Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
'Jaw diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint, jawbones, or the surrounding muscles, including but not limited to dental disorders, jaw fractures, tumors, infections, and developmental abnormalities.
Necrotic jaws or other maxillofacial skeleton necrosis associated with bisphosphonate use (see BISPHOSPHONATES). Injury, dental procedures, and trauma can trigger the necrotic process.
Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.
Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
Maxillary diseases refer to various medical conditions primarily affecting the maxilla (upper jaw) bone, including inflammatory processes, tumors, cysts, or traumatic injuries, which may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or functional impairment.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
'Mandibular diseases' refer to various medical conditions that primarily affect the structure, function, or health of the mandible (lower jawbone), including but not limited to infections, tumors, developmental disorders, and degenerative diseases.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Cancers or tumors of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE unspecified. For neoplasms of the maxilla, MAXILLARY NEOPLASMS is available and of the mandible, MANDIBULAR NEOPLASMS is available.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the jaw.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Fractures of the femur.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Breaks in bones.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of MUSCLE FATIGUE and bone failure, and occur in situations where BONE REMODELING predominates over repair. The most common sites of stress fractures are the METATARSUS; FIBULA; TIBIA; and FEMORAL NECK.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Diseases of BONES.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
An enzyme involved in the MEVALONATE pathway, it catalyses the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate.
Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that affect the bones' structure and strength, caused by disturbances in the normal metabolic processes involved in bone formation, resorption, or mineralization, including conditions like osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's disease, and renal osteodystrophy.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Types of prosthetic joints in which both wear surfaces of the joint coupling are metallic.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.
Replacement of the hip joint.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
A family of flightless, running BIRDS, in the order Casuariiformes. The emu is the only surviving member of the family. They naturally inhabit forests, open plains, and grasslands in Australia.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of inherited abnormalities in blood coagulation.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.
Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.
The shaft of long bones.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
Pain in the joint.
The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
The application, via IMPLANTED ELECTRODES, of short bursts of electrical energy in the radiofrequency range, interspersed with pauses in delivery of the current long enough to dissipate the generated heat and avoid heat-induced tissue necrosis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
Saccular lesions lined with epithelium and contained within pathologically formed cavities in the jaw; also nonepithelial cysts (pseudocysts) as they apply to the jaw, e.g., traumatic or solitary cyst, static bone cavity, and aneurysmal bone cyst. True jaw cysts are classified as odontogenic or nonodontogenic.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The practice of replacing one prescribed drug with another that is expected to have the same clinical or psychological effect.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Replacement for a hip joint.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The magnetic stimulation of specific target tissues or areas of the body for therapeutic purposes via the application of magnetic fields generated by MAGNETS or ELECTROMAGNETS.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.
A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.

Impact of dental care in the prevention of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw: a single-center clinical experience. (1/45)

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Taking the lead: sharing best practice in intravenous bisphosphonate use in urological cancers. (2/45)

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CYP2C8 gene polymorphism and bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients with multiple myeloma. (3/45)

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Extraction socket healing in rats treated with bisphosphonate: animal model for bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of jaws in multiple myeloma patients. (4/45)

AIM: The aim of this study is to replicate both clinical and histological presentation of bisphosphonate induced osteonecrosis of the jaws (BONJ) in an animal model of the disease state. Successful recapitulation of a BONJ-like indication in an animal model will be useful for studying pathogenesis, as well as prevention and treatment strategies for BONJ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty (80) rats were prospectively and randomly divided into two groups; control group(40) and study group(40). All animals in study group, injected with a dose of 1 mg/kg dexamethasone (DX) subcutaneously on day 7, 14, or 21; and 1, 2, or 3 doses of 7.5 microg/kg zoledronic acid (ZA) subcutaneously administered to coincide with the last day of DX. Half of the animals from each group underwent extraction of the left mandibular molars and the remaining animals underwent extraction of the left maxillary molars under pentobarbital-induced general anesthesia. All animals were euthanized twenty-eight (28) days following tooth extractions. RESULTS: The amount of new bone trabecules as significantly decreased in bisphosphonate-dexamethasone (BP-DX) treated sockets. Difference between both groups was found statistically significant (p=0,0001). There's no foreign body reaction in sockets of both groups and no significance difference observed for fibrosis (p=0,306). The necrosis scores were significantly higher in BP-DX treated sockets (p=0,015). The inflamation scores were significantly higher for study group (p=0,0001). CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary observations for the development of an animal model of BONJ. But we think that there is need for other studies have only BP treated group and larger study population.  (+info)

Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. (5/45)

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Antibiotic effects on bacterial profile in osteonecrosis of the jaw. (6/45)

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A systematic review of microsurgical reconstruction of the jaws using vascularized fibula flap technique in patients with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis. (7/45)

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Use of cone-beam computerized tomography for evaluation of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws in an experimental rat model. (8/45)

BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BONJ) is a frequently reported complication. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological presentation of BONJ with the Hounsfield score and to evaluate the reliability of the score for determining necrosis in an animal model. MATERIAL/METHODS: Eighty rats were prospectively and randomly divided into two groups of 40 each: a control group and an experimental group. Half of the animals from each group underwent extraction of the left mandibular molars, and the other half underwent extraction of the left maxillary molars under pentobarbital-induced general anesthesia. All animals were euthanized 28 days after tooth extraction. Maxillae and mandibles were extracted, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed, and Hounsfield scores were evaluated. RESULTS: The Hounsfield scores of the experimental group were found to be compatible with chronic osteomyelitis and periosteal reactions. The Hounsfield scores of the control group were compatible with a healthy healing period. CONCLUSION: In light of these results, both cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the Hounsfield Units (HU) evaluations together are thought to be efficient in the diagnosis of BONJ.  (+info)

Osteonecrosis is a medical condition characterized by the death of bone tissue due to the disruption of blood supply. Also known as avascular necrosis, this process can lead to the collapse of the bone and adjacent joint surfaces, resulting in pain, limited mobility, and potential deformity if left untreated. Osteonecrosis most commonly affects the hips, shoulders, and knees, but it can occur in any bone. The condition may be caused by trauma, corticosteroid use, alcohol abuse, certain medical conditions (like sickle cell disease or lupus), or for no apparent reason (idiopathic).

In medical terms, the jaw is referred to as the mandible (in humans and some other animals), which is the lower part of the face that holds the lower teeth in place. It's a large, horseshoe-shaped bone that forms the lower jaw and serves as a attachment point for several muscles that are involved in chewing and moving the lower jaw.

In addition to the mandible, the upper jaw is composed of two bones known as the maxillae, which fuse together at the midline of the face to form the upper jaw. The upper jaw holds the upper teeth in place and forms the roof of the mouth, as well as a portion of the eye sockets and nasal cavity.

Together, the mandible and maxillae allow for various functions such as speaking, eating, and breathing.

Diphosphonates are a class of medications that are used to treat bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and Paget's disease. They work by binding to the surface of bones and inhibiting the activity of bone-resorbing cells called osteoclasts. This helps to slow down the breakdown and loss of bone tissue, which can help to reduce the risk of fractures.

Diphosphonates are typically taken orally in the form of tablets, but some forms may be given by injection. Commonly prescribed diphosphonates include alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), and ibandronate (Boniva). Side effects of diphosphonates can include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, heartburn, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, they may also cause esophageal ulcers or osteonecrosis of the jaw.

It is important to follow the instructions for taking diphosphonates carefully, as they must be taken on an empty stomach with a full glass of water and the patient must remain upright for at least 30 minutes after taking the medication to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation. Regular monitoring of bone density and kidney function is also recommended while taking these medications.

Jaw diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the surrounding muscles, as well as dental disorders that can impact the jaw. Some common examples include:

1. Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD): These are problems with the TMJ and the muscles that control jaw movement. Symptoms may include pain, clicking or popping sounds, and limited movement of the jaw.

2. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: This is a condition where bone in the jaw dies due to lack of blood supply. It can be caused by radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or certain medications.

3. Dental Cavities: These are holes in the teeth caused by bacteria. If left untreated, they can cause pain, infection, and damage to the jawbone.

4. Periodontal Disease: This is an infection of the gums and bones that support the teeth. Advanced periodontal disease can lead to loss of teeth and damage to the jawbone.

5. Jaw Fractures: These are breaks in the jawbone, often caused by trauma.

6. Oral Cancer: This is a type of cancer that starts in the mouth or throat. If not treated early, it can spread to the jaw and other parts of the body.

7. Cysts and Tumors: These are abnormal growths in the jawbone or surrounding tissues. While some are benign (non-cancerous), others can be malignant (cancerous).

8. Osteomyelitis: This is an infection of the bone, often occurring in the lower jaw. It can cause pain, swelling, and fever.

9. Oral Thrush: This is a fungal infection that causes white patches on the inside of the mouth. If left untreated, it can spread to the jaw and other parts of the body.

10. Sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinuses can sometimes cause pain in the upper jaw.

Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BAONJ) is a medical condition characterized by the death of bone tissue in the jaw due to the use of bisphosphonate medications. Bisphosphonates are commonly prescribed for the treatment and prevention of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and metastatic cancer that has spread to the bones.

BAONJ typically occurs after a dental procedure, such as tooth extraction or oral surgery, that causes trauma to the jawbone. The use of bisphosphonates can interfere with the body's ability to heal from this trauma, leading to the death of bone tissue in the jaw. Symptoms of BAONJ may include pain, swelling, numbness, and exposed bone in the mouth.

The risk of developing BAONJ is low but increases with higher doses and longer durations of bisphosphonate use. Dental care before starting bisphosphonate therapy and regular dental check-ups during treatment are recommended to reduce the risk of developing BAONJ. If BAONJ does develop, treatment may include antibiotics, pain management, and surgical debridement or removal of necrotic bone tissue.

Femoral head necrosis, also known as avascular necrosis of the femoral head, is a medical condition that results from the interruption of blood flow to the femoral head, which is the rounded end of the thigh bone that fits into the hip joint. This lack of blood supply can cause the bone tissue to die, leading to the collapse of the femoral head and eventually resulting in hip joint damage or arthritis.

The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, alcohol abuse, corticosteroid use, radiation therapy, and certain medical conditions such as sickle cell disease and lupus. Symptoms may include pain in the hip or groin, limited range of motion, and difficulty walking. Treatment options depend on the severity and progression of the necrosis and may include medication, physical therapy, or surgical intervention.

Bone density conservation agents, also known as anti-resorptive agents or bone-sparing drugs, are a class of medications that help to prevent the loss of bone mass and reduce the risk of fractures. They work by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for breaking down and reabsorbing bone tissue during the natural remodeling process.

Examples of bone density conservation agents include:

1. Bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, zoledronic acid) - These are the most commonly prescribed class of bone density conservation agents. They bind to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone tissue and inhibit osteoclast activity, thereby reducing bone resorption.
2. Denosumab (Prolia) - This is a monoclonal antibody that targets RANKL (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand), a key signaling molecule involved in osteoclast differentiation and activation. By inhibiting RANKL, denosumab reduces osteoclast activity and bone resorption.
3. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) (e.g., raloxifene) - These medications act as estrogen agonists or antagonists in different tissues. In bone tissue, SERMs mimic the bone-preserving effects of estrogen by inhibiting osteoclast activity and reducing bone resorption.
4. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) - Estrogen hormone replacement therapy has been shown to preserve bone density in postmenopausal women; however, its use is limited due to increased risks of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and thromboembolic events.
5. Calcitonin - This hormone, secreted by the thyroid gland, inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces bone resorption. However, it has largely been replaced by other more effective bone density conservation agents.

These medications are often prescribed for individuals at high risk of fractures due to conditions such as osteoporosis or metabolic disorders that affect bone health. It is essential to follow the recommended dosage and administration guidelines to maximize their benefits while minimizing potential side effects. Regular monitoring of bone density, blood calcium levels, and other relevant parameters is also necessary during treatment with these medications.

Alendronate is a medication that falls under the class of bisphosphonates. It is commonly used in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men, as well as in the management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and Paget's disease of bone.

Alendronate works by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, which are cells responsible for breaking down and reabsorbing bone tissue. By reducing the activity of osteoclasts, alendronate helps to slow down bone loss and increase bone density, thereby reducing the risk of fractures.

The medication is available in several forms, including tablets and oral solutions, and is typically taken once a week for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully, as improper administration can reduce the drug's effectiveness or increase the risk of side effects. Common side effects of alendronate include gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn, stomach pain, and nausea.

Etidronic acid is a type of medication known as a bisphosphonate. It is used to treat conditions such as Paget's disease, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer that have spread to the bones.

Etidronic acid works by inhibiting the activity of cells called osteoclasts, which are responsible for breaking down bone tissue. This helps to slow down the process of bone loss and can increase bone density, making bones stronger and less likely to break.

The medication is available in the form of a solution that is given intravenously (through a vein) in a hospital or clinic setting. It may be given as a single dose or as multiple doses over a period of time, depending on the condition being treated and the individual patient's needs.

As with any medication, etidronic acid can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone pain. It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of this medication with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

The femoral head is the rounded, ball-like top portion of the femur (thigh bone) that fits into the hip socket (acetabulum) to form the hip joint. It has a smooth, articular cartilage surface that allows for smooth and stable articulation with the pelvis. The femoral head is connected to the femoral neck, which is a narrower section of bone that angles downward and leads into the shaft of the femur. Together, the femoral head and neck provide stability and range of motion to the hip joint.

Imidazoles are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a double-bonded nitrogen atom and two additional nitrogen atoms in the ring. They have the chemical formula C3H4N2. In a medical context, imidazoles are commonly used as antifungal agents. Some examples of imidazole-derived antifungals include clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole. These medications work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and death of the fungal cells. Imidazoles may also have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer properties.

Clodronic acid is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called bisphosphonates. It is used to treat and prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men with a high risk of fracture, as well as to treat Paget's disease of bone.

Clodronic acid works by inhibiting the activity of bone-resorbing cells called osteoclasts, which helps to slow down bone loss and increase bone density. This can help reduce the risk of fractures in people with osteoporosis.

The medication is available in several forms, including tablets and intravenous solutions. It is usually taken or administered once a day or once a week, depending on the specific formulation and the individual patient's needs.

Like all medications, clodronic acid can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as muscle pain, joint pain, and headaches. In rare cases, it can also cause more serious side effects such as esophageal ulcers and bone necrosis of the jaw. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully when taking this medication and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture, leading to increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, wrist, and hip. It mainly affects older people, especially postmenopausal women, due to hormonal changes that reduce bone density. Osteoporosis can also be caused by certain medications, medical conditions, or lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and a lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The diagnosis is often made using bone mineral density testing, and treatment may include medication to slow bone loss, promote bone formation, and prevent fractures.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a specific type of osteoporosis that occurs in women after they have gone through menopause. It is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures. In this condition, the decline in estrogen levels that occurs during menopause accelerates bone loss, resulting in a decrease in bone density and quality, which can lead to fragility fractures, particularly in the hips, wrists, and spine.

It's important to note that while postmenopausal osteoporosis is more common in women, men can also develop osteoporosis due to other factors such as aging, lifestyle choices, and medical conditions.

Maxillary diseases refer to conditions that affect the maxilla, which is the upper bone of the jaw. This bone plays an essential role in functions such as biting, chewing, and speaking, and also forms the upper part of the oral cavity, houses the upper teeth, and supports the nose and the eyes.

Maxillary diseases can be caused by various factors, including infections, trauma, tumors, congenital abnormalities, or systemic conditions. Some common maxillary diseases include:

1. Maxillary sinusitis: Inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the maxilla, can cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, facial pain, and headaches.
2. Periodontal disease: Infection and inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth, including the gums and the alveolar bone (which is part of the maxilla), can lead to tooth loss and other complications.
3. Maxillary fractures: Trauma to the face can result in fractures of the maxilla, which can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty breathing or speaking.
4. Maxillary cysts and tumors: Abnormal growths in the maxilla can be benign or malignant and may require surgical intervention.
5. Oral cancer: Cancerous lesions in the oral cavity, including the maxilla, can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing or speaking.

Treatment for maxillary diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent many maxillary diseases.

Osteitis deformans, also known as Paget's disease of bone, is a chronic disorder of the bone characterized by abnormal turnover and remodeling of the bone. In this condition, the bone becomes enlarged, thickened, and deformed due to excessive and disorganized bone formation and resorption.

The process begins when the bone-remodeling cycle is disrupted, leading to an imbalance between the activity of osteoclasts (cells that break down bone) and osteoblasts (cells that form new bone). In Paget's disease, osteoclasts become overactive and increase bone resorption, followed by an overzealous response from osteoblasts, which attempt to repair the damage but do so in a disorganized manner.

The affected bones can become weakened, prone to fractures, and may cause pain, deformities, or other complications such as arthritis, hearing loss, or neurological symptoms if the skull or spine is involved. The exact cause of Paget's disease remains unknown, but it is believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in its development.

Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications associated with osteitis deformans. Treatment options include medications to slow down bone turnover, pain management, and orthopedic interventions when necessary.

Mandibular diseases refer to conditions that affect the mandible, or lower jawbone. These diseases can be classified as congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing after birth). They can also be categorized based on the tissues involved, such as bone, muscle, or cartilage. Some examples of mandibular diseases include:

1. Mandibular fractures: These are breaks in the lower jawbone that can result from trauma or injury.
2. Osteomyelitis: This is an infection of the bone and surrounding tissues, which can affect the mandible.
3. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders: These are conditions that affect the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull, causing pain and limited movement.
4. Mandibular tumors: These are abnormal growths that can be benign or malignant, and can develop in any of the tissues of the mandible.
5. Osteonecrosis: This is a condition where the bone tissue dies due to lack of blood supply, which can affect the mandible.
6. Cleft lip and palate: This is a congenital deformity that affects the development of the face and mouth, including the lower jawbone.
7. Mandibular hypoplasia: This is a condition where the lower jawbone does not develop properly, leading to a small or recessed chin.
8. Developmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the growth and development of the mandible, such as condylar hyperplasia or hemifacial microsomia.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Jaw neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the jawbone (mandible) or maxilla (upper jaw). These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are not considered life-threatening, but they can still cause problems by invading nearby tissues and causing damage. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can spread to other parts of the body and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and effectively.

Jaw neoplasms can present with various symptoms such as swelling, pain, loose teeth, numbness or tingling in the lips or tongue, difficulty chewing or swallowing, and jaw stiffness or limited movement. The diagnosis of jaw neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI, and sometimes a biopsy to determine the type and extent of the tumor.

Treatment options for jaw neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis (spread) of the neoplasm.

Tooth extraction is a dental procedure in which a tooth that is damaged or poses a threat to oral health is removed from its socket in the jawbone. This may be necessary due to various reasons such as severe tooth decay, gum disease, fractured teeth, crowded teeth, or for orthodontic treatment purposes. The procedure is performed by a dentist or an oral surgeon, under local anesthesia to numb the area around the tooth, ensuring minimal discomfort during the extraction process.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm that extends from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) to the elbow joint. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint and with the radius and ulna bones at the elbow joint. The proximal end of the humerus has a rounded head that provides for movement in multiple planes, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body. The greater and lesser tubercles are bony prominences on the humeral head that serve as attachment sites for muscles that move the shoulder and arm. The narrow shaft of the humerus provides stability and strength for weight-bearing activities, while the distal end forms two articulations: one with the ulna (trochlea) and one with the radius (capitulum). Together, these structures allow for a wide range of motion in the shoulder and elbow joints.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Jaw abnormalities, also known as maxillofacial abnormalities, refer to any structural or functional deviations from the normal anatomy and physiology of the jaw bones (mandible and maxilla) and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to various factors such as trauma, infection, tumors, or degenerative diseases.

Examples of jaw abnormalities include:

1. Micrognathia: a condition where the lower jaw is underdeveloped and appears recessed or small.
2. Prognathism: a condition where the lower jaw protrudes forward beyond the normal position.
3. Maxillary hypoplasia/aplasia: a condition where the upper jaw is underdeveloped or absent.
4. Mandibular hypoplasia/aplasia: a condition where the lower jaw is underdeveloped or absent.
5. Condylar hyperplasia: a condition where one or both of the condyles (the rounded ends of the mandible that articulate with the skull) continue to grow abnormally, leading to an asymmetrical jaw and facial deformity.
6. TMJ disorders: conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint, causing pain, stiffness, and limited movement.
7. Jaw tumors or cysts: abnormal growths that can affect the function and structure of the jaw bones.

Jaw abnormalities can cause various problems, including difficulty with chewing, speaking, breathing, and swallowing, as well as aesthetic concerns. Treatment options may include orthodontic treatment, surgery, or a combination of both, depending on the severity and nature of the abnormality.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

Hypercalcemia is a medical condition characterized by an excess of calcium ( Ca2+ ) in the blood. While the normal range for serum calcium levels is typically between 8.5 to 10.2 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) or 2.14 to 2.55 mmol/L (millimoles per liter), hypercalcemia is generally defined as a serum calcium level greater than 10.5 mg/dL or 2.6 mmol/L.

Hypercalcemia can result from various underlying medical disorders, including primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy (cancer), certain medications, granulomatous diseases, and excessive vitamin D intake or production. Symptoms of hypercalcemia may include fatigue, weakness, confusion, memory loss, depression, constipation, nausea, vomiting, increased thirst, frequent urination, bone pain, and kidney stones. Severe or prolonged hypercalcemia can lead to serious complications such as kidney failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and calcification of soft tissues. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

A femoral fracture is a medical term that refers to a break in the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. The femur extends from the hip joint to the knee joint and is responsible for supporting the weight of the upper body and allowing movement of the lower extremity. Femoral fractures can occur due to various reasons such as high-energy trauma, low-energy trauma in individuals with weak bones (osteoporosis), or as a result of a direct blow to the thigh.

Femoral fractures can be classified into different types based on their location, pattern, and severity. Some common types of femoral fractures include:

1. Transverse fracture: A break that occurs straight across the bone.
2. Oblique fracture: A break that occurs at an angle across the bone.
3. Spiral fracture: A break that occurs in a helical pattern around the bone.
4. Comminuted fracture: A break that results in multiple fragments of the bone.
5. Open or compound fracture: A break in which the bone pierces through the skin.
6. Closed or simple fracture: A break in which the bone does not pierce through the skin.

Femoral fractures can cause severe pain, swelling, bruising, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected leg. Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment may involve surgical intervention, including the use of metal rods, plates, or screws to stabilize the bone, followed by rehabilitation and physical therapy to restore mobility and strength.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

Stress fractures are defined as small cracks or severe bruising in bones that occur from repetitive stress or overuse. They most commonly occur in weight-bearing bones, such as the legs and feet, but can also occur in the arms, hips, and back. Stress fractures differ from regular fractures because they typically do not result from a single, traumatic event. Instead, they are caused by repeated stress on the bone that results in microscopic damage over time. Athletes, military personnel, and individuals who engage in high-impact activities or have weak bones (osteoporosis) are at increased risk of developing stress fractures. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, tenderness, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected bone.

Osteolysis is a medical term that refers to the loss or resorption of bone tissue. It's a process where the body's normal bone remodeling cycle is disrupted, leading to an imbalance between bone formation and bone breakdown. This results in the progressive deterioration and destruction of bone.

Osteolysis can occur due to various reasons such as chronic inflammation, mechanical stress, or certain medical conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, Paget's disease, or bone tumors. It can also be a side effect of some medications, such as those used in cancer treatment or for managing osteoporosis.

In severe cases, osteolysis can lead to weakened bones, increased risk of fractures, and deformities. Treatment typically aims to address the underlying cause and may include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in mature bone tissue. They are star-shaped cells that are located inside the mineralized matrix of bones, with their processes extending into small spaces called lacunae and canaliculi. Osteocytes are derived from osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that become trapped within the matrix they produce.

Osteocytes play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by regulating bone remodeling, sensing mechanical stress, and modulating mineralization. They communicate with each other and with osteoblasts and osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells) through a network of interconnected processes and via the release of signaling molecules. Osteocytes can also respond to changes in their environment, such as hormonal signals or mechanical loading, by altering their gene expression and releasing factors that regulate bone metabolism.

Dysfunction of osteocytes has been implicated in various bone diseases, including osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

A tooth socket, also known as an alveolus (plural: alveoli), refers to the hollow cavity or space in the jawbone where a tooth is anchored. The tooth socket is part of the alveolar process, which is the curved part of the maxilla or mandible that contains multiple tooth sockets for the upper and lower teeth, respectively.

Each tooth socket has a specialized tissue called the periodontal ligament, which attaches the root of the tooth to the surrounding bone. This ligament helps absorb forces generated during biting and chewing, allowing for comfortable and efficient mastication while also maintaining the tooth's position within the jawbone. The tooth socket is responsible for providing support, stability, and nourishment to the tooth through its blood vessels and nerves.

Tantalum is not a medical term, but a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73. It is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. In the field of medicine, tantalum is often used in the production of medical implants such as surgical pins, screws, plates, and stents due to its biocompatibility and resistance to corrosion. For example, tantalum mesh is used in hernia repair and tantalum rods are used in spinal fusion surgery.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of hormones that naturally occur in the body and are produced by the adrenal gland. It is often used to treat various medical conditions such as inflammation, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. Methylprednisolone works by reducing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce symptoms such as swelling, pain, and redness.

Methylprednisolone is available in several forms, including tablets, oral suspension, and injectable solutions. It may be used for short-term or long-term treatment, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite, weight gain, insomnia, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of methylprednisolone can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, cataracts, and adrenal suppression.

It is important to note that methylprednisolone should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can cause serious side effects if not used properly. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on various factors such as the patient's age, weight, medical history, and the condition being treated.

The fibula is a slender bone located in the lower leg of humans and other vertebrates. It runs parallel to the larger and more robust tibia, and together they are known as the bones of the leg or the anterior tibial segment. The fibula is the lateral bone in the leg, positioned on the outside of the tibia.

In humans, the fibula extends from the knee joint proximally to the ankle joint distally. Its proximal end, called the head of the fibula, articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia and forms part of the inferior aspect of the knee joint. The narrowed portion below the head is known as the neck of the fibula.

The shaft of the fibula, also called the body of the fibula, is a long, thin structure that descends from the neck and serves primarily for muscle attachment rather than weight-bearing functions. The distal end of the fibula widens to form the lateral malleolus, which is an important bony landmark in the ankle region. The lateral malleolus articulates with the talus bone of the foot and forms part of the ankle joint.

The primary functions of the fibula include providing attachment sites for muscles that act on the lower leg, ankle, and foot, as well as contributing to the stability of the ankle joint through its articulation with the talus bone. Fractures of the fibula can occur due to various injuries, such as twisting or rotational forces applied to the ankle or direct trauma to the lateral aspect of the lower leg.

The hip joint, also known as the coxal joint, is a ball-and-socket type synovial joint that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the pelvis. The "ball" is the head of the femur, while the "socket" is the acetabulum, a concave surface on the pelvic bone.

The hip joint is surrounded by a strong fibrous capsule and is reinforced by several ligaments, including the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments. The joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction movements, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body.

The hip joint is also supported by various muscles, including the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, iliopsoas, and other hip flexors and extensors. These muscles provide stability and strength to the joint, allowing for weight-bearing activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

Teriparatide is a synthetic form of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is a natural hormone produced by the parathyroid glands in the body. The medication contains the active fragment of PTH, known as 1-34 PTH, and it is used in medical treatment to stimulate new bone formation and increase bone density.

Teriparatide is primarily prescribed for the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men with a high risk of fractures who have not responded well to other osteoporosis therapies, such as bisphosphonates. It is administered via subcutaneous injection, typically once daily.

By increasing bone formation and reducing bone resorption, teriparatide helps improve bone strength and structure, ultimately decreasing the risk of fractures in treated individuals. The medication's effects on bone metabolism can lead to improvements in bone mineral density (BMD) and microarchitecture, making it an essential tool for managing severe osteoporosis and reducing fracture risk.

Geranyltranstransferase is not a commonly used medical term, but it is a type of enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of various compounds in the body. According to biochemistry and molecular biology resources, Geranyltranstransferase (GTT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the head-to-tail condensation of geranyl diphosphate with isopentenyl diphosphate to form farnesyl diphosphate.

Farnesyl diphosphate is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of steroids, sesquiterpenes, and other isoprenoid compounds. These compounds have diverse functions in the body, including serving as components of cell membranes, hormones, and signaling molecules.

In summary, Geranyltranstransferase is a biochemical term that refers to an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of various isoprenoid compounds through the condensation of geranyl diphosphate with isopentenyl diphosphate.

Metabolic bone diseases are a group of conditions that affect the bones and are caused by disorders in the body's metabolism. These disorders can result in changes to the bone structure, density, and strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures and other complications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are more likely to break, often as a result of age-related bone loss or hormonal changes.
2. Paget's disease of bone: a chronic disorder that causes abnormal bone growth and deformities, leading to fragile and enlarged bones.
3. Osteomalacia: a condition caused by a lack of vitamin D or problems with the body's ability to absorb it, resulting in weak and soft bones.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that causes too much parathyroid hormone to be produced, leading to bone loss and other complications.
5. Hypoparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that results in low levels of parathyroid hormone, causing weak and brittle bones.
6. Renal osteodystrophy: a group of bone disorders that occur as a result of chronic kidney disease, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and high turnover bone disease.

Treatment for metabolic bone diseases may include medications to improve bone density and strength, dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct bone deformities or fractures.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Spontaneous fractures are bone breaks that occur without any identifiable trauma or injury. They are typically caused by underlying medical conditions that weaken the bones, making them more susceptible to breaking under normal stress or weight. The most common cause of spontaneous fractures is osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Other potential causes include various bone diseases, certain cancers, long-term use of corticosteroids, and genetic disorders affecting bone strength.

It's important to note that while the term "spontaneous" implies that the fracture occurred without any apparent cause, it is usually the result of an underlying medical condition. Therefore, if you experience a spontaneous fracture, seeking medical attention is crucial to diagnose and manage the underlying cause to prevent future fractures and related complications.

A Metal-on-Metal (MoM) joint prosthesis is a type of artificial joint replacement where both the ball and socket components are made of metal materials, typically cobalt-chromium alloys. This design was initially developed to offer increased durability, reduced wear, and improved range of motion compared to other types of joint prostheses. However, recent studies have raised concerns about potential adverse effects such as metallosis (metal debris accumulation in the tissue), local soft-tissue reactions, and elevated metal ion levels in the bloodstream, which may lead to systemic health issues. As a result, the use of MoM joint prostheses has become less common in recent years.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

A hip fracture is a medical condition referring to a break in the upper part of the femur (thigh) bone, which forms the hip joint. The majority of hip fractures occur due to falls or direct trauma to the area. They are more common in older adults, particularly those with osteoporosis, a condition that weakens bones and makes them more prone to breaking. Hip fractures can significantly impact mobility and quality of life, often requiring surgical intervention and rehabilitation.

Osteoporotic fractures are breaks or cracks in bones that occur as a result of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Osteoporosis causes bones to lose density and strength, making them more susceptible to fractures, even from minor injuries or falls.

The most common types of osteoporotic fractures are:

1. Hip fractures: These occur when the upper part of the thigh bone (femur) breaks, often due to a fall. Hip fractures can be serious and may require surgery and hospitalization.
2. Vertebral compression fractures: These occur when the bones in the spine (vertebrae) collapse, causing height loss, back pain, and deformity. They are often caused by everyday activities, such as bending or lifting.
3. Wrist fractures: These occur when the bones in the wrist break, often due to a fall. Wrist fractures are common in older adults with osteoporosis.
4. Other fractures: Osteoporotic fractures can also occur in other bones, such as the pelvis, ribs, and humerus (upper arm bone).

Prevention is key in managing osteoporosis and reducing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. This includes getting enough calcium and vitamin D, engaging in regular weight-bearing exercise, avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and taking medications as prescribed by a healthcare provider.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

I'm not able to provide a specific medical definition for the term "Decalcification Technique" as it is not a standard term in medical or scientific literature. However, decalcification is a process that is commonly used in histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues) to prepare calcium-containing tissue samples for sectioning and staining.

Decalcification involves removing the calcium salts from the tissue using a weak acid solution, such as formic acid or acetic acid. This process makes it possible to cut thin sections of the tissue with a microtome (a tool used to cut thin slices of tissue for examination under a microscope).

The decalcification technique may refer to the specific method or protocol used to decalcify tissue samples, including the type and concentration of acid used, the duration of decalcification, and the temperature at which the process is carried out. The choice of decalcification technique will depend on the type and size of the tissue sample being prepared, as well as the specific research or diagnostic questions being addressed.

Hip arthroplasty, also known as hip replacement surgery, is a medical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surfaces of the hip are removed and replaced with artificial components. These components typically include a metal or ceramic ball that replaces the head of the femur (thigh bone), and a polyethylene or ceramic socket that replaces the acetabulum (hip socket) in the pelvis.

The goal of hip arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function to the hip joint. This procedure is commonly performed in patients with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hip fractures, or other conditions that cause significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several types of hip replacement surgeries, including traditional total hip arthroplasty, partial (hemi) hip arthroplasty, and resurfacing hip arthroplasty. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and the extent of joint damage.

After surgery, patients typically require rehabilitation to regain strength, mobility, and function in the affected hip. With proper care and follow-up, most patients can expect significant pain relief and improved quality of life following hip arthroplasty.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are primarily responsible for bone resorption, a process in which they break down and dissolve the mineralized matrix of bones. They are derived from monocyte-macrophage precursor cells of hematopoietic origin and play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by balancing bone formation and bone resorption.

Osteoclasts adhere to the bone surface and create an isolated microenvironment, called the "resorption lacuna," between their cell membrane and the bone surface. Here, they release hydrogen ions into the lacuna through a process called proton pumping, which lowers the pH and dissolves the mineral component of the bone matrix. Additionally, osteoclasts secrete proteolytic enzymes, such as cathepsin K, that degrade the organic components, like collagen, in the bone matrix.

An imbalance in osteoclast activity can lead to various bone diseases, including osteoporosis and Paget's disease, where excessive bone resorption results in weakened and fragile bones.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Masticatory muscles are a group of skeletal muscles responsible for the mastication (chewing) process in humans and other animals. They include:

1. Masseter muscle: This is the primary muscle for chewing and is located on the sides of the face, running from the lower jawbone (mandible) to the cheekbone (zygomatic arch). It helps close the mouth and elevate the mandible during chewing.

2. Temporalis muscle: This muscle is situated in the temporal region of the skull, covering the temple area. It assists in closing the jaw, retracting the mandible, and moving it sideways during chewing.

3. Medial pterygoid muscle: Located deep within the cheek, near the angle of the lower jaw, this muscle helps move the mandible forward and grind food during chewing. It also contributes to closing the mouth.

4. Lateral pterygoid muscle: Found inside the ramus (the vertical part) of the mandible, this muscle has two heads - superior and inferior. The superior head helps open the mouth by pulling the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) downwards, while the inferior head assists in moving the mandible sideways during chewing.

These muscles work together to enable efficient chewing and food breakdown, preparing it for swallowing and digestion.

Dental prophylaxis is a dental procedure aimed at the prevention and treatment of dental diseases. It is commonly known as a "teeth cleaning" and is performed by a dentist or dental hygienist. The procedure involves removing plaque, tartar, and stains from the teeth to prevent tooth decay and gum disease. Dental prophylaxis may also include polishing the teeth, applying fluoride, and providing oral hygiene instructions to promote good oral health. It is recommended that individuals receive a dental prophylaxis every six months or as directed by their dentist.

Osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a bone is cut to shorten, lengthen, or change its alignment. It is often performed to correct deformities or to realign bones that have been damaged by trauma or disease. The bone may be cut straight across (transverse osteotomy) or at an angle (oblique osteotomy). After the bone is cut, it can be realigned and held in place with pins, plates, or screws until it heals. This procedure is commonly performed on bones in the leg, such as the femur or tibia, but can also be done on other bones in the body.

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help your body fight infection by producing antibodies. In multiple myeloma, cancerous plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than producing useful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications such as kidney damage, bone pain and fractures.

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer called a plasma cell neoplasm. Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which there is an overproduction of a single clone of plasma cells. In multiple myeloma, this results in the crowding out of normal plasma cells, red and white blood cells and platelets, leading to many of the complications associated with the disease.

The abnormal proteins produced by the cancer cells can also cause damage to organs and tissues in the body. These abnormal proteins can be detected in the blood or urine and are often used to monitor the progression of multiple myeloma.

Multiple myeloma is a relatively uncommon cancer, but it is the second most common blood cancer after non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It typically occurs in people over the age of 65, and men are more likely to develop multiple myeloma than women. While there is no cure for multiple myeloma, treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation can help manage the disease and its symptoms, and improve quality of life.

Dura Mater: The tough, outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.

Hydroxyapatite: A naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, also known as dahllite, with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), is the primary mineral component of biological apatites found in bones and teeth.

Therefore, "Durapatite" isn't a recognized medical term, but it seems like it might be a combination of "dura mater" and "hydroxyapatite." If you meant to ask about a material used in medical or dental applications that combines properties of both dura mater and hydroxyapatite, please provide more context.

Bone matrix refers to the non-cellular component of bone that provides structural support and functions as a reservoir for minerals, such as calcium and phosphate. It is made up of organic and inorganic components. The organic component consists mainly of type I collagen fibers, which provide flexibility and tensile strength to the bone. The inorganic component is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals, which give bone its hardness and compressive strength. Bone matrix also contains other proteins, growth factors, and signaling molecules that regulate bone formation, remodeling, and repair.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

Dromaiidae is a family of birds that includes only one extant species, the Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). The Emu is the second largest bird in the world, after the Ostrich. It is a large, flightless bird native to Australia, known for its long legs and neck. Emus can run at high speeds and have been recorded reaching up to 50 km/h (31 mph). They are omnivorous birds that primarily feed on plants, but will also eat insects and small animals.

Dromaiidae is part of the order Casuariiformes, which also includes the cassowaries, another group of large, flightless birds native to the tropical rainforests of Indonesia, New Guinea, and northeastern Australia. Together, Dromaiidae and Casuariidae are sometimes referred to as the "emu family" or the "cassowary family."

In summary, Dromaiidae is a family of birds that includes only one extant species, the Emu, which is a large, flightless bird native to Australia.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Blood coagulation disorders, inherited, also known as coagulopathies, are genetic conditions that affect the body's ability to form blood clots in response to injury or damage to blood vessels. These disorders can lead to excessive bleeding or hemorrhage, and in some cases, abnormal clotting.

There are several types of inherited blood coagulation disorders, including:

1. Hemophilia A and B: These are X-linked recessive disorders that affect the production of factors VIII and IX, respectively, which are essential for normal blood clotting. People with hemophilia may experience prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery, and spontaneous bleeding into joints and muscles.
2. Von Willebrand disease: This is the most common inherited coagulation disorder, affecting both men and women. It results from a deficiency or abnormality of von Willebrand factor, a protein that helps platelets stick to damaged blood vessels and assists in the activation of factor VIII. People with von Willebrand disease may experience excessive bleeding after injury, surgery, or dental work.
3. Factor XI deficiency: This is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects the production of factor XI, a protein involved in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. People with factor XI deficiency may have a mild to moderate bleeding tendency, particularly after surgery or trauma.
4. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies: There are several other rare inherited coagulation disorders that affect the production of other clotting factors, such as factors II, V, VII, X, and XIII. These conditions can lead to a range of bleeding symptoms, from mild to severe.

Inherited blood coagulation disorders are usually diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests that measure the levels and function of clotting factors in the blood. Treatment may include replacement therapy with purified clotting factor concentrates, medications to control bleeding, and management of bleeding symptoms as they arise.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

The epiphyses are the rounded ends of long bones in the body, which articulate with other bones to form joints. They are separated from the main shaft of the bone (diaphysis) by a growth plate called the physis or epiphyseal plate. The epiphyses are made up of spongy bone and covered with articular cartilage, which allows for smooth movement between bones. During growth, the epiphyseal plates produce new bone cells that cause the bone to lengthen until they eventually fuse during adulthood, at which point growth stops.

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a serious and potentially disabling complication of radiation therapy, particularly in the head and neck region. It is defined as an area of exposed necrotic bone that fails to heal over a period of 3-6 months in a patient who has received radiation therapy. The pathophysiology of ORN involves damage to blood vessels, connective tissue, and bone, leading to hypoxia, hypocellularity, and hypovascularity.

The clinical presentation of ORN includes pain, swelling, trismus (difficulty opening the mouth), foul odor, and purulent drainage. The diagnosis is typically made based on clinical examination and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment options for ORN include hyperbaric oxygen therapy, surgical debridement, and antibiotic therapy. Preventive measures include good oral hygiene, dental evaluation before radiation therapy, and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol use.

A femoral neck fracture is a type of hip fracture that occurs in the narrow, vertical section of bone just below the ball of the femur (thigh bone) that connects to the hip socket. This area is called the femoral neck. Femoral neck fractures can be categorized into different types based on their location and the direction of the fractured bone.

These fractures are typically caused by high-energy trauma, such as car accidents or falls from significant heights, in younger individuals. However, in older adults, particularly those with osteoporosis, femoral neck fractures can also result from low-energy trauma, like a simple fall from standing height.

Femoral neck fractures are often serious and require prompt medical attention. Treatment usually involves surgery to realign and stabilize the broken bone fragments, followed by rehabilitation to help regain mobility and strength. Potential complications of femoral neck fractures include avascular necrosis (loss of blood flow to the femoral head), nonunion or malunion (improper healing), and osteoarthritis in the hip joint.

The diaphysis refers to the shaft or middle portion of a long bone in the body. It is the part that is typically cylindrical in shape and contains the medullary cavity, which is filled with yellow marrow. The diaphysis is primarily composed of compact bone tissue, which provides strength and support for weight-bearing and movement.

In contrast to the diaphysis, the ends of long bones are called epiphyses, and they are covered with articular cartilage and contain spongy bone tissue filled with red marrow, which is responsible for producing blood cells. The area where the diaphysis meets the epiphysis is known as the metaphysis, and it contains growth plates that are responsible for the longitudinal growth of bones during development.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Arthralgia is a medical term that refers to pain in the joints. It does not involve inflammation, which would be referred to as arthritis. The pain can range from mild to severe and may occur in one or multiple joints. Arthralgia can have various causes, including injuries, infections, degenerative conditions, or systemic diseases. In some cases, the underlying cause of arthralgia remains unknown. Treatment typically focuses on managing the pain and addressing the underlying condition if it can be identified.

"Edentulous jaw" is a medical term used to describe a jaw that is missing all of its natural teeth. The term "edentulous" is derived from the Latin word "edentulus," which means "without teeth." This condition can affect either the upper jaw (maxilla) or the lower jaw (mandible), or both, resulting in a significant impact on an individual's ability to eat, speak, and maintain proper facial structure.

Edentulism is often associated with aging, as tooth loss becomes more common in older adults due to factors like gum disease, tooth decay, and injury. However, it can also affect younger individuals who have lost their teeth due to various reasons. Dental professionals typically recommend the use of dentures or dental implants to restore oral function and aesthetics for patients with edentulous jaws.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

Pathologic bone demineralization is a condition characterized by the loss of minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, from the bones. This process makes the bones more porous, weaker, and more susceptible to fractures. It can occur due to various medical conditions, including osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, Paget's disease of bone, and cancer that has spread to the bones (metastatic cancer).

In a healthy individual, the body constantly remodels the bones by removing old bone tissue (resorption) and replacing it with new tissue. This process is regulated by two types of cells: osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone resorption, and osteoblasts, which produce new bone tissue. In pathologic bone demineralization, there is an imbalance between the activity of these two cell types, with excessive resorption and inadequate formation of new bone tissue.

Pathologic bone demineralization can lead to a range of symptoms, including bone pain, fractures, loss of height, and a decreased ability to perform daily activities. Treatment for this condition depends on the underlying cause but may include medications that slow down bone resorption or promote bone formation, as well as lifestyle changes such as exercise and dietary modifications.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

Osseointegration is a direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of an implant. It's a process where the bone grows in and around the implant, which is typically made of titanium or another biocompatible material. This process provides a solid foundation for dental prosthetics, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures, or for orthopedic devices like artificial limbs. The success of osseointegration depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the quality and quantity of available bone, and the surgical technique used for implant placement.

Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment is a minimally invasive therapeutic procedure used in pain management and interventional medicine. It involves the use of electrical pulses, delivered via a specialized needle-like probe, to target specific nerves or nerve roots. These electrical pulses are delivered in a controlled and precise manner, at a frequency that does not cause heat damage to the surrounding tissues.

The goal of PRF treatment is to modulate the transmission of pain signals from the affected area to the brain, thereby reducing the perception of pain. The exact mechanism by which PRF works is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the electrical properties of nerve cells and the release of various chemical mediators that influence pain processing.

PRF treatment is typically performed under local anesthesia or conscious sedation, depending on the patient's preference and the specific procedure being performed. It is generally considered a safe and well-tolerated procedure, with few reported side effects. However, as with any medical intervention, there are potential risks and benefits that should be discussed with a qualified healthcare provider before undergoing treatment.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

A jaw cyst is a pathological cavity filled with fluid or semi-fluid material, which forms within the jaw bones. They are typically classified as odontogenic (developing from tooth-forming tissues) or non-odontogenic (developing from other tissues). The most common types of odontogenic jaw cysts include dentigerous cysts (formed around the crown of an unerupted tooth) and follicular cysts (formed from the inflammation of a developing tooth's tissue). Non-odontogenic cysts, such as nasopalatine duct cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumors, can also occur in the jaw bones. Jaw cysts may cause symptoms like swelling, pain, or displacement of teeth, but some may not present any symptoms until they grow large enough to be detected on a radiographic examination. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst and, if necessary, reconstruction of the affected bone.

Intravenous (IV) infusion is a medical procedure in which liquids, such as medications, nutrients, or fluids, are delivered directly into a patient's vein through a needle or a catheter. This route of administration allows for rapid absorption and distribution of the infused substance throughout the body. IV infusions can be used for various purposes, including resuscitation, hydration, nutrition support, medication delivery, and blood product transfusion. The rate and volume of the infusion are carefully controlled to ensure patient safety and efficacy of treatment.

REceptor Activator of NF-kB (RANK) Ligand is a type of protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system and bone metabolism. It belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and is primarily produced by osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation.

RANK Ligand binds to its receptor RANK, which is found on the surface of osteoclasts, a type of cell involved in bone resorption or breakdown. The binding of RANK Ligand to RANK activates signaling pathways that promote the differentiation, activation, and survival of osteoclasts, thereby increasing bone resorption.

Abnormalities in the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway have been implicated in various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain types of cancer that metastasize to bones. Therefore, targeting this pathway with therapeutic agents has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of these conditions.

In medical terms, the hip is a ball-and-socket joint where the rounded head of the femur (thigh bone) fits into the cup-shaped socket, also known as the acetabulum, of the pelvis. This joint allows for a wide range of movement in the lower extremities and supports the weight of the upper body during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The hip joint is surrounded by strong ligaments, muscles, and tendons that provide stability and enable proper functioning.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

Nitrogen compounds are chemical substances that contain nitrogen, which is a non-metal in group 15 of the periodic table. Nitrogen forms compounds with many other elements due to its ability to form multiple bonds, including covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur, and halogens.

Nitrogen can exist in several oxidation states, ranging from -3 to +5, which leads to a wide variety of nitrogen compounds with different properties and uses. Some common examples of nitrogen compounds include:

* Ammonia (NH3), a colorless gas with a pungent odor, used in fertilizers, cleaning products, and refrigeration systems.
* Nitric acid (HNO3), a strong mineral acid used in the production of explosives, dyes, and fertilizers.
* Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), a white crystalline solid used as a fertilizer and explosive ingredient.
* Hydrazine (N2H4), a colorless liquid with a strong odor, used as a rocket fuel and reducing agent.
* Nitrous oxide (N2O), a colorless gas used as an anesthetic and laughing gas in dental procedures.

Nitrogen compounds have many important applications in various industries, such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and energy production. However, some nitrogen compounds can also be harmful or toxic to humans and the environment if not handled properly.

Congenital hip dislocation, also known as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), is a condition where the hip joint fails to develop normally in utero or during early infancy. In a healthy hip, the head of the femur (thigh bone) fits snugly into the acetabulum (hip socket). However, in congenital hip dislocation, the femoral head is not held firmly in place within the acetabulum due to abnormal development or laxity of the ligaments that support the joint.

There are two types of congenital hip dislocations:

1. Teratologic dislocation: This type is present at birth and occurs due to abnormalities in the development of the hip joint during fetal growth. The femoral head may be completely outside the acetabulum or partially dislocated.

2. Developmental dysplasia: This type develops after birth, often within the first few months of life, as a result of ligamentous laxity and shallow acetabulum. In some cases, it can progress to a complete hip dislocation if left untreated.

Risk factors for congenital hip dislocation include family history, breech presentation during delivery, and female gender. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term complications such as pain, limited mobility, and osteoarthritis. Treatment options may include bracing, closed reduction, or surgical intervention, depending on the severity and age of the child at diagnosis.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Intravenous injections are a type of medical procedure where medication or fluids are administered directly into a vein using a needle and syringe. This route of administration is also known as an IV injection. The solution injected enters the patient's bloodstream immediately, allowing for rapid absorption and onset of action. Intravenous injections are commonly used to provide quick relief from symptoms, deliver medications that are not easily absorbed by other routes, or administer fluids and electrolytes in cases of dehydration or severe illness. It is important that intravenous injections are performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Oral surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed in the oral cavity and maxillofacial region, which includes the mouth, jaws, face, and skull. These procedures are typically performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons, who are dental specialists with extensive training in surgical procedures involving the mouth, jaws, and face.

Some common examples of oral surgical procedures include:

1. Tooth extractions: This involves removing a tooth that is damaged beyond repair or causing problems for the surrounding teeth. Wisdom tooth removal is a common type of tooth extraction.
2. Dental implant placement: This procedure involves placing a small titanium post in the jawbone to serve as a replacement root for a missing tooth. A dental crown is then attached to the implant, creating a natural-looking and functional replacement tooth.
3. Jaw surgery: Also known as orthognathic surgery, this procedure involves repositioning the jaws to correct bite problems or facial asymmetry.
4. Biopsy: This procedure involves removing a small sample of tissue from the oral cavity for laboratory analysis, often to diagnose suspicious lesions or growths.
5. Lesion removal: This procedure involves removing benign or malignant growths from the oral cavity, such as tumors or cysts.
6. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery: This procedure involves treating disorders of the TMJ, which connects the jawbone to the skull and allows for movement when eating, speaking, and yawning.
7. Facial reconstruction: This procedure involves rebuilding or reshaping the facial bones after trauma, cancer surgery, or other conditions that affect the face.

Overall, oral surgical procedures are an important part of dental and medical care, helping to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions affecting the mouth, jaws, and face.

The ilium is the largest and broadest of the three parts that make up the hip bone or coxal bone. It is the uppermost portion of the pelvis and forms the side of the waist. The ilium has a curved, fan-like shape and articulates with the sacrum at the back to form the sacroiliac joint. The large, concave surface on the top of the ilium is called the iliac crest, which can be felt as a prominent ridge extending from the front of the hip to the lower back. This region is significant in orthopedics and physical examinations for its use in assessing various medical conditions and performing certain maneuvers during the physical examination.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Drug substitution, also known as medication substitution, refers to the practice of replacing a prescribed medication with a different one that is therapeutically equivalent or similar. This may be done for various reasons such as:

* Cost: The substitute drug may be less expensive than the original medication.
* Availability: The substitute drug may be more readily available than the original medication.
* Adverse effects: The substitute drug may have fewer or less severe side effects than the original medication.
* Drug interactions: The substitute drug may have fewer or no interactions with other medications that the patient is taking.
* Efficacy: The substitute drug may be equally or more effective than the original medication.

It's important to note that any changes to a patient's medication regimen should be made in consultation with their healthcare provider, as substituting medications can have potential risks and benefits. Additionally, some states have laws and regulations that govern when and how drug substitution can be done.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

A hip prosthesis, also known as a total hip replacement, is a surgical implant designed to replace the damaged or diseased components of the human hip joint. The procedure involves replacing the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) with artificial parts, typically made from materials such as metal, ceramic, or plastic.

The goal of a hip prosthesis is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function, allowing patients to return to their normal activities and enjoy an improved quality of life. The procedure is most commonly performed in individuals with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other degenerative conditions that have caused significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several different types of hip prostheses available, each with its own unique design and set of benefits and risks. The choice of prosthesis will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and specific medical needs. In general, however, all hip prostheses are designed to provide a durable, long-lasting solution for patients suffering from debilitating joint pain and stiffness.

A spinal fracture, also known as a vertebral compression fracture, is a break in one or more bones (vertebrae) of the spine. This type of fracture often occurs due to weakened bones caused by osteoporosis, but it can also result from trauma such as a car accident or a fall.

In a spinal fracture, the front part of the vertebra collapses, causing the height of the vertebra to decrease, while the back part of the vertebra remains intact. This results in a wedge-shaped deformity of the vertebra. Multiple fractures can lead to a hunched forward posture known as kyphosis or dowager's hump.

Spinal fractures can cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms, depending on the location and severity of the fracture. In some cases, spinal cord compression may occur, leading to more severe symptoms such as paralysis or loss of bladder and bowel control.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the hip joint. It is characterized by the progressive loss of cartilage, remodeling of bone, osteophyte formation (bone spurs), cysts, and mild to moderate inflammation. The degenerative process can lead to pain, stiffness, limited range of motion, and crepitus (grating or crackling sound) during movement.

In the hip joint, OA typically affects the femoral head and acetabulum. As the articular cartilage wears away, the underlying bone becomes exposed and can lead to bone-on-bone contact, which is painful. The body responds by attempting to repair the damage through remodeling of the subchondral bone and formation of osteophytes. However, these changes can further limit joint mobility and exacerbate symptoms.

Risk factors for OA of the hip include age, obesity, genetics, previous joint injury or surgery, and repetitive stress on the joint. Treatment options may include pain management (such as NSAIDs, physical therapy, and injections), lifestyle modifications (such as weight loss and exercise), and, in severe cases, surgical intervention (such as hip replacement).

Experimental implants refer to medical devices that are not yet approved by regulatory authorities for general use in medical practice. These are typically being tested in clinical trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy. The purpose of experimental implants is to determine whether they can be used as a viable treatment option for various medical conditions. They may include, but are not limited to, devices such as artificial joints, heart valves, or spinal cord stimulators that are still in the developmental or testing stage. Participation in clinical trials involving experimental implants is voluntary and usually requires informed consent from the patient.

A hardness test is a quantitative measure of a material's resistance to deformation, typically defined as the penetration of an indenter with a specific shape and load into the surface of the material being tested. There are several types of hardness tests, including Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell, and Knoop, each with their own specific methods and applications. The resulting hardness value is used to evaluate the material's properties, such as wear resistance, durability, and suitability for various industrial or manufacturing processes. Hardness tests are widely used in materials science, engineering, and quality control to ensure the consistency and reliability of materials and components.

Bone regeneration is the biological process of new bone formation that occurs after an injury or removal of a portion of bone. This complex process involves several stages, including inflammation, migration and proliferation of cells, matrix deposition, and mineralization, leading to the restoration of the bone's structure and function.

The main cells involved in bone regeneration are osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which resorb damaged or old bone tissue. The process is tightly regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and signaling molecules that promote the recruitment, differentiation, and activity of these cells.

Bone regeneration can occur naturally in response to injury or surgical intervention, such as fracture repair or dental implant placement. However, in some cases, bone regeneration may be impaired due to factors such as age, disease, or trauma, leading to delayed healing or non-union of the bone. In these situations, various strategies and techniques, including the use of bone grafts, scaffolds, and growth factors, can be employed to enhance and support the bone regeneration process.

Collagen Type I is the most abundant form of collagen in the human body, found in various connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. It is a structural protein that provides strength and integrity to these tissues. Collagen Type I is composed of three alpha chains, two alpha-1(I) chains, and one alpha-2(I) chain, arranged in a triple helix structure. This type of collagen is often used in medical research and clinical applications, such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

Magnetic field therapy, also known as magnet therapy, is a form of complementary and alternative medicine that uses magnets to treat various health conditions. The therapy is based on the idea that external magnetic fields can influence the body's internal magnetic fields and electromagnetic signals, which in turn can affect physiological processes and promote healing.

Proponents of magnetic field therapy claim that it can help alleviate pain, reduce inflammation, improve circulation, enhance immune function, and promote relaxation. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support these claims, and the therapy remains controversial within the medical community.

Magnetic field therapy devices typically consist of magnets of various strengths and sizes that are applied to specific areas of the body, often through the use of magnetic wraps, bands, or pads. Some devices generate static magnetic fields, while others produce pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) or alternating magnetic fields (AMF).

While magnetic field therapy is generally considered safe, it can have potential risks and side effects, such as skin irritation, allergic reactions, and interference with medical devices like pacemakers. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before using magnetic field therapy, especially if you have any underlying health conditions or are taking medication.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

The masseter muscle is a strong chewing muscle in the jaw. It is a broad, thick, quadrilateral muscle that extends from the zygomatic arch (cheekbone) to the lower jaw (mandible). The masseter muscle has two distinct parts: the superficial part and the deep part.

The superficial part of the masseter muscle originates from the lower border of the zygomatic process of the maxilla and the anterior two-thirds of the inferior border of the zygomatic arch. The fibers of this part run almost vertically downward to insert on the lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible and the coronoid process.

The deep part of the masseter muscle originates from the deep surface of the zygomatic arch and inserts on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible, blending with the temporalis tendon.

The primary function of the masseter muscle is to elevate the mandible, helping to close the mouth and clench the teeth together during mastication (chewing). It also plays a role in stabilizing the jaw during biting and speaking. The masseter muscle is one of the most powerful muscles in the human body relative to its size.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), also known as brittle bone disease, is a group of genetic disorders that mainly affect the bones. It is characterized by bones that break easily, often from little or no apparent cause. This happens because the body produces an insufficient amount of collagen or poor quality collagen, which are crucial for the formation of healthy bones.

The severity of OI can vary greatly, even within the same family. Some people with OI have only a few fractures in their lifetime while others may have hundreds. Other symptoms can include blue or gray sclera (the white part of the eye), hearing loss, short stature, curved or bowed bones, loose joints, and a triangular face shape.

There are several types of OI, each caused by different genetic mutations. Most types of OI are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning only one copy of the altered gene is needed to cause the condition. However, some types are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means that two copies of the altered gene must be present for the condition to occur.

There is no cure for OI, but treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include medication to strengthen bones, physical therapy, bracing, and surgery.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

X-ray microtomography, often referred to as micro-CT, is a non-destructive imaging technique used to visualize and analyze the internal structure of objects with high spatial resolution. It is based on the principles of computed tomography (CT), where multiple X-ray images are acquired at different angles and then reconstructed into cross-sectional slices using specialized software. These slices can be further processed to create 3D visualizations, allowing researchers and clinicians to examine the internal structure and composition of samples in great detail. Micro-CT is widely used in materials science, biology, medicine, and engineering for various applications such as material characterization, bone analysis, and defect inspection.

Edentulous partially refers to a condition where some teeth are missing in the jaw but not all. In other words, it is a state of having fewer teeth than normal for that particular dental arch. A dental arch can be either the upper or lower jaw.

In medical terms, "edentulous" means lacking teeth. So, when we say "jaw, edentulous, partially," it indicates a jaw that has some missing teeth. This condition is different from being completely edentulous, which refers to having no teeth at all in the dental arch.

Being edentulous or partially edentulous can impact an individual's ability to eat, speak, and affect their overall quality of life. Dental professionals often recommend various treatment options, such as dentures, bridges, or implants, to restore functionality and aesthetics for those who are partially edentulous.

Protein prenylation is a post-translational modification process in which a lipophilic group, such as a farnesyl or geranylgeranyl moiety, is covalently attached to specific cysteine residues near the carboxy-terminus of proteins. This modification plays a crucial role in membrane targeting and protein-protein interactions, particularly for proteins involved in signal transduction pathways, such as Ras family GTPases. The enzymes responsible for prenylation are called protein prenyltransferases, and their dysfunction has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Technetium Tc 99m Medronate is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in nuclear medicine for bone scintigraphy. It is a technetium-labeled bisphosphonate compound, which accumulates in areas of increased bone turnover and metabolism. This makes it useful for detecting and evaluating various bone diseases and conditions, such as fractures, tumors, infections, and arthritis.

The "Tc 99m" refers to the radioisotope technetium-99m, which has a half-life of approximately 6 hours and emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera. The medronate component is a bisphosphonate molecule that binds to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone tissue, allowing the radiolabeled compound to accumulate in areas of active bone remodeling.

Overall, Technetium Tc 99m Medronate is an important tool in nuclear medicine for diagnosing and managing various musculoskeletal disorders.

Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the integrity and function of a joint. The term is derived from two Greek words: "arthro" meaning joint, and "plasty" meaning to mold or form. There are several types of arthroplasty, but most involve resurfacing the damaged joint cartilage with artificial materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic.

The goal of arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve mobility, and restore function in a joint that has been damaged by arthritis, injury, or other conditions. The most common types of arthroplasty are total joint replacement (TJR) and partial joint replacement (PJR).

In TJR, the surgeon removes the damaged ends of the bones in the joint and replaces them with artificial components called prostheses. These prostheses can be made of metal, plastic, or ceramic materials, and are designed to mimic the natural movement and function of the joint.

In PJR, only one side of the joint is resurfaced, typically because the damage is less extensive. This procedure is less invasive than TJR and may be recommended for younger patients who are still active or have a higher risk of complications from a full joint replacement.

Other types of arthroplasty include osteotomy, in which the surgeon cuts and reshapes the bone to realign the joint; arthrodesis, in which the surgeon fuses two bones together to create a stable joint; and resurfacing, in which the damaged cartilage is removed and replaced with a smooth, artificial surface.

Arthroplasty is typically recommended for patients who have tried other treatments, such as physical therapy, medication, or injections, but have not found relief from their symptoms. While arthroplasty can be highly effective in relieving pain and improving mobility, it is not without risks, including infection, blood clots, and implant failure. Patients should discuss the benefits and risks of arthroplasty with their healthcare provider to determine if it is the right treatment option for them.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

... bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw) since 2003. The possible risk from lower oral doses of bisphosphonates, ... Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a severe bone disease (osteonecrosis) that affects the jaws (the maxilla and the mandible). ... "Statement by Merck regarding Fosamax and rare cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw". Merck. "Osteonecrosis of the Jaw". Novartis. ... estimated an incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw of 1.15% for intravenous bisphosphonates and 0.04% for oral bisphosphonates ...
"Bis-phossy jaws" - High and low risk factors for bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw". Journal of Cranio- ... "Bisphosphonates and jaw osteonecrosis". Medscape. Pollock, RA; Brown TW, Jr; Rubin, DM (September 2015). ""Phossy Jaw" and "Bis ... Durie BG; Katz M; Crowley J (July 2005). "Osteonecrosis of the jaw and bisphosphonates". N. Engl. J. Med. 353 (1): 99-102, ... Industrial injury Osteonecrosis of the jaw Radium jaw Hughes, J. P; Baron, R; Buckland, D. H; Cooke, M. A; Craig, J. D; ...
2004). "Osteonecrosis of the jaws associated with the use of bisphosphonates: A review of 63 cases". J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 62 ... Ruggiero, SL (2008). "Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws". Compend Contin Educ Dent. 29 (2): 97-105. PMID ... In order to evaluate the risk of osteonecrosis for a patient taking bisphosphonates, use of the CTX biomarker was introduced in ... 2007). "Oral Bisphosphonate-Induced Osteonecrosis: Risk Factors, Prediction of Risk Using Serum CTX Testing, Prevention, and ...
Durie BG, Katz M, Crowley J (July 2005). "Osteonecrosis of the jaw and bisphosphonates". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Use during pregnancy may result in harm to the baby. It is in the bisphosphonate family of ... complication that has been recently observed in cancer patients being treated with bisphosphonates is osteonecrosis of the jaw ... As a nitrogenous bisphosphonate, Zoledronic acid is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption, allowing the bone-forming cells time ...
"Interventions for treating osteonecrosis of the jaw bones associated with bisphosphonates". Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858. ... Osteonecrosis of the jaws refers to the death of bone marrow in the maxilla or the mandible due to inadequate blood supply. It ... The term NICO is used to describe pain caused by ischemic osteonecrosis of the jaws, where degenerative extracellular cystic ... Neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis (NICO) is a controversial term, and it is questioned to exist by many. ...
Woo S, Hellstein J, Kalmar J (2006). "Narrative [corrected] review: bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaws". Ann Intern ... Bisphosphonates, when administered intravenously for the treatment of cancer, have been associated with osteonecrosis of the ... Once bisphosphonates are in bone, they have a very long elimination half-life that can exceed ten years. Bisphosphonates are ... Bisphosphonates are beneficial in reducing the risk of vertebral fracture in steroid induced osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are ...
Ruggiero, Salvatore L. (2007). "Guidelines for the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ)". ... Osteonecrosis is a condition in which lack of blood supply causes the bone to die off. It mainly presents following ... This is because the tooth is not fused to the bones of the jaws, but is connected to the sockets by the periodontal ligament. ... A dental splint works by evening out pressure across a patients jaw. A splint can be used to protect teeth from further damage ...
October 2007). "Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw: report of a task force of the American Society for Bone and ... Woo SB, Hellstein JW, Kalmar JR (May 2006). "Narrative [corrected] review: bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaws". ... A recognized risk of this drug relevant to dental treatments is bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). ... It is proposed this hearing loss is a secondary feature to attrition; this type of tooth wear can cause jaw overclosure with ...
Dannemann C, Grätz KW, Riener MO, Zwahlen RA (April 2007). "Jaw osteonecrosis related to bisphosphonate therapy: a severe ... dysbaric osteonecrosis). Bisphosphonates are associated with osteonecrosis of the mandible (jawbone). The condition may also ... Osteonecrosis / Avascular Necrosis at the National Institute of Health Osteonecrosis / Avascular necrosis at Merck Manual for ... In children, avascular osteonecrosis can have several causes. It can occur in the hip as part of Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome, ...
Microbial biofilms in osteomyelitis of the jaw and osteonecrosis of the jaw secondary to bisphosphonate therapy. J Am Dent ... "Microbial Biofilms in Osteomyelitis of the Jaw and Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Secondary to Bisphosphonate Therapy". "The in vivo ... Oral bisphosphonate use and the prevalence of osteonecrosis of the jaw: an institutional inquiry. J Am Dent Assoc 2009;140:61- ... Identification of microbial biofilms in osteonecrosis of the jaws secondary to bisphosphonate therapy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg ...
... can also be associated with the radiographic changes seen in those with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.[ ...
"American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons position paper on bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws-- ... procedures on the lower jaw, people with other medical issues, those on steroids, those on more potent bisphosphonates and ... because they have been associated with a disorder called Medication-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). The drugs ... the local health condition of the mucous membranes and the jaws and the shape, size, and position of the bones of the jaws, ...
Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a rare complication which has been associated with the use of bisphosphonates, including ... Zarychanski R, Elphee E, Walton P, Johnston J (2006). "Osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with pamidronate therapy". Am J ... Pamidronic acid or pamidronate disodium or APD (marketed as Aredia among others), is a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate used ... Bisphosphonates, Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase inhibitors, Nephrotoxins, All stub articles, Musculoskeletal system drug stubs ...
... thalassaemia major patients may also be on bisphosphonates and are therefore at risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw. ... It is managed with the used of bisphosphonates. Prior to placement on bisphosphonates, a dental check must be done to extract ... A heart attack can cause pain the chest; sometimes this pain can radiate up to the jaw. (Malik et al., 2013) Calcium channel ... Sickle patients can experience sickle crisis, these are painful events in which if in the jaw can mimic dental pain and facial ...
... women who have taken bisphosphonates for less than two years are four times more likely to suffer from osteonecrosis of the jaw ... Osteonecrosis: Osteonecrosis of the jaw is the slow destruction of bone in an extraction site. A case control study of 191 ... The presence of osteonecrosis of the jaw was reported by dentists' previous diagnosis of the participating case and control ... that women using bisphosphonates for more than two years are ten times more likely to experience osteonecrosis of the jaw, ...
... osteonecrosis of the jaw. As statins have a bone strengthening effect, combining a statin with an aromatase inhibitor could ... Bisphosphonates are sometimes prescribed to prevent the osteoporosis induced by aromatase inhibitors, but also have another ... without potential of causing osteonecrosis of the jaw. The more common adverse events associated with the use of aromatase ...
"A review of the literature on osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients with osteoporosis treated with oral bisphosphonates: ... Osteonecrosis of the jaw may occur while on this drug, if dental work of any kind is carried out. The risk is considerably ... "Multiple systemic diseases complicated by bisphosphonate osteonecrosis: a case report". Annali di Stomatologia. 3 (2 Suppl): 32 ... Like all bisphosphonates, it is chemically related to inorganic pyrophosphate, the endogenous regulator of bone turnover. But ...
... condition from the relatively recent and better known iatrogenic phenomenon of bisphosphonate-caused osteonecrosis of the jaws ... Former and colloquial names include Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ), cavitations, dry or wet socket, and NICO (Neuralgia- ... Inducing Cavitational osteonecrosis). The current, more correct, term, osteomyelitis of the jaws, differentiates the ... hematogenous OM in the bones of the jaws is rare. OM of the jaws is mainly caused by spread of adjacent odontogenic infection. ...
There are concerns of atypical femoral fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw with long-term use, but these risks are low. With ... Different bisphosphonates have not been directly compared, therefore it is unknown if one is better than another. Fracture risk ... Bisphosphonate medications are useful to decrease future broken bones in those with previous broken bones due to osteoporosis. ... Among the five bisphosphonates, no significant differences were found for a secondary fracture for all fracture endpoints ...
"Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) and drug treatments for osteoporosis" (PDF). United Kingdom: The National Osteoporosis Society. ... A study conducted by the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research concluded that long-term use of bisphosphonates, ... The drug also has been associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw, relatively rare but serious condition. Ibandronic acid is ... Sittig HB (2012). "Pathogenesis and bisphosphonate treatment of skeletal events and bone pain in metastatic cancer: focus on ...
In common with other bisphosphonate drugs, risedronate appears to be associated with the rare side effect osteonecrosis of the ... jaw, often preceded by dental procedures inducing trauma to the bone. "Actonel- risedronate sodium tablet, film coated". ... Risedronic acid, often used as its sodium salt risedronate sodium, is a bisphosphonate. It slows down the cells which break ... The manufacturers of Boniva, a rival bisphosphonate, were accused in the suit of causing a "serious public health risk" through ...
... medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). However, no report of bisphosphonate-related MRONJ in either a child or ... Although oral bisphosphonates are more convenient and cheaper, they are not absorbed as well, and intravenous bisphosphonates ... Bisphosphonates are not as effective at increasing the bone mineral density of adults. OI is a genetic disorder and is not ... Bisphosphonates are especially effective in children, however it is unclear if they either increase quality of life or decrease ...
Similarly to bisphosphonates, denosumab appears to be implicated in increasing the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) ... osteonecrosis of the jaw, and atypical femur fractures. Another trial showed significantly increased rates of eczema and ... following extraction of teeth or oral surgical procedures but, unlike bisphosphonate, the risk declines to zero approximately 6 ...
Latin American liquid candy product Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw, aka BON of the jaw Bankon language, ...
All-on-4 Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw Bruxism Edentulism Occlusal trauma Temporomandibular joint disorder ...
Wales Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw or BRONJ, a complication of certain dental procedures for patients on ... bisphosphonate therapy Bronn (disambiguation) Brons This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Bron. If ...
... health should be evaluated to assess the risk factors to prevent the development of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw ... Bisphosphonates and radiation therapy are sometimes used to reduce pain from bone lesions. Globally, about 175,000 people were ... In addition to direct treatment of the plasma cell proliferation, bisphosphonates (e.g., pamidronate or zoledronic acid) are ... MRONJ). If there are any symptoms or radiographic appearance of MRONJ like jaw pain, loose tooth, mucosal swelling, early ...
... bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws or oral pathology related to radiation therapy. Additionally, it is involved ...
There is no known prevention for bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw. Avoiding the use of bisphosphonates is not ... This condition was previously known as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BON or BRONJ) because osteonecrosis of ... American Dental Association Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Archived 2009-08-03 at the Wayback Machine "Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ ... a term for osteonecrosis caused by radiotherapy Phossy jaw Nase JB, Suzuki JB (August 2006). "Osteonecrosis of the jaw and oral ...
... including kidney failure for treatment with zoledronic acid and osteonecrosis of the jaw for denosumab. As an alternative to ... Bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid have been shown to delay skeletal complications such as fractures or the need for ... For men with prostate cancer and bone metastases zoledronic acid (a bisphosphonate) and denosumab (a RANK-ligand-inhibitor) ... Cochrane Urology Group) (December 2020). "Bisphosphonates or RANK-ligand-inhibitors for men with prostate cancer and bone ...
Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) manifests as exposed, nonvital bone involving the maxillofacial ... is a condition found in patients who have received intravenous and oral forms of bisphosphonate therapy for various bone- ... encoded search term (Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw) and Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw What ... Management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Nonsurgical management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis ...
If there is a relationship between bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaw, what might explain it? The jaw is often ... We start with an article called Osteonecrosis of the Jaw -- Do Bisphosphonates Pose a Risk?, published in the November 30, ... or jaw rot. Two recent medical journal articles provide information about how osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) may be caused by ... is increasing attention being paid to the association between the use of oral bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ ...
There are several different types of bisphosphonates, and they each work slightly differently. You might have them as part of ... Jaw problems (osteonecrosis) and cancer treatment. A rare side effect of bisphosphonate treatment is osteonecrosis of the jaw. ... Bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates are drugs that help prevent or slow down bone thinning (osteoporosis). They can help to treat ... Bisphosphonates and cancer. Bisphosphonates are drugs that help prevent or slow down bone thinning (osteoporosis). They can ...
Bisphosphonate Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (BRONJ). What are Bisphosphonate Drugs?. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs ... Bisphosphonate Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (BRONJ) can be described as an area of bone in the jaw that has died and been ... Denosumab has been identified as just as high a risk factor for osteonecrosis as bisphosphonates.. What is BRONJ?. ... IV bisphosphonates used in cancer treatment are much more potent than the oral bisphosphonates used to manage osteoporosis, ...
Interventions for treating bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Overview of attention for article published ... A multifunctional composite hydrogel promotes treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Article in Applied ...
Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) manifests as exposed, nonvital bone involving the maxillofacial ... is a condition found in patients who have received intravenous and oral forms of bisphosphonate therapy for various bone- ... encoded search term (Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw) and Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw What ... Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw. Updated: Feb 26, 2015 * Author: Remy H Blanchaert, Jr, DDS, MD; Chief Editor: ...
BEZERUSKA, Cícero et al. Osteonecrosis of the jaw related to use of bisphosphonates. Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac. []. ... Methodology: We used all the records of patients diagnosed with osteonecrosis of the jaw at uFPR and Hospital XV from 2006. ... The bisphosphonates (BFs) are synthetic drugs used to treat multiple myeloma, bone pathologies associated with malignancy, ... These drugs have a number of side effects, and a new complication known as biphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis (BaO) was ...
2014). Behalf of the International Task Force on Osteonecrosis of the Jaw. Diagnosis and Management of Osteonecrosis of the Jaw ... The bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is defined as a drug-adverse reaction that involves the maxillary ... 2006) Osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients with multiple myeloma treated with bisphosphonates: evidence of increased risk after ... Proposal of a refined definition and staging system for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Oral Dis 18: ...
Distinctive role of 6-month teriparatide treatment on intractable bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. / Kim, K. M. ... Distinctive role of 6-month teriparatide treatment on intractable bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. In: ... Distinctive role of 6-month teriparatide treatment on intractable bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Osteoporosis ... title = "Distinctive role of 6-month teriparatide treatment on intractable bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw", ...
... ... Relevance of a prolonged preoperative antibiotic regime in the treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. ...
... bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw) since 2003. The possible risk from lower oral doses of bisphosphonates, ... Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a severe bone disease (osteonecrosis) that affects the jaws (the maxilla and the mandible). ... "Statement by Merck regarding Fosamax and rare cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw". Merck. "Osteonecrosis of the Jaw". Novartis. ... estimated an incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw of 1.15% for intravenous bisphosphonates and 0.04% for oral bisphosphonates ...
Survey on awareness and perceptions of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in dental hygienists in Seoul.. Mah, Y-J ... We investigated awareness in dental hygienists of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in patients with ...
PS-012 Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: Italian pharmacovigilance database analysis and the effect of the ... PS-012 Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: Italian pharmacovigilance database analysis and the effect of the ... Background Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have been increasing since ... We selected the following preferred terms: osteonecrosis of the jaws, osteonecrosis, osteomyelitis. ADRs were analysed by: year ...
Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw / drug therapy* * Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw / ... Oral infection is considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw ( ... Antibiotic effects on bacterial profile in osteonecrosis of the jaw Oral Dis. 2012 Jan;18(1):85-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1601- ...
Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: an overview. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1218: 38-46. ... Osteonecrosis of the jaw and bisphosphonates-putting the risk in perspective. New Zealand Medical Journal 119: U2339. ... Bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 59: 2350-5. ... ONJ is characterised by the presence of necrotic, exposed bone in the jaw. The jaws are particularly sensitive to osteonecrosis ...
Bisphosphonate induced and radiation induced osteonecrosis can also have an apparently destructive appearance. ... A 67 year old man presented with a 3-4 month history of mild discomfort in his right jaw, which had suddenly worsened. He was ... Jaw pain. BMJ 2016; 354 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i4799 (Published 22 September 2016) Cite this as: BMJ 2016;354:i4799 ...
The types of jaw injuries and disorders that can cause problems are dislocations, fractures, misaligned teeth and more. Learn ... Bisphosphonate Therapy (and Osteonecrosis of the Jaw) (American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons) ... Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) (American College of Rheumatology) Also in Spanish ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Jaw Diseases (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Jaw Fractures (National Institutes of ...
In addition, bisphosphonates, denosumab, and other bone-modifying agents showed a significantly higher risk of developing MRONJ ... In addition, bisphosphonates, denosumab, and other bone modifying agents showed a significantly higher risk of developing MRONJ ... Patients administered with bisphosphonates, steroids, chemotherapy, thalidomide, interferon, and hormone therapy had a ... Patients administered with bisphosphonates, steroids, chemotherapy, thalidomide, interferon and hormone therapy had a ...
Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw American Society of Clinical OncologyMultinational Association of Supportive Care ... Adjuvant Bisphosphonates and Other Bone-Modifying Agents in Breast Cancer. American Society of Clinical OncologyCancer Care ...
The risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw may increase with the duration of exposure to bisphosphonates ... Cases of osteonecrosis (primarily involving the jaw but also of other anatomical sites including the hip, femur, and external ... Increased risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (advise patients against dental work); reported predominantly in cancer patients ... Drug Class: Bisphosphonate Derivatives, Calcium Metabolism Modifiers. *Medical Author: Sarfaroj Khan, BHMS, PGD Health ...
... current J of Clinical Oncology has a study on the incidence of jaw osteonecrosis in cancer patients receiving bisphosphonates. ... as well as the pharmacodynamics of bisphosphonates. Next, it critically summarizes the data for bisphosphonates in prostate ... The current J of Clinical Oncology is devoted to prostate cancer, & along those lines has a review on bisphosphonates for the ... Amount of exposure (median of 35 vs 15 treatments in those who did vs did not develop osteonecrosis) and time of exposure ( ...
Bisphosphonates are sold under the names Actonel, Aredia, Bonefos, Boniva, Fosamax, Didronel, Reclast, Skelid and Zometa. Most ... Our bisphosphonate lawyers are investigating injuries associated with this drugs. Most People are familiar with these. ... Our bisphosphonate lawyers are investigating injuries associated with this class of drugs. ... Bisphosphonates and Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/Dead Jaw Syndrome. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) or dead jaw syndrome is an ...
Patients who develop osteonecrosis of the jaw while on bisphosphonate therapy should receive care by an oral surgeon. In these ... and has been reported in patients taking bisphosphonates, including FOSAMAX. Known risk factors for osteonecrosis of the jaw ... Osteonecrosis of the jaw, generally associated with tooth extraction and/or local infection, with delayed healing, has been ... Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), which can occur spontaneously, is generally associated with tooth extraction and/or local ...
For example, optimizing dental health before starting treatment can prevent osteonecrosis of the jaw, or at least the clinical ... These have shown strong effects in promoting bone mineral density without risk of atypical fractures or jaw osteonecrosis. ... and osteonecrosis of the jaw. In both cases, the clinical manifestations can come suddenly and without warning. ... He proposed bisphosphonate "sabbaticals," defined as an extended stoppage of therapy, as opposed to the more traditional " ...
Facts for patients and caregivers about bisphosphonate therapy, such as how it works, usages, common dosages, safety tips, and ... There is a rare risk of developing damage to the cells within the bones of the jaw called osteonecrosis. ... Bisphosphonates are a group of medicines used to treat osteopenia or osteoporosis, which are conditions associated with thin or ... If undergoing an invasive procedure of the jaw (tooth extraction) or a history of malignancy and/or dental infections while on ...
Organic Bone Matrix Component Type I and V Collagen Are Not Destructed in Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaws. ...
A new study has quantified the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw for patients receiving zoledronic acid to manage complications ... In 2003, oral surgeons first noticed that some patients receiving bisphosphonates were developing osteonecrosis of the jaw-a ... had confirmed osteonecrosis of the jaw, which was defined as having an area of exposed bone in the jaw that had been present ... including osteonecrosis of the jaw, a rare but potentially debilitating condition in which bone tissue in the jaw is no longer ...
Concerns have been raised about osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical fractures of the femur with bisphosphonate therapy. The ... 4 The previous review noted a case series published by the FDA that reported on osteonecrosis of the jaw with bisphosphonate ... found higher incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw with intravenous bisphosphonate use and with greater duration of use. No ... Bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates were studied most frequently; the USPSTF identified seven studies on alendronate, two trials ...
Bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a recently described adverse side effect of bisphosphonate therapy, ... Bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a recently described adverse side effect of bisphosphonate therapy, ... The detail mechanism of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is unclear and it is very difficult to be ... Oral Dis (2012): Non-exposed bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: a critical assessment of current definition, ...
  • Bisphosphonates are drugs that help prevent or slow down bone thinning (osteoporosis). (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Evidence is insufficient to confirm a causal link between low-dose bisphosphonate use in osteoporosis with osteonecrosis of the jaw. (medscape.com)
  • The bisphosphonates (BFs) are synthetic drugs used to treat multiple myeloma, bone pathologies associated with malignancy, Paget's disease and osteoporosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because of occurring osteoporosis, the patient underwent to bisphosphonates administration. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • The possible risk from lower oral doses of bisphosphonates, taken by patients to prevent or treat osteoporosis, remains uncertain. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated awareness in dental hygienists of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in patients with osteoporosis and cancer and assessed the situation in systemic history investigations to broaden the scope of the dental hygienists ' BRONJ awareness as a basis for contributing to preventing this disease . (bvsalud.org)
  • CHICAGO -- While the widely reported adverse effects of long-term bisphosphonate treatment in osteoporosis patients are certainly real, undertreatment of fracture risk now appears to be gaining, a prominent rheumatologist warned in a lecture here. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Speaking at the American College of Rheumatology's 2018 State of the Art Symposium, Saag said that bisphosphonate "sabbaticals" may cut the risk of osteonecrosis and atypical fractures known to be associated with these agents -- but that substituting alternative drugs may be preferable to stopping all osteoporosis medications. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Bisphosphonates are a group of medicines used to treat osteopenia or osteoporosis, which are conditions associated with thin or fragile bones that are at increased risk for fracture. (rheumatology.org)
  • The USPSTF found that the risk of serious adverse events, upper gastrointestinal events, or cardiovascular events associated with the most common class of osteoporosis medication (bisphosphonates) is no greater than small. (uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
  • Use of most popular osteoporosis medications are associated with brittle bones, osteonecrosis, heart damage and cancer. (holtorfmed.com)
  • Bisphosphonates such as Fosamax, Acetenol, Reclast, and Boniva are widely used to treat osteoporosis. (holtorfmed.com)
  • Osteoporosis lawsuits regarding Fosamax, Actonel , Boniva, Zometa and Aredia allege femur fractures, jaw bone death and more. (freeadvice.com)
  • Bisphosphonates are a classification of drugs to treat or prevent osteoporosis and include Fosamax, Actonel, Reclast, and Boniva. (drweitz.com)
  • The 2014 update of a position paper from the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) recommended changing the name of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) to medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), owing to the increased number of maxillary and mandibular osteonecrosis cases that have been linked to other antiresorptive (denosumab) or antiangiogenic treatments. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, bisphosphonates, denosumab, and other bone-modifying agents showed a significantly higher risk of developing MRONJ owing to the changes in salivary microbiome profiles, cytokine profiles, interleukins, hypotaurine, and binding proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • By December 2006, 3607 cases of people with this ADR had been reported to the FDA and 2227 cases had been reported to the manufacturer of intravenous bisphosphonates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jaw bone necrosis due to the use of bisphosphonates should also be prevented by monitoring bone turnover before oral surgery and by avoidance of surgical extraction in patients receiving intravenous bisphosphonates. (medscape.com)
  • Bisphosphonates seem to have a higher risk of causing osteonecrosis of the jaw in people who undergo oral surgery of the lower jaw while taking intravenous bisphosphonates, those who have previously been given high doses of bisphosphonates by vein (common with certain cancer treatments), or those who have been taking bisphosphonates for a long period of time. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In patients with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ), panoramic and plain radiography of the mandible reveal areas of sclerosis, destruction, sequestration, or pathologic fractures. (medscape.com)
  • In 2010, the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research Femoral Fracture Task Force recommended that US health regulators rewrite the warning labels for bisphosphonates because of their possible association with atypical femur fractures. (yourlawyer.com)
  • In conducting the study, the task force looked at 310 cases of atypical femur fractures and found that in the majority of cases (291), the patients had been taking bisphosphonates. (yourlawyer.com)
  • The previous March, the FDA announced it was reviewing bisphosphonates for a possible link to atypical subtrochanteric femur fractures in some patients who had been on the drugs for several years. (yourlawyer.com)
  • By now, the risks associated with bisphosphonates when continued for many years are well known to all physicians: femoral fractures and others considered atypical in the senior population, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. (medpagetoday.com)
  • With respect to atypical fractures, Saag said a point to bear in mind is that the risk remains well below that for the osteoporotic fractures that bisphosphonate prevent. (medpagetoday.com)
  • He proposed bisphosphonate "sabbaticals," defined as an extended stoppage of therapy, as opposed to the more traditional "holiday" concept, for patients found to be at risk for adverse bisphosphonate effects and yet still at risk for osteoporotic fractures. (medpagetoday.com)
  • These have shown strong effects in promoting bone mineral density without risk of atypical fractures or jaw osteonecrosis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Like bisphosphonates, it inhibits bone resorption (rather than promoting bone formation) and has been tied to osteonecrosis and atypical fractures, though at relatively low rates. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Atypical fractures of the femur have been associated with long-term bisphosphonate therapy. (rheumatology.org)
  • In women with osteopenia, bisphosphonates are shown to prevent bone loss, and physicians prescribe them with the hope of preventing future fractures. (holtorfmed.com)
  • In October 2010, the FDA updated the label on 'Fosamax', Fosamax Plus D and other bisphosphonates, warning about the risk of atypical femur fractures. (yourlawyer.com)
  • In addition to atypical femur fractures, bisphosphonates have also been linked to osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) and esophageal cancer. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Another recent study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine found that 82 percent of patients with atypical femur fractures had been taking bisphosphonates. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Patients who use bisphosphonate drugs such as Fosamax , Actonel, Boniva, Zometa, and Aredia and have been on these drugs for prolonged periods of time - between three and five years - are suffering low energy femur fractures. (freeadvice.com)
  • In addition to subtrochateric femur fractures, long-term exposure to bisphosphonate drugs also increases the probability of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ - also known as avascular necrosis, aseptic necrosis, ischemic necrosis or jaw bone death. (freeadvice.com)
  • A rare side effect of bisphosphonate treatment is osteonecrosis of the jaw. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a recently described adverse side effect of bisphosphonate therapy, with an estimated 94% of cases reported in the oncologic patients receiving intravenous nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (BP). (ca.gov)
  • As for the ONJ risk factors, Dr. Bilezikian states: 'Predisposing factors for the development of osteonecrosis of the jaw appear to be dental disease, dental surgery (e.g., tooth extraction), oral trauma, periodontitis, and poor dental hygiene. (drug-injury.com)
  • We selected the following preferred terms: osteonecrosis of the jaws, osteonecrosis, osteomyelitis. (bmj.com)
  • When osteomyelitis occurs in the mouth, it typically occurs as an infection of the lower jaw. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Two recent medical journal articles provide information about how osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) may be caused by Fosamax and other bisphosphonates as well as identify some of the predisposing, or risk, factors for developing ONJ. (drug-injury.com)
  • WHITEHOUSE STATION, N.J.-(BUSINESS WIRE)-Merck & Co., Inc. today said a federal court jury in New York found in its favor in the Graves v. Merck case, rejecting the claims of a Florida woman who blamed her dental and jaw related problems on her FOSAMAX use. (merck.com)
  • We believe the evidence showed the company acted properly, and that FOSAMAX did not cause the plaintiff's dental and jaw problems," said Mike Brock of Covington & Burling LLP, outside counsel for Merck. (merck.com)
  • Unfortunately, the plaintiff had multiple medical conditions that can cause people to develop jaw and dental problems, regardless of whether they were taking FOSAMAX. (merck.com)
  • The plaintiff in this case alleged she used FOSAMAX from 2001 to 2004 and that she suffered various jaw problems and complications following a tooth extraction in March 2003, including several surgeries to treat her condition. (merck.com)
  • Bisphosphonate medications include alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), and ibandronate (Boniva). (rheumatology.org)
  • A recent study of over 13,000 patients by researchers at the University of California School of Dentistry and published in the Journal of the American Dental Association found that 1 out 25 patients taking Fosamax (alendronate) suffered from osteonecrosis of the jaw while no cases were found among patients without a history of Fosamax use. (holtorfmed.com)
  • This includes a large study of 1700 women published in Archives of Internal Medicine that demonstrated that current and past users of bisphosphonate medication such as Fosamax, Actonel, Reclast, and Boniva had significantly increased risk of potentially fatal heart arrhythmias. (holtorfmed.com)
  • Fosamax, along with other drugs like Actonel and Boniva, is a part of a class of drugs known as bisphosphonates. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Pain and neuropathy Erythema and suppuration Bad breath Post radiation maxillary bone osteonecrosis is something that is found more in the lower jaw (mandible) rather than the maxilla (upper jaw) this is because there are many more blood vessels in the upper jaw. (wikipedia.org)
  • CT scan showing osteonecrosis of the lower jaw with an arrow pointing to a fracture. (cancer.gov)
  • The unique predisposition for bony necrosis in the jaw may be related to the microenvironment in the maxilla and mandible secondary to compromised vascular supply and presence of oral microflora that may super-infect a poorly healing wound in the jaw bone. (drug-injury.com)
  • The mean onset of when their jaw necrosis developed was three to 12 weeks from the day they had a negative PCR test, the authors wrote. (drbicuspid.com)
  • As potent inhibitors of osteoclast activity, the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates might retard skeletal repair processes associated with trauma to or infection of the oral mucosa that involves the underlying bone. (drug-injury.com)
  • Other potential mechanisms include the possible antiangiogenic effects of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates and the effects of these agents on T-cell function. (drug-injury.com)
  • Although spontaneous osteonecrosis is reported in a minority of cases, the majority of patients give a history of some prior dental or oral surgical manipulation. (drug-injury.com)
  • Survivors of COVID-19 may be at risk of developing spontaneous osteonecrosis of the jaw, according to a case series published June 14 in BMC Infectious Diseases . (drbicuspid.com)
  • Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a condition found in patients who have received intravenous and oral forms of bisphosphonate therapy for various bone-related conditions. (medscape.com)
  • Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is thought to be caused by trauma to dentoalveolar structures that have a limited capacity for bone healing due to the effects of bisphosphonate therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Several studies of patients with multiple myeloma and patients with breast cancer who received intravenous aminobisphosphonate therapy for metastatic bone lesions demonstrated 6-11% of the patients developed bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). (medscape.com)
  • The clinical pattern was described for the first time by Marx RE in 2003, who observed the development of jaws osteonecrosis in patients underwent to Multiple Myeloma and Mammary Cancer therapy [2]. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • Osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with bisphosphonate therapy, which is required by some cancer treatment regimens, has been identified and defined as a pathological entity (bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw) since 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • A thorough history and assessment of pre-existing systemic problems and possible sites of dental infection are required to help prevent the condition, especially if bisphosphonate therapy is considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral infection is considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ), and antibiotic therapy has become a mainstay of BRONJ therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Patients may be considered to have bisphosphonaterelated ONJ if they have current or previous treatment with a bisphosphonate and have exposed or necrotic bone in the maxillofacial region that has persisted for more than eight weeks with no history of radiation therapy to the jaws 2 . (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Patients administered with bisphosphonates, steroids, chemotherapy, thalidomide, interferon, and hormone therapy had a significantly higher association between decreased salivary flow and MRONJ occurrence. (frontiersin.org)
  • Saag noted that, at the outset of bisphosphonate therapy, steps can be taken to reduce some of the risks. (medpagetoday.com)
  • He cited 2011 data indicating that, for bisphosphonate therapy, the number needed to harm for atypical fracture was 417 over 3 years, whereas the number needed to treat for osteoporotic hip and vertebral fracture was 91 and 14, respectively. (medpagetoday.com)
  • If undergoing an invasive procedure of the jaw (tooth extraction) or a history of malignancy and/or dental infections while on bisphosphonate therapy. (rheumatology.org)
  • A systemic contraindication systemic bisphosphonate therapy for malignancy. (medscape.com)
  • Given that bisphosphonates have been associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), perform a routine oral examination prior to administration of BONIVA Injection. (drugs.com)
  • An increased incidence of ONJ has been associated with the use of high dosages of bisphosphonates required by some cancer treatment regimens. (yourlawyer.com)
  • The incidence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) has been strongly correlated with the aminobisphosphonates pamidronate (Aredia) and zoledronic acid (Zometa) and is even higher in patients who have had recent dental extractions. (medscape.com)
  • In 98% (671) of the reports the suspect drug is at least one bisphosphonate (BP) (zoledronic acid in 74.5%) and 67.5% of the reports come from 10, mainly academic, health structures. (bmj.com)
  • In a literature review of case reports, the minimum onset time was 10 months with zoledronic acid, 18 months with pamidronic acid and three years with oral bisphosphonate treatment 6 . (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • The average cumulative minimum dose prior to diagnosis was 49mg for zoledronic acid, 2,217mg for pamidronic acid and 13,870mg for oral bisphosphonates 6 . (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • The risk of zoledronic acid causing osteonecrosis of the jaw in people with cancer in their bones, the study found, is about 1% after a year of being on the drug, 2% after 2 years, and 3% after 3 years. (cancer.gov)
  • The study results, published December 17 in JAMA Oncology , also showed that people who received the same dose of zoledronic acid more frequently had a greater risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw. (cancer.gov)
  • This is one of the first studies to systematically evaluate dental health and the risk for developing osteonecrosis of the jaw with zoledronic acid," said Lori Minasian, M.D., deputy director of NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention , who helped facilitate the study but was not a study investigator. (cancer.gov)
  • Zoledronic acid and similar drugs, known as bisphosphonates , interfere with the breakdown of bone tissue that results when cancer cells grow in the bone. (cancer.gov)
  • To assess the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw in people with cancer, the SWOG study team, which included dental specialists as well as cancer researchers, enrolled 3,491 patients who were planning to receive zoledronic acid for metastatic bone cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • In addition, patients who received more total doses of zoledronic acid within the first year of treatment (or longer) were more likely to develop osteonecrosis of the jaw than those who received fewer doses. (cancer.gov)
  • The most common of these drugs are bisphosphonates, such as alendronate , risedronate , ibandronate , and zoledronate. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Since then, several more cases of esophageal cancer associated with bisphosphonate use have been reported to the FDA, bringing the total to 34. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Bisphosphonates have also been associated with several serious side effects, including increased risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw, with esophagitis, and with esophageal cancer. (drweitz.com)
  • Bisphosphonate induced and radiation induced osteonecrosis can also have an apparently destructive appearance. (bmj.com)
  • Ulcers with exposure of underlying bone may be caused by osteoradionecrosis (in patients with a history of radiation treatment) or bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis (in patients taking oral or intravenously administered bisphosphonates). (jcda.ca)
  • Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) manifests as exposed, nonvital bone involving the maxillofacial structures. (medscape.com)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may also be beneficial in the assessment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). (medscape.com)
  • Surgical intervention for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) remains limited because of the impaired ability of the bone to heal. (medscape.com)
  • Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is relatively new to the medical and dental literature. (medscape.com)
  • The true incidence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) has yet to be determined. (medscape.com)
  • Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a condition in which bones of the maxillofacial skeleton, in particular the tooth-bearing areas, become necrotic and exposed to the oral cavity. (medscape.com)
  • Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) can be spontaneous, commonly appearing in the mylohyoid ridge area. (medscape.com)
  • Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) may also be caused by trauma, such as a tooth extraction or dental surgery. (medscape.com)
  • [ 7 , 8 ] Injury to the bone in these patients via tooth extraction, dental surgery, or mechanical trauma is thought to initiate bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). (medscape.com)
  • The bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is defined as a drug-adverse reaction that involves the maxillary bones. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • Summary: The administration of teriparatide (TPTD) in conjunction with periodontal care could provide faster and more favorable clinical outcomes in previously refractory bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) cases compared to conventional dental care, combination of surgery and antimicrobial treatment. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Background Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have been increasing since 2002. (bmj.com)
  • Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is an adverse drug reaction, described as an exposed necrotic bone or a bone that can be probed through an intraoral or extraoral fistula in the maxillofacial region, that persists for more than 8 weeks in patients without a history of radiotherapy or disease metastasis to the jaws ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • None of the patients reported any history of head and neck radiotherapy or taking bisphosphonate or other antiresorptive or antiangiogenic medications. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Use of these medications for more than a few years is associated with inability to repair and heal even micro-cracks that occur with normal daily activities and is associated with osteonecrosis (disintegration of the excessively brittle bone). (holtorfmed.com)
  • Treatment with medications such as oral anticoagulants and bisphosphonates might cause postoperative complications and necessitate special care and medical treatment adaptation. (medscape.com)
  • Though many patients recover from COVID-19, clinicians should be aware of the potential complications, including osteonecrosis in the maxillofacial region, they can experience after recovery, the authors wrote. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Between January and August 2021, 12 patients prescribed corticosteroids as treatment for COVID-19 developed spontaneous maxillary osteonecrosis. (drbicuspid.com)
  • The AAOMS's 2022 update to its position paper on medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) lists medication families that have been implicated as risk factors for the condition since the 2014 update. (medscape.com)
  • The symptoms of this are very similar to the symptoms of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). (wikipedia.org)
  • This systematic review was performed to assess the potential influence of medication-induced salivary changes on the development of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Your jaw is a set of bones that holds your teeth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is a rare risk of developing damage to the cells within the bones of the jaw called osteonecrosis. (rheumatology.org)
  • The discrepancy in bone development between orofacial bones and long axial/appendicular bones give rises to specific diseases in the orofacial bone region, such as periodontitis, cherubism, and hyperparathyroid jaw tumor syndrome, which only affect the jaw bones. (ca.gov)
  • The brittle bones caused by bisphosphonates use is not limited to the jaw. (holtorfmed.com)
  • It commonly results from a temporary or permanent loss of blood flow to the bones which causes bone tissue to die and the collapse of the jaw. (freeadvice.com)
  • 2011. A review of the clinical implications of bisphosphonates in dentistry. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Bisphosphonates work by reducing the turnover of bone which lowers the risk of fracture. (rheumatology.org)
  • The fracture toughness of small animal cortical bone measured using arc-shaped tension specimens: Effects of bisphosphonate and deproteinization treatments. (iu.edu)
  • Bone brittleness and fracture risk increase with increasing duration of bisphosphonate use even if bone density continually improves. (holtorfmed.com)
  • Extraction may also be contraindicated when it is adjacent to the site of jaw fracture, because the teeth may be required for stabilization of the fractured bone. (medscape.com)
  • These patients often exhibit common symptoms such as pain, infection with purulent discharge, jaw discomfort, paresthesia, malodor, and non-healing extraction site ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Osteonecrosis of the jaw, generally associated with tooth extraction and/or local infection, with delayed healing, has been reported in patients taking bisphosphonates. (merck.com)
  • The osteonecrosis resulted in infection, loss of teeth, and exposed non-healing bone. (holtorfmed.com)
  • These are believed to be the first reported cases of jaw osteonecrosis following SARS-CoV-2 infection. (drbicuspid.com)
  • As reported previously, there is increasing attention being paid to the association between the use of oral bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) , the serious side effect which is commonly called jawbone death, bone decay, or jaw rot. (drug-injury.com)
  • The first three reported cases of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw were spontaneously reported to the FDA by an oral surgeon in 2002, with the toxicity being described as a potentially late toxicity of chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003 and 2004, three oral surgeons independently reported to the FDA information on 104 cancer patients with bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw seen in their referral practices in California, Florida, and New York. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence of ONJ associated with oral bisphosphonate treatment is much lower, possibly in the region of one in 60 thousand 5 . (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • In 2003, oral surgeons first noticed that some patients receiving bisphosphonates were developing osteonecrosis of the jaw-a condition rarely seen before then. (cancer.gov)
  • Dr. Sedghizadeh DDS, the lead researcher of this study states, "We've been told that the risk with oral bisphosphonates is negligible, but it is not negligible. (holtorfmed.com)
  • With the increasing rate of COVID-19, the general dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons must be best prepared and positioned for the early identification and prevention of PC-RONJ (post-COVID-19-related osteonecrosis of the jaw) to avoid permanent deformity," wrote the authors, led by Yehia El-Mahallawy of Alexandria University in Egypt. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Atraumatic teeth extraction in bisphosphonate-treated patients" by Regev E, Lustmann J, Nashev R. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. (allenpress.com)
  • Osteonecrosis of the jaw may also occur spontaneously. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Since the jawbones are in constant use and are characterized by active remodeling, bisphosphonates might accumulate there preferentially, resulting in concentrations that exceed those found elsewhere in the skeleton. (drug-injury.com)
  • This is less of an issue with bisphosphonates, which accumulate in bone and are actually re-released into the circulation at pharmacologically active levels (perhaps contributing to their adverse effects). (medpagetoday.com)
  • for example, removing the wrong tooth is malpractice, as is breaking the jaw during extraction or causing paresthesia after extracting the mandibular third molar in close proximity to the inferior alveolar nerve without proper informed consent or suggesting an alternative such as coronectomy. (medscape.com)
  • Several investigators have identified increasing duration of exposure, type of bisphosphonate, older age and prior history of a dental procedure as risk factors for the development of ONJ. (drug-injury.com)
  • 2011. Epidemiology and risk factors for osteonecrosis of the jaw in cancer patients. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • 2006. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and bisphosphonates-putting the risk in perspective. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • The NCI-funded study, run by the SWOG Cancer Research Network, also found that poor dental health and smoking were risk factors for developing osteonecrosis of the jaw in these patients. (cancer.gov)
  • And patients can also play a role in reducing the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw, Dr. Minasian said. (cancer.gov)
  • Note: These drugs increase the risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). (lls.org)
  • There are a number of studies that demonstrate that the use of bisphosphonates is associated with an increased risk of heart arrhythmias. (holtorfmed.com)
  • This paper presents an alternate technique for extracting hopeless teeth in patients with a risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). (allenpress.com)
  • This risk increases with the increased duration of the use of the bisphosphonate. (drweitz.com)
  • The jaws are particularly sensitive to osteonecrosis due to high bone turnover resulting from daily activity and the presence of teeth 1 . (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Signs and symptoms of ONJ may include: jaw pain, swelling of the gums, loose teeth, drainage, exposed jaw bone, numbness, or a feeling of heaviness in the jaw. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Ten patients who had been taking bisphosphonates and had nonrestorable teeth (15 in total) were included in the study. (allenpress.com)
  • In part two of this series, sub-titled 'What Patients Should Know About The Signs And Symptoms As Well As Diagnostic Staging' , we get from these same two medical journal articles some important information about the early signs and symptoms of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) as well as the extent, or staging, of ONJ upon diagnosis. (drug-injury.com)
  • These drugs have a number of side effects, and a new complication known as biphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis (BaO) was recently identified. (bvsalud.org)
  • ONJ is a condition in which the bone tissue in the jaw fails to heal after minor trauma such as a tooth extraction, causing the bone to be exposed. (yourlawyer.com)
  • This can occur any- where but the jaw appears to be particularly susceptible and can result in tooth loss or even jaw disintegration with relatively minor procedures such as tooth extraction. (holtorfmed.com)
  • For example, optimizing dental health before starting treatment can prevent osteonecrosis of the jaw, or at least the clinical problems stemming from it. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Following various periods of COVID-19 disease and its management, each patient showed a mutual clinical picture and spontaneous, unprovoked maxillary osteonecrosis. (drbicuspid.com)
  • A variant clinical picture, which may be present in patients with post-COVID-19-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Prediction of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws using machine learning methods from estrogen receptor 1 polymorphisms and clinical information. (cdc.gov)
  • Our bisphosphonate lawyers are investigating injuries associated with this class of drugs. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Our bisphosphonate lawyers are currently offering free case evaluations to victims of these injuries. (yourlawyer.com)
  • As a result of bisphosphonate drug injuries, many doctors are recommending that patients take a drug holiday. (freeadvice.com)
  • But such drugs can have harmful side effects, including osteonecrosis of the jaw, a rare but potentially debilitating condition in which bone tissue in the jaw is no longer covered by the gums and starts to die. (cancer.gov)
  • Post updated on September 27, 2018 Bisphosphonates are a cathegory of drugs that inhibit bone remodelling mediated by osteochlasts. (zerodonto.com)
  • Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a severe bone disease (osteonecrosis) that affects the jaws (the maxilla and the mandible). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the association of these medicines with ONJ, the benefits of bisphosphonate treatment are still considered to outweigh the risks of experiencing this condition. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Treatment of jaw problems depends on the cause. (medlineplus.gov)
  • He credited the ACP guideline with highlighting the need for awareness of bisphosphonates' adverse effects and the concept of interrupting treatment. (medpagetoday.com)
  • After reviewing data from 2,342 women the agency stated that there is "little benefit of continued bisphosphonate treatment beyond 5 years. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Bisphosphonates (BF) pharmacokinetics consist in the osteoclast function interruption, angiogenesis inhibition, as well as blocking any cancer cell line activity together with the interruption of signal transduction [3]. (peertechzpublications.com)