Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Histamine H2 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.Furazolidone: A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone acts by gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)Dimercaprol: An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.Tinidazole: A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Germanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.Klatskin's Tumor: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sucralfate: A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Radiation ProtectionHydrocarbons, IodinatedAntimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.Gastric Mucins: Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Thymolphthalein: Used as a pH indicator and as a reagent for blood after decolorizing the alkaline solution by boiling with zinc dust.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Antidiarrheals: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Antitrichomonal Agents: Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate: A macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. This compound is an ester of erythromycin base and succinic acid. It acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Sulfoxides: Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Myoclonus: Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Prosthesis Coloring: Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Lansoprazole: A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Indium: A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.NitroimidazolesRadiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Metallothionein: A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Aminosalicylic Acids: A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions.Glycocalyx: The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Exanthema: Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth (ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM), and sixth (EXANTHEMA SUBITUM) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology.CitratesElectrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Peptide Elongation Factor 1: Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Antimicrobial activities of synthetic bismuth compounds against Clostridium difficile. (1/408)

Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and many cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Because of potential relapse of disease with current antimicrobial therapy protocols, there is a need for additional and/or alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of disease caused by C. difficile. We have synthesized a systematic series of 14 structurally simple bismuth compounds and assessed their biological activities against C. difficile and four other gastrointestinal species, including Helicobacter pylori. Here, we report on the activities of six compounds that exhibit antibacterial activities against C. difficile, and some of the compounds have MICs of less than 1 microgram/ml. Also tested, for comparison, were the activities of bismuth subcitrate and ranitidine bismuth citrate obtained from commercial sources. C. difficile and H. pylori were more sensitive both to the synthetic bismuth compounds and to the commercial products than were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis, and the last three species were markedly resistant to the commercial bismuth salts. Testing with human foreskin fibroblast cells revealed that some of the synthetic compounds were more cytotoxic than others. Killing curves for C. difficile treated with the more active compounds revealed rapid death, and electron microscopy showed that the bismuth of these compounds was rapidly incorporated by C. difficile. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray microanalysis of C. difficile cells containing electron-dense material confirmed the presence of internalized bismuth. Internalized bismuth was not observed in C. difficile treated with synthetic bismuth compounds that lacked antimicrobial activity, which suggests that the uptake of the metal is required for killing activity. The nature of the carrier would seem to determine whether bismuth is transported into susceptible bacteria like C. difficile.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori eradication with proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapies and re-treatment with ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy. (2/408)

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that short-term triple therapy comprising a proton pump inhibitor, plus clarithromycin and amoxycillin be used as first choice in treating H. pylori infection, while eradication failure patients should be further treated with a quadruple therapy. Nevertheless, conflicting results have been reported using these treatment regimens in different countries. METHODS: A total of 278 patients with H. pylori infection were randomised to receive one-week triple therapy, comprising clarithromycin 500 mg b.d., amoxycillin 1 g b.d., and either omeprazole 20 mg b.d. (OAC; 90 patients), or pantoprazole 40 mg b.d. (PAC; 95 patients), or lansoprazole 30 mg b.d. (LAC; 93 patients). H. pylori infection at entry, and eradication 4-6 weeks after therapy had ended, were assessed by rapid urease test and histology on biopsies from the antrum and the corpus. When eradication did not occur, patients were given a 2-week treatment comprising ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg b.d., tetracycline 500 mg t.d.s. and tinidazole 500 mg b.d. (RBTT). Eradication in these patients was assessed 4-6 weeks after conclusion of treatment by a further endoscopy. RESULTS: Six patients were lost to the follow-up. At the end of the first course of treatment, the overall H. pylori eradication rate was 78% (95% CI: 73-83) and 79% (95% CI: 75-84) at 'intention-to-treat' (ITT) and 'per protocol' (PP) analysis, respectively, without any statistically significant difference between treatment regimens, although a trend for better results with the omeprazole combination was observed. Moreover, H. pylori eradication was achieved in 82% (95% CI: 75-97) (ITT) and 86% (95% CI: 69-94) (PP) of 38 patients re-treated with RBTT regimen. CONCLUSIONS: Our data found that this short-term triple therapy is not a satisfactory treatment (< 80% eradication rate) for H. pylori infection. The 2-week triple therapy used as re-treatment in eradication failure patients yielded more promising results.  (+info)

Ranitidine bismuth citrate, tetracycline, clarithromycin twice-a-day triple therapy for clarithromycin susceptible Helicobacter pylori infection. (3/408)

BACKGROUND: Although many combination therapies have been proposed, there is still interest in identifying simple, inexpensive, effective protocols that have high rates of success. AIM: To investigate the role of the new soluble form of bismuth, ranitidine bismuth citrate, in twice-a-day therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection. METHODS: Patients with histologically and culture proven H. pylori infection received ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg, tetracycline HCl 500 mg, and clarithromycin 500 mg, each b.d. for 14 days, followed by 300 mg ranitidine once a day for 4 additional weeks. Outcome was assessed 4 or more weeks after the end of antimicrobial therapy by repeat endoscopy with histology and culture (49 patients) or urea breath testing (14 patients). RESULTS: Sixty-three patients completed the therapy, 59 men and four women (average age 56.7 years; range 31-75 years). All patients had clarithromycin-susceptible strains prior to therapy. H. pylori infection was cured in 94% (95% CI: 85-98%). There was a therapy failure in one patient who took the medicine for only 1 day and stopped because of side-effects. Three of the isolates from treatment failures were available post-failure; two were clarithromycin-resistant and one was susceptible. Side-effects were severe in two patients (3%) and moderate in three (primarily diarrhoea). CONCLUSIONS: Twice-a-day ranitidine bismuth citrate, tetracycline, clarithromycin triple therapy was well tolerated and effective for the treatment of H. pylori infection in patients with clarithromycin-susceptible H. pylori.  (+info)

The influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate triple therapy regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection. (4/408)

AIM: To assess the influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy regimens in two consecutive studies. METHODS: In the first study, patients with a culture-proven Helicobacter pylori infection were treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg, metronidazole 500 mg, and clarithromycin 500 mg, all twice daily for 1 week (RMC). In the second study, amoxycillin 1000 mg was substituted for clarithromycin (RMA). Susceptibility testing for metronidazole was performed with the E-test. Follow-up endoscopy was performed after >/= 4 weeks. Antral biopsy samples were taken for histology and urease test, and culture and corpus samples for histology and culture. RESULTS: 112 patients, 53 males, age 55 +/- 14 years (39 duodenal ulcer, 7 gastric ulcer and 66 gastritis) were treated with RMC, and 89 patients, 52 males, age 58 +/- 15 years (23 duodenal ulcer, 7 gastric ulcer and 59 gastritis) were treated with RMA. For RMC, intention-to-treat eradication results were 98% (59/60, 95% CI: 91-100%) and 95% (20/21, 95% CI: 76-100%) for metronidazole susceptible and resistant strains, respectively (P = 0.45). For RMA these figures were 87% (53/61, 95% CI: 76-94%) for metronidazole susceptible strains and 22% (2/9, 95% CI: 3-60%) for resistant strains (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Both regimens are effective in metronidazole susceptible strains. However, in contrast to the amoxycillin-containing regimen, that containing clarithromycin is also effective in resistant strains.  (+info)

Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection after ranitidine bismuth citrate, metronidazole and tetracycline for 7 or 10 days. (5/408)

BACKGROUND: We assessed the efficacy, tolerance, and compliance of twice-daily triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori with ranitidine bismuth citrate, metronidazole and tetracycline for 7 or 10 days. METHODS: 105 subjects with H. pylori infection documented by the 13C-urea breath test were randomly assigned to a 7 or 10-day course of ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg b.d., metronidazole 500 mg b.d. and tetracycline 500 mg b.d. Subjects returned at the end of therapy for assessment of side-effects and pill count. A repeat 13C-urea breath test was obtained 4 or more weeks after completion of therapy and cure of infection was defined as a negative test result. RESULTS: Poor compliance (< 80% of medications) was seen in 2% of subjects randomized to 7 days of therapy and in 10% randomized to 10 days of therapy (P = N.S.). Intention-to-treat eradication rates were 56% for 7-day and 60% for 10-day therapy (P = N.S.). Per protocol eradication rates were 58% for 7-day and 61% for 10-day therapy (P = N.S.). The 10-day intention-to-treat eradication rate for males was 78% and 32% for females (P < 0.01) and per protocol eradication rates were 79% and 31%, respectively (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Despite excellent compliance and tolerance, neither 7 nor 10 days of therapy with twice-daily ranitidine bismuth citrate, metronidazole and tetracycline are adequate as a treatment of H. pylori infection.  (+info)

Efficacy of a 1-week regimen of ranitidine bismuth citrate in combination with metronidazole and clarithromycin for Helicobacter pylori eradication. (6/408)

BACKGROUND: In order to improve the efficacy and simplicity of the FDA-approved regimen of ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) and clarithromycin dual therapy, we added an inexpensive antibiotic (metronidazole), changed the dosage scheme to twice daily dosing, and decreased the duration of therapy to 1 week. METHODS: This was an open label study in which subjects with previously untreated Helicobacter pylori infection documented by serology or endoscopy and confirmed by the 13C-urea breath test received a 1-week course of RBC 400 mg b.d., metronidazole 500 mg b.d. and clarithromycin 500 mg b.d. A repeat breath test was performed 4-6 weeks after completing therapy. RESULTS: Forty-seven out of 50 subjects completed the protocol. Intention-to-treat and per protocol cure rates were 86% and 91%, respectively. The regimen was well tolerated. Study drugs were stopped in two patients due to side-effects. The most common side-effect was self-limited diarrhoea. CONCLUSION: Twice daily RBC-based triple therapy with metronidazole and clarithromycin for 1 week is well tolerated and effective in eradicating H. pylori infection.  (+info)

Spiramycin is comparable to oxytetracycline in eradicating H. pylori when given with ranitidine bismuth citrate and metronidazole. (7/408)

BACKGROUND: We have consistently achieved about 90% eradication of H. pylori with liquid bismuth, metronidazole and oxytetracycline. AIM: To test eradication and adverse events of ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) when given with metronidazole and either oxytetracycline or spiramycin. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-three patients were randomized to one of four 10-day regimens: RBC400OM: RBC 400 mg b.d., oxytetracycline 500 mg q.d.s.; RBC400SM: RBC 400 mg b.d., spiramycin 1 g q.d.s.; RBC200OM: RBC 200 mg q.d.s., oxytetracycline 500 mg q.d.s.; RBC200SM: RBC 200 mg q.d.s., spiramycin 1 g q.d.s. Additionally, all patients received metronidazole 400 mg q.d.s. A 14C-urea breath test was performed at 8 weeks. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat eradication rates were 94%, 91%, 94% and 89% with RBC400OM, RBC400SM, RBC200OM and RBC200SM, respectively (P = 0.81). Eradication was significantly higher in ulcer patients (97%) than in those with diagnoses other than ulcer (86%) (P = 0.009). There was a strong tendency to better eradication among those who had never smoked (100%) compared with ex-smokers (93%) and smokers (89%) (P = 0.06). Fifty-three per cent experienced at least one moderate or severe adverse event, and women had more adverse events than men (P = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: All four regimens had comparable efficacy and adverse events. Eradication was significantly better in ulcer patients but there was a trend to better eradication in those who smoked less, used less alcohol and exercised more. Adverse events were frequent, perhaps because of the large dose of metronidazole used, but few patients stopped treatment.  (+info)

Prospective evaluation of ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. (8/408)

BACKGROUND: There is a need for effective and inexpensive therapy for Helicobacter pylori with good patient compliance. AIM: To evaluate a simplified twice daily schedule for treating H. pylori. METHODS: Patients infected with H. pylori (positive by CLO- and 13C-urea breath tests [UBT]) and not previously treated with anti-H. pylori therapy were treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) and two inexpensive antibiotics (metronidazole, tetracycline) twice daily for 14 days in an open-label study. Eradication was established by a negative UBT 4 weeks after ending therapy. RESULTS: Twenty men and 30 women (age 54+/-14 years, range 26-74) were included in the study. Five patients were prematurely withdrawn (side-effects 2, took additional antibiotics 2 and surgery 1) and one patient was lost to follow-up; therefore, 44 (88%) patients completed the H. pylori eradication protocol. Per protocol (PP) cure rate was 82% (36/44 patients, 95% CI: 68-95%), and intention-to-treat cure rate was 72% (36/50 patients, 95% CI: 58-82%). Five patients (10%) developed side-effects during therapy, most commonly nausea (3 patients). Four weeks after the end of treatment, 78% (PP) of patients were symptomatically improved. CONCLUSIONS: A 2-week course of twice-daily RBC-based triple therapy was well tolerated, eradicated H. pylori in 72% (ITT) and 82% (PP) of patients, respectively, and relieved symptoms in 78%.  (+info)

Looking for bismuth subnitrate? Find out information about bismuth subnitrate. 4BiNO3 2· BiO A white, hygroscopic powder; used in bismuth salts, perfumes, cosmetics, ceramic enamels, pharmaceuticals, and analytical chemistry Explanation of bismuth subnitrate
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of ranitidine bismuth citrate plus clarithromycin given for 1 wk in Brazilian patients with peptic ulcer. METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with peptic ulcer were randomized in two treatment groups: (1) 1-wk regimen consisting of ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg b.i.d. with clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. or (2) 2-wk regimen of the same treatment. Eradication of the infection was considered when both the histologic examination and the urease test were negative for the infection 3 mo after treatment. RESULTS: By intention to treat analysis, Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) was eradicated in 73% and 76% of patients, respectively treated for 1 or 2 wk (P,0.05). By per protocol analysis, the eradication rates were 80% and 83%, respectively, in patients treated for 1 or 2 wk (P,0.05). Nine patients (8.2%) reported minor side effects. CONCLUSION: One-week therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate and clarithromycin is safe, well tolerated and effective for ...
bismuth subsalicylate 14882-18-9 safety info, bismuth subsalicylate chemical safety search, Chemical bismuth subsalicylate safety technical specifications ect.
Bismuth subsalicylate is an antacid and anti-diarrhea medication. Bismuth subsalicylate is used to treat diarrhea, nausea, heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. Bismuth subsalicylate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Bismuth Subnitrate Kenei is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Bismuth Subnitrate Kenei is available on the Drugs.com website.
Some photos of bismuth subnitrate under the microscope (magnification 250 x) and in polarized light. The artificially grown crystals have a rotating plane of polarization which produces the rainbow colors.
Abdar Esfahani M, Ahmadi N, Keikha M, Adibi P, Sharma N, Moayyedi P. Antacids, sucralfate and bismuth salts for functional dyspepsia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD012686. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. ...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Citric acid, ammonium bismuth salt Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
Bismuth subsalicylate can be useful in the prevention and treatment of travelers diarrhea. Antibiotic prophylaxis is not routinely recommended. Treatment is typically with a fluoroquinolone or azithromycin. One recommended fluid replacement is: 1L of water with 1/2 tsp salt, 1/2 tsp baking soda, and 4 tbsp sugar ...
Leader Stomach Relief with NDC 70000-0439 is a a human over the counter drug product labeled by Cardinal Health. The generic name of Leader Stomach Relief is bismuth subsalicylate.
Learn everything you need to know about bismuth subsalicylate (kaopectate) and its nursing considerations incluing classification and common side effects
A Major Drug Interaction exists between bismuth subsalicylate and Diamox. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
Bismuth compounds have been used for centuries in medicine. The discovery of H. pylori in 1983 led to renewed interest in bismuth compounds, because these were found to successfully treat the infection in combination with antibiotics. However, in the 1970s bismuth salts, used at high doses for prolonged periods, were found to lead to neurotoxicity. There has been no summary of evidence for the toxicity of bismuth when used for short periods as part of H. pylori eradication therapy.. A research article to be published on December 28, 2008 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology addresses this question. The research team led by Professor Paul Moayyedi from McMaster University, Canada performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the safety of bismuth compounds, when used in a 1 or 2-week course of H. pylori eradication therapy. They examined the risk of adverse events in randomized controlled trials using bismuth compounds as part of H. pylori eradication therapy compared to other ...
Eugenol, the main constituent of clove oil possesses a number of medicinal activities. To enhance the medicinal property, structural modification is required. On the other hand, bismuth nitrate pentahydrate has been established as an excellent eco-friendly nitrating agent for several classes of organic compounds. Bismuth nitrate pentahydrate-induced nitration of eugenol has been investigated very thoroughly. Twenty five different conditions have been studied. The microwave-induced solvent-free reaction has been identified as the best condition. Spectral analyses confirm that 5-nitroeugenol is the sole product in all the cases. No oxidized or isomerized product could be detected.
GastroMycin with bismuth salts (Hypoallergenic) 150 capsules A unique blend of bismuth salts with licorice and other plant based supportive nutrients. Formulated to help maintain an environment within the lumen conducive to a healthy balance of microflora. May be used in combination with Item no. 73660 Mastica (mastic gum). Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement, 4 capsules three or four times daily with meals, or as directed by a healthcare practitioner. Do not use longer than two months without the supervision of a healthcare practitioner. Serving Size 4 capsules Servings per container 37 Amount per serving: Bismuth (as Bismuth Subsalicylate) 240 mg Licorice (root) extract, deglycyrrhizinated 200 mg Grapefruit (seed) extract 300 mg Goldenseal (root) extract 200 mg Aloe vera concentrate (200:1) 40 mg Activated charcoal 200 mg Other ingredients: Gelatin, cellulose, magnesium stearate. These nutrients are of the highest quality and purity obtainable, free of all common allergens (antigens), and do
Business Directory for Bismuth Citrate Suppliers in Mumbai - Get contact details of Bismuth Citrate Manufacturers, Wholesale Bismuth Citrate Exporters, Best Bismuth Citrate Traders & Distributors Across the Mumbai.
Bismuth nitrate pentahydrate | BiH10N3O14 | CID 160911 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
A bismuth compound, bismuth oxychloride, is used in some cosmetics to give either a matte or a shiny finish depending on particle size. Other bismuth compounds, bismuth(III) oxide and bismuth subcarbonate, are used in fireworks to give crackling effects. These compounds are formed into granules, the rapid combustion of which gives the crackling effect.. Bismuth-containing compounds are also found in medicines to treat stomach aches and diarrhoea. The best-known example is Pepto-Bismol (bismuth subsalicylate), an antacid.. Remember, you can keep track of all of the previous entries in this series on the site here, or on the Royal Society of Chemistrys dedicated page.. ...
Gastricur information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Laboratorios Bioquimico Argentino, Gastricur indications, usages and related health products lists
Most of the transition metal bismuth salts have excellent visible absorption range and carrier transport properties due to their unique structure capable of orbits and s-p bonds. As one of the transition metal bismuth salts, Bi3TaO7 is firstly directly prepared on fluorine-doped SnO2 transparent conductive g
Information provided on this Web site is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. You should not use this information on this web site or the information on links from this site to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease without consulting with a qualified healthcare provider. Pharma Professional Services advises you to always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.. You should check with your physician/health care provider before using any of the means or methods presented on this site. If you undertake any treatment methods displayed on this site without such supervision, you are solely and entirely responsible for its outcome. Pharma Professional Services nor anyone connected with this site cannot be held responsible for your actions nor any conditions resulting thereof.. ...
If you also take bismuth salts (eg, bismuth subsalicylate), calcium salts (eg, calcium carbonate), colestipol, iron salts (eg, iron sulfate), magnesium, urinary alkalinizers (eg, daily antacids), sucralfate, vitamins/minerals, quinapril, didanosine, or zinc salts (eg, zinc sulfate), do not take them within 2 to 3 hours before or after taking Minocycline. Check with your doctor if you have questions ...
3. Helidac (Bismuth Subsalicylate/Metronidazole/Tcn) Bismuth subsalicylate is a mild antibiotic. Helitene (Collagen Topical) Helixate FS (Antihemophilic Factor) Antihemophilic factor is a naturally occurring protein in the blood that helps blood to clot
Tell your doctor or health care professional if your symptoms do not start to get better or if they get worse. Do not treat diarrhea for more than 2 days without talking to your doctor or health care professional. Call your doctor or health care professional as soon as you can if you get a fever, or nausea and vomiting. These could be symptoms of a more serious illness.. Drink plenty of clear fluids to help prevent dehydration caused by diarrhea.. ...
This medication is typically used 4 times a day. However, your doctor or pharmacist may have suggested a different schedule that is more appropriate for you. Generally, it is used only as needed. If you forget a dose, take it as soon as you remember -- unless it is almost time for your next dose. In that case, skip the missed dose. Do not double the next dose to catch up. This medication may be taken with or without food. It is recommended to drink plenty of water while using this medication. ...
Tell your doctor or health care professional if your symptoms do not start to get better or if they get worse. Do not treat diarrhea for more than 2 days without talking to your doctor or health care professional. Call your doctor or health care professional as soon as you can if you get a fever, or nausea and vomiting. These could be symptoms of a more serious illness ...
95% reduction in faecal H2S release in both humans and rats. Another bismuth compound, bismuth subnitrate was also shown to bind with H2S. Another study showed that bismuth acted synergistically with various antibiotics to inhibit sulfate-reducing gut bacteria and sulfide production. Some authors proposed a theory that H2S was involved in the development of ulcerative colitis and that bismuth might be helpful in the management of this condition. However, bismuth administration in rats did not prevent them from developing ulcerative colitis despite reduced H2S production. Also, new evidence suggests that colonic H2S is largely present in bound forms, probably sulfides of iron and other metals. Rarely, serious bismuth toxicity may occur with higher doses. Activated charcoal Despite being an ancient treatment for various digestive complaints, activated charcoal did not produce reduction in both the total flatus volume nor the release of sulfur-containing gasses, and there was no reduction in ...
To avoid false-negative test results: Avoid antibiotics, bismuth compounds, or PPIs 2 weeks prior to tests.3. Serologic testing and endoscopy are clearly the most inexpensive and expensive methods, respectively, for diagnosing infection in an untreated patient. Selection of the appropriate test for a patient is dependent upon the clinical situation. With all diagnostic tests except serologic assays, a particularly important consideration is the potential for false-negative results in patients who have taken antibiotics, bismuth compounds, or proton pump inhibitor (PPI) acid suppression in the past 1 to 2 weeks. 3 ...
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Treatment strategies and outcomes of the study population. OAC, omeprazole+amoxicillin+clarithromycin; BAM, bismuth subsalicylate+amoxicillin+metronidazole; UBT
Medications designed to treat ulcers also lower levels of stomach acid. The most common categories of medications include antacids, proton pump inhibitors, bismuth subsalicylate and H2 receptor...
Reichlin s, dieterle t, camli c, stenosis in patients receiving digioxin and diuretic drugs acting through the vagina has not been studied by stimulating 1 -hydroxylase in the terminal phase of the constituent of bile salts, while the effect dissipated after about a fifth category called automatic reflexes under which bacteria, particularly pseudomonas aeruginosa and mycobacterium tuberculosis, can remain extended to prevent and control of reinforcement see reinforcement schedule. The only valid tests are performed but, hypothyroidism from the inhaled steroids. Iii mucosal protective agents: Bismuth salts, pge analogues, sucralfate. For most women, the beneficial effects in some cases even before drug therapy of the uterus toward the uterus. W, et al. She patient is in equilibrium with a diagnosis that includes operative hysteroscopy monopolar the same day after a skill in assessing the overall hypersensitivity of the jaw speci c signs.. can i split a viagra pill viagra prescription philippines ...
American Diabetes Association and the American Dietetic CEREALS/GRAINS/PASTA *Bran cereals concentrated (such as Bran Buds All Bran) Ingredient List: Active Ingredient: Bismuth subsalicylate 525 mg Inactive Ingredients: benzoic acid or pharmacist before use if you are taking any drug for: anticoagulation (thinning the blood) diabetes gout arthritis. Blood Glucose and Hormones - Insulin and Glucagon Antagonistic hormones 3. Cure Pancreatic Cancer Ribbon medication Diabetes Causes Fatigue :: Type 2 Diabetes Research For Cures - The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in type 1 diabetes and gluten free diet As Little as 11 Days. en la historia evolutiva de la enfermedad al curar Health Concern On diagnosis or treatment.. Learn about their use side effects and safety warnings. There are several different types of rice including long-grain basmati black rice white rice and diabetes Brown Rice: Health Benefits & Nutrition Anti-phospho-Insulin Receptor Antibody clone 21G12 is an antibody ...
Digestive Health: Finding diarrhea relief. Diarrhea can be unpleasant, but relief is easy to find. Visit your local pharmacy to try a non-prescription diarrhea reliever, such as: bismuth subsalicylate, other products containing attapulgite or loperamide
Attapulgite is a magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate which occurs in a type of clay soil common to the Southeastern United States. When used in medicine, it physically binds to acids and toxic substances in the stomach and digestive tract. For that reason, it has often been used in antidiarrheal medications. Until 2003, it was the active ingredient used in Kaopectate, before that product was reformulated with bismuth subsalicylate.
Attapulgite is a magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate which occurs in a type of clay soil common to the Southeastern United States. When used in medicine, it physically binds to acids and toxic substances in the stomach and digestive tract. For that reason, it has often been used in antidiarrheal medications. Until 2003, it was the active ingredient used in Kaopectate, before that product was reformulated with bismuth subsalicylate.. ...
There was no available data for acute toxicity for tripotassium citrate. However, read across from citric acid and its other salts is sufficient to fill the information requirements for this endpoint. Information available in the public domain on tests carried out on other salts of this metal indicates that the potassium ions are not expected to contribute to the toxicity of the substance. Additionally, the substance will dissociate when in solution, so exposure will be to the citrate and metal ions separately. Therefore it is possible to freely read across from one citrate salt to another salt and conduct the hazard assessment for tripotassium citrate on the properties of citric acid. The LD50 for citric acid acute oral toxicity is ,5400 mg/kg, which is equivalent to 5400 * 1.59 = 8586 mg/kg tripotassium citrate (using MW(tripotassium citrate)/MW(citric acid) = 306.4/192.9 = 1.59. ...
Lasa Supergenerics Ltd is Bismuth Citrate Manufacturer, Producer and Suppliers exports CAS NO 813-93-4 in India as per requirements customer
Due to its extraordinarily long half-life, for nearly all applications 209Bi can still be treated as if it were non-radioactive. Although 209Bi holds the half-life record for alpha decay, bismuth does not have the longest half-life of any radionuclide to be found experimentally-this distinction belongs to tellurium-128 (128Te) with a half-life estimated at 7.7 × 1024 years by double β-decay (double beta decay).[5]. The half-life value of bismuth-209 was confirmed in 2012 by an Italian team in Gran Sasso who reported (2.01±8)×1019 years, and an even longer half-life, for bismuth-209 alpha decay to the first excited state of thalium-205 at 204 keV, was estimated to be 1.66×1021 years.[6] Even though this value is shorter than the measured half-life of tellurium-128, both alpha decays of bismuth-209 hold the record of the thinnest natural line widths of any measurable physical excitation, estimated respectively at ΔΕ~5.5×10−43 eV and ΔΕ~1.3×10−44 eV in application of the uncertainty ...
Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, the atomic and low energy electronic structure of the Sr-doped superconducting topological insulators (Sr{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}) was studied. Scanning tunneling microscopy shows that most of the Sr atoms are not in the van der Waals gap. After Sr doping, the Fermi level was found to move further upwards when compared with the parent compound Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, which is consistent with the low carrier density in this system. The topological surface state was clearly observed, and the position of the Dirac point was determined in all doped samples. The surface state is well separated from the bulk conduction bands in the momentum space. The persistence of separated topological surface state combined with small Fermi energy makes this superconducting material a very promising candidate for the time reversal invariant topological superconductor. ...
60 consecutive patients with a duodenal ulcer ≥ 5 mm in diameter were enrolled, and 53 finished the study (median age 48 y, 38 men). Exclusion criteria were gastric or pyloric ulcers; use of bismuth compounds or antibiotics during the previous 4 weeks; regular use of corticosteroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or , 100 mg of aspirin; previous ulcer surgery; pregnancy; renal insufficiency; allergies to penicillins; or contraindications to endoscopic biopsy ...
Acosta, Matias; Schmitt, Ljubomira A.; Cazorla, Claudio; Studer, Andrew; Zintler, Alexander; Glaum, Julia; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Donner, Wolfgang; Hoffman, Mark; Rödel, Jürgen; Hinterstein, ...
Bismuth-214 | Bi | CID 6328549 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Linstitut est une unité mixte de recherche (UMR 7588) du CNRS, et de luniversité Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6. Il est dirigé par Bernard Perrin, (...)
Bismuth Citrate C6H5BiO7 bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term contracts & credit cards/PayPal accepted.
other: This study was conducted according to the appropriate OECD test guideline and in compliance with GLP. The study is a read accross from sodium citrate (CAS 68-04-2). ...
Browse many computed properties for this monoclinic K3Gd3(PS4)4 compound, including formation energy from the elements, energy of decomposition into the set of most stable materials at this chemical composition, bulk crystalline density, and band gap. Also known as: Tripotassium trigadolinium tetrathiophosphate(V). Cite this material using DOI 10.17188/1272894.
Bismuth subsalicylate, sold under the brand name Pepto-Bismol, is an antacid medication used to treat temporary discomforts of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, such as diarrhea, indigestion, heartburn and nausea. It is also commonly known as pink bismuth. Bismuth subsalicylate has the empirical chemical formula of C7H5BiO4, and it is a colloidal substance obtained by hydrolysis of bismuth salicylate (Bi(C6H4(OH)CO2)3). The actual structure[clarification needed] is unknown and the formulation is only approximate. As a derivative of salicylic acid, bismuth subsalicylate displays anti-inflammatory and bactericidal action. It also acts as an antacid. There are some adverse effects. It can cause a black tongue and black stools in some users of the drug, when it combines with trace amounts of sulfur in saliva and the colon to form bismuth sulfide. Bismuth sulfide is a highly insoluble black salt, and the discoloration seen is temporary and harmless. Long-term use (greater than 6 weeks) may lead ...
Ranitidine bismuth citrate was compared with an equipotent dose of ranitidine, to determine whether the former, by an anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, would counteract the rise of gastrin resulting from ranitidines gastric acid antisecretory activity. Twenty four men with duodenal ulcers were studied before and on the 8th day of dosing with either ranitidine bismuth citrate 800 mg twice daily or ranitidine 300 mg twice daily (double blind, randomised, parallel groups). Fasting and postprandial plasma gastrin and plasma pepsinogen I and II concentrations were measured, and a 13C-urea breath test was performed before and on the 8th day of dosing. The 13C-urea breath tests were positive in 21 patients before dosing and remained positive in nine of nine of the ranitidine dosed patients, whereas only two of 12 patients treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate remained positive. The expected rise in meal stimulated plasma gastrin with ranitidine was seen in the 12 patients who received ranitidine ...
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This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the addition of chlorobutanol to a suspension of bismuth subsalicylate in oil would produce any untoward effect w
Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate (ra-NI-ti-deen BIZ-muth SIT-rate) Treats duodenal ulcers caused by infections from bacteria called H pylori. Given with an antibiotic called clarithromycin (Biaxin®).
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Bismuth by Jamp Pharma: Bismuth subsalicylate belongs to a class of medications called antacids and adsorbents. It is used to help relieve heartburn, indigestion, upset stomach, nausea, and diarrhea. How bismuth subsalicylate works is not completely understood, but it is thought to work by coating the stomach and intestines (protecting them from stomach acid), by reducing inflammation in the stomach, and by killing certain bacteria.
CHEWABLE BISMUTH TABLETS WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE is a specialty drug on the Reformulary and can be used to treat . Check with your doctor if there are other medications you can take before taking this drug.
Use only if your formulation does NOT contain salicylates. Pepto-Bismol® should not be used in cats since it contains salicylates, the active ingredient in aspirin. Cats are very sensitive to aspirin so it should be avoided. WARNING - PLEASE NOTE THAT THE NEW FORMULATIONS OF KAOPECTATE MAY ALSO HAVE SALICYLATES. Do not use if your formulations lists salicylates as an active ingredient. Any vomiting or diarrhea that persists for more than 24 hours needs your veterinarian's attention. ...
It is important to note that cats are more sensitive to toxicity with salicylates and should never be given this medication.. Signs and symptoms of toxicity: vomiting, diarrhea, melena (dark, tarry stool), abdominal pain, pale gums, altered mental status, difficulty breathing, and dehydration. While some signs may appear within several hours of ingestion, it may take several days for other signs to appear.. Toxic consumption: Do not exceed dosing recommendations from your veterinarian. Report all incidents of accidental ingestion immediately.. References ...
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There are only few discoveries and new technologies in physical sciences that have the potential to dramatically alter and revolutionize our electronic world. Topological insulators are one of them. The present book for the first time provides a full overview and in-depth knowledge about this hot topic in materials science and condensed matter physics. Techniques such as angle-resolved photoemission spectrometry (ARPES), advanced solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or scanning-tunnel microscopy (STM) together with key principles of topological insulators such as spin-locked electronic states, the Dirac point, quantum Hall effects and Majorana fermions are illuminated in individual chapters and are described in a clear and logical form. Written by an international team of experts, many of them directly involved in the very first discovery of topological insulators, the book provides the readers with the knowledge they need to understand the electronic behavior of these unique materials. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a gastric bacterial pathogen of humans; infection is the cause of type B gastritis and is also strongly associated with gastric carcinoma (intestinal type) and gastric MALT lymphoma. Combination antimicrobial therapy (triple therapy with a bismuth salt, metranidazole and a broad spectrum antibiotic) is successful in 80% of Hp-infected symptomatic patients; treatment failures are expressed as recrudescence of infection and clinical signs and are associated with development of antibiotic-resistant microbes and poor patient compliance. In a previous SBIR, we have demonstrated that parenteral immunization with an Hp proteolytic digest prevents colonization in Hp-challenged gnotobiotic swine. Preliminary data suggest that activated T cells and their products, in particular, interferon gamma (IFNg), are central for this immunoprotective effect. An ideal approach to the problem of recrudescence treatment failure is to combine antimicrobial ...
At first glance, bismuth doesnt seem to be particularly extraordinary. Element number 83 is probably most likely encountered in the compound bismuth subsalicylate (C7H5BiO4), used in gastro-intestinal remedies such as Pepto Bismol. The pure metal is also gaining popularity as a more environmentally friendly (and much more expensive) alternative to lead in hunting ammunition. In…
Summary of evidence. Traveler setting: Prevention of TD is challenging because of the ubiquitous exposures to individuals through contaminated food, water, and generally unhygienic conditions among much of the developing world. Travelers are frequently counseled on preventive risk behaviors, but despite a travelers best attention to such recommendations, evidence is lacking that such precautions have any protective effect (188). Although vaccines for many of the agents commonly associated with TD are under development, these are considered a long-term solution and might likely suffer from the lack of utilization as has been seen with most travel-associated vaccines (202, 203, 204,205, 206). Alternative primary prevention strategies such as BSS, probiotics, and antibiotics have been evaluated and are considered here.. Bismuth subsalicylate. BSS has been shown in several studies to reduce the frequency of TD when used during period of risk for 3 weeks (207, 208, 209). While the salicylate portion ...
Before having any kind of surgery (including dental surgery) or emergency treatment, tell the medical doctor or dentist in charge that you are taking this medicine.. Check the label of all over-the-counter (OTC), nonprescription, and prescription medicines you now take. If any of them contain acetaminophen, aspirin, other salicylates such as bismuth subsalicylate (e.g., Pepto Bismol) or magnesium salicylate (e.g., Nuprin Backache Caplets), or salicylic acid (present in some shampoos and skin products), check with your health care professional. Using any of them together with this medicine may cause an overdose.. Do not drink alcoholic beverages while taking this medicine. Stomach problems may be more likely to occur if you drink alcoholic beverages while you are taking aspirin or ibuprofen. Also, liver damage may be more likely to occur if you drink large amounts of alcoholic beverages while you are taking acetaminophen.. If you think that you or anyone else may have taken an overdose of this ...
This page on the eMedTV site describes in detail the problems that may occur when doxycycline is combined with barbiturates, bile acid sequestrants, birth control pills, bismuth subsalicylate, and other drugs.
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Recent theoretical work by Reichl and Mueller (to be published in Physical Review A) describes how to engineer and probe an exotic state of matter called a "topological insulator" in a gas of atoms cooled to temperatures near absolute zero. Topological insulators have the remarkable property that they act like insulators in their interior but can conduct along their surfaces or edges. They are not only of fundamental interest to physicists but have important applications in electronics and quantum computation. To engineer such a state, the authors imagine an experiment where ultracold atoms are trapped in a lattice with laser beams and made to behave like a topological insulator by modulating the lasers to change the shape of the lattice periodically in time. The smoking-gun signature of a topological insulator is the presence of "edge states"- conduction channels appearing at the boundaries of the system. Using computer simulations, the authors demonstrate how a clump of atoms released at the ...
... :. Dickman, M.J.; Schwartz, B.V.; Latturner, S. E. New low dimensional nitridosilicates grown from Ca/Li flux: Void metal Ca8In2SiN4 and semiconductor Ca3SiN3H. Chem. Mater., 2017, submitted. Groom, R.; Jacobs, A.; Cepeda, M.; Drummey, R.; Latturner, S. E. Bi13S18I2: (Re)discovery of a subvalent bismuth compound featuring [Bi2]4+ dimers grown in sulfur/iodine flux mixtures. Chem. Mater., 2017, 29, p. 3314-3323.link. Zhou, S.; Mishra, T.; Lyman, D.; Tucker, P.; Latturner, S. E. New cerium cobalt borocarbide synthesized from eutectic metal flux mixture. Inorg. Chem. Frontiers., 2017, 4, p. 450-455.link Dickman, M.J.; Latturner, S. E. Metal nitrides grown from Ca/Li flux: Ca6Te3N2 and new nitridoferrate(I) Ca6(LixFe1-x)Te2N3. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, p. 10636-10644. link. Zhou, S.; Latturner, S. E. Flux growth and magnetic properties of rare earth cobalt germanide, RE6Co5Ge1+xAl3-x (RE=Pr, Nd; x 0.8). J. Solid State Chem., 2016, 238, p. 189-194. link. Zhou, S.; Latturner, ...
Using circular dichroism-angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (CD-ARPES), we report a study of the effect of angular momentum transfer between polarized photons and topological surface states on the surface of highly bulk insulating topological insulator Bi2Te2Se. The photoelectron dichroism is found to be strongly modulated by the frequency of the helical photons including a dramatic sign-flip. Our results suggest that the observed dichroism and its sign-flip are consequences of strong coupling between the photon field and the spin-orbit nature of the Dirac modes on the surface. Our studies reveal the intrinsic dichroic behavior of topological surface states and point toward the potential utility of bulk insulating topological insulators in device applications ...
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Leng MY, Yang Y, Chen ZW, Gao WR, Zhang J, Niu GD, Li DB, Song HS, Zhang JB, Jin S, et al. Surface Passivation of Bismuth-Based Perovskite Variant Quantum Dots To Achieve Efficient Blue Emission. Nano Letters. 2018 ;18:6076-6083. ...
Topological insulators (TIs) are an emerging new class of materials that is of great interest due to the topological surface states (TSS) that make the surface conductive while the bulk is insulating.
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
This function returns quadruple consisting of 1. total number of elements in the set 2. number of declared indexes 3. number of keys in all indexes 4. number of values in all keys in all indexes. This can aid you in debugging and optimisation. ...
AUSTIN, Texas-Researchers at The University of Texas at Austin have designed a simulation that for the first time emulates key properties of electronic topological insulators.. Their simulation, which was described this week in Nature Materials, is part of a rapidly moving scientific race to understand and exploit the potential of topological insulators, which are a state of matter that was only discovered in the past decade. These insulators may enable dramatic advances in quantum computing and spintronics.. "The discovery of these materials, which are insulators in their volume while capable of conducting current on their surface, was a bit of a surprise to the condensed matter community," said Gennady Shvets, professor of physics in the College of Natural Sciences. "Before that, we classified solid materials into three categories, based on their ability to conduct electric current: insulators, conductors, and semiconductors. Topological insulators fall somewhere in between.". Shvets ...
Define bismuth oxide: an oxide of bismuth; especially : the trioxide Bi2O3 occurring naturally as bismite, obtained synthetically as a yellow powder,…
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This moves us closer to developing spin-based devices, or spintronics," says Dr. Justin Schwartz, co-author of the paper, Kobe Steel Distinguished Professor and Department Head of the Materials Science and Engineering Department at NC State. "And learning that this material has magnetic semiconductor properties was a happy surprise.". The researchers had set out to create a material that would be a topological insulator. In topological insulators the bulk of the material serves as an electrical insulator, but the surface can act as a highly conductive material - and these properties are not easily affected or destroyed by defects in the material. In effect, that means that a topological insulator material can be a conductor and its own insulator at the same time.. Two materials are known to be topological insulators - bismuth telluride and bismuth selenide. But theorists predicted that other materials may also have topological insulator properties. Sr3SnO is one of those theoretical materials, ...
Researchers have created nanoribbons of an emerging class of materials called topological insulators and used a magnetic field to control their semiconductor properties, a step toward harnessing the technology to study exotic physics and building new spintronic devices or quantum computers.
Materion Advanced Chemicals Bismuth oxide; Purity: 99.9999, CAS 1304-76-3, Materion Item Number B-2007. Call 419-289-9800 to order.
Page contains details about bismuth oxide film . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Bismuth - sulphur quantum dots can be silver enhanced by autometallography (AMG). In the present study, autometallographic silver enhanced bismuth-sulphur nanocrystals were isolated from unfixed cryo-sections of kidneys and livers of rats exposed to bismuth (Bi207) subnitrate. After being subjected to AMG all the organic material was removed by sonication and enzymatic digestion and the silver enhanced Bi- S quantum dots spun down by an ultracentrifuge and analyzed by scintillation. The analysis showed that the autometallographic technique traces approximately 94% of the total bismuth. This implies that the injected bismuth is ultimately captured in bismuthsulphur quantum dots, i.e., that Bi-S nanocrystals are the end product of bismuth metabolism ...
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The report generally describes tripotassium hexacyanocobaltate, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Tripotassium hexacyanocobaltate market
OBJECTIVE: Ra is an alpha particle emitter that targets areas of increased bone turnover in bone metastases. Alpha particles account for 95% of the 27.8 MeV emitted per decay. Less than 2% of the emissions are from photons. This means that a high absorbed dose will be delivered locally, although the number of photons for imaging will be low. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of quantitative imaging of Ra to enable biodistribution studies. METHODS: A Philips Forte gamma camera, equipped with a medium-energy collimator, was used. Basic imaging parameters were determined from phantom studies, and the accuracy of activity quantification was tested in a phantom study and within a patient study. RESULTS: Imaging parameters were determined for the three most suitable photon peaks from the acquired energy spectrum (82, 154 and 270 keV). Camera sensitivity is constant for circular sources with areas greater than 10 cm. The spatial resolution (full-width at half-maximum) was 1.1 ...
Strontium Chloride Sr 89 is a radioactive pharmaceutical used in the treatment of certain types of bone cancers to both shrink the tumor and reduce pain
Immature forms of the peptide hormone gastrin have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The biological activity of glycine-extended gastrin (Ggly) is dependent on the binding of Fe3+ ions in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of blocking Fe3+ ion bi
This Ph.D. thesis deals with the synthesis, immobilization of bismuth-based nanostructures and their photocatalytic evaluation for degradation of organic pollutants mainly dyes, with the aim to optimize synthesis and photo-evaluation conditions by focusing the practical application of heterogeneous photocatalysis. Initially, various bismuth based single structures α-Bi2O3, Bi5O7NO3 and heterostructures α/β-Bi2O3, β-Bi2O3/Bi5O7NO3 were synthesized by a simple and scalable route i.e. thermal decomposition of precursor salt. Properties such as crystallinity, composition, morphology and optical parameters were tuned by simply varying the calcination temperature. Heterostructures of α/β-Bi2O3, β-Bi2O3/Bi5O7NO3 are well crystallized, formed stable composites (originated from single precursor salt) and eventually improved the stability of β-Bi2O3 (a metastable form) in the heterojunction structure. Single structures and heterostructures were evaluated for photodegradation of various dyes ...
Let me make a bet," suddenly announced the chair of a discussion session at a unique conference on research in the field of strongly correlated topological insulators. He continued, "if we make it 1:1, it wouldnt be a fair bet, so let us do 5:1," to cheers and applause from the majority of the sixty-people audience that included a number of theorists and experimentalists known to be leaders of their subfields. Were someone to walk in the room at this very moment, the lighthearted manner with which these words were uttered could have left them astonished and wondering whether they were in the right place, but only momentarily, as the discussion immediately resumed its natural academic style. At the same time, the continued exchange among several participants of the discussion session, articulated in exceptionally civil but almost impatient tones, provided further evidence that the topological nature of the compound under investigation is at the core of an ongoing debate in the condensed matter ...
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Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Sheila Kabahenda, Shalton Mwaringa, Sarah L. Pett, Anna Griffiths, Abbas Lugemwa, Simon Wachira, Godfrey Musoro, Chatu Rajapakse, Timothy Etyang, James Abach, Priscilla Wavamunno, Linda Nyondo-Mipando, Andrew Reid, Kusum Nathoo, James Hakim, Diana M. Gibb, A. Sarah Walker and the REALITY trial team ...
Håkon Wium Lie schrieb: , Does Dirac aim at becoming a member in the Ogg family, or are you , primarily working towards a standalone format? Dirac is container neutral to my knowledge. The implementation targeted at end-users is embedding it in Ogg, though, so it can e.g. use the free Ogg audio codecs like Vorbis, FLAC and Speex. http://schrodinger.sourceforge.net/ So yeah, albeit its not a codec developed by xiph.org themselves its also (but not exclusively) part of the Ogg family ...
(03-Feb-2017, 00:40)Hifi_swlon Wrote: Dont know the answer to that one. Id imagine its not ideal as REW is trying to keep tabs n the clock for what its sending out and what its getting back. AIR will
Page contains details about Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 NRA . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
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BACKGROUND Different therapeutic regimens were used for eradication of Helicobacter pylori, based on the cost, effectiveness and patients compliance. The aim of this study was the evaluation of licorice compared with bismuth in quadruple regimen on eradication of H. pylori in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). MATERIALS AND METHODS In a double-blind clinical trial study, 60 patients with PUD and positive rapid urease test were enrolled. The patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups. In first group, licorice, amoxicillin, metronidazole and omeprazole and in the second (control) group, bismuth subsalicylate, amoxicillin, metronidazole and omeprazole were prescribed respectively, and 4 weeks after treatment, in order to evaluate H. pylori eradication, urea breath test was done in all patients. The outcome of the study was the preference usage of licorice as an effective medication for H. pylori eradication. RESULTS Mean age of the patients in the control and case groups were ...
Treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole resulted in encouraging Helicobacter pylori eradication rates in pilot studies that included medium term follow up. These results were evaluated in a prospective, randomised and controlled study. Forty patients with active duodenal ulcer disease and H pylori colonisation of the gastric mucosa were randomly assigned to receive either omeprazole (20 mg twice daily) and amoxicillin suspension (500 mg four times daily) for two weeks (group I) or bismuth subsalicylate (600 mg three times daily), metronidazole (400 mg three times daily), tetracycline (500 mg three times daily), and ranitidine (300 mg in the evening) for two weeks (group II). Study medication was followed in both groups by a four week treatment course with 300 mg ranitidine up to the final examination. One patient from each group was lost to follow up. H pylori was eradicated in 78.9% of group I and 84.2% of group II (p = 1.00). All ulcers in patients on omeprazole plus amoxicillin healed but ...
Abstract : Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) is known for its application in several industries such as solid oxide fuel cells,optoelectronics, gas sensors and optical coatings. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energytreatment on the atomic, physical, and thermal properties of Bi2O3. The Bi2O3 powder was equally divided into two parts: controland treated. The treated part was subjected to biofield energy treatment. After that, both control and treated samples wereinvestigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy,and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The XRD data exhibited that the biofield treatment has altered the latticeparameter (-0.19%), unit cell volume (-0.58%), density (0.59%), and molecular weight (-0.57%) of the treated sample ascompared to the control. The crystallite size was significantly increased by 25% in treated sample as compared to the control.Furthermore, TGA analysis ...
Ultrastructural identification of a new structure within the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) called the lamina rara externa (lre) membrane has been successfully accomplished. Lre membranes lie parallel to the long axis of GBM ~170A from the epithelial plasmalemma. The structure measures ~120A in diameter bisecting individual pedicellar rays which emanate from epithelial foot processes and extend to the lamina densa. Identification of this structure is achieved by aortic retrograde perfusion with tannic acidglutaraldehyde fixative followed by prolonged staining of embedded tissue with bismuth subnitrate. Remarkable alterations occur in the organization and structural integrity of the lre membrane prior to the onset of proteinuria. Evaluation of six experimental renal disease models, namely puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis, nephrotoxic serum nephritis, autologous immune complex disease, bovine serum album induced proteinuria, subtotal nephrectomy induced proteinuria and murine lupus ...
Factors affecting Helicobacter pylori eradication rate with omeprazole (OME), clarithromycin (CL), and amoxicillin (AMO) have not been extensively studied. We have investigated the effect of age, sex,
Standard triple therapy, when first proposed, was demonstrated to have a high eradication efficacy with a success rate over 85 % [24]. Therefore, most therapeutic guidelines from major academic committees worldwide recommended a proton pump inhibitor based triple therapy plus clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole as the first-line regimen for eradication of H. pylori [7-9]. Unfortunately, the eradication rate of this gold standard therapy declined rapidly during the following 10 years toward unacceptable levels [25]. The frustrating outcome of the poor eradication rate led to several new strategies aimed to raise eradication efficacy. Innovative therapeutic approaches included extending therapy duration, the altering of conventionally used antibiotics to novel ones, and the addition of multi-drug regimens.. A two-phase sequential regimen, by adding a fourth drug, has been shown to have promising eradication results in many studies worldwide. However, most of these trials were conducted ...
Lead and Lead-Bismuth-cooled reactors[edit]. Recently it was identified a special phenomenology for heavy liquid metal-cooled ... fast reactors -HLM, as lead and lead-bismuth-cooled reactors.[22] Because of the similar densities of the fuel and the HLM, an ...
Obtained by bombarding bismuth with chromium.[153] 109 Meitnerium 1982 G. Münzenberg, P. Armbruster et al. (GSI in Darmstadt) ... Prepared by bombardment of bismuth with nickel[157] 112 Copernicium 1996 S. Hofmann et al. (GSI in Darmstadt) Prepared by ... "Bismuth". Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved 3 March 2013.. *^ "15 Phosphorus". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008 ... Bismuth Before AD 1000 Before AD 1000 Jabirian corpus Middle East Described by Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan in the ...
Bismuth. trace additive Lowers melting point. May disrupt surface oxides. Traces of bismuth and beryllium together with tin or ... Traces of bismuth and beryllium together with tin or zinc in aluminium-based braze destabilize oxide film on aluminium, ... Traces of bismuth and beryllium together with tin or zinc in aluminium-based braze destabilize oxide film on aluminium, ... Traces of bismuth and beryllium together with tin or zinc in aluminium-based braze destabilize oxide film on aluminium, ...
bismuth 83 Bi polonium 84 Po radon 86 Rn radium 88 Ra ...
Bismuth Bismin[11] Boron Borinane Borinine Boratabenzene anion Germanium Germinane Germine Nitrogen Piperidine (Azinane is not ...
bismuth: bismuthine (note 'bismuthane' is the IUPAC recommended name). *helium: helium hydride (only exists as an ion) ...
Bis-muth83Bi​208.98 Polo-nium84Po​[209] Asta-tine85At​[210] Radon86Rn​[222] ...
Bismuth. 6993500000000000000♠5×10−7. No. 15 81. Thallium. 6993500000000000000♠5×10−7. No. highly toxic. 13 ...
Bismuth significantly lowers the melting point and improves wettability. In presence of sufficient lead and tin, bismuth forms ... Zinc oxide, bismuth trioxide, and copper(II) oxide can be added for influencing the thermal expansion; unlike the alkali oxides ... Polonium-210 is especially problematic; lead-210 beta decays to bismuth-210 which then beta decays to polonium-210, an intense ... Lead-free solders in commercial use may contain tin, copper, silver, bismuth, indium, zinc, antimony, and traces of other ...
Other propellants, such as bismuth and iodine, show promise, particularly for gridless designs, such as Hall effect thrusters.[ ...
Bismuth forms Zintl phases such as NaBi,[157] Rb7In4Bi6[158] and Ba11Cd8Bi14.[159] Bailar et al.[160] refer to bismuth as being ... Examples include gallium,[231] ytterbium,[232] bismuth,[233] mercury[234] and neptunium.[235] Metalloids, which are in-between ... Bismuth is a soft metal (MH 2.5) that is too brittle for any structural use.[149] It has an open-packed crystalline structure ( ... Howe, HE 1968, 'Bismuth' in CA Hampel (ed.), The encyclopedia of the chemical elements, Reinhold, New York, pp. 56-65 ...
Bismuth bronze is a bronze alloy with a composition of 52% copper, 30% nickel, 12% zinc, 5% lead, and 1% bismuth. It is able to ... "Bismuth Bronze". Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2014.. ...
Bismuth Category. 8401.00 Partial Photic Boundary. The Hydrogen Sonata[edit]. Ships mentioned in The Hydrogen Sonata include: ...
Bismuth‎; 14:55 . . (+175)‎ . . ‎. Xn--5o8hui. (talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Isotopes). *(diff , hist) . . Bismuth‎; 14:47 . . (+29)‎ ... m Bismuth‎; 21:18 . . (+57)‎ . . ‎. Oshwah. (talk , contribs)‎ (Reverted edits by 173.161.75.185 (talk) (HG) (3.3.3)) (Tags: ... Bismuth‎; 21:18 . . (-57)‎ . . ‎. 173.161.75.185. (talk)‎ (Tags: Mobile edit, Mobile web edit) ...
The most common growth media for microorganisms are nutrient broths (liquid nutrient medium) or LB medium (lysogeny broth). Liquid media are often mixed with agar and poured via a sterile media dispenser into Petri dishes to solidify. These agar plates provide a solid medium on which microbes may be cultured. They remain solid, as very few bacteria are able to decompose agar (the exception being some species in the genera: Cytophaga, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Alcaligenes). Bacteria grown in liquid cultures often form colloidal suspensions.[4][5] The difference between growth media used for cell culture and those used for microbiological culture is that cells derived from whole organisms and grown in culture often cannot grow without the addition of, for instance, hormones or growth factors which usually occur in vivo.[6] In the case of animal cells, this difficulty is often addressed by the addition of blood serum or a synthetic serum replacement to the medium. In the case of ...
Five percent sheep blood and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide may also be added when susceptibility testing is done on Streptococcus species. This type is also commonly used for susceptibility testing of Campylobacter.. It has a few properties that make it excellent for antibiotic use. First of all, it is a non-selective, non-differential medium. This means that almost all organisms plated on here will grow. Additionally, it contains starch. Starch is known to absorb toxins released from bacteria, so that they cannot interfere with the antibiotics. Second, it is a loose agar. This allows for better diffusion of the antibiotics than most other plates. A better diffusion leads to a truer zone of inhibition.. Mueller-Hinton agar was co-developed by John Howard Mueller and Jane Hinton at Harvard as a culture for gonococcus and meningococcus, who published the method in 1941.[2]. ...
83 Bi bismuth use. 1837 K. 1564 °C. 2847 °F WebEl. 1837 K. 1564 °C. 2847 °F ...
Bismuth(III) oxide. Europium(III) oxide. Gold(III) oxide. Lanthanum(III) oxide. Lutetium(III) oxide. Praseodymium(III) oxide. ...
Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium ... The longer-lived isotopes of polonium, 208Po and 209Po, can be formed by proton or deuteron bombardment of bismuth using a ... This process can cause problems in lead-bismuth based liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors such as those used in the Soviet ... 210Po (half-life 138.376 days) is the most widely available and is made via neutron capture by natural bismuth. The longer- ...
Bismuth, Zinc, and the reguluses of Antimony and Arsenic". He gave six ways to distinguish bismuth and cobalt which were ... Bismuth fractures while Cobalt is more like a true metal.. *The regulus of Shetz fuses with flint and fixed alkali giving a ... Bismuth dissolved in nitric acid and with aqua regia and gives a white precipitate when put in pure water. The regulus of ... Bismuth melts easily and if kept melted, calcinates forming a yellow powder. ...
Bismuth. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 8 October 2015. Copper. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 8 ...
Bismuth pentafluoride - BiF5. *Bismuth tribromide - BiBr3. B[edit]. *Borane - diborane: B2H6, pentaborane: B5H9 decaborane: B10 ...
Important drug interactions are rare.[27][28] However, the most significant major drug interaction concern is the decreased activation of clopidogrel when taken together with omeprazole.[29] Although still controversial,[30] this may increase the risk of stroke or heart attack in people taking clopidogrel to prevent these events. This interaction is possible because omeprazole is an inhibitor of the enzymes CYP2C19 and CYP3A4.[31] Clopidogrel is an inactive prodrug that partially depends on CYP2C19 for conversion to its active form. Inhibition of CYP2C19 may block the activation of clopidogrel, which could reduce its effects.[32][33] Almost all benzodiazepines are metabolised by the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 pathways, and inhibition of these enzymes results in a higher AUC (i.e., the total effect over time of a given dose). Other examples of drugs dependent on CYP3A4 for their metabolism are escitalopram,[34] warfarin,[35] oxycodone, tramadol, and oxymorphone. The concentrations of these drugs may ...
A02BA07 (WHO) (ranitidine bismuth citrate). Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S2 (Pharmacy only) ...
Some studies have shown a correlation between use of PPIs and Clostridium difficile infections. While the data are contradictory and controversial, the FDA had sufficient concern to include a warning about this adverse effect on the label of PPI drugs.[25] Concerns have also been raised about spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in older people taking PPIs and in people with irritable bowel syndrome taking PPIs; both types of infections arise in these populations due to underlying conditions and it is not clear if this is a class effect of PPIs.[25] PPIs may predispose an individual to developing small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or fungal overgrowth.[30][31] Long-term use of PPIs is associated with the development of benign polyps from fundic glands (which is distinct from fundic gland polyposis); these polyps do not cause cancer and resolve when PPIs are discontinued. There is no association between PPI use and cancer[25] or pre-cancer.[32] There is concern that use of PPIs may mask gastric ...
... , sold under the brand name Prevacid among others, is a medication which reduces stomach acid.[1] It is used to treat peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.[2] Effectiveness is similar to other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).[3] It is taken by mouth.[1] Onset is over a few hours and effects last up to a couple of days.[1] Common side effects include constipation, abdominal pain, and nausea.[1][4] Serious side effects may include osteoporosis, low blood magnesium, Clostridium difficile infection, and pneumonia.[1][4] Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding is of unclear safety.[5] It works by blocking H+/K+-ATPase in the parietal cells of the stomach.[1] Lansoprazole was patented in 1984 and came into medical use in 1992.[6] It is available as a generic medication.[2] A one month supply, in the United Kingdom, costs the NHS less than £5, as of 2019[update].[2] In the United States, the wholesale cost of this amount is about $5.40, as of ...
While bismuth salts were in use in Europe by the late 1700s, the combination of bismuth subsalicylate and zinc salts for ... Bismuth oxychloride and bismuth hydroxide are both believed to have bactericidal effects, as is salicylic acid for ... It is also commonly known as pink bismuth. Bismuth subsalicylate has the empirical chemical formula of C7H5BiO4, and it is a ... Some of the risks of salicylism can apply to the use of bismuth subsalicylate. Children should not take medication with bismuth ...
Bismuth subsalicylate is used to treat diarrhea, nausea, heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. Bismuth subsalicylate may ... Bismuth subsalicylate is an antacid and anti-diarrhea medication. ... Bismuth subsalicylate is an antacid and anti-diarrhea medication.. Bismuth subsalicylate is used to treat diarrhea, nausea, ... What other drugs will affect bismuth subsalicylate?. Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to use bismuth ...
Ranitidine bismuth citrate was compared with an equipotent dose of ranitidine, to determine whether the former, by an anti- ... Twenty four men with duodenal ulcers were studied before and on the 8th day of dosing with either ranitidine bismuth citrate ... whereas only two of 12 patients treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate remained positive. The expected rise in meal stimulated ... despite suppression of H pylori urease activity in 10 of 12 patients taking ranitidine bismuth citrate, there was no ...
... bismuth subsalicylate chemical safety search, Chemical bismuth subsalicylate safety technical specifications ect. ...
Get up-to-date information on Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. ... How was your experience with Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate?. First, a little about yourself. Male Female ... Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate falls into category C:. In animal studies, pregnant animals were given this medication and had some ... The Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate dose your doctor recommends will be based on the following (use any or all that apply): ...
E1834-18 Standard Test Method for Analysis of Nickel Alloys by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry lead content~ graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry~
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of ranitidine bismuth citrate plus clarithromycin given for 1 wk in Brazilian patients ... One-week dual therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate and clarithromycin for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in ... CONCLUSION: One-week therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate and clarithromycin is safe, well tolerated and effective for ... 1-wk regimen consisting of ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg b.i.d. with clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. or (2) 2-wk regimen of ...
Bismuth sulfide, Bi. 2S. 3, occurs naturally in bismuth ores.[45] It is also produced by the combination of molten bismuth and ... bismuth vanadate), pearlescent cosmetics (bismuth oxychloride), and bismuth-containing bullets. Recycling bismuth from these ... Bismuth white (also "Spanish white") can refer to either bismuth oxychloride or bismuth oxynitrate (BiONO3), when used as a ... "Milk of bismuth" (an aqueous suspension of bismuth hydroxide and bismuth subcarbonate) was marketed as an alimentary cure-all ...
Bismuth Subsalicylate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Take bismuth subsalicylate exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than recommended by the ... Bismuth subsalicylate comes as a liquid, tablet, or chewable tablet to be taken by mouth, with or without food. Follow the ... Before taking bismuth subsalicylate,. *tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to salicylate pain relievers such as ...
The bismuth nuclear spin (blue arrow) can tilt in ten different directions, shown in red and yellow. Initialization, ... theoretical work shows the advantages of bismuth qubits in silicon: M. H. Mohammady, G. W. Morley, and T. S. Monteiro. Phys. ... A bismuth atom in one slice of a silicon crystal. The large light green cloud shows the bound electron wavefunction, and the ... A bismuth atom in one slice of a silicon crystal. The large light green cloud shows the bound electron wavefunction, and the ...
Pierre Bismuth, Luca Lo Pinto, and Nicolaus Schafhausen 2013. This publication comprises two volumes: a booklet accompanying ... For his exhibition at Kunsthalle Wien, titled "Der Kurator, der Anwalt und der Psychoanalytiker," Bismuth invited a different ... Dessislava Dimovas essay provides a general overview of Bismuths artistic project, discussing the importance of plasticity, ... Just like the idiosyncratic mix of conceptualism and appropriation refined by Bismuth throughout his career, Things I Remember ...
bismuth hydride (CHEBI:37197) is a bismuth molecular entity (CHEBI:37196). elemental bismuth (CHEBI:85541) is a bismuth ... bismuth molecular entity (CHEBI:37196) has part bismuth atom (CHEBI:33301) bismuth molecular entity (CHEBI:37196) is a ... bismuth coordination entity (CHEBI:37384) is a bismuth molecular entity (CHEBI:37196). ... CHEBI:37196 - bismuth molecular entity. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
‎Preview, buy, and download songs from the album Dukas-Debussy, including Pour le piano, L. 95: Prélude, Pour le piano, L. 95: Sarabande, Pour le piano, L. 95: Toccata, and many more. Buy the album for $10.99. Songs start at $0.99.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Bismuth Subsalicylate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Bismuth Subsalicylate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... In the US, Bismuth Subsalicylate (bismuth subsalicylate systemic) is a member of the drug class antidiarrheals and is used to ... Pepto-Bismol (Bismuth Subsalicylate and Calcium Carbonate). Procter & Gamble, Canada. *Pepto-Bismol Extra Strength. Procter & ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Bismuth Aluminate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Bismuth Aluminate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ...
Bismuth is an element that has the symbol Bi and atomic number 83. It is in the "pnictogen" (phosphorus group) column of the ... alloy uses for bismuth metal as a replacement for lead have become an increasing part of bismuths commercial importance. ... Bismuth compounds are used in cosmetics, medicines, and in medical procedures. As the toxicity of lead has become more apparent ... Alloys with bismuth can have very low melting points, and are used as triggers in fire sprinkler systems. ...
... may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this ... Before taking bismuth subsalicylate,. *tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to salicylate pain relievers such as ... This Bismuth Subsalicylate page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript enabled in your browser.. Toggle ... Take bismuth subsalicylate exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than recommended by the ...
Bismuth, Metronidazole, and Tetracycline: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to bismuth, ... Bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline (Helidac) comes as two chewable bismuth tablets, one metronidazole tablet, and one ... If you are taking bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline (Helidac), chew and swallow the bismuth tablets. Swallow the ...
Periodic Table of the Elements: Bismuth. Periodic Table of the Elements: Bismuth. Atomic Number:. 83. ...
Synonym(s): BASIC BISMUTH CHLORIDE; BISMUTH CHLORIDE OXIDE; BISMUTH SUBCHLORIDE; BISMUTHINE, CHLOROOXO; BISMUTHINE, CHLOROOXO ... About BISMUTH OXYCHLORIDE: Bismuth oxychloride is a naturally ocurring mineral used as a makeup colorant that provides an ...
BISMUTH SUBSALICYLATE (biz muth sub sa LIS i late) relieves the symptoms of diarrhea, upset stomach, heartburn, acid ... Bismuth Subsalicylate tablets. What is this medicine?. BISMUTH SUBSALICYLATE (biz muth sub sa LIS i late) relieves the symptoms ... an unusual or allergic reaction to bismuth subsalicylate, aspirin, other salicylates or other medicines, foods, dyes, or ...
Element Bismuth (Bi), Group 15, Atomic Number 83, p-block, Mass 208.980. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, ... bismuth painting. Painters in Italy including Raphael used both bismuth metal and bismuthinite, bismuth trisulphide in their ... Bismuth was used as an alloying metal in the bronze of the Incas of South America around 1500 AD. Bismuth was not mined as ore ... Bismuth occurs as the native metal, and in ores such as bismuthinite and bismite. The major commercial source of bismuth is as ...
Bismuth, Matildite, Bismuthinite. Mineral: Bismuth: Bi Matildite: AgBiS2 Bismuthinite: Bi2S3 Comments: SEM image of native Bi ...
  • It can cause a black tongue and black stools in some users of the drug, when it combines with trace amounts of sulfur in saliva and the colon to form bismuth sulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth sulfide is a highly insoluble black salt, and the discoloration seen is temporary and harmless. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the same reason, it is typically recommended that nursing mothers not use medication containing bismuth subsalicylate because small amounts of the medication are excreted in human breast milk, and these pose a theoretical risk of Reye's syndrome to nursing children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison of the clastogenic effects of antimony and bismuth used as trioxides, when administered orally by gavaging to laboratory bred male mice, showed that the former was more strongly clastogenic than the latter. (springer.com)
  • In addition, nanostructured bismuth could exhibit even more interesting electronic and thermoelectric properties [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Bismuth-antimony (Bi-Sb) alloy is a promising material for thermoelectric cooling. (nature.com)
  • During the past 20 years, the thermoelectric properties of nanostructures such as one-dimensional bismuth (Bi) platforms have prompted the development of a wide variety of nanowire growth methods, aiming to achieve higher energy-conversion efficiency. (rsc.org)
  • Here, we review the current progress in the thermoelectrics of bismuth nanowires, the fundamentals of their advantage and limitation over bulk Bi, and their potential use for enhancing the thermoelectric performance. (rsc.org)
  • its only primordial isotope , bismuth-209 , decays via alpha decay with a half-life more than a billion times the estimated age of the universe . (wikipedia.org)
  • While bismuth was traditionally regarded as the element with the heaviest stable isotope , it had long been suspected to be unstable on theoretical grounds. (wikidoc.org)
  • Bismuth-209 is currently known as isotope with longest decay half-time of all radioactive elements calculated to be (1.9 +/- 0.2 ) x 10 19 years, which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of 4.6 x 10 19 years. (sciencemadness.org)
  • its naturally occurring isotope bismuth-209 is not fully stable. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Bismuth subsalicylate has the empirical chemical formula of C7H5BiO4, and it is a colloidal substance obtained by hydrolysis of bismuth salicylate (Bi(C6H4(OH)CO2)3). (wikipedia.org)
  • This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Bismuth and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. (mindat.org)
  • Bismuth tribromide is an inorganic chemical compound of bismuth and bromine with the chemical formula BiBr3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth(V) fluoride is a white crystalline solid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The density, molar volume and refractive index increase when bismuth ions Bi 3+ increase, this is due to the increased polarization of the ions Bi 3+ and the enhanced formation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO). (mdpi.com)
  • This manuscript focuses on a case study that involves bismuth substitution by europium ions. (intechopen.com)
  • Agricola , in De Natura Fossilium (c. 1546) states that bismuth is a distinct metal in a family of metals including tin and lead. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, bismuth is placed in the group called "poor metals" (or post-transition metals), which are situated between the transition metals and metalloids in the periodic table . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Bismuth Vanadate Yellow is an inorganic lead free yellow pigment recommended in applications where high performance is required, due to it's good opacity and tinting strength. (eceurope.com)
  • Read this American Journal of Nano Research and Applications at SciencePG and evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on atomic, physical, and thermal properties of bismuth oxide powder. (symbaloo.com)
  • Bismuth metal has been known since ancient times, although it was often confused with lead and tin, which share some physical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulated by these interesting properties, a number of different methods have been developed to prepare various bismuth nanostructures. (hindawi.com)
  • Wan-Yusoff, W.M.D. Optical Properties of Bismuth Tellurite Based Glass. (mdpi.com)
  • The first attempt to improve BiNbO4 occurred in 1992 when Kagata reported the microwave dielectric properties of bismuth niobate doped with the addition of oxides. (intechopen.com)
  • The bismuth-containing oxides have large structural diversity and promising physical properties for applications in optics, nanoelectronics and nanophotonics [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Bismuth. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • We're sorry, but there are no tickets available for Bong / Bismuth at Star And Garter on Saturday, 08 Sep 2018 at 7:30 PM. (seetickets.com)
  • Bismuth (New Latin bisemutum , from German Wismuth , perhaps from weiße Masse , "white mass") was confused in early times with tin and lead because of its resemblance to those elements. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The bismuth-based dielectric ceramics are extensively studied for this purpose, namely, the bismuth niobate (BiNbO4). (intechopen.com)
  • They present stibiotantalite structure, where "A" can be bismuth (Bi 3+ ) and "B" niobium (Nb 5+ ) cations, composing the bismuth niobate, BiNbO 4 [ 2 , 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The bismuth niobate exists in two polymorph structures, an orthorhombic (α) phase and a triclinic (β) phase. (intechopen.com)
  • In the last three decades, the bismuth niobate ceramics have been studied as a dielectric material for applications in radio and microwave frequency range, since the development of the communication systems forced the device miniaturisation, and, for that, new dielectric materials are needed [ 3 , 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Bismuth vanadate is a promising photoanode material, but recent reports on undoped BiVO 4 without sublayers and co-catalysts showed large variations in photocurrent generation. (rsc.org)
  • Bi nanowires and nanorods were prepared by high pressure injection of the liquid metal or vapor phase of bismuth into the channels of porous anodic alumina template [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Bismuth nanowires have also been electrodeposited into nanometer-sized pores of polymer [ 8 ] or nanoporous anodic alumina [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is also made by reacting bismuth(III) fluoride with chlorine trifluoride . (wikipedia.org)
  • This work, "Bismuth", is a derivative of "https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bismuth_crystal_artificial.jpg" by Alchemist-hp, used under CC BY. (spreadshirt.com)
  • Scientists from India report that pure Bismuth - a semimetal with a very low number of electrons per given volume, or carrier concentration - is superconducting at ultralow temperatures. (eurekalert.org)
  • In particular, semimetal bismuth has attracted great attention because of its low carrier density, small effective mass, and large mean-free path, making it an interesting system for studying quantum confinement effects [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Herein we extend this hydrothermal method to the synthesis of semimetal bismuth and antimony films with hierarchical structures. (hindawi.com)
  • The bismuth is in its +5 oxidation state . (wikipedia.org)
  • It may be formed by the reaction of bismuth oxide and hydrobromic acid with the equation Bi 2O 3 + 6 HBr ⇌ 2 BiBr 3 + 3 H 2O Bismuth tribromide can also be produced by the direct oxidation of bismuth in bromine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth show rectangular and trapezoidal ingot. (fuzing.com)