatic to the victim according to ... What behaviors trigger facial dog bites to humans?. Facial dog bites are often traumatizing and psychologically damaging to the ... Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face. P. Rezac, et. al. The Veterinary Journal, 2015, 206, 284-238). [1]Richard ... In addition, this finding also suggests that the presence of a parent may not deter a dog bite from biting a child. ...
Human Bites - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... What problems can human bites cause? Human bites usually cause only bruises and shallow cuts. However, if someone bites a small ... What are the symptoms of a human bite? *. Human bites are usually painful and leave bruises or teeth marks on your skin ... If you punch someone in the mouth and get a cut on your knuckles, thats considered a human bite (a "fight bite") ...
Human-Machine Interface * Hardware touch-sensing interface with up to 16 inputs. Operates in all low power modes (minimum ... Understanding the 16-bit ADC PGA in Kinetis K Series. PDFRev 0Sep 9, 2012459.4 KBAN4568English, 中文 ... Based on a 32-bit RISC CPU, it can communicate at high speed with the supported target CPUs. J-Link is used around the world in ... Based on a 32-bit RISC CPU, it can communicate at high speed with the supported target CPUs. J-Link is used around the world in ...
Humans and technology. Digital gardens let you cultivate your own little bit of the internet. A growing number of people are ... Human-plus-AI solutions mitigate security threats. With the right human oversight, emerging technologies like artificial ... Human-plus-AI solutions mitigate security threatsMIT Technology Review Insights. *Next slide, please: A brief history of the ... "What you write about is not a fossilized bit of commentary for a blog post. When you learn more, you add to it. Its less about ...
Let this be a moment when human beings make AI obsolete, instead of the other way around. And please, more than anything, let ... Seb Randle, Head of Allyship at Bloom North, reminds us to bring our human side to work as we enter National Inclusion Week ... How long until a human being makes our AI mystery woman obsolete?. Trailblazing photographer Sane Seven reveals why she turned ...
New study finds that inflammation where mosquito has bitten not only helps a virus establish an infection, but also helps it to ... "Mosquito bites are not just annoying-they are key for how these viruses spread around your body and cause disease," explained ... "We think the bite itself is affecting the systemic course and clinical outcome of the infection," Dr. McKimmie noted. "If you ... Home Topics Infectious Diseases Inflammation from Mosquito Bites Is Itching to Spread Viral Infection ...
Confirm youre a human. Since youve made it this far, we want to assume youre a real, live human. But we need to be super ... 1921 UNIQUE BIT OF SYDNEY SCENERY, Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), 18 December, p. 10. , viewed 02 Oct 2023, http ... UNIQUE BIT OF SYDNEY SCENERY (1921, December 18). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 10. Retrieved October 2, 2023, ... Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), Sun 18 Dec 1921, Page 10 - UNIQUE BIT OF SYDNEY SCENERY ...
Share All sharing options for: Was Nixons war on drugs a racially motivated crusade? Its a bit more complicated. ... Was Nixons war on drugs a racially motivated crusade? Its a bit more complicated.. ...
Caspers Human said: Thanks for your support! He got in a fight before we brought him in. We were feeding him at our back door ... Flea bite allergy on the first picture and a bite on the second one. As Ive mentioned, my cat suffers from flea bite allergy ... Even if its a bite, it only can be like a bite from another cat. But it doesnt look like it. Like how would another cat even ... I was only concerned about it being a bite wound from another cat. Not because of a bite itself but because of possible rabies ...
It is assumed that any species of mosquito that causes an ordinary mosquito bite reaction in humans is capable of causing ... Mosquito bite allergies occur more often where insect bites are frequent. Consequently, cases (as well as various other ... After repetitive mosquito bites, individuals may become less sensitive or completely insensitive to the bites in the natural ... Direct mosquito bite testing is perhaps the best method for diagnosing mosquito bite allergy but difficulty in determining ...
Their sharp baby teeth may hurt quite a bit. Teach your pup to be careful. Heres how to brea… ... Puppies can playfully snap or bite in their enthusiasm. ... Human, animal and nature. Check out our blog for all the latest ... Bite prevention. Biting/chewing is natural behaviour. You cant prevent it completely. But you can prevent your dog from biting ... and break its biting or biting down habit by yelling Ouch and ending play.. Another reason for biting may be that your pup is ...
2018). Rat-Bite Fever in Human with Streptobacillus notomytis Infection, Japan. 24(7). Ogawa, Yoshihiko et al. "Rat-Bite Fever ... 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Bacteria Rat-bite Fever Rat-Bite Fever In Human With Streptobacillus Notomytis Infection, Japan Research ... "Rat-Bite Fever in Human with Streptobacillus notomytis Infection, Japan" vol. 24, no. 7, 2018. Export RIS Citation Information. ... Title : Rat-Bite Fever in Human with Streptobacillus notomytis Infection, Japan Personal Author(s) : Ogawa, Yoshihiko;Kasahara ...
Using 31-Bit Prefixes on IPv4 Point-to-Point Links ... Using a 31-bit prefix length leaves only two numbering ... Addressing If a 31-bit subnet mask is assigned to a point-to-point link, it leaves the ,Host-number, with only 1 bit. ... However, in the case where the originator is one of the endpoints of a point-to-point link with a 31-bit mask, it can also be ... This option provides the same address space savings as using a 31-bit subnet mask, but may only be used in links using PPP ...
4. Algorithm Given that V[i] is the initial 64 bit vector, V[n] is the nth 64 bit vector, D[n] is the nth chunk of 64 bits of ... Data will be encrypted using the DES 64 bit Cipher Feedback algorithm. If encryption (decryption) is turned off and back on ... DES 64 bit Cipher Feedback Status of this Memo This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does not specify ...
  • Human bite wounds occur as 2 separate entities: clenched-fist injuries and occlusive bites. (medscape.com)
  • Bites that break the skin can be very serious because of the risk for infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most human bites will heal without causing an infection or lasting harm to the tissue. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Such injuries to the hand have a higher infection rate than similar bites to other parts of the body because of the thinness of the skin in this area. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to the acute risk of localized infection, human bites pose the potential for the transmission of systemic infections, which can be life threatening. (medscape.com)
  • Cat bites usually cause deeper puncture wounds than dog bites and have a high risk of bacterial infection because they can be hard to clean adequately. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The bites from some pets, such as iguanas, are at risk for infection but do not carry other serious risks. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The study reviewed examples of a successful One Health collaborative strategy that focuses on elimination of canine rabies as the most expedient and cost effective way of preventing human exposure and infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and AIDS The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a type of virus called a retrovirus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This schematic depicts the findings of McKimmie and colleagues, who show that inflammation at bite sites aids viral replication and dissemination in vivo , resulting in more severe infection. (genengnews.com)
  • We now want to look at whether medications such as anti-inflammatory creams can stop the virus establishing an infection if used quickly enough after the bite inflammation appears. (genengnews.com)
  • The results of this study were published recently in the journal Immunity in an article entitled "Host Inflammatory Response to Mosquito Bites Enhances the Severity of Arbovirus Infection. (genengnews.com)
  • But the presence of mosquito bites at the infection site resulted in an order-of-magnitude higher levels of virus. (genengnews.com)
  • We think the bite itself is affecting the systemic course and clinical outcome of the infection," Dr. McKimmie noted. (genengnews.com)
  • And sure enough, when we stopped these immune cells from coming in, the bite did not enhance the infection anymore. (genengnews.com)
  • The risk of infection after a bite is 10-20%, and about 30-60% of the infections are of mixed aerobic-anaerobic origin. (qxmd.com)
  • Prophylactic antibiotics are recommended only for wounds that are considered at high risk of infection in view of their type and location, the species of the biting animal, and the characteristics of the patient. (qxmd.com)
  • Structured surgical management of bite wounds is the most important factor in the prevention of infection. (qxmd.com)
  • Deaths associated with infection secondary to dog bites were excluded. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can result in immunosuppression, allowing opportunistic pathogens to cause disease. (medscape.com)
  • Infection can cause severe disease in both animals and humans, with symptoms ranging from a mild flu-like illness to severe haemorrhagic fever that can be lethal. (who.int)
  • Although no human-to-human transmission of RVF has been reported, as for managing any viral hemorrhagic fevers, proper infection control in health care setting is warranted. (who.int)
  • Infection, which begins with the bite of an infected tsetse fly, evolves through two stages. (who.int)
  • Improved control reduces both mortality and the size of the human reservoir of infection, thereby contributing to conditions favourable to disease elimination. (who.int)
  • Early in infection when symptoms are few yet treatment has the greatest chance of success, patients are usually unaware of their infection, which remains undetected, especially as health services are usually poorly staffed and equipped or non-existent in the remote rural areas where human contact with the vector is greatest. (who.int)
  • Approximately 10%-15% of human bite wounds become infected owing to multiple factors. (medscape.com)
  • The bacterial inoculum of human bite wounds contains as many as 100 million organisms per milliliter and is made up of as many as 190 different species. (medscape.com)
  • These are the most serious human bite wounds, and they require the most aggressive treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Occlusive human bite wounds of the head and neck result in avulsion, laceration, and crushing of the tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Cultures of human bite wounds are commonly polymicrobial in nature, and aerobes and anaerobes are represented almost equally. (medscape.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is isolated in up to 30% of infected human bite wounds and is associated with some of the most severe infections. (medscape.com)
  • This pathogen is isolated in 30% of human bite wounds. (medscape.com)
  • Also I have seen bite wounds in cats, they look different than that. (thecatsite.com)
  • I know that all the evidence suggest that it's not a bite wounds but I'm still very anxious about it, mostly because of their position so I'm kinda just looking for a reassurance to calm myself down. (thecatsite.com)
  • Could it be bite wounds? (thecatsite.com)
  • Animal and Human Bite Wounds. (qxmd.com)
  • Bite wounds. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment of mammalian bite wounds of the maxillofacial region. (medscape.com)
  • Pain, bleeding, numbness and tingling may occur with any human bite. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Occlusive bites occur when there is sufficient force to break the skin. (medscape.com)
  • Most animal bites occur in school-age children. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Since most bites occur in children, be sure to teach children to be careful around animals and that an animal could hurt them. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Dog bites occur more than any other animal bite and are most frequent in the summer months. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Wild animal bites may occur while hunting, camping, or hiking. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • There have been no instances of termites spreading disease, so a hydrocortisone cream should do the trick for treating a bite should one occur. (cleggs.com)
  • Dr. McKimmie added that "before we did this study, little was known about the events and processes that occur at mosquito bite sites. (genengnews.com)
  • Mosquito bite allergies occur more often where insect bites are frequent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to mosquitoes, the Diptera order includes numerous other types of biting insects such as midges (e.g. sand flies) and gnats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human infections have also resulted from the bites of infected mosquitoes. (who.int)
  • Evidence suggests transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through human bites is possible but very unlikely. (medscape.com)
  • Khajotia RR, Lee E. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus through saliva after a lip bite. (medscape.com)
  • Assessing risks of human immunodeficiency virus transmission by human bite injuries. (medscape.com)
  • What are the symptoms of a human bite? (msdmanuals.com)
  • This research could be the first step in repurposing commonly available anti-inflammatory drugs to treat bite inflammation before any symptoms set in," Dr. McKimmie remarked. (genengnews.com)
  • Tongue biting, whether during sleep or while awake, can result in a range of uncomfortable and sometimes painful signs and symptoms. (redlasso.com)
  • In humans, leptospirosis can cause a wide range of symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Colin Parrish] The symptoms, as I mentioned, are very similar to those seen for human influenza virus. (cdc.gov)
  • If you do get bitten by a termite, it will probably resemble a mosquito bite in size, itchiness, and redness. (cleggs.com)
  • The inoculation of viruses into mosquito bite sites is an important and common stage of arbovirus infections. (genengnews.com)
  • In the current study, the team injected mice with viruses into the skin with or without the presence of a mosquito bite at the injection site and compared the reaction. (genengnews.com)
  • Mosquito bite allergies, also termed hypersensitivity to mosquito bites, are excessive reactions of varying severity to mosquito bites. (wikipedia.org)
  • By general agreement, mosquito bite allergies do not include the ordinary wheal and flare responses to these bites although these reactions are also allergic in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ordinary mosquito bite allergies are nonetheless detailed here because they are the best understood reactions to mosquito bites and provide a basis for describing what is understood about them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, papular urticaria is regarded as a symptom of mosquito bite allergy manifested in individuals with one of the other mosquito bite allergies but particularly in those associated with eosinophilic cellulitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is assumed that any species of mosquito that causes an ordinary mosquito bite reaction in humans is capable of causing mosquito bite allergies. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, not only climate but also cultural and socioeconomic conditions play critical roles in facilitating the development and prevalence of diverse allergic disease including mosquito bite allergies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals therefore progress through 5 stages in which the type of reaction to a mosquito bite depends on the number of their previous bite exposures and levels of acquired sensitization and desensitization to these bites. (wikipedia.org)
  • They used a static camera fixed to the bottom of each tank, looking up, and a camera mounted to an underwater scooter that mimicked the movement of a great white shark ( Carcharodon carcharias ) , one of the three main shark species responsible for shark bites on humans. (newscientist.com)
  • If you think about it, the human race is quite a weird species. (bitrebels.com)
  • This review examines the major human-biting ixodid tick species and transmitted pathogens of North America. (mdpi.com)
  • In the new research, the investigators used mouse models to study the bites of the Aedes aegypti mosquito-the species responsible for carrying many virulent viral strains. (genengnews.com)
  • The female ladybug species are more likely to bite humans than the males because they also have the job of protecting their eggs. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Also, the bigger species of ladybugs, like the ALB (also called the harlequin ladybug), leave a prominent mark through their bites. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • When a mosquito like Aedes bites, it injects saliva into the skin, triggering an immune response that causes neutrophils and myeloid cells rush to the site. (genengnews.com)
  • The initial mosquito bites in previously unexposed individuals does not cause a skin reaction but does initiate the development of antibodies and/or lymphocytes that are directed against the allergens in mosquito's saliva. (wikipedia.org)
  • A bite can transmit unusual pathogens from the saliva into the wound. (qxmd.com)
  • Bites by the latter insects or possibly some other insects may cause reactions that are mechanistically and clinically similar to those seen with mosquito bites. (wikipedia.org)
  • They use their biting power to hunt and eat soft-bodied insects. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • These insects can also pinch the exposed human skin with their legs. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Ladybugs usually consume small insects and aphids , so they don't really have a need to bite humans. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • If these insects can go this far, they probably won't hesitate to attack the exposed human skin if it looks pink and healthy. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Thankfully, this disease only affects insects and other arthropods, not humans. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Males between 10 and 34 years old are more likely to be victims of human bites. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One 1959 study of dog bites in Pittsburgh grouped nearly 1,000 victims into illuminating occupational categories. (wfla.com)
  • The latest round of scholarly interest seems to have commenced with anecdotal reports of dog-bite victims arriving in emergency rooms in greater numbers. (wfla.com)
  • Some bites will need surgery to clean the wound and repair the damage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Regardless of the mechanism and anatomic location of the bite wound, the composition of the bacterial inoculum is the same. (medscape.com)
  • Most animal and human bites cause minor injuries, and home treatment is usually all that is needed to care for the wound. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Adult bites that cause a wound to the hand can be serious. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Does It Look Like A Bite Wound? (thecatsite.com)
  • Yes, it could be a bite wound. (thecatsite.com)
  • The raised red welts and searing itch that result from the bite of insidious mosquitos may, according to recently published data, help any viruses the insect is carrying pass on to a new host. (genengnews.com)
  • Editor's note: This report has been updated to correct the number of dog bite injuries as a share of pediatric ER visits over several months in 2020. (wfla.com)
  • One study, published last summer in the Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, found that dog bite injuries nearly tripled as a share of pediatric ER visits over several months in 2020, to about 8 cases for every 1,000 patients. (wfla.com)
  • A second paper, published in August 2022 in the Journal of Surgical Research, found a 25 percent increase in pediatric dog bites from 2019 to 2020. (wfla.com)
  • If you are bitten or scratched by an animal that may have rabies, or seems sick and behaves strangely, it is crucial to begin preventative treatment for rabies as soon as possible. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Exotic pet bites, such as from rats, mice, or gerbils, may carry illnesses, but rabies is not usually a concern. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Mass canine vaccination programs in endemic, resource-poor regions are the mainstay of strategies to eliminate dog mediated human rabies. (elsevier.com)
  • Our study builds upon research supporting dog vaccination for the reduction and elimination of rabies in humans, and furthermore, demonstrates that a widespread approach is now required, particularly in vulnerable regions such as Asia and Africa. (elsevier.com)
  • Numerous public health organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control, jointly advocate for a global One Health framework with the goal of eliminating dog bite-transmitted human rabies in participating countries by 2030. (elsevier.com)
  • Further, case studies in Tanzania and Bhutan illustrate how mass canine rabies vaccination has effectively reduced both canine and human rabies to minimal levels. (elsevier.com)
  • The multiple benefits of mass canine rabies vaccination in these cases included eliminating rabies in the domestic dog reservoirs, eliminating human rabies cases and decreasing the rabies economic burden by reducing expenditures on post-exposure prophylaxis. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, statistical modeling indicates that vaccinating 70 percent of the canine population annually will induce sufficient herd immunity to successfully eliminate canine rabies and subsequently, human exposure. (elsevier.com)
  • However, they were issued citations for the bite, as well as for keeping a monkey that was not vaccinated for rabies. (insideedition.com)
  • Seven hundred seventy eight bite marks: analysis by anatomic location, victim and biter demographics, type of crime, and legal disposition. (medscape.com)
  • You can also get certain diseases from a human bite, such as HIV/AIDS or hepatitis B or hepatitis C . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your answers may help the doctor decide whether you need medicine to prevent any diseases spread by biting. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Even though bats can spread diseases to people, they also benefit people in many ways and are usually able to peacefully exist alongside humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Human African trypanosomiasis is one of the few infectious diseases where proactive systematic population screening is essential for control, especially for the form due to T. b. gambiense with its long, almost asymptomatic initial stage. (who.int)
  • Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Animal and human bites. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The face, hands, arms, and legs are the most common sites for animal bites. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Have you been bitten by an animal or a human? (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Thus, they are able to jump onto a passing animal or human and latch on their body hair and skin. (jcehrlich.com)
  • He also pointed out that what happened in Oliva was not an attack but more of an interaction between the animal and the human, like a shock when disoriented. (euroweeklynews.com)
  • Transmission has also rarely occurred through animal bites. (cdc.gov)
  • The virus can be transmitted to humans through the handling of animal tissue during slaughtering or butchering, assisting with animal births, conducting veterinary procedures, or from the disposal of carcasses or fetuses. (who.int)
  • What behaviors trigger facial dog bites to humans? (dogexpert.com)
  • However, their bites can trigger an allergic reaction in the human body. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • The term papular urticaria is commonly used for a reaction to mosquito bites that is dominated by widely spread hives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The typical reaction to mosquito bites involves the development of an itchy wheal that may contain a central red dot and is surrounded by splotchy redness. (wikipedia.org)
  • This "immediate reaction" occurs at some time during the first 20 minutes following the bite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within hours of the bite, a "delayed reaction", in which the wheal evolves into a papule develops and then dissipates over the next few days or weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is a wide variability in the type of reaction which individuals mount in response to these bites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 5 stages an individual may undergo in reacting to repetitive mosquito bites are: Stage I: Previously unexposed individuals have no immediate or delayed reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study of 41 Canadian adults experimentally exposed to mosquito bites, 11 individuals exhibited no reaction, 23 individuals exhibited immediate followed by delayed reactions, 6 individuals exhibited only immediate reactions, and 1 individual exhibited only a delayed reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore if you get bitten by them, the chances of a bad reaction in the body are quite low. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • For instance, a kitten can only know bites hurt because of the reaction they get from their sibling playmates. (catster.com)
  • A cat biting you could also be a reaction to stress or pain. (catster.com)
  • When a cat bites you, the instinctive reaction is to jerk your hand away. (catster.com)
  • While ladybugs are tiny and brightly colored, they can deliver painful bites to people. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Adult cat bites are painful and potentially dangerous. (catster.com)
  • Multiple studies point to a rise in U.S. emergency room visits for canine bites since the start of COVID-19. (wfla.com)
  • Colin Parrish] So, the canine influenza is a different strain from the virus that infects humans. (cdc.gov)
  • The canine virus was almost certainly derived from a virus of birds or an avian influenza virus and it didn't derive from the human influenza strain. (cdc.gov)
  • More than 99 percent of all human cases worldwide result from the bite of a domestic dog. (elsevier.com)
  • A cat will instinctively bite harder if you do that, the same way it would if a prey under its grasp tried to escape. (catster.com)
  • However, it rarely sees humans as prey because it is a meso predator and feeds on small fish and squid. (euroweeklynews.com)
  • Human bites have been shown to transmit hepatitis B , hepatitis C , herpes simplex virus (HSV), syphilis , tuberculosis , actinomycosis , and tetanus . (medscape.com)
  • Flea bites are usually just red bumps and often quite itchy to those bitten. (jcehrlich.com)
  • Certain germs in some human mouths can cause hard-to-treat infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This latter finding is consistent with nearly all of the evidence to date about the epidemiology of dog bites: namely, children are disproportionately involved. (dogexpert.com)
  • Conversely, in the absence of mosquito bites and their accompanying inflammation, the viruses failed to replicate well. (genengnews.com)
  • We're quite keen to see if using topical creams to suppress bite inflammation will enable you to stop a virus from making someone as sick as it otherwise would do. (genengnews.com)
  • However, they might bite us when they are in search of moisture or food. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Ladybug bites are more common during the winter season when they search for a warm place to hibernate. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Bites are very common among young children. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One of the most common questions we get from customers is: do termites bite people? (cleggs.com)
  • One such change, proposed by this document, is to halve the amount of address space assigned to point-to-point links (common throughout the Internet infrastructure) by allowing the use of 31-bit subnet masks in a very limited way. (faqs.org)
  • And it is very common to up-sample in very high rate (such as up to 384khz) and then because some times music becomes a bit too warm they use cold digital gear to compensate. (macrumors.com)
  • Dog and cat bites are common, human bites relatively rare. (qxmd.com)
  • But first, let's look at some of the most common reasons cats bite. (catster.com)
  • The phenomenon of biting one's tongue during sleep is a surprisingly common and discomforting experience that many individuals face. (redlasso.com)
  • Blood on the tongue or inside the mouth is a common indicator of recent biting. (redlasso.com)
  • Bat bites are a common way. (cdc.gov)
  • Many of these are anaerobes that flourish in the low redox environment of tartar that lies between human teeth or in areas of gingivitis. (medscape.com)
  • Their sharp baby teeth may hurt quite a bit. (yarrah.com)
  • Another reason for biting may be that your pup is changing teeth. (yarrah.com)
  • When the jaw muscles contract forcefully, the tongue may get caught between the teeth, resulting in tongue biting. (redlasso.com)
  • After taking photographs of the teeth marks on the man's body, the medical staff proceeded to check what type of creature could leave that pattern of bites. (euroweeklynews.com)
  • In order to prevent your pup from ruining your possessions or biting down on you or others, it is important to break the biting habit and teach it how to interrupt a bite. (yarrah.com)
  • RL78 8/16-bit microcontrollers (MCUs) greatly improve power efficiency with industry-leading low power consumption at 37.5μA/MHz consumption during normal operation and 0.355μA during clock operation. (renesas.com)
  • Even minor bites may need to be closed with sutures (stitches). (medlineplus.gov)
  • By better understanding why sharks are biting people we can come up with better mitigation technologies that are less invasive for sharks and other marine life, whilst being effective for humans," says Laura Ryan at Macquarie University in Australia. (newscientist.com)
  • How do fleas bite people? (jcehrlich.com)
  • Do Termites Bite People? (cleggs.com)
  • This study provides the most in-depth understanding to date of factors associated with facial dog bites inflicted to people. (dogexpert.com)
  • No ODD = stupid, IMO, as mITX systems are popular as media boxes - it's a bit early to expect people to consign their BluRay drive to the spares cupboard. (bit-tech.net)
  • From 1979 through 1994, attacks by dogs resulted in 279 deaths of humans in the United States (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • Bat attacks on humans increasing due to urbanization and deforestation. (cdc.gov)
  • When a finger is bitten, such as in a chomping-type injury, tendons and their overlying sheaths are in close proximity to the skin. (medscape.com)
  • Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face. (dogexpert.com)
  • Understanding the motivation behind the bites is the first step in learning how to stop this behavior. (catster.com)
  • From the questionnaire, we determined that a number of work tasks (e.g., giving injections to NHPs) were associated with certain exposure incidents (being bitten, scratched, stuck with needles, etc. (cdc.gov)
  • Infections associated with human bites are often far advanced by the time they receive appropriate care. (medscape.com)
  • The majority of human infections result from direct or indirect contact with the blood or organs of infected animals. (who.int)
  • A team of researchers led by investigators at the University of Leeds suggests that the swelling and irritation that make mosquito bites so unpleasant may provide a mechanism by which viruses like Zika, dengue, and chikungunya are able to replicate and spread. (genengnews.com)
  • For instance, biting you might have saved it from an unpleasant trip to the vet, nail clipping, or bath time. (catster.com)
  • On December 26, 2000, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a $25,000 grant from the Elizabeth R. Griffin Research Foundation to evaluate risks for acquiring zoonotic disease among those who work with non-human primates (NHPs) in research settings. (cdc.gov)
  • It may take a while before your pup understands what it is you want, but it will sink in sooner or later and your pup will bite more carefully to prevent you from interrupting play from that moment onwards. (yarrah.com)
  • But you can prevent your dog from biting things it isn't supposed to bite by making your home dog-friendly and making sure there are plenty of suitable toys around the house. (yarrah.com)
  • In resolution WHA56.7, on the Pan African tsetse and trypanosomiasis eradication campaign, the Health Assembly called attention to the severe health problems caused by human African trypanosomiasis and the significant impairment of socioeconomic development that has followed the resurgence of the disease in both human beings and livestock. (who.int)
  • Cats bite for different reasons. (catster.com)
  • Some cats want to assert dominance in the household and demonstrate that through physically aggressive acts such as biting, scratching, and swatting. (catster.com)
  • Cats usually assert dominance when they feel threatened, and sometimes they accompany the biting with a hiss or growl. (catster.com)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • A cat will also bite you if biting has helped it ease other forms of discomfort before. (catster.com)
  • Tongue biting typically leads to immediate pain and discomfort. (redlasso.com)
  • Antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection-drug use, or other nonoccupational exposure to HIV in the United States: recommendations from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (medscape.com)
  • The differential diagnoses of a human bite to the breast are extensive and include inflammatory breast carcinoma, Paget disease, thrombophlebitis, and radiation fibrosis. (medscape.com)
  • The arms, head, and neck are the most likely areas to be bitten in children. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • When you are playing with your pup and it bites you, withdraw your hand and stop playing. (yarrah.com)
  • When he tried to withdraw his hand, the monkey bit his finger. (insideedition.com)
  • Should they get a bite, just make sure they don't aggravate the area with excessive itching. (cleggs.com)
  • The 16-year-old stumbled from bushland into the middle of a suburban cricket game at Whalan on Saturday and collapsed from a heart attack after he had been bitten on the hand by an eastern brown snake. (smh.com.au)
  • On the other hand, ladybugs without spots are friendly ladybugs and do not bite at all. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Zubowicz VN, Gravier M. Management of early human bites of the hand: a prospective randomized study. (medscape.com)
  • For more severe human cases of RVF, the predominant treatment is general supportive therapy. (who.int)
  • Bite injuries range from trivial ones needing no medical intervention to major soft-tissue defects with the loss of functionally important structures. (qxmd.com)