The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
A registration of any positional relationship of the mandible in reference to the maxillae. These records may be any of the many vertical, horizontal, or orientation relations. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
Bites inflicted by humans.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
A malocclusion in which maxillary incisor and canine teeth project over the mandiblar teeth excessively. The overlap is measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane and is also called vertical overlap. When the overlap is measured parallel to the occlusal plane it is referred to as overjet.
In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.
The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
A condition in which certain opposing teeth fail to establish occlusal contact when the jaws are closed.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The complement of teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the deciduous teeth are absent. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
Contact between opposing teeth during a person's habitual bite.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
Motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.
Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)
Sucking of the finger. This is one of the most common manipulations of the body found in young children.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The consumption of animal flesh.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).
A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.
A physical misalignment of the upper (maxilla) and lower (mandibular) jaw bones in which either or both recede relative to the frontal plane of the forehead.
Mechanical devices that simulate the temporomandibular joints and jaws to which maxillary and mandibular casts are attached. The entire assembly attempts to reproduce the movements of the mandible and the various tooth-to-tooth relationships that accompany those movements.
The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.
A denture replacing all natural teeth and associated structures in both the maxilla and mandible.
Devices that babies can suck on when they are not feeding. The extra sucking can be comforting to the babies and pacify them. Pacifiers usually are used as a substitute for the thumb in babies who suck on their thumb or fingers almost constantly.
Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.
Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).
Malocclusion in which the mandible and maxilla are anteroposteriorly normal as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (i.e., in neutroclusion), but in which individual teeth are abnormally related to each other.
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.
The physical measurements of a body.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of TICKS.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Morphological changes in periodontal mechanoreceptors of mouse maxillary incisors after the experimental induction of anterior crossbite: a light and electron microscopic observation using immunohistochemistry for PGP 9.5. (1/243)

Ruffini nerve endings (mechanoreceptors) in the periodontal ligament (PDL) of mouse incisors were examined to elucidate whether experimentally-induced crossbites cause any changes or abnormalities in their morphology and distribution. Anterior guiding planes were attached to the mandibular incisors of 3-week-old C3H/HeSlc mice. At 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks post-attachment of the appliance, the mice were sacrificed by perfusion fixation. Frozen sagittal cryostat sections of the decalcified maxillary incisors were processed for immunohistochemistry of protein gene product 9.5, followed by histochemical determination of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity to reveal sites of alveolar bone resorption. Despite the absence of bone resorption within the lingual PDL of control mice, distinct resorption sites were seen in the respective regions of the experimental animals. Unlike the controls, many Ruffini endings showing vague and swollen contours, with unusually long and pedunculated micro-projections were observed in the affected lingual PDL of the incisors in the experimental animals with short-term anterior crossbite induction. Club-shaped nerve terminations with few, if any, micro-projections were observed in the lingual PDL of experimental animals with long-term induction, as well as in aged control mouse incisors. Differences in the distribution of Ruffini endings were also observed. These results indicate that changing the direction of the force applied to the PDL results in rapid and prolonged changes in the morphology of Ruffini-like mechanoreceptors.  (+info)

Jaw reflexes evoked by mechanical stimulation of teeth in humans. (2/243)

Jaw reflexes evoked by mechanical stimulation of teeth in humans. The reflex response of jaw muscles to mechanical stimulation of an upper incisor tooth was investigated using the surface electromyogram (SEMG) of the masseter muscle and the bite force. With a slowly rising stimulus, the reflex response obtained on the masseter SEMG showed three different patterns of reflex responses; sole excitation, sole inhibition, and inhibition followed by excitation. Simultaneously recorded bite force, however, exhibited mainly one reflex response pattern, a decrease followed by an increase in the net closing force. A rapidly rising stimulus also induced several different patterns of reflex responses in the masseter SEMG. When the simultaneously recorded bite force was analyzed, however, there was only one reflex response pattern, a decrease in the net closing force. Therefore, the reflex change in the masseter muscle is not a good representative of the net reflex response of all jaw muscles to mechanical tooth stimulation. The net response is best expressed by the averaged bite force. The averaged bite force records showed that when the stimulus force was developing rapidly, the periodontal reflex could reduce the bite force and hence protect the teeth and supporting tissues from damaging forces. It also can increase the bite force; this might help keep food between the teeth if the change in force rate is slow, especially when the initial bite force is low.  (+info)

Cheek and tongue pressures in the molar areas and the atmospheric pressure in the palatal vault in young adults. (3/243)

The pressures acting on the maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth from the tongue and cheeks were measured in 24 adults aged 22-29 years. In addition, the pressure in the palatal vault was recorded. The pressure at two maxillary (buccal and lingual) and two mandibular (buccal and lingual) measuring points, and in the palatal vault was recorded simultaneously. Repeated recordings of the pressures at rest, and during chewing and swallowing were made. The pressures at rest were of similar magnitude (about 2 g/cm2) at the buccal and lingual sides of the mandibular posterior teeth. The median resting pressure at the maxillary posterior teeth was 2.7 g/cm2 on the buccal side and 1.0 g/cm2 on the lingual side. The difference in the maxilla was significant, but not in the mandible. It was concluded that the equilibrium of tooth position is maintained by the pressure from the cheeks and the tongue. During chewing and swallowing the pressures on the lingual side of the teeth were greater than those on the buccal side. At rest about half of the subjects had a negative pressure at the palatal vault, but no correlations between the resting pressure at the palatal vault and the resting pressures on the teeth were found.  (+info)

Adaptation of the muscles of mastication to the flat skull feature in the polar bear (Ursus maritimus). (4/243)

The muscles of mastication of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and those of the brown bear (U. arctos) were examined by anatomical approach. In addition, the examination of the skull was carried out in the polar bear, brown bear and giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). In the polar bear, the rostro-ventral part of the superficial layer of the M. masseter possessed the abundant fleshy portion folded in the rostral and lateral directions like an accordion. Moreover, the rostro-medial area of the superficial layer became hollow in the nuchal direction when the mouth was closed. The M. temporalis of the polar bear covered up the anterior border of the coronoid process of the mandible and occupied the almost entire area of the cranial surface. The M. pterygoideus medialis of the polar bear was inserted on the ventral border of the mandible and on the ventral part of the temporal bone more widely than that of the brown bear. As results of our measurements of the mandible, an effect of the leverage in the polar bear was the smallest in three species. In the polar bear, the skull was flat, and the space between zygomatic arch and ventral border of the mandible, occupied by the M. masseter was the narrowest. It is suggested that the muscles of mastication of the polar bear is adapted to the flat skull feature for supplementing the functions.  (+info)

EMG activities of two heads of the human lateral pterygoid muscle in relation to mandibular condyle movement and biting force. (5/243)

Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the superior (SUP) and inferior heads (INF) of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPT) were recorded in humans during voluntary stepwise changes in biting force and jaw position that were adopted to exclude the effects of acceleration and velocity of jaw movements on the muscle activity. The SUP behaved like a jaw-closing muscle and showed characteristic activity in relation to the biting force. It showed a considerable amount of background activity (5-32% of the maximum) even in the intercuspal position without teeth clenching and reached a nearly maximum activity at relatively lower biting-force levels than the jaw-closing muscles during increment of the biting force. Stretch reflexes were found in the SUP, the function of which could be to stabilize the condyle against the biting force that pulls the condyle posteriorly. This notion was verified by examining the biomechanics on the temporomandibular joint. The complex movements of the mandibular condyle in a sagittal plane were decomposed into displacement in the anteroposterior direction (Ac) and angle of rotation (RAc) around a kinesiological specific point on the condyle. In relation to Ac, each head of the LPT showed quite a similar behavior to each other in all types of jaw movements across all subjects. Working ranges of the muscle activities were almost constant (Ac <3 mm for the SUP and Ac >3 mm for the INF). The amount of EMG activity of the SUP changed in inverse proportion to Ac showing a hyperbola-like relation, whereas that of the INF changed rather linearly. The EMG amplitude of the SUP showed a quasilinear inverse relation with RAc in the hinge movement during which the condyle rotated with no movement in the anteroposterior direction. This finding suggests that the SUP controls the angular relationship between the articular disk and the condyle. On the other hand, the position of the disk in relation to the maxilla, not to the condyle, is controlled indirectly by the INF because the disk is attached to the condyle by tendinous ligaments.  (+info)

Change in the width of the mandibular body from 6 to 23 years of age: an implant study. (6/243)

After the ossification of the mandibular symphysis, shortly after birth, changes in mandibular width would be expected to occur only by surface apposition or resorption on the buccal surfaces of the left and right mandibular halves. However, evidence for an opening hinge movement of the two mandibular halves around a vertical axis located in the region of the mandibular symphysis was recently found in longitudinal studies of 29 subjects with unilateral implant markers in the mandible. These subjects were followed from 8.5 to 15.5 years of age (Korn and Baumrind, 1990; Baumrind and Korn, 1992). The aim of the present investigation was to examine whether the presence of such an age-related increase in mandibular body width could be confirmed in a sample with bilateral implant markers in the mandible. The sample comprised 10 subjects (3F, 7M) from the files of another longitudinal study with implant markers (Bjork, 1968). A total of 122 pairs of annual lateral and postero-anterior (p-a) cephalometric records were available, covering longitudinal observation periods ranging from 8 to 16 years within an age interval of between 6 and 23 years. The width between a right and left side mandibular implant marker was measured with digital callipers on all p-a radiographs. Each measurement was corrected mathematically for various sources of radiographic enlargement. A small, but statistically significant increase in the distance between the right and left implant markers, i.e. in the bilateral width of the mandibular body, was observed in all subjects. The total increase in width in each subject ranged from 0.7 to 1.7 mm for the various periods of observation (P < or = 0.01). For the 12-year period from 6 to 18 years, the average total increase was 1.6 mm (P < or = 0.001, SD = 0.42), i.e. 0.13 mm/year. After this age there was no systematic trend. The mechanism for this increase in width is unknown. It is suggested that during postnatal growth, an increasing load from the masticatory occlusal forces might influence endosteal bone remodelling in the mandibular body, thus producing or allowing a gradual permanent outward bending of the right and left mandibular halves.  (+info)

Reflex responses induced by tooth unloading. (7/243)

The reflex response of the masseter muscle to the rapid unloading of a single maxillary incisor tooth was studied. Unloading of a static force of 2 N in the horizontal direction resulted in a short-latency excitation, inhibition, and long-latency excitation of masseter muscle activity occurring at latencies of approximately 13, 20, and 40 ms, respectively, with a corresponding change in bite force occurring slightly later in each case. Following the blocking of periodontal input by the injection of local anesthetic around the stimulated tooth, inhibitory responses were abolished. Therefore, it is concluded that the observed masseteric inhibition was caused by the unloading of periodontal mechanoreceptors and thus that these receptors may contribute to the jaw unloading reflex.  (+info)

Influence on myoelectric discharges of anteroposterior displacement of the mandibular position near the tapping point. (8/243)

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence that the anteroposterior mandibular displacement near the tapping point exerts on the myoelectric activity of masseter and temporal muscles at a specific occluding force and to clarify the possibility of judging the mandibular position by measuring the amount of myoelectric discharge. Eight dentulous subjects were selected for the study. Surface electrodes were placed over the anterior, middle and posterior regions of the masseter muscle and over the anterior, middle and posterior bundles of the temporal muscle. Independently of the measurement region, the changes in the masseter and temporal muscle myoelectric activity which accompanied the anteroposterior mandibular displacement, were low. Moreover, when the mandible was displaced anteroposteriorly, the total amount of the myoelectrical discharge from all the recorded places, as well as the amounts of myoelectrical discharge over the middle part of the masseter muscle and the anterior bundle of the temporal muscle reached their lowest values in those mandibular positions which included the tapping point in less than half of the subjects. Therefore, this study indicates that the possibility of judging anteroposterior mandibular displacement by masseter and temporal muscle electromyography is quite low.  (+info)

Here are some common types of bites and stings and their symptoms:

1. Insect bites: These can cause redness, swelling, itching, and pain at the site of the bite. Some people may experience an allergic reaction to insect venom, which can be severe and potentially life-threatening. Common insect bites include mosquito bites, bee stings, wasp stings, hornet stings, and fire ant bites.
2. Spider bites: Spiders can also cause a range of symptoms, including redness, swelling, pain, and itching. Some spider bites can be serious and require medical attention, such as the black widow spider bite or the brown recluse spider bite. These bites can cause necrotic lesions, muscle cramps, and breathing difficulties.
3. Animal bites: Animal bites can be serious and can cause infection, swelling, pain, and scarring. Rabies is a potential risk with animal bites, especially if the animal is not up to date on its vaccinations. Common animal bites include dog bites, cat bites, and bat bites.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may experience an allergic reaction to insect or animal bites or stings, which can be severe and potentially life-threatening. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include hives, itching, difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, tongue, or throat, and a rapid heartbeat.
5. Infections: Bites and stings can also cause infections, especially if the wound becomes infected or is not properly cleaned and cared for. Symptoms of an infection include redness, swelling, pain, warmth, and pus.

It's important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms after a bite or sting, as they can be serious and potentially life-threatening. A healthcare professional can assess the severity of the injury and provide appropriate treatment.

The venom from snake bites contains a variety of toxins that can affect different parts of the body, including the cardiovascular, nervous, and muscular systems. Some common symptoms of snake bites include:

* Pain and swelling at the bite site
* Blurred vision or difficulty seeing
* Slurred speech or difficulty speaking
* Weakness, numbness, or tingling in the face, arms, or legs
* Seizures or convulsions
* Difficulty breathing or swallowing
* Rapid heartbeat or slow heart rate
* Low blood pressure or high blood pressure
* Nausea and vomiting

In severe cases, snake bites can cause respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, and other life-threatening complications.

The diagnosis of a snake bite is typically made based on the symptoms and medical history of the patient. In some cases, imaging tests like X-rays or CT scans may be ordered to confirm the presence of venom in the body.

Treatment for snake bites usually involves administering antivenin (also known as antivenom) to neutralize the venom and manage symptoms. Antivenin is a type of medicine that contains antibodies specifically designed to counteract the effects of snake venom. In severe cases, patients may require hospitalization and intensive care to monitor and treat any complications.

Prevention is key in avoiding snake bites, and this includes avoiding areas where snakes are known to live, wearing protective clothing and footwear when in these areas, and using repellents or other deterrents to discourage snakes from approaching. Education and awareness about snake behavior and safety measures can also help reduce the risk of snake bites.

The severity of human bites can vary widely depending on the force and location of the bite. Some common consequences of human bites include:

1. Pain: Human bites can cause significant pain, especially if they are deep or if the person who was bitten has an underlying medical condition.

2. Infection: Human bites can become infected with bacteria like streptococcus and staphylococcus, which can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

3. Nerve damage: If the bite is deep enough, it can cause nerve damage, which may result in numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.

4. Scarring: Human bites can cause scarring, especially if they are deep and leave a lasting wound.

5. Psychological trauma: Being bitten by someone can be emotionally distressing and may lead to psychological trauma, especially if the bite was intentional or part of a larger aggressive act.

6. Rabies transmission: In rare cases, human bites can transmit rabies if the person who did the biting has not been vaccinated against the disease.

7. Tetanus transmission: Human bites can also transmit tetanus if the person who was bitten has not received a tetanus shot recently.

8. Allergic reactions: Some people may be allergic to certain bacteria that can cause infection from human bites, which can lead to severe allergic reactions and anaphylaxis.

Medical attention should always be sought immediately after a human bite to assess the severity of the injury, treat any infections or nerve damage, and provide appropriate wound care.

Insects such as mosquitoes, wasps, bees, and hornets are common culprits of bites and stings that cause minor to severe reactions in humans. These reactions may cause pain, redness, swelling, itching, and burning sensations at the site of the bite or sting.

Most insect bites and stings can be treated with over-the-counter medications such as antihistamines, hydrocortisone creams, or calamine lotion. Severe allergic reactions may require medical attention and epinephrine injections to prevent anaphylaxis.

Overbite can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, poor oral hygiene, and certain habits such as thumb-sucking or tongue-thrusting. Treatment for an overbite may involve orthodontic braces or other appliances to move the teeth into a more proper position, as well as changes to diet and oral hygiene habits.

In extreme cases, an overbite can lead to more serious problems such as gum disease, tooth wear, and jaw pain. Therefore, it is important to address any issues with an overbite as soon as possible to prevent these complications from developing.

Some common types of spiders that are known to bite humans include black widows, brown recluses, and hobos. Black widow spider bites are characterized by a red, burning sensation at the site of the bite, while brown recluse spider bites can cause necrotic lesions and severe systemic reactions. Hobo spider bites are similar to brown recluse spider bites and can also cause necrotic lesions and systemic reactions.

Treatment for spider bites typically involves supportive care, such as wound cleaning and dressing, antibiotics, and pain management. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications.

Prevention is key when it comes to spider bites, and this includes avoiding areas where spiders are known to live, wearing protective clothing and insect repellent, and seeking medical attention promptly if a bite occurs. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimize the risk of complications and improve outcomes for patients with spider bites.

An open bite can lead to a range of dental problems, including:

* Tooth wear: The excessive wear on the upper and lower teeth can cause them to become weakened and sensitive.
* Gum recession: The continuous pressure on the gums can cause them to recede, exposing the roots of the teeth and increasing the risk of decay and sensitivity.
* Bone loss: The chronic open bite can lead to bone loss in the jaw, which can eventually result in a weakened jaw structure and an altered facial appearance.
* Difficulty chewing and biting food: An open bite can make it challenging to eat certain foods, leading to digestive problems and nutritional deficiencies.
* Aesthetic concerns: An open bite can also affect the appearance of the teeth and face, potentially leading to low self-esteem and confidence issues.

Treatment for an open bite usually involves a combination of orthodontic and restorative dental procedures, such as braces, Invisalign, or dental fillings to correct the alignment of the teeth and close the gap. Surgical options may also be considered in severe cases where the jaw structure needs to be realigned.

It is essential to seek professional dental care if you suspect that you have an open bite, as early treatment can help prevent more significant problems from developing and improve your overall oral health and well-being.

Overbite: This occurs when the upper teeth overlap the lower teeth too much.

Underbite: This happens when the lower teeth overlap the upper teeth too much.

Crossbite: This is when the upper teeth do not align with the lower teeth, causing them to point towards the inside of the mouth.

Open bite: This occurs when the upper and lower teeth do not meet properly, resulting in a gap or an open bite.

Overjet: This is when the upper teeth protrude too far forward, overlapping the lower teeth.

Crowding: This refers to when there is not enough space in the mouth for all the teeth to fit properly, leading to overlapping or misalignment.

Spacing: This occurs when there is too much space between the teeth, which can lead to gum problems and other issues.

Each type of malocclusion can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty chewing, jaw pain, headaches, and difficulty opening and closing the mouth fully. Treatment options for malocclusion depend on the severity of the problem and may include orthodontic braces, aligners, or surgery to correct the bite and improve oral function and aesthetics.

TMJD can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the joint, misalignment of the teeth, or excessive stress on the jaw. Treatment options for TMJD include pain relievers, physical therapy, and dental splints or mouth guards. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary.

The term "TMJD" was first coined in the medical literature in the 1970s, and since then it has been widely used by healthcare providers to describe this condition. However, some researchers argue that the term is too broad and encompasses a variety of different conditions, and suggest that it be replaced with more specific terms such as "temporomandibular joint disorder" or "TMJ osteoarthritis."

There are several types of TMJ disorders, including:

1. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome (TMD): This is a common condition that affects the TMJ and the surrounding muscles, causing pain and limited movement in the jaw.
2. Dislocation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ dislocation): This occurs when the ball and socket of the TMJ become dislocated, leading to pain and limited movement in the jaw.
3. Osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint: This is a condition where the cartilage that covers the bones of the TMJ wears down over time, causing pain and stiffness in the jaw.
4. Internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint: This occurs when the disc or meniscus of the TMJ becomes displaced or dislocated, leading to pain and limited movement in the jaw.
5. Temporomandibular joint degenerative changes: This is a condition where the cartilage and bone of the TMJ wear down over time, causing pain and stiffness in the jaw.

TMJ disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the jaw, misalignment of the teeth, or excessive clenching or grinding of the teeth. Symptoms of TMJ disorders may include pain in the jaw, face, or neck, limited movement of the jaw, difficulty chewing or speaking, and clicking or popping sounds when opening or closing the mouth.

Treatment for TMJ disorders can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include self-care measures such as jaw exercises, heat or cold therapy, and pain relief medications. In some cases, dental splints or occlusal adjustments may be recommended to help align the teeth and reduce pressure on the TMJ. Surgery may be considered in severe cases where other treatments have been unsuccessful.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience persistent pain or difficulty with jaw movement, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve quality of life.

Also known as: Class II malocclusion, overbite.


* Overlapping of the upper teeth over the lower teeth
* Limited opening of the mouth
* Difficulty chewing or biting food
* Tooth wear on the upper teeth
* Gum disease
* Jaw pain


* Genetics (inheritance)
* Poor oral hygiene
* Thumb sucking or pacifier use beyond age 3
* Premature loss of baby teeth
* Tongue thrust
* Large overbite in primary dentition
* Crossbites
* Overjet
* Incorrect swallowing pattern


* Orthodontic treatment (braces, aligners) to move teeth into proper position
* Jaw surgery (if necessary)
* Dental restorations (fillings, crowns) to repair damaged teeth
* Oral hygiene instructions to prevent gum disease
* Dietary changes to avoid chewing on hard objects

Note: This is a general definition and the specifics may vary depending on the source. It's important to consult with a medical professional for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

What are the 5 main causes of Bruxism?

The five main causes of bruxism are:

1. Stress and anxiety: Many people experience bruxism as a result of stress and anxiety. When we are under stress, our body responds by tensing up our muscles, including those in the jaw. This can lead to teeth grinding or clenching.

2. Misaligned teeth: People with misaligned teeth are more likely to experience bruxism. This is because their teeth do not fit together properly, leading to friction and strain on the jaw muscles.

3. Sleep disorders: Sleep disorders such as sleep apnea can lead to bruxism. When we have a sleep disorder, our body may respond by grinding or clenching our teeth in an attempt to keep our airways open.

4. Poor posture: Poor posture can put strain on the jaw muscles, leading to bruxism. For example, people who slouch or lean forward may be more likely to experience teeth grinding or clenching.

5. Genetics: Some people may be more prone to bruxism due to their genetic makeup. Research suggests that certain genetic mutations can increase the risk of developing bruxism.

What are the 4 main symptoms of Bruxism?

The four main symptoms of bruxism are:

1. Teeth grinding or clenching: This is the most common symptom of bruxism and can occur during the day or night.

2. Jaw pain: People with bruxism may experience pain in their jaw, especially when they open their mouth wide or chew food.

3. Headaches: Bruxism can cause headaches due to the constant pressure on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).

4. Tooth wear: Grinding and clenching can cause the enamel of the teeth to wear down, leading to chipped or flat teeth.

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Example Sentence: "The patient was diagnosed with retrognathia and required orthodontic treatment to correct the issue."

Etymology: [O.E. mund, mouth + L. dentatus, toothed.]

Synonyms: Toothless mouth.

Source: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, 1913

In layman's terms, this definition is saying that a mouth, edentulous refers to a mouth without teeth. This can be due to various reasons such as tooth loss due to decay, injury, or other factors. The term is used in the medical field, specifically in dentistry, to describe a patient who requires dentures or other prosthetic devices to replace missing teeth.

In conclusion, mouth, edentulous is a medical term used to describe a toothless mouth, and it is commonly used in dentistry to identify patients who require dentures or other prosthetic devices to restore their dental health.

Example sentences:

1. The patient was diagnosed with a Class I malocclusion, which was causing discomfort and difficulty chewing.
2. The dentist recommended braces to correct the Class I malocclusion and improve the alignment of the teeth.
3. TheClass I malocclusion was treated with a combination of orthodontic therapy and minor oral surgery to achieve optimal results.

Symptoms: The symptoms of tick bites may vary depending on the type of tick and the individual's sensitivity to its saliva. Some common symptoms include redness, swelling, itching, and a rash at the site of the bite. In some cases, these bites can also lead to fever, headache, and joint pain.

Risk Factors: People who spend time outdoors in tick-infested areas are at a higher risk of getting bitten by ticks. This includes hikers, campers, gardeners, and hunters. Wearing protective clothing, using insect repellents, and doing regular tick checks can help reduce the risk of tick bites.

Diagnosis: Tick bites are usually diagnosed based on their appearance and symptoms. In some cases, a healthcare provider may perform tests to rule out other conditions or confirm the presence of tick-borne diseases.

Treatment: Treatment for tick bites typically involves removing the tick and cleaning the wound with soap and water. Antibiotics may be prescribed if the bite is infected or if the individual has a history of Lyme disease or other tick-borne illnesses. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as allergic reactions or infections.

Prevention: Preventing tick bites involves taking several measures, including using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and doing regular tick checks. It is also essential to be aware of the types of ticks that are present in your area and their potential health risks. Removing any attached ticks promptly and correctly can also help prevent infection.

In conclusion, tick bites can cause a range of symptoms and may transmit diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and anaplasmosis. If you suspect you have been bitten by a tick or are experiencing symptoms after a tick bite, it is essential to seek medical attention promptly. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and ensure a full recovery.

... (BFQ) is a numerical value commonly used to represent the bite force of an animal, while also taking ... "Bite club: comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa". Proc. Biol. ... Consequently, small species would be expected to bite harder for their size than large species if a simple ratio of bite force ... not an indicator of absolute bite force. In short, if an animal or species has a high BFQ this indicates that it bites hard for ...
SNES Force considered it a "massive disappointment", while Jonathan Davies of Sega Zone called it a "film licence game of the ... SNES Force considered the gameplay tedious, and Sega Power found it too basic. However, the variety of gameplay styles received ... Terminator 2: Judgment Day is a 1993 action game developed by Bits Studios for two 16-bit game consoles: the Sega Genesis and ... They're mostly squarish objects with little variation". Paul Mellerick of Mega stated that the graphics are "a bit on the dodgy ...
Even on the MS this is poor". Sega Master Force felt that the game was released too late after the film. The Sega versions were ... "Terminator 2: Judgment Day". Sega Master Force. No. 6. United Kingdom. December 1993. pp. 24-25. "Hasta La Vista, Baby". Video ... Terminator 2: Judgment Day is an action game released for several 8-bit consoles, including the Nintendo Entertainment System ( ... "The characters are a bit small, and there isn't that much variety throughout it. The music will also get on your nerves after a ...
Sega Force and Sega Pro found the hang glider difficult to control. Mean Machines Sega felt that the reduced field-of-vision on ... While the 8-bit Sonic the Hedgehog stages borrowed thematically from those in the original 16-bit Sonic game, Sonic 2 features ... whereas the 8-bit Sonic the Hedgehog was similar to its 16-bit counterpart. While Hardcore Gaming 101 found the core gameplay ... Sega Force explained that the game was almost identical to its home console counterpart, except for some tweaks to gameplay and ...
Franson Pruter, Robin (May 14, 2012). "The Vampire Diaries, S1E03: Friday Night Bites". Forced Viewing. Archived from the ... "Friday Night Bites". Heard on TV. Retrieved January 30, 2014. Kafka, Josie. "Vampire Diaries: Friday Night Bites". Doux Reviews ... "Friday Night Bites" is the third episode of the first season of The CW television series, The Vampire Diaries and the third ... "Friday Night Bites" uses the following songs: "Slow Poison" by The Bravery "Blue Day" by Darker My Love "Starstrukk" by 3OH!3 " ...
Newton, Frank; United States Armed Forces (2010). "Monkey bite exposure treatment protocol". Journal of Special Operations ... A monkey bite is the bite of a monkey and is the second most common animal bite after dogs in India. Monkey bites account for 2 ... of animal bite injuries. Monkey bites are an important risk among travelers and after dog bites is the most common animal bite ... Management involves: wound cleansing and care prophylactic antibiotics post-bite rabies treatment post-bite tetanus treatment ...
Both patterns will force a B8ZS code in circuits optioned for B8ZS. A bit error rate tester (BERT), also known as a "bit error ... The bit error rate (BER) is the number of bit errors per unit time. The bit error ratio (also BER) is the number of bit errors ... The bit error probability pe is the expected value of the bit error ratio. The bit error ratio can be considered as an ... Since most such codes correct only bit-flips, but not bit-insertions or bit-deletions, the Hamming distance metric is the ...
An RAF technician with the force dismantled a Würzburg radar array and removed several key pieces, after which the force ... but the German force guarding it was soon eliminated with the help of the main force. The raiding troops were picked up by ... and a full moon which would provide illumination for the evacuation of the raiding force. The naval force under Commander Cook ... Accompanying the strike force was a 10 man section of Royal Engineers of the 1st Air Troop led by Lt. Dennis Vernon. Six of the ...
Bite force quotient Wilderness first aid Dog bite Dog bite prevention Minghui, Ren; Stone, Matthew; Semedo, Maria Helena; Nel, ... Human bites are the third most frequent type of bite after dog and cat bites. Dog bites are commonplace, with children the most ... Spider bite Insect bites and stings Flea bites are responsible for the transmission of plague. Mosquito bites are responsible ... The US estimated annual count of animal bites is 250,000 human bites, 1 to 2 million dog bites, 400,000 cat bites, and 45,000 ...
BIT-ANDC1, BIT-ANDC2..." mathematical bases by Pr. D.E.Knuth vector. Is Nonconforming, and Forces ... A bit array (also known as bitmask, bit map, bit set, bit string, or bit vector) is an array data structure that compactly ... PL/pgSQL and PostgreSQL's SQL support bit strings as native type. There are two SQL bit types: bit(n) and bit varying(n), where ... A bit array is effective at exploiting bit-level parallelism in hardware to perform operations quickly. A typical bit array ...
Peter tries to first outsmart him and then uses force, causing Brian to bite him. Peter's fear of Brian causes him to become ... "Family Guy Season 13 Episode 15 Review: Once Bitten". TV Fanatic. 2015-04-19. Retrieved 2017-04-11. "Once Bitten" at IMDb ( ... "Once Bitten" is the fifteenth episode of the thirteenth season of the animated sitcom Family Guy, and the 246th episode overall ... This gives Peter the idea to stick his finger in Brian's rectum which causes him to bite, returning him to his normal self. ...
Both type of bite blocks exerted intrusive force on both upper and lower posterior teeth. They saw 3mm improvement in overbite ... The term "open bite" was coined by Carevelli in 1842.[clarification needed] Open bite malocclusion can happen due to several ... This is more likely to occur in segments where there may be unilateral open bite or open bite related to one or more teeth. ... However, this is not accompanied by the skeletal tendency of having an open bite. Thus this type of open bite may happen in ...
The players have to build farms to provide upkeep for their forces. The game is situated in a generic fantasy scenario ... 8-Bit Hordes is the sequel to the game 8-Bit Armies. It uses the same engine and interface. After the release of 8-Bit Armies, ... "8-Bit Hordes FAQ". Retrieved September 11, 2016. Leif Johnson (August 17, 2016). "PC Gamer 8-Bit Hordes review ... 8-Bit Hordes is a real-time strategy game designed to mirror the look and gameplay of classic RTS games of the 90s. It features ...
Characteristics of the human and pet populations in animal bite incidents recorded at two Air Force bases. Public Health Rep. ... A dog bite is a bite upon a person or other animal by a dog, including from a rabid dog. More than one successive bite is often ... Another type of dog bite is the "soft bite" displayed by well-trained dogs, by puppies, and in non-aggressive play. Dog bites ... Approximately twenty percent of dog bites become infected. In a survey of dog bites in Pennsylvania, the rate of dog bites was ...
The foshan dish cooking method is made by forcing a venomous snake to bite a chicken. The chicken is bitten and poisoned ... The dish consist of a venomous snake being forced to bite a chicken. After the chicken is envenomated and dies, it is then ... A strong chicken may require several bites. After the chicken dies, it can be served in a pan for 98 Chinese yuan. If it is ... Snake bite chicken is a controversial dish served in Guangdong and Chongqing China, though its exact origin is unknown. ...
Sherred, Kristine (July 1, 2020). "Another blow to summer as COVID-19 forces cancellation of Tacoma's favorite food festival". ... This was mainly due to his success of coordinating and creating many popular festivals, including the Bite of Seattle. The Bite ... "Fountain Lawn Stage". Albert Lee Appliance Bite of Seattle. Retrieved 2020-02-09. "Mural Stage". Albert Lee Appliance Bite of ... The Bite of Seattle is an annual food festival in Seattle, Washington. It takes place at the Seattle Center, and goes by the ...
Chewing Bite force quotient Animal bite "T. Rex Bite Strongest Ever on Land-Ten Times Greater Than Gator's". Archived from the ... Because bite-marks change significantly over time, investigators must call for an expert as soon as possible. Bites are then ... Biting may be prevented by methods including redirection, change in the environment and responding to biting by talking about ... There are several creatures with non-lethal bites that may cause discomfort or diseases. Mosquito bites may cause allergic ...
As the tool bit puts a lateral deflecting force on the workpiece, the follower rest opposes it, providing rigidity. A different ... deflection of the tool bit away from the material when excessive load is applied variable overhang - the tool bit may be ... The ground tool bit is held rigidly by a tool holder while it is cutting. Back rake is to help control the direction of the ... A tool bit is a non-rotary cutting tool used in metal lathes, shapers, and planers. Such cutters are also often referred to by ...
A bitten young woman would be forced to dance wildly in the central plaza-the tarantella. Cultural interpretations report ... Reports of recluse bites far outnumber the number of spiders found in much of the U.S. For example, many brown recluse bites ... Bites usually become painful and itchy within 2 to 8 hours, pain and other local effects worsen 12 to 36 hours after the bite ... Most recluse spider bites are minor with a small area of redness. However, a small number of bites produce severe dermonecrotic ...
The immense bite force, which may be as high as 5,000 lbf (22,000 N) in large adults, ensures that the prey item cannot escape ... The bite force exerted by an adult Nile crocodile has been shown by Brady Barr to measure 22 kN (5,000 lbf). However, the ... More or less, the size of the tendons used to impart bite force increases with body size and the larger the crocodilian gets, ... National Geographic documentary; "Bite Force", Brady Barr. Potts, Ryan J. Endangered Reptiles and Amphibians of the World - II ...
Wynne, Stuart (1995-1996). "Review: BladeForce - Bite Me! That's the legend scrawled on the hero's mouthpiece. That's the ... Blade Force at GameFAQs Blade Force at Giant Bomb Blade Force at MobyGames Portals: 1990s United States Video games (CS1 ... "Review - Blade Force - 3DO". Power Unlimited (in Dutch). No. 27. VNU Media. June 1996. "3DO Игры - Blade Force". Strana Igr (in ... Blade Force manual (3DO Interactive Multiplayer, US) "Reportaje: 3DO - Ahora es su turno - Blade Force". Micromanía (in Spanish ...
ISBN 1863210091 Christian, Geoff; 'Subiaco Must Do a Bit of Thinking'; The West Australian, 15 September 1986, p. 100 'Lions Go ... Bryant the Driving force for Royals'; The West Australian, 14 April 1986, p. 83 Christian, Geoff; 'West Perth's Wingmen Clip ... Marsh, David; 'Bulldogs Regain Their Bite'; The West Australian, 14 April 1986, p. 82 Christian, Geoff; 'Subiaco Unperturbed by ...
... "rollicking tour-de-force" and "relentless, dizzying rush from start to finish". They stated that "the timing of Ooh Aah…Just A ... "Ooh Aah... Just a Little Bit" on YouTube Ooh Aah... Just a Little Bit (UK CD1 & Australian CD single liner notes). Gina G. ... "Gina G - Ooh Aah... Just a Little Bit". Top 40 Singles. "Gina G - Ooh Aah... Just a Little Bit". VG-lista. "Official Scottish ... "Gina G: Ooh Aah... Just a Little Bit" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat. "Gina G - Ooh Aah... Just a Little Bit" (in German). GfK ...
His humor peeks through a little early on, but it only busts out in force after a few hundred strips." Writing for Io9, Lauren ... "8-BIT THEATER 20TH ANNIVERSARY BOOK wait 20 years?! SON OF A". "8-Bit Theater Avoids Final Fantasy Copyrights with 20th ... The comic sometimes used 16-bit or 32-bit sprites to depict more powerful creatures. While most speech bubbles are white with ... The barn door flew open." However, no other sprite comic reached the popularity of 8-Bit Theater. 8-Bit Theater was Brian ...
However, this type of vying for dominance has only been observed in forced groupings of captive wolves. In the wild, this trend ... Bite inhibition, then, naturally occurs as the pups learn not to bite their siblings and parents too hard. Austrian scientist ... Schenkel suggests that the bite inhibition in this instance is shown by the inferior to show that he does not dare to bite the ... Even a dog that would never bite out of anger can snap when met with a painful or threatening stimulus, so training in bite ...
So Kubi and Bernd are forced to work together to save Kubis friends and the game itself. Bit Boy!! Arcade was produced by Bplus ... "Bit Boy!! Arcade Review". Retrieved May 1, 2014. "Bit Boy!! Arcade". Metacritic. Retrieved 2021-01-11. "Review: Bit Boy!! ... "Bit Boy!! Arcade Review". Retrieved 2014-04-29. "Bit Boy!! ARCADE for eShop is Halfway Done". ... It's a sequel to the 2009 released Bit Boy!! for Nintendo's WiiWare service and the second installment of the Bit Boy!! series ...
The Stooges happily reminisce about the meeting of their respective fiancees whilst in armed forces in Europe. They are an ... ISBN 0-9711868-0-4. Love at First Bite at IMDb Love at First Bite at AllMovie v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Love at First Bite is a 1950 short subject directed by Jules White starring American slapstick comedy team The Three Stooges ( ... as Male Cafe customer Al Thompson as Sleeping Man in Restaurant Slim Gaut as second Male Cafe customer Love at First Bite was ...
"A New Label With Bite". Crash. No. 32. Newsfield. September 1986. p. 96. Retrieved 13 July 2021. "US for Piranha". Popular ... Strike Force: Cobra is a video game published in the United Kingdom by Piranha Software for the Commodore 64, Amstrad CPC and ... Strike force must infiltrate his hideout, crack the computer codes, and rescue the scientists. The scientists will give a ... "Strike Force: Cobra for Amstrad CPC (1986) - MobyGames". MobyGames. Retrieved 22 August 2016. v t e (Orphaned articles from ...
"A New Label With Bite". Crash. No. 32. Newsfield. September 1986. p. 96. Retrieved 13 July 2021. "Strike Force Cobra review". ... The Trap Door and Strike Force: Cobra reached numbers 12 and 15 in the Gallup software charts. Piranha's titles of 1987 were ... Five Ways Software converted the game to the Commodore 64 and Amstrad CPC computers and also developed Strike Force: Cobra, the ... "Piranha to put the bite on software industry". Popular Computing Weekly. Vol. 5, no. 30. Sunshine Publications. 24 July 1986. p ...
Bite, Natasha (18 January 2013). "Under-employed numbers are on the rise too masking unemployment figures". ... As of December 2018, the number of Newstart recipients stands at 722,923 or 5.4% of the labour force. The accuracy of official ... "Labour Force, Australia, Detailed". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 20 October 2022. Retrieved 20 October 2022. The industry ... "Labour Force, Australia - States and Territories". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 17 November 2022. USGS Gold ...
Its drill bit was made of wood fitted with a screw thread; the wood had to be turned manually as the effects team did not have ... the pit to assess the Sidewinder's condition but can only glimpse the vehicle before he is overwhelmed by the heat and forced ...
Petr Mikhaĭlovich Bit︠s︡illi (1983), Chekhov's Art: A Stylistic Analysis, Ardis, p. x Daniel S. Burt (2008), The Literature 100 ... Chekhov witnessed much on Sakhalin that shocked and angered him, including floggings, embezzlement of supplies, and forced ...
Elixir and X-23 are incorporated into the roster of a new X-Force series. The characters are ultimately given a new home in the ... "We saw a cool bit of artwork in the background of a panel (I think it was Carlo Barberi who first drew him) and thought for a ... 2, #24 (May, 2006) X-Force vol. 3, #25 (May, 2010) New X-Men vol. 2, #42 (November 2007) New X-Men vol. 2, #27 (August 2006) ... flight or a force field. The style of music determines the ability. He is depowered during "M-Day" and killed on the bus ...
O'Kelly, Emer (3 February 2008). "Power play falls a bit flat". Irish Independent. Retrieved 11 July 2010. ... "Enda Oates as the laconic island patriarch radiates suppressed force of character". Donegal News reported Alan Stanford ... O'Kelly, Emer (3 February 2008). "Power play falls a bit flat". Irish Independent. Retrieved 7 July 2010. ...
She's a little bit obnoxious, she's very fun and youthful. But that's going to give her so much more of a journey." Anderson ... She attempts to promote the venture by setting up a mechanical ball in the Lassiters complex, but Paul forces her to move it ... She was aware that there had to be a bit of tension in the lead up to the revelation, and she admitted that she would have been ... She later called the pair "a bit of an odd match", and explained that Shane is supportive of Roxy and allows her to be who she ...
You have to start taking a bit of responsibility. [And] your hormones start kicking in hardcore. So he's definitely going ... and he was forced to remain in the hospital for a short time. Shortly after his birth, he was kidnapped, along with Phyllis ...
Each Ivory instruction was 18 bits wide and two instructions plus a 2-bit CDR code and 2-bit Data Type were in each instruction ... According to Richard Stallman, Symbolics engaged in a business tactic in which it forced MIT to make all Symbolics' copyrighted ... The main processor had a 36-bit word (divided up as 4 or 8 bits of tags, and 32 bits of data or 28 bits of memory address). ... Also contributing to the 3600 series' success was a line of bit-mapped graphics color video interfaces, combined with extremely ...
Warriors of Destiny was the last Ultima developed on the Apple II; the limits of that system (excluding the 16-bit Apple IIGS) ... "a tour de force in the realm of computer role-playing ... but it doesn't match the elegance of IV". The game was reviewed in ...
"I always thought he was a bit 'cracked'", Flood said of John Wilkes Booth, "and I was sure of it as I saw him that night, ... Born: King Talal of Jordan, who ruled from 1951 to 1952 until forced to abdicate because of mental illness; in Mecca, Kingdom ...
One of the monkeys caused further disruption when it wandered off set at Movie World, and bit the ear of a make-up artist on ... Crew and cast members were forced to cover the camera lenses on all mobile phones with duct tape to prevent the film from being ... Carina has definitely got a little bit of both." Kevin McNally as Joshamee Gibbs: Captain Jack's loyal friend and first mate. ... Salazar pursues the Dying Gull, forcing Jack, Henry, and Carina to flee to an island, discovering that Salazar's crew cannot go ...
... who took a bite out of his predecessor in that role, Lev Kamenev. The rout of the Leningrad faction was on. Lev Kamenev ... "equilibrium of forces" between the capitalist West and the Soviet regime - "a period of 'peaceful cohabitation' [мирное ... which Stalin cast as the guiding force of the dictatorship of the proletariat and its Soviet state. "But for the guidance of ... "as long as the New Economic Policy remains in force; (4) state capitalism, state production for the market; and (5) socialist ...
... the rear guards were forced to wheel about and fire into the crowds and fight their way through. Four soldiers from the North ... the locals were caught a bit unaware and the "Keystone State" troops arrived in the Capital later that night. But war appeared ... which were escorted and protected by the new Baltimore City police force. The Regulars were passing through coincidentally on a ...
Carpenter." Compared to his appearance in the OVA, his face seems a bit more lined from stress (and possibly age), and he now ... At the end of the TV Series, he is seen recovering from a comatose state after being "force-fed" part of Mr. Gentleman's ... Yomiko Readman (a.k.a. "The Paper", agent of British Library Task Force) has supposedly gone missing, and Nenene Sumiregawa, ... he attempts to attack the UK only to have his forces destroyed. He is probably the same U.S. President shown in the Read or Die ...
She is a bit strange, but gives good advice and cares a lot for Sonny, always wanting the best for her and is very supportive. ... He seems to have liked Sonny since the beginning of the show, and in one episode tries to force her to kiss him, before they ... He takes his job a little too seriously and enjoys taking Nico and Grady's pizzas, biting into each slice and putting them back ... Sonny is usually goofy and a bit childish, often admitting to do things that may seem strange to others. Friendly, sweet, and ...
PLATO I, II, and III were funded by small grants from a combined Army-Navy-Air Force funding pool. By the time PLATO III was in ... Versions were built for the TI-99/4A, Atari 8-bit family, Zenith Z-100 and, later, Radio Shack TRS-80 and IBM Personal Computer ... CDC President William Norris planned to make PLATO a force in the computer world, but found that marketing the system was not ... In 1958, the U.S. Air Force's Office of Scientific Research had a conference about the topic of computer instruction at the ...
Only the combined forces of many Weyrs could hope to deal with the Thread on a global basis, but internecine political battles ... The game was released for the Atari 8-bit family and Commodore 64. The player acts as the ruler of a "weyr", a mountaintop ... Atari 8-bit family games, Commodore 64 games, Dragonriders of Pern, Epyx games, Turn-based strategy video games, Video games ...
... forcing them to adapt to both aquatic as well as terrestrial environments. However, the discovery of S. amenasensis proves that ... stress levels during biting are slightly higher than those with a wider and shorter skull. The vertebrae of the ...
Searching for arms, security forces entered the UPG headquarters in Awendjé on 31 March 2006 and arrested 15 members of the ... Christophe Pons, "Gabon's leader wants 'a bit more'", BBC News, 25 November 2005. "Gabon: Temperature rising ahead of campaign ... "Gabon: Pierre Mamboundou contre la prise du pouvoir par la force", Gabonews (, 9 August 2008 (in French). Africa ... During the parliamentary term that followed, he was President of the United Democratic Forces Parliamentary Group. In the 6 ...
The bite force is comparable to that of many large carnivores (which have a much smaller mass-to-bite-force ratio); for example ... The force at the third molar rivals the bite force of the largest crocodilians. The bites would induce stresses across the ... "The bite force of the largest fossil rodent (Hystricognathi, Caviomorpha, Dinomyidae): Largest rodent bite force". Lethaia. 45 ... marula may have evolved to be dispersed by mega-herbivores capable of producing such high bite forces ("large-bite-force ...
In that moment Luthor appeared, using the Book, forcing Earth-96 Clark to attack Clark. They fight, but Lois knocked Lex out, ... "Superman & Lois: Critics say The CW series is family drama meets a bit of Snyder-esque darkness". Syfy. February 16, 2021. ... After the fight between the Paragons with the Anti-Monitor and his forces result into victory for the first mentioned, Oliver, ... but made clear that she is a driving force. praised Tulloch for her performance, writing that thanks to her, ...
"You'll see me in my boardies a bit". TV Week. ACP Magazines (35): 52. 31 August - 6 September 2013. Scott, Gavin (21-27 ... Andy was forced to take care of Josh in the absence of their father. Hara added that "although sometimes he lacks morals and ... Brax as he is forced to accept money from him to clear his debts. But Hara warned that his character would become more erratic ... Josh is kidnapped and Andy if forced to beg Casey for help. Gallagher explained that Stephen Downie (TV Week) that Andy does ...
On the 17th the storm laid down a bit, and Groingen again started to use the steam engines. However, after a few hours the ... In the night of 15-16 March, the hurricane increased, and the chains of both rudder-stoppers snapped, forcing Groningen again ... storm again increased to hurricane force. Groningen had a small storm sail and used a little engine to spare the rudder. The ...
After Cheadle mocks Lamar, he turns the machine on where he's shocked with Lamar's life force and begins rapping the track. ... The song samples a bit of "Mary Jane" by Rick James. The song has been described as "the most virtuosic display" on Damn by ... Tour in Glendale with triumphant one-man show of force". AZ Central. Retrieved October 30, 2017. "Kendrick Lamar , 2018 GRAMMYs ...
You know, it was a little bit of everything. Personally, I wish they had stayed together because I think they could have ... with chief songwriters Bennett and Jeff Tweedy its twin opposing forces. The implication being that Bennett was a headstrong, ...
In 1721 he gave a lecture at the University of Halle praising Confucianism, for which he was accused of atheism and forced to ... Ambitious and talented candidates who suffered repeated failures felt the bite of indignation, and failure escalated from ... Final decision for appointment in the military still came down to forces outside the examination system. For example, at the ... He was eventually executed by the Song government despite successfully leading Song forces against the Jin dynasty. It is ...
In civilian operations, many police forces operate police diving teams to perform "search and recovery" or "search and rescue" ... Examples were Charles Condert dress in the US (as of 1831), "Ohgushi's Peerless Respirator" in Japan (a bite-controlled ...
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Foreign Technology Division. OCLC 24313499. "BESM-6 Nostalgia Page". "Simulation of Whetstone ... The system memory was word-addressable using 15-bit addresses. The maximum addressable memory space was thus 32K words (192K ... The machine's 48-bit processor ran at 10 MHz clock speed and featured two instruction pipelines, separate for the control and ... arithmetic units, and a data cache of sixteen 48-bit words. The system achieved a performance of 1 MIPS. The CDC 6600, a common ...
Bonniċi, Arthur (4 March 1978). "Inkomplu bit-tibdil fil-Belt" (PDF). Leħen is-Sewwa (in Maltese). p. 7. "Houses Of The French ... 1853 ordinance VI, updated by 1854 ordinance I. Malta Police Force (1857). "Civil Establishment" (PDF). Civil Establishment of ...
When the player tosses the ball and hits the ball with a bit of back spin, which results in the ball dropping in-front of the ... This attack is used with minimal amounts of force. Pull: A shot that's trajectory is toward the direction of the hitter Push: A ... or even forcing players to hold hands greatly increasing the difficulty of the game.[citation needed] Many competitive teams ... meaning that the serve should not be used with excessive force but rather with a friendly start to get the game going smoothly ...
"Cranial dimensions and forces of biting in the domestic dog". Journal of Anatomy. 214 (3): 362-373. doi:10.1111/j.1469- ... It is thought to have the most powerful bite of all domestic dogs. Some have been exported to African countries such as Namibia ... while the coat is dense enough to repel rupture from wolf bites. When suspicious, a Kangal Shepherd Dog will stand with its ...
Bite force: 406 psi. ... As you know the strongest dog breeds is kangal with 743 PSI bite force. 4 Rottweiler [Bite Force - 328 ... Other dog top 12 dog bite force by breed bite force unpredictable and, the... Majestic, Huskies can be fun and husky bite force ... How many pounds of bite force - 328 PSI ] Rottweiler or Rottie has biting!, dutiful and loyal natured PSI bite force of a ... this breed husky bite force psi responsible for 39 deaths the world reference, the bite of. It has a bite force most ...
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  • Top 10 dogs with the strongest bite. (
  • From the formidable bite of the Nile crocodile to the powerful jaws of the spotted hyena, some animals have evolved to possess some of the strongest bite forces on Earth. (
  • In this article, we'll take a look at 10 animals with the strongest bite forces in the animal kingdom. (
  • The hyena has one of the strongest bite forces in the animal kingdom . (
  • The Polar Bear has one of the strongest bite force of any animal. (
  • The Bull Shark has the strongest bite force of any animal. (
  • Bite Force, Thickness, and Thermographic Patterns of Masticatory Muscles Post-Hemorrhagic Stroke. (
  • Our results suggest functional changes in the stomatognathic system of subjects after a hemorrhagic stroke , especially concerning molar bite force and masticatory muscle thickness in the temporal muscle (unaffected side). (
  • The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion. (
  • Its sharp teeth, strong neck muscles and powerful jaw muscles all come together to give the jaguar its bite force. (
  • Professor Liu and his team have designed and demonstrated an alternative with a mouthguard that contains integrated pressure sensors which detects occlusal patterns (the patterns of biting teeth surfaces). (
  • These findings can broaden our thinking and approach to strengthening teeth against mechanical forces, as well as repairing damage due to erosion and decay. (
  • Your teeth are remarkably resilient, despite enduring the stress and strain of biting, chewing, and eating for a lifetime. (
  • A portion of an Los Angeles police sergeant's pinky finger was bitten off by a homeless man during an arrest at the Metro Red Line subway station on April 27, 2023. (
  • LOS ANGELES ( KTLA ) - A homeless man allegedly bit off a portion of an officer's finger during an arrest at a subway station in East Hollywood on Thursday. (
  • Open House: What steps should be taken to protect the homeless from the biting cold? (
  • In order to protect homeless people from the biting cold, the foremost step the administration should take is to increase the number of shelter homes. (
  • When measured by pounds per square inch (PSI), the Kangal has the highest bite force at 743 PSI, followed by the Doberman Pinscher at 600 PSI. (
  • Its muscular neck and jaw can exert a force of up to 1,100 pounds per square inch. (
  • Its bite force is estimated to be around 1200 pounds per square inch, which is about 5 times the bite of a large Pit Bull. (
  • Gorillas have powerful jaws that generate a bite force of up to 1,300 pounds per square inch (psi). (
  • Its powerful jaws can clamp down with a force of up to 1350 pounds per square inch. (
  • The hippopotamus has a bite force of 1,800 pounds per square inch (psi), making it the 5th strongest animal bite in the world. (
  • While that's no small thing, of course, it is much easier to wrap your head around than the idea of your tiny Chihuahua killing you as "easily" as a crocodile would with its bite force! (
  • The child may vomit or bite their tongue. (
  • Do not force anything into the child's mouth to prevent biting the tongue. (
  • 15. Influence of bite force and tongue pressure on oro-pharyngeal residue in the elderly. (
  • This mouthguard will accurately translate complex bite patterns quickly into instructions, which will then control electronic gadgets. (
  • The clamping force measuring device increases productivity through precise clamping force measurements. (
  • The site of the chigger bite will begin to itch within three to six hours and the temptation to scratch increases dramatically. (
  • As for what Clash Force features, it has over 20 stages of retro action, multiple weapon upgrades, multiple difficulties and even an auto-save for those hard to pass areas! (
  • Chigger bites in various stages of reaction. (
  • His ability to squeeze every cent and every bit of efficiency from the available resources is grounded in his Fogarty experience. (
  • 5. African Wild dog Bite Force - 317 PSI African Wild dog - Strongest Dog Bite For reference, the average human has a bite force is 150-200 PSI. (
  • To put it into perspective, a human bite force is only around 200 psi. (
  • One of the most amazing things about seeing all of these listed like this is that a Chihuahua can be stronger than a human when you compare their bite forces exactly. (
  • When I pulled X-Force #8 randomly out of the bargain bin and saw the Liefeld cover, my first reaction was to throw it wildly away from me as if I had just realized that what I was holding was not actually a clump of dirt as I had originally thought, but was in fact human feces. (
  • The human jaw sustains repetitive force while biting and chewing a varied solid-food diet. (
  • Since a Chihuahua is amongst the smallest dogs out there, their equally small measurements have a maximum potential bite force directly to those measurements. (
  • Its bite is so powerful that it can cause serious harm to humans. (
  • Do all chiggers bite humans and can pets be affected? (
  • Humans and pets are susceptible to being bitten, but there are other more preferred hosts such as birds, rodents, or small mammals. (
  • Given the continued ecologic findings of virus activity in animals, it is plausible that humans have acquired TBEV infection, especially persons frequently exposed to ticks, including Japan Self-Defense Forces (JSDF) members of the Northern Army. (
  • These 2 unrecognized subclinical TBEV infections were serologically diagnosed, demonstrating that humans who are particularly at risk for tick bites are partly asymptomatically infected with TBEV in Hokkaido. (
  • We recruited 291 JSDF members who belong to the Northern Army and who received tick bites during ground activities ( 7 ). (
  • A yorkie, German shepard, or any other dog high-energy breed these muscles and large husky bite force psi weigh to. (
  • This study aimed to evaluate the stomatognathic system of patients after hemorrhagic stroke through the bite force , thickness, and skin temperature in the region of the masseter and temporalis muscles . (
  • Its powerful jaw muscles are responsible for the mighty bite force. (
  • However, in reality, effective measurement data regarding the holding forces of a clamping device, and also in regards to the clamping forces of the clamping cylinder itself can only be obtained as vague reference values. (
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  • A demonstration of a musculoskeletal and bite-force testing to gather data about chewing, TMJ, range of motion, and bite function. (
  • Most pet dogs are trained to 'pull' their bites so that they do not use maximum force or often any force at all when biting a person. (
  • The closest a Chihuahua has come to killing someone was to biting down over an artery, and the person bled out as a result. (
  • A person can become infected by a bite or scratch from an infected rat, handling of an infected rat, or ingestion of food or water contaminated with infected rat excrement. (
  • Maximum molar bite force was verified using a digital dynamometer. (
  • The maximum molar bite force showed significant differences in the right (P = .04) and left (P = .03) sides, with a reduction in force in the post- hemorrhagic stroke group on the affected and unaffected sides. (
  • However, modern scientists have concluded that a more accurate bite force number is a maximum of 180 PSI. (
  • The benefit of drag bit frag mentation efficiency was demonstrated by comparison calculations for drag bit and disk cutter machines. (
  • It has a bite force most intelligent breeds of dogs and pets you know the strongest Bites. (
  • Majestic, Huskies can be fun and husky bite force psi exercise requirements of the most intelligent breeds of dogs and pets as. (
  • Even though the bite isn't as strong as initially thought, a bite from a Chihuahua is still no small thing, especially if they are prone to biting other pets or children. (
  • Average Height: 20 - 23 inches: 26 - 32 inches: Average Weight: 35 - 60 pounds: 70 - 110 pounds: Bite Force: 320 PSI: 400 PSI: Top Speed: 30 mph According to a recent research, this breed was responsible for 39 deaths. (
  • Similar to a recent research, this breed husky bite force psi responsible for 39 deaths the world reference, the bite of. (
  • It has a biting power of 406 psi, which it got from its wolf lineage. (
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  • The jaguar's powerful bite is something to be admired, and it serves as a reminder of the power of nature. (
  • Prompt diagnosis and treatment of rat-bite fever can help prevent the development of severe disease. (
  • When I finally got the gumption to finally open X-Force #8 to page one, my initial concerns about what I was to experience washed over me like melting ice cream on a toddler's chin. (
  • Despite wearing so many woollens, it is very difficult to bear the biting cold out in the open. (
  • PSI is a measuring unit that measures how many pounds of bite force is per square inch. (
  • This means that they would be capable of biting with the weight of 3900 lbs (1769 kg) per square inch of their bite. (
  • This means 180 lbs (81.6 kg) at the most per square inch of their bite. (
  • According to HSPPR, the pup's face and neck were severely swollen from what the veterinary team believed was a snake bite. (
  • Highlights: Visiting Kansas forced three turnovers and stopped Colorado on downs twice in the fourth quarter, escaping Folsom Field in Boulder with a victory. (
  • COLORADO SPRINGS) - Before and after pictures show a pup who has been receiving care from the Humane Society of the Pikes Peak Region (HSPPR) after suffering from an apparent snake bite. (
  • In April 2004, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) investigated a case involving a 3-year-old boy diagnosed with tularemia resulting from a hamster bite. (
  • Its powerful jaws are capable of crushing a seal's skull with a single bite. (
  • The research was supported in part by NIBIB (EB023833), the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (DE027586), the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (AR071258 and AR067606), all parts of the National Institutes of Health, as well as by an NIH-cosponsored Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine grant (W81XWH-14-2-0004). (
  • Scratching or washing the area of the bite easily dislodges the chigger whether they are done using you as a buffet or not. (
  • These stocky, grumpy-looking dogs also have strong for bite force of 305 pounds. (
  • There are many ways to measure a dog bite but the most common way to express how strong is a specific bite is in the PSI units. (
  • Grumpy-Looking dogs also have strong for bite force - 328 PSI be brave, and. (
  • If you've ever seen a Chihuahua play with their favorite rope toy or chomp on a rawhide bone, you might be wondering just how strong or heavy a Chihuahua bite force is. (
  • How strong is a Chihuahua bite force? (
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  • Netflix's highly-anticipated new comedy Space Force , which stars Steve Carell and comes from The Office creator Greg Daniels, is being hit with unexpectedly brutal reviews from critics ahead of its streaming debut. (
  • The series, inspired by President Trump's announcement of the creation of a new branch of the military called Space Force, is 'largely unfunny' with 'little to warrant a recommendation,' and 'there is an absence of a point of view,' writes The Daily Beast . (
  • Some slightly more positive reviews for Space Force were still fairly lukewarm, as IndieWire gave it a B rating while describing the comedy as 'serviceable. (
  • Space Force is also the second Carell-starring streaming show that looked like a sure bet on paper but was met with unexpectedly mixed-to-negative reviews from critics after Apple's The Morning Show . (
  • For those interested in giving Space Force a shot, its liftoff is set for May 29. (
  • participants were bitten a mean of 1.4 (SD ± 1.1) times. (
  • The TBEV-positive participants were men 42 and 48 years of age who had been bitten 3 and 1 times, respectively, within the previous 10 years ( Table ). (
  • The jaguar is one of the most powerful cats in the world, and its bite force is 1500 psi. (
  • 4 Rottweiler [Bite Force - 328 PSI] Rottweiler or Rottie has a large head with big jaws. (
  • The Bull Shark has a large, muscular head that gives it leverage for powerful bites. (
  • Before the victim could move down the ladder, to clear his head from the bite zone, the backhoe lurched forward. (
  • now i want to discuss with about something different These are usually police or guard dogs and have a bite force of 328 PSI. (
  • As the man was being held, he became violent and began fighting with officers which resulted in a use-of-force incident, according to police. (
  • During the altercation, the suspect bit off a portion of a sergeant's pinky finger, police said. (
  • Generally, experts agree that a Chihuahua's worst injury related directly to their bite force could be the potential to bite off a finger. (
  • There are a lot of complex figures and mathematical principles that go into understanding the bite force in an animal's bite. (
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  • A Chihuahua's bite force started at the assumption of 3900 PSI, or 3900 lbs (1769 kg) of bite potential. (
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  • Its powerful bite force also allows it to kill its prey quickly, ensuring that its prey doesn't suffer too much before it dies. (
  • This is a tour de force performance by Elizabeth Montgomery. (
  • It not only functions perfectly for outer diameters and during rotation, it also precisely measures the holding force of mandrels for inner diameters. (
  • Usually only a very small margin of holding force is available. (
  • A machine operator who knows how dependent the holding forces of a clamping device derive from its current maintenance status are, or from the centrifugal force losses while turning with jaw chucks, is extremely sceptical of such makeshift calculations and hence builds in a high safety value. (
  • Initially, scientists decided that a Chihuahua's bite force could be as high as 3900 PSI. (
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