A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone acts by gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)
An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.
A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.
Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Radiation protection, also known as radiation safety, is the science and practice of protecting people and the environment from harmful ionizing radiation exposure while allowing for the safe medical, industrial, and research uses of such radiation.
Iodinated hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms, with iodine atoms covalently bonded to them, which are used in medical imaging as radiocontrast agents.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
Used as a pH indicator and as a reagent for blood after decolorizing the alkaline solution by boiling with zinc dust.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.
A macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. This compound is an ester of erythromycin base and succinic acid. It acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
Nitroimidazoles are a class of antibacterial and antiprotozoal drugs, which, upon reduction, interact with bacterial or protozoal DNA leading to inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis and ultimately cell death, used primarily in the treatment of anaerobic infections and certain parasitic diseases.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth (ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM), and sixth (EXANTHEMA SUBITUM) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology.
"Citrates, in a medical context, are compounds containing citric acid, often used in medical solutions for their chelating properties and as a part of certain types of nutritional support."
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Antimicrobial activities of synthetic bismuth compounds against Clostridium difficile. (1/408)

Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and many cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Because of potential relapse of disease with current antimicrobial therapy protocols, there is a need for additional and/or alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of disease caused by C. difficile. We have synthesized a systematic series of 14 structurally simple bismuth compounds and assessed their biological activities against C. difficile and four other gastrointestinal species, including Helicobacter pylori. Here, we report on the activities of six compounds that exhibit antibacterial activities against C. difficile, and some of the compounds have MICs of less than 1 microgram/ml. Also tested, for comparison, were the activities of bismuth subcitrate and ranitidine bismuth citrate obtained from commercial sources. C. difficile and H. pylori were more sensitive both to the synthetic bismuth compounds and to the commercial products than were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis, and the last three species were markedly resistant to the commercial bismuth salts. Testing with human foreskin fibroblast cells revealed that some of the synthetic compounds were more cytotoxic than others. Killing curves for C. difficile treated with the more active compounds revealed rapid death, and electron microscopy showed that the bismuth of these compounds was rapidly incorporated by C. difficile. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray microanalysis of C. difficile cells containing electron-dense material confirmed the presence of internalized bismuth. Internalized bismuth was not observed in C. difficile treated with synthetic bismuth compounds that lacked antimicrobial activity, which suggests that the uptake of the metal is required for killing activity. The nature of the carrier would seem to determine whether bismuth is transported into susceptible bacteria like C. difficile.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori eradication with proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapies and re-treatment with ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy. (2/408)

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that short-term triple therapy comprising a proton pump inhibitor, plus clarithromycin and amoxycillin be used as first choice in treating H. pylori infection, while eradication failure patients should be further treated with a quadruple therapy. Nevertheless, conflicting results have been reported using these treatment regimens in different countries. METHODS: A total of 278 patients with H. pylori infection were randomised to receive one-week triple therapy, comprising clarithromycin 500 mg b.d., amoxycillin 1 g b.d., and either omeprazole 20 mg b.d. (OAC; 90 patients), or pantoprazole 40 mg b.d. (PAC; 95 patients), or lansoprazole 30 mg b.d. (LAC; 93 patients). H. pylori infection at entry, and eradication 4-6 weeks after therapy had ended, were assessed by rapid urease test and histology on biopsies from the antrum and the corpus. When eradication did not occur, patients were given a 2-week treatment comprising ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg b.d., tetracycline 500 mg t.d.s. and tinidazole 500 mg b.d. (RBTT). Eradication in these patients was assessed 4-6 weeks after conclusion of treatment by a further endoscopy. RESULTS: Six patients were lost to the follow-up. At the end of the first course of treatment, the overall H. pylori eradication rate was 78% (95% CI: 73-83) and 79% (95% CI: 75-84) at 'intention-to-treat' (ITT) and 'per protocol' (PP) analysis, respectively, without any statistically significant difference between treatment regimens, although a trend for better results with the omeprazole combination was observed. Moreover, H. pylori eradication was achieved in 82% (95% CI: 75-97) (ITT) and 86% (95% CI: 69-94) (PP) of 38 patients re-treated with RBTT regimen. CONCLUSIONS: Our data found that this short-term triple therapy is not a satisfactory treatment (< 80% eradication rate) for H. pylori infection. The 2-week triple therapy used as re-treatment in eradication failure patients yielded more promising results.  (+info)

Ranitidine bismuth citrate, tetracycline, clarithromycin twice-a-day triple therapy for clarithromycin susceptible Helicobacter pylori infection. (3/408)

BACKGROUND: Although many combination therapies have been proposed, there is still interest in identifying simple, inexpensive, effective protocols that have high rates of success. AIM: To investigate the role of the new soluble form of bismuth, ranitidine bismuth citrate, in twice-a-day therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection. METHODS: Patients with histologically and culture proven H. pylori infection received ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg, tetracycline HCl 500 mg, and clarithromycin 500 mg, each b.d. for 14 days, followed by 300 mg ranitidine once a day for 4 additional weeks. Outcome was assessed 4 or more weeks after the end of antimicrobial therapy by repeat endoscopy with histology and culture (49 patients) or urea breath testing (14 patients). RESULTS: Sixty-three patients completed the therapy, 59 men and four women (average age 56.7 years; range 31-75 years). All patients had clarithromycin-susceptible strains prior to therapy. H. pylori infection was cured in 94% (95% CI: 85-98%). There was a therapy failure in one patient who took the medicine for only 1 day and stopped because of side-effects. Three of the isolates from treatment failures were available post-failure; two were clarithromycin-resistant and one was susceptible. Side-effects were severe in two patients (3%) and moderate in three (primarily diarrhoea). CONCLUSIONS: Twice-a-day ranitidine bismuth citrate, tetracycline, clarithromycin triple therapy was well tolerated and effective for the treatment of H. pylori infection in patients with clarithromycin-susceptible H. pylori.  (+info)

The influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate triple therapy regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection. (4/408)

AIM: To assess the influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy regimens in two consecutive studies. METHODS: In the first study, patients with a culture-proven Helicobacter pylori infection were treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg, metronidazole 500 mg, and clarithromycin 500 mg, all twice daily for 1 week (RMC). In the second study, amoxycillin 1000 mg was substituted for clarithromycin (RMA). Susceptibility testing for metronidazole was performed with the E-test. Follow-up endoscopy was performed after >/= 4 weeks. Antral biopsy samples were taken for histology and urease test, and culture and corpus samples for histology and culture. RESULTS: 112 patients, 53 males, age 55 +/- 14 years (39 duodenal ulcer, 7 gastric ulcer and 66 gastritis) were treated with RMC, and 89 patients, 52 males, age 58 +/- 15 years (23 duodenal ulcer, 7 gastric ulcer and 59 gastritis) were treated with RMA. For RMC, intention-to-treat eradication results were 98% (59/60, 95% CI: 91-100%) and 95% (20/21, 95% CI: 76-100%) for metronidazole susceptible and resistant strains, respectively (P = 0.45). For RMA these figures were 87% (53/61, 95% CI: 76-94%) for metronidazole susceptible strains and 22% (2/9, 95% CI: 3-60%) for resistant strains (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Both regimens are effective in metronidazole susceptible strains. However, in contrast to the amoxycillin-containing regimen, that containing clarithromycin is also effective in resistant strains.  (+info)

Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection after ranitidine bismuth citrate, metronidazole and tetracycline for 7 or 10 days. (5/408)

BACKGROUND: We assessed the efficacy, tolerance, and compliance of twice-daily triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori with ranitidine bismuth citrate, metronidazole and tetracycline for 7 or 10 days. METHODS: 105 subjects with H. pylori infection documented by the 13C-urea breath test were randomly assigned to a 7 or 10-day course of ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg b.d., metronidazole 500 mg b.d. and tetracycline 500 mg b.d. Subjects returned at the end of therapy for assessment of side-effects and pill count. A repeat 13C-urea breath test was obtained 4 or more weeks after completion of therapy and cure of infection was defined as a negative test result. RESULTS: Poor compliance (< 80% of medications) was seen in 2% of subjects randomized to 7 days of therapy and in 10% randomized to 10 days of therapy (P = N.S.). Intention-to-treat eradication rates were 56% for 7-day and 60% for 10-day therapy (P = N.S.). Per protocol eradication rates were 58% for 7-day and 61% for 10-day therapy (P = N.S.). The 10-day intention-to-treat eradication rate for males was 78% and 32% for females (P < 0.01) and per protocol eradication rates were 79% and 31%, respectively (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Despite excellent compliance and tolerance, neither 7 nor 10 days of therapy with twice-daily ranitidine bismuth citrate, metronidazole and tetracycline are adequate as a treatment of H. pylori infection.  (+info)

Efficacy of a 1-week regimen of ranitidine bismuth citrate in combination with metronidazole and clarithromycin for Helicobacter pylori eradication. (6/408)

BACKGROUND: In order to improve the efficacy and simplicity of the FDA-approved regimen of ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) and clarithromycin dual therapy, we added an inexpensive antibiotic (metronidazole), changed the dosage scheme to twice daily dosing, and decreased the duration of therapy to 1 week. METHODS: This was an open label study in which subjects with previously untreated Helicobacter pylori infection documented by serology or endoscopy and confirmed by the 13C-urea breath test received a 1-week course of RBC 400 mg b.d., metronidazole 500 mg b.d. and clarithromycin 500 mg b.d. A repeat breath test was performed 4-6 weeks after completing therapy. RESULTS: Forty-seven out of 50 subjects completed the protocol. Intention-to-treat and per protocol cure rates were 86% and 91%, respectively. The regimen was well tolerated. Study drugs were stopped in two patients due to side-effects. The most common side-effect was self-limited diarrhoea. CONCLUSION: Twice daily RBC-based triple therapy with metronidazole and clarithromycin for 1 week is well tolerated and effective in eradicating H. pylori infection.  (+info)

Spiramycin is comparable to oxytetracycline in eradicating H. pylori when given with ranitidine bismuth citrate and metronidazole. (7/408)

BACKGROUND: We have consistently achieved about 90% eradication of H. pylori with liquid bismuth, metronidazole and oxytetracycline. AIM: To test eradication and adverse events of ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) when given with metronidazole and either oxytetracycline or spiramycin. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-three patients were randomized to one of four 10-day regimens: RBC400OM: RBC 400 mg b.d., oxytetracycline 500 mg q.d.s.; RBC400SM: RBC 400 mg b.d., spiramycin 1 g q.d.s.; RBC200OM: RBC 200 mg q.d.s., oxytetracycline 500 mg q.d.s.; RBC200SM: RBC 200 mg q.d.s., spiramycin 1 g q.d.s. Additionally, all patients received metronidazole 400 mg q.d.s. A 14C-urea breath test was performed at 8 weeks. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat eradication rates were 94%, 91%, 94% and 89% with RBC400OM, RBC400SM, RBC200OM and RBC200SM, respectively (P = 0.81). Eradication was significantly higher in ulcer patients (97%) than in those with diagnoses other than ulcer (86%) (P = 0.009). There was a strong tendency to better eradication among those who had never smoked (100%) compared with ex-smokers (93%) and smokers (89%) (P = 0.06). Fifty-three per cent experienced at least one moderate or severe adverse event, and women had more adverse events than men (P = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: All four regimens had comparable efficacy and adverse events. Eradication was significantly better in ulcer patients but there was a trend to better eradication in those who smoked less, used less alcohol and exercised more. Adverse events were frequent, perhaps because of the large dose of metronidazole used, but few patients stopped treatment.  (+info)

Prospective evaluation of ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. (8/408)

BACKGROUND: There is a need for effective and inexpensive therapy for Helicobacter pylori with good patient compliance. AIM: To evaluate a simplified twice daily schedule for treating H. pylori. METHODS: Patients infected with H. pylori (positive by CLO- and 13C-urea breath tests [UBT]) and not previously treated with anti-H. pylori therapy were treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) and two inexpensive antibiotics (metronidazole, tetracycline) twice daily for 14 days in an open-label study. Eradication was established by a negative UBT 4 weeks after ending therapy. RESULTS: Twenty men and 30 women (age 54+/-14 years, range 26-74) were included in the study. Five patients were prematurely withdrawn (side-effects 2, took additional antibiotics 2 and surgery 1) and one patient was lost to follow-up; therefore, 44 (88%) patients completed the H. pylori eradication protocol. Per protocol (PP) cure rate was 82% (36/44 patients, 95% CI: 68-95%), and intention-to-treat cure rate was 72% (36/50 patients, 95% CI: 58-82%). Five patients (10%) developed side-effects during therapy, most commonly nausea (3 patients). Four weeks after the end of treatment, 78% (PP) of patients were symptomatically improved. CONCLUSIONS: A 2-week course of twice-daily RBC-based triple therapy was well tolerated, eradicated H. pylori in 72% (ITT) and 82% (PP) of patients, respectively, and relieved symptoms in 78%.  (+info)

Ranitidine is a histamine-2 (H2) blocker medication that works by reducing the amount of acid your stomach produces. It is commonly used to treat and prevent ulcers in the stomach and intestines, and to manage conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

Ranitidine is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions in which acid backs up from the stomach into the esophagus, causing heartburn. Additionally, ranitidine can be used to prevent and treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by stress or injury in critically ill patients.

The medication is available in both prescription and over-the-counter forms, and it comes in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. As with any medication, ranitidine should be taken as directed by a healthcare professional, and its potential side effects and interactions with other medications should be carefully monitored.

Organometallic compounds are a type of chemical compound that contain at least one metal-carbon bond. This means that the metal is directly attached to carbon atom(s) from an organic molecule. These compounds can be synthesized through various methods, and they have found widespread use in industrial and medicinal applications, including catalysis, polymerization, and pharmaceuticals.

It's worth noting that while organometallic compounds contain metal-carbon bonds, not all compounds with metal-carbon bonds are considered organometallic. For example, in classical inorganic chemistry, simple salts of metal carbonyls (M(CO)n) are not typically classified as organometallic, but rather as metal carbonyl complexes. The distinction between these classes of compounds can sometimes be subtle and is a matter of ongoing debate among chemists.

Antacids are a type of medication that is used to neutralize stomach acid and provide rapid relief from symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach discomfort. They work by chemically reacting with the stomach acid to reduce its acidity. Antacids may contain one or more active ingredients, including aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and sodium bicarbonate.

Antacids are available over-the-counter in various forms, such as tablets, chewable tablets, liquids, and powders. They can provide quick relief from acid reflux and related symptoms; however, they may not be effective for treating the underlying cause of these symptoms. Therefore, if you experience frequent or severe symptoms, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Anti-ulcer agents are a class of medications that are used to treat and prevent ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. These medications work by reducing the production of stomach acid, neutralizing stomach acid, or protecting the lining of the stomach and duodenum from damage caused by stomach acid.

There are several types of anti-ulcer agents, including:

1. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): These medications block the action of proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. PPIs include drugs such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole.
2. H-2 receptor antagonists: These medications block the action of histamine on the H-2 receptors in the stomach, reducing the production of stomach acid. Examples include ranitidine, famotidine, and cimetidine.
3. Antacids: These medications neutralize stomach acid and provide quick relief from symptoms such as heartburn and indigestion. Common antacids include calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide.
4. Protective agents: These medications form a barrier between the stomach lining and stomach acid, protecting the lining from damage. Examples include sucralfate and misoprostol.

Anti-ulcer agents are used to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is important to take these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as they can have side effects and interactions with other medications.

Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Metronidazole works by interfering with the DNA of these organisms, which inhibits their ability to grow and multiply.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, creams, and gels, and is often used to treat conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.

Like all antibiotics, metronidazole should be taken only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other complications.

Salicylates are a group of chemicals found naturally in certain fruits, vegetables, and herbs, as well as in some medications like aspirin. They are named after willow bark's active ingredient, salicin, from which they were derived. Salicylates have anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain-relieving), and antipyretic (fever-reducing) properties.

In a medical context, salicylates are often used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. High doses of salicylates can have blood thinning effects and may be used in the prevention of strokes or heart attacks. Commonly prescribed salicylate medications include aspirin, methylsalicylate, and sodium salicylate.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to salicylates, and overuse can lead to side effects such as stomach ulcers, ringing in the ears, and even kidney or liver damage.

Amoxicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which is necessary for their growth and survival. By disrupting this process, amoxicillin can kill bacteria and help to clear up infections.

Amoxicillin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available as a tablet, capsule, chewable tablet, or liquid suspension, and is typically taken two to three times a day.

Like all antibiotics, amoxicillin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections more difficult to treat in the future.

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately 50% of the global population. It is closely associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. H. pylori infection is usually acquired in childhood and can persist for life if not treated. The bacterium's spiral shape and flagella allow it to penetrate the mucus layer and adhere to the gastric epithelium, where it releases virulence factors that cause inflammation and tissue damage. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection can be made through various tests, including urea breath test, stool antigen test, or histological examination of a gastric biopsy. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and promote healing of the stomach lining.

Helicobacter infections are caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which colonizes the stomach lining and is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases. The infection can lead to chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer.

The spiral-shaped H. pylori bacteria are able to survive in the harsh acidic environment of the stomach by producing urease, an enzyme that neutralizes gastric acid in their immediate vicinity. This allows them to adhere to and colonize the epithelial lining of the stomach, where they can cause inflammation (gastritis) and disrupt the normal functioning of the stomach.

Transmission of H. pylori typically occurs through oral-oral or fecal-oral routes, and infection is more common in developing countries and in populations with lower socioeconomic status. The diagnosis of Helicobacter infections can be confirmed through various tests, including urea breath tests, stool antigen tests, or gastric biopsy with histology and culture. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and reduce stomach acidity.

Clarithromycin is a antibiotic medication used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, skin, and soft tissue infections. It is a member of the macrolide antibiotic family, which works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Clarithromycin is available by prescription and is often used in combination with other medications to treat conditions such as Helicobacter pylori infection and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection.

The medical definition of clarithromycin is:

"A antibiotic medication used to treat various types of bacterial infections, belonging to the macrolide antibiotic family. It works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis and is available by prescription."

Histamine H2 antagonists, also known as H2 blockers, are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of histamine on the H2 receptors in the stomach. Histamine is a chemical that is released by the body during an allergic reaction and can also be released by certain cells in the stomach in response to food or other stimuli. When histamine binds to the H2 receptors in the stomach, it triggers the release of acid. By blocking the action of histamine on these receptors, H2 antagonists reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach, which can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ulcers. Examples of H2 antagonists include ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid), and cimetidine (Tagamet).

Furazolidone is defined as an antimicrobial agent with nitrofuran structure. It is primarily used in the treatment of intestinal amebiasis, traveller's diarrhea, and other types of bacterial diarrhea. Furazolidone works by inhibiting certain enzymes necessary for the survival of bacteria, thereby killing or stopping the growth of the microorganisms. It is also used as a preservative in some food products.

It's important to note that Furazolidone has been associated with rare but serious side effects such as lung and liver toxicity, so its use is generally restricted to short-term therapy and under close medical supervision.

Dimercaprol is a chelating agent, which means it can bind to and help remove certain toxic substances from the body. It is primarily used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning, such as lead, mercury, or arsenic poisoning. Dimercaprol works by forming stable complexes with these toxic metals, allowing them to be excreted from the body through urine and bile.

The chemical name for dimercaprol is British Anti-Lewisite (BAL), as it was initially developed during World War II as an antidote against the chemical warfare agent Lewisite, a type of arsenic-based blistering agent. Dimercaprol is administered parenterally, usually by intramuscular injection, and its use requires medical supervision due to potential side effects, including hypertension, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and pain at the injection site.

Tinidazole is an antiprotozoal and antibacterial medication used to treat various infections caused by parasites or bacteria. According to the Medical Dictionary, it is defined as:

"A synthetic nitroimidazole antimicrobial agent, similar to metronidazole, that is active against a wide range of anaerobic bacteria and protozoa, both pathogenic and nonpathogenic. It is used in the treatment of various clinical conditions, including bacterial vaginosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and pseudomembranous colitis."

Tinidazole works by interfering with the DNA of the microorganisms, which leads to their death. It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed for a duration of 2-5 days, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, headache, and changes in taste sensation.

A duodenal ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that develops in the lining of the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. It is characterized by a break in the mucosal layer of the duodinal wall, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Duodenal ulcers are often caused by an imbalance between digestive acid and mucus production, which can be exacerbated by factors such as bacterial infection (commonly with Helicobacter pylori), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, and stress. Symptoms may include gnawing or burning abdominal pain, often occurring a few hours after meals or during the night, bloating, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Complications can be severe, including bleeding, perforation, and obstruction of the duodenum. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy, and treatment may include antibiotics (if H. pylori infection is present), acid-suppressing medications, lifestyle modifications, and potentially surgery in severe cases.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by preventing the growth and multiplication of bacteria. It is a part of the tetracycline class of antibiotics, which also includes doxycycline, minocycline, and others.

Tetracycline is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as some atypical organisms such as rickettsia, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and spirochetes. It is commonly used to treat respiratory infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and other bacterial infections.

Tetracycline is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It should be taken orally with a full glass of water, and it is recommended to take it on an empty stomach, at least one hour before or two hours after meals. The drug can cause tooth discoloration in children under the age of 8, so it is generally not recommended for use in this population.

Like all antibiotics, tetracycline should be used only to treat bacterial infections and not viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it harder to treat infections in the future.

Omeprazole is defined as a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastric ulcers, and other conditions where reducing stomach acid is desired. It works by blocking the action of the proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. By inhibiting these pumps, omeprazole reduces the amount of acid produced in the stomach, providing relief from symptoms such as heartburn and pain caused by excess stomach acid.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and oral suspension, and is typically taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated. As with any medication, omeprazole should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and its potential side effects and interactions with other medications should be carefully considered before use.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germanium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. Germanium is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its neighbor silicon.

It's primarily used in the electronics industry for semiconductors and fiber optic systems due to its properties as a semiconductor. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

A Klatskin's tumor, also known as a perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that occurs at the junction where the right and left hepatic ducts come together to form the common hepatic duct, which then becomes the common bile duct. This type of tumor can obstruct the flow of bile from the liver into the small intestine, leading to jaundice, itching, abdominal pain, and other symptoms. Klatskin's tumors are often difficult to diagnose and treat due to their location and tendency to spread quickly. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment option when possible, although chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also be used in some cases.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Sucralfate is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called aluminum complexes. It's often used in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers, including duodenal and gastric ulcers, as well as in the prevention of stress-induced mucosal damage in critically ill patients.

Sucralfate works by forming a protective barrier over the ulcer site, which helps to prevent further damage from acid and digestive enzymes. It's not absorbed into the bloodstream, so it acts locally in the gastrointestinal tract. The medical definition of Sucralfate is:

A synthetic basic aluminum salt of sucrose octasulfate, which is used in the treatment of gastro duodenal ulcers and as a protectant against stress-induced mucosal damage in critically ill patients. It exerts its therapeutic effect by forming a complex, adhesive protective coating over ulcerated areas, thereby preventing further erosion from gastric acid and pepsin.

A peptic ulcer is a sore or erosion in the lining of your stomach and the first part of your small intestine (duodenum). The most common causes of peptic ulcers are bacterial infection and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen.

The symptoms of a peptic ulcer include abdominal pain, often in the upper middle part of your abdomen, which can be dull, sharp, or burning and may come and go for several days or weeks. Other symptoms can include bloating, burping, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Severe ulcers can cause bleeding in the digestive tract, which can lead to anemia, black stools, or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

If left untreated, peptic ulcers can result in serious complications such as perforation (a hole through the wall of the stomach or duodenum), obstruction (blockage of the digestive tract), and bleeding. Treatment for peptic ulcers typically involves medications to reduce acid production, neutralize stomach acid, and kill the bacteria causing the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be required.

Dyspepsia is a medical term that refers to discomfort or pain in the upper abdomen, often accompanied by symptoms such as bloating, nausea, belching, and early satiety (feeling full quickly after starting to eat). It is also commonly known as indigestion. Dyspepsia can have many possible causes, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, gastritis, and functional dyspepsia (a condition in which there is no obvious structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms). Treatment for dyspepsia depends on the underlying cause.

Penicillins are a group of antibiotics derived from the Penicillium fungus. They are widely used to treat various bacterial infections due to their bactericidal activity, which means they kill bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of their cell walls. The first penicillin, benzylpenicillin (also known as penicillin G), was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming. Since then, numerous semi-synthetic penicillins have been developed to expand the spectrum of activity and stability against bacterial enzymes that can inactivate these drugs.

Penicillins are classified into several groups based on their chemical structure and spectrum of activity:

1. Natural Penicillins (e.g., benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin): These have a narrow spectrum of activity, mainly targeting Gram-positive bacteria such as streptococci and staphylococci. However, they are susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamase enzymes produced by some bacteria.
2. Penicillinase-resistant Penicillins (e.g., methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin): These penicillins resist degradation by certain bacterial beta-lactamases and are primarily used to treat infections caused by staphylococci, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).
3. Aminopenicillins (e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin): These penicillins have an extended spectrum of activity compared to natural penicillins, including some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. However, they are still susceptible to degradation by many beta-lactamases.
4. Antipseudomonal Penicillins (e.g., carbenicillin, ticarcillin): These penicillins have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative bacteria with increased resistance to other antibiotics. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanate or tazobactam to protect them from degradation.
5. Extended-spectrum Penicillins (e.g., piperacillin): These penicillins have a broad spectrum of activity, including many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors to protect them from degradation.

Penicillins are generally well-tolerated antibiotics; however, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, ranging from mild skin rashes to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Cross-reactivity between different penicillin classes and other beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., cephalosporins) is possible but varies depending on the specific drugs involved.

Radiation protection, also known as radiation safety, is a field of study and practice that aims to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It involves various measures and techniques used to minimize or eliminate exposure to ionizing radiation, such as:

1. Time: Reducing the amount of time spent near a radiation source.
2. Distance: Increasing the distance between oneself and a radiation source.
3. Shielding: Using materials that can absorb or block radiation to reduce exposure.
4. Containment: Preventing the release of radiation into the environment.
5. Training and education: Providing information and training to individuals who work with radiation sources.
6. Dosimetry and monitoring: Measuring and monitoring radiation doses received by individuals and populations.
7. Emergency planning and response: Developing plans and procedures for responding to radiation emergencies or accidents.

Radiation protection is an important consideration in various fields, including medicine, nuclear energy, research, and manufacturing, where ionizing radiation sources are used or produced.

I'd be happy to help! However, it seems there might be a slight confusion in your question. Hydrocarbons and iodinated compounds are two different types of chemical substances.

Hydrocarbons refer to organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms. They can be categorized into several types, such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons, based on their structure and properties.

On the other hand, iodinated compounds are organic or inorganic molecules containing iodine atoms. These compounds have various applications, especially in medical imaging and therapy, such as radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid cancer and the use of iodinated contrast agents in X-ray and CT scans.

There isn't a specific category called "iodinated hydrocarbons" since hydrocarbons don't inherently contain iodine. However, it is possible to create molecules that combine both hydrocarbon structures and iodine atoms. An example of such a compound would be iodinated alkanes, where iodine atoms replace some hydrogen atoms in an alkane molecule.

So, if you're looking for a medical definition related to iodinated compounds, I can provide that. If you meant something else, please let me know!

Antimony is a toxic metallic element with the symbol Sb and atomic number 51. It exists in several allotropic forms and can be found naturally as the mineral stibnite. Antimony has been used for centuries in various applications, including medicinal ones, although its use in medicine has largely fallen out of favor due to its toxicity.

In a medical context, antimony may still be encountered in certain medications used to treat parasitic infections, such as pentavalent antimony compounds (e.g., sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate) for the treatment of leishmaniasis. However, these drugs can have significant side effects and their use is typically reserved for severe cases that cannot be treated with other medications.

It's important to note that exposure to antimony in high concentrations or over prolonged periods can lead to serious health issues, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and even neurological damage. Therefore, handling antimony-containing substances should be done with caution and appropriate safety measures.

Gastric mucins refer to the mucin proteins that are produced and secreted by the mucus-secreting cells in the stomach lining, also known as gastric mucosa. These mucins are part of the gastric mucus layer that coats and protects the stomach from damage caused by digestive acids and enzymes, as well as from physical and chemical injuries.

Gastric mucins have a complex structure and are composed of large glycoprotein molecules that contain both protein and carbohydrate components. They form a gel-like substance that provides a physical barrier between the stomach lining and the gastric juices, preventing acid and enzymes from damaging the underlying tissues.

There are several types of gastric mucins, including MUC5AC and MUC6, which have different structures and functions. MUC5AC is the predominant mucin in the stomach and is produced by surface mucous cells, while MUC6 is produced by deeper glandular cells.

Abnormalities in gastric mucin production or composition can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, including gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that work to reduce gastric acid production by blocking the action of proton pumps in the parietal cells of the stomach. These drugs are commonly used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and other conditions where excessive stomach acid is a problem.

PPIs include several different medications such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, and esomeprazole. They are usually taken orally, but some PPIs are also available in intravenous (IV) form for hospital use.

By inhibiting the action of proton pumps, PPIs reduce the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. They are generally considered safe and effective when used as directed, but long-term use may increase the risk of certain side effects, including bone fractures, vitamin B12 deficiency, and Clostridium difficile infection.

Thymolphthalein is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is used in some medical contexts. It is primarily used as an acid-base indicator in laboratory settings and in chemical tests. When thymolphthalein is added to a solution, it changes color depending on the pH of the solution. Specifically, it turns from clear or colorless to blue in basic solutions (pH above 9.3) and remains colorless in acidic or neutral solutions.

In medical testing, thymolphthalein may be used as a component of certain urine tests to help determine the pH level of the urine or to detect the presence of certain substances in the urine. However, it is not a substance that is typically used for direct medical treatment or diagnosis.

The common hepatic duct is a medical term that refers to the duct in the liver responsible for carrying bile from the liver. More specifically, it is the duct that results from the convergence of the right and left hepatic ducts, which themselves carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively. The common hepatic duct then joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which ultimately drains into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.

The primary function of the common hepatic duct is to transport bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, to the small intestine. Bile helps break down fats during the digestion process, making it possible for the body to absorb them properly. Any issues or abnormalities in the common hepatic duct can lead to problems with bile flow and potentially cause health complications such as jaundice, gallstones, or liver damage.

Colloids are a type of mixture that contains particles that are intermediate in size between those found in solutions and suspensions. These particles range in size from about 1 to 1000 nanometers in diameter, which is smaller than what can be seen with the naked eye, but larger than the molecules in a solution.

Colloids are created when one substance, called the dispersed phase, is dispersed in another substance, called the continuous phase. The dispersed phase can consist of particles such as proteins, emulsified fats, or finely divided solids, while the continuous phase is usually a liquid, but can also be a gas or a solid.

Colloids are important in many areas of medicine and biology, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, and tissue engineering. They are also found in nature, such as in milk, blood, and fog. The properties of colloids can be affected by factors such as pH, temperature, and the presence of other substances, which can influence their stability and behavior.

Scintillation counting is a method used in medical physics and nuclear medicine to detect and quantify radioactivity. It relies on the principle that certain materials, known as scintillators, emit light flashes (scintillations) when they absorb ionizing radiation. This light can then be detected and measured to determine the amount of radiation present.

In a scintillation counting system, the sample containing radioisotopes is placed in close proximity to the scintillator. When radiation is emitted from the sample, it interacts with the scintillator material, causing it to emit light. This light is then detected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT), which converts the light into an electrical signal that can be processed and counted by electronic circuits.

The number of counts recorded over a specific period of time is proportional to the amount of radiation emitted by the sample, allowing for the quantification of radioactivity. Scintillation counting is widely used in various applications such as measuring radioactive decay rates, monitoring environmental radiation levels, and analyzing radioisotopes in biological samples.

Biliary tract surgical procedures refer to a range of operations that involve the biliary system, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These procedures can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of gallstones, bile duct injuries, tumors, or other conditions affecting the biliary tract. Here are some examples of biliary tract surgical procedures:

1. Cholecystectomy: This is the surgical removal of the gallbladder, which is often performed to treat symptomatic gallstones or chronic cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be done as an open procedure or laparoscopically.
2. Bile duct exploration: This procedure involves opening the common bile duct to remove stones, strictures, or tumors. It is often performed during a cholecystectomy if there is suspicion of common bile duct involvement.
3. Hepaticojejunostomy: This operation connects the liver's bile ducts directly to a portion of the small intestine called the jejunum, bypassing a damaged or obstructed segment of the biliary tract. It is often performed for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts.
4. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy: This procedure involves creating a Y-shaped limb of jejunum and connecting it to the liver's bile ducts, bypassing the common bile duct and duodenum. It is often performed for complex biliary tract injuries or malignancies.
5. Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy): This extensive operation involves removing the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, a portion of the jejunum, the gallbladder, and the common bile duct. It is performed for malignancies involving the pancreas, bile duct, or duodenum.
6. Liver resection: This procedure involves removing a portion of the liver to treat primary liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma) or metastatic cancer from other organs.
7. Biliary stenting or bypass: These minimally invasive procedures involve placing a stent or creating a bypass to relieve bile duct obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. They can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
8. Cholecystectomy: This procedure involves removing the gallbladder, often for symptomatic cholelithiasis (gallstones) or cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be performed laparoscopically or open.
9. Biliary drainage: This procedure involves placing a catheter to drain bile from the liver or bile ducts, often for acute or chronic obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. It can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
10. Bilioenteric anastomosis: This procedure involves connecting the biliary tract to a portion of the small intestine, often for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts or pancreas. It can be performed open or laparoscopically.

Gastritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and stress.

Gastritis can present with a range of symptoms, such as abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and bloating. In some cases, gastritis may not cause any noticeable symptoms. Depending on the severity and duration of inflammation, gastritis can lead to complications like stomach ulcers or even stomach cancer if left untreated.

There are two main types of gastritis: acute and chronic. Acute gastritis develops suddenly and may last for a short period, while chronic gastritis persists over time, often leading to atrophy of the stomach lining. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy and tissue biopsy to assess the extent of inflammation and rule out other potential causes of symptoms. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, or lifestyle modifications.

A breath test is a medical or forensic procedure used to analyze a sample of exhaled breath in order to detect and measure the presence of various substances, most commonly alcohol. The test is typically conducted using a device called a breathalyzer, which measures the amount of alcohol in the breath and converts it into a reading of blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

In addition to alcohol, breath tests can also be used to detect other substances such as drugs or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may indicate certain medical conditions. However, these types of breath tests are less common and may not be as reliable or accurate as other diagnostic tests.

Breath testing is commonly used by law enforcement officers to determine whether a driver is impaired by alcohol and to establish probable cause for arrest. It is also used in some healthcare settings to monitor patients who are being treated for alcohol abuse or dependence.

2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles is a class of chemical compounds that have both a pyridinylmethylsulfinyl group and a benzimidazole ring in their structure. Pyridinylmethylsulfinyl refers to a functional group consisting of a sulfinyl group (-S(=O)-) attached to a methyl group (-CH2-) that is, in turn, attached to a pyridine ring. Benzimidazoles are heterocyclic compounds containing a fused benzene and imidazole ring.

These types of compounds have been studied for their potential biological activity, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antitumor properties. However, it's important to note that medical definitions typically refer to specific substances or classes of substances that have established clinical use or are under investigation for therapeutic purposes. As such, 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles do not have a recognized medical definition in this sense.

Antidiarrheals are a class of medications that are used to treat diarrhea. They work by either slowing down the movement of the gut or increasing the absorption of water and electrolytes in the intestines, which helps to thicken the stool and reduce the frequency of bowel movements.

Some common examples of antidiarrheal medications include loperamide (Imodium), diphenoxylate/atropine (Lomotil), and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol). These medications can be effective in managing acute diarrhea, but it's important to use them only as directed and for a limited period of time. Prolonged use or overuse of antidiarrheals can lead to serious side effects, such as constipation, dehydration, and dependence.

It's also worth noting that while antidiarrheals can help manage the symptoms of diarrhea, they do not address the underlying cause of the condition. If you have chronic or severe diarrhea, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine the root cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Cimetidine is a histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonist, which is a type of medication that reduces the production of stomach acid. It works by blocking the action of histamine on the H2 receptors in the stomach, which are responsible for stimulating the release of stomach acid. By blocking these receptors, cimetidine reduces the amount of stomach acid produced and can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ulcers.

Cimetidine is available by prescription in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid. It is typically taken two or three times a day, depending on the specific condition being treated. Common side effects of cimetidine may include headache, dizziness, diarrhea, and constipation.

In addition to its use in treating stomach acid-related conditions, cimetidine has also been studied for its potential anti-cancer properties. Some research suggests that it may help to enhance the immune system's response to cancer cells and reduce the growth of certain types of tumors. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine the optimal dosage and duration of treatment.

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

Gastric mucosa refers to the innermost lining of the stomach, which is in contact with the gastric lumen. It is a specialized mucous membrane that consists of epithelial cells, lamina propria, and a thin layer of smooth muscle. The surface epithelium is primarily made up of mucus-secreting cells (goblet cells) and parietal cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, and chief cells, which produce pepsinogen.

The gastric mucosa has several important functions, including protection against self-digestion by the stomach's own digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The mucus layer secreted by the epithelial cells forms a physical barrier that prevents the acidic contents of the stomach from damaging the underlying tissues. Additionally, the bicarbonate ions secreted by the surface epithelial cells help neutralize the acidity in the immediate vicinity of the mucosa.

The gastric mucosa is also responsible for the initial digestion of food through the action of hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. The intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells plays a crucial role in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

The gastric mucosa is constantly exposed to potential damage from various factors, including acid, pepsin, and other digestive enzymes, as well as mechanical stress due to muscle contractions during digestion. To maintain its integrity, the gastric mucosa has a remarkable capacity for self-repair and regeneration. However, chronic exposure to noxious stimuli or certain medical conditions can lead to inflammation, erosions, ulcers, or even cancer of the gastric mucosa.

Alpha particles are a type of radiation that consist of two protons and two neutrons. They are essentially the nuclei of helium atoms and are produced during the decay of radioactive isotopes, such as uranium or radon. When an alpha particle is emitted from a radioactive atom, it carries away energy and causes the atom to transform into a different element with a lower atomic number and mass number.

Alpha particles have a positive charge and are relatively massive compared to other types of radiation, such as beta particles (which are high-energy electrons) or gamma rays (which are high-energy photons). Because of their charge and mass, alpha particles can cause significant ionization and damage to biological tissue. However, they have a limited range in air and cannot penetrate the outer layers of human skin, making them generally less hazardous than other forms of radiation if exposure is external.

Internal exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides, however, can be much more dangerous because alpha particles can cause significant damage to cells and DNA when they are emitted inside the body. This is why inhaling or ingesting radioactive materials that emit alpha particles can pose a serious health risk.

Gastroscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a gastroscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end, through the mouth and into the digestive tract. The gastroscope allows the doctor to visually examine the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors.

The procedure is usually performed under sedation to minimize discomfort, and it typically takes only a few minutes to complete. Gastroscopy can help diagnose various conditions, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, stomach ulcers, and Barrett's esophagus. It can also be used to take tissue samples for biopsy or to treat certain conditions, such as bleeding or the removal of polyps.

Tooth discoloration, also known as tooth staining or tooth color change, refers to the darkening or staining of teeth. It can be categorized into two main types: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic discoloration occurs when the outer layer of the tooth (enamel) becomes stained due to exposure to colored substances such as coffee, tea, wine, tobacco, and certain foods. Intrinsic discoloration, on the other hand, occurs when the inner structure of the tooth (dentin) darkens or gets a yellowish tint due to factors like genetics, aging, trauma, or exposure to certain medications during tooth development. Tooth discoloration can also be caused by dental diseases or decay. It is important to note that while some forms of tooth discoloration are cosmetic concerns, others may indicate underlying oral health issues and should be evaluated by a dental professional.

Synthetic resins are artificially produced substances that have properties similar to natural resins. They are typically created through polymerization, a process in which small molecules called monomers chemically bind together to form larger, more complex structures known as polymers.

Synthetic resins can be classified into several categories based on their chemical composition and properties, including:

1. Thermosetting resins: These resins undergo a chemical reaction when heated, resulting in a rigid and infusible material that cannot be melted or reformed once it has cured. Examples include epoxy, phenolic, and unsaturated polyester resins.

2. Thermoplastic resins: These resins can be repeatedly softened and hardened by heating and cooling without undergoing any significant chemical changes. Examples include polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene.

3. Elastomeric resins: These resins have the ability to stretch and return to their original shape when released, making them ideal for use in applications that require flexibility and durability. Examples include natural rubber, silicone rubber, and polyurethane.

Synthetic resins are widely used in various industries, including construction, automotive, electronics, and healthcare. In the medical field, they may be used to create dental restorations, medical devices, and drug delivery systems, among other applications.

Antitrichomonatal agents are a group of medications specifically used to treat infections caused by the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. The most common antitrichomonal agent is metronidazole, which works by disrupting the parasite's ability to reproduce and survive within the human body. Other antitrichomonal agents include tinidazole and secnidazole, which also belong to the nitroimidazole class of antibiotics. These medications are available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, or topical creams, and are typically prescribed by healthcare professionals for the treatment of trichomoniasis, a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can affect both men and women. It is important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as they may have potential side effects and drug interactions.

Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate is a type of antibiotic that belongs to the macrolide class. It is a formulation of erythromycin, an antibiotic produced naturally by the bacterium Saccharopolyspora erythraea, which has been chemically modified by combining it with succinic acid and ethyl alcohol. This results in a more soluble and stable form of erythromycin that is better suited for oral administration.

Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, which prevents the bacteria from growing and multiplying. It is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, making it a useful antibiotic for treating various types of infections, such as respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and sexually transmitted diseases.

Like all antibiotics, Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate should be used only under the direction of a healthcare professional, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other complications. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

A stomach ulcer, also known as a gastric ulcer, is a sore that forms in the lining of the stomach. It's caused by a breakdown in the mucous layer that protects the stomach from digestive juices, allowing acid to come into contact with the stomach lining and cause an ulcer. The most common causes are bacterial infection (usually by Helicobacter pylori) and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Stomach ulcers may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, heartburn, and nausea. If left untreated, they can lead to more serious complications like internal bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

Sulfoxides are organic compounds characterized by the functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to two oxygen atoms and a carbon atom. The general structure is R-S(=O)O-R', where R and R' represent alkyl or aryl groups. They are often formed by the oxidation of sulfides, which contain a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms. Sulfoxides have a trigonal pyramidal geometry at the sulfur atom due to the presence of two electron-withdrawing oxygen atoms. They exhibit properties of both polar and nonpolar compounds, making them useful as solvents and intermediates in organic synthesis.

Atomic spectrophotometry is a type of analytical technique used to determine the concentration of specific atoms or ions in a sample by measuring the intensity of light absorbed or emitted at wavelengths characteristic of those atoms or ions. This technique involves the use of an atomic spectrometer, which uses a source of energy (such as a flame, plasma, or electrode) to excite the atoms or ions in the sample, causing them to emit light at specific wavelengths. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of the element of interest.

Atomic spectrophotometry can be further divided into two main categories: atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrophotometry (AES). In AAS, the sample is atomized in a flame or graphite furnace and the light from a lamp that emits light at the same wavelength as one of the elements in the sample is passed through the atoms. The amount of light absorbed by the atoms is then measured and used to determine the concentration of the element. In AES, the sample is atomized and excited to emit its own light, which is then measured and analyzed to determine the concentration of the element.

Atomic spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as environmental monitoring, clinical chemistry, forensic science, and industrial quality control for the determination of trace elements in a variety of sample types including liquids, solids, and gases.

An electrode is a medical device that can conduct electrical currents and is used to transmit or receive electrical signals, often in the context of medical procedures or treatments. In a medical setting, electrodes may be used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Recording electrical activity in the body: Electrodes can be attached to the skin or inserted into body tissues to measure electrical signals produced by the heart, brain, muscles, or nerves. This information can be used to diagnose medical conditions, monitor the effectiveness of treatments, or guide medical procedures.
2. Stimulating nerve or muscle activity: Electrodes can be used to deliver electrical impulses to nerves or muscles, which can help to restore function or alleviate symptoms in people with certain medical conditions. For example, electrodes may be used to stimulate the nerves that control bladder function in people with spinal cord injuries, or to stimulate muscles in people with muscle weakness or paralysis.
3. Administering treatments: Electrodes can also be used to deliver therapeutic treatments, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for depression or deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders like Parkinson's disease. In these procedures, electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a device that generates electrical impulses, which can help to regulate abnormal brain activity and improve symptoms.

Overall, electrodes play an important role in many medical procedures and treatments, allowing healthcare professionals to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions that affect the body's electrical systems.

Myoclonus is a medical term that describes a quick, involuntary jerking muscle spasm. These spasms can happen once or repeat in a series, and they can range from mild to severe in nature. Myoclonus can affect any muscle in the body and can be caused by several different conditions, including certain neurological disorders, injuries, or diseases. In some cases, myoclonus may occur without an identifiable cause.

There are various types of myoclonus, classified based on their underlying causes, patterns of occurrence, and associated symptoms. Some common forms include:

1. Action myoclonus: Occurs during voluntary muscle movements
2. Stimulus-sensitive myoclonus: Triggered by external or internal stimuli, such as touch, sound, or light
3. Physiological myoclonus: Normal muscle jerks that occur during sleep onset (hypnic jerks) or during sleep (nocturnal myoclonus)
4. Reflex myoclonus: Result of a reflex arc activation due to a peripheral nerve stimulation
5. Epileptic myoclonus: Part of an epilepsy syndrome, often involving the brainstem or cortex
6. Symptomatic myoclonus: Occurs as a result of an underlying medical condition, such as metabolic disorders, infections, or neurodegenerative diseases

Treatment for myoclonus depends on the specific type and underlying cause. Medications, physical therapy, or lifestyle modifications may be recommended to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

"Prosthesis coloring" is not a recognized medical term or concept in the field of prosthetics. However, I can provide you with some context that might help clarify what you are looking for.

In the context of artificial limbs (prostheses), patients may want their devices to match their skin tone as closely as possible to make them less noticeable and more aesthetically appealing. This process is called "prosthetic covering" or "cosmesis," which involves applying custom-made covers, sleeves, or skins over the prosthesis to mimic the appearance of natural skin color and texture.

Prosthetic covering materials can be painted, printed, or dyed to achieve the desired color match. This process is often referred to as "coloring" or "painting the prosthesis." The coloring technique may involve using various shades, tones, and textures to create a natural-looking appearance that blends well with the user's remaining limb or body.

In summary, while there is no formal medical definition for "prosthesis coloring," it likely refers to the process of applying custom colors, shading, or patterns to an artificial limb (prosthesis) to create a more natural and aesthetically pleasing appearance that matches the user's skin tone.

'Campylobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including birds and mammals. These bacteria are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni being the most frequently identified species associated with human infection.

Campylobacter infection, also known as campylobacteriosis, typically causes symptoms such as diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The infection is usually acquired through the consumption of contaminated food or water, particularly undercooked poultry, raw milk, and contaminated produce. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals or their feces.

While most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting and resolve within a week without specific treatment, severe or prolonged infections may require antibiotic therapy. In rare cases, Campylobacter infection can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Preventive measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, thorough handwashing, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Lansoprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It works by reducing the amount of acid produced in the stomach. The medical definition of Lansoprazole is:

A substituted benzimidazole that is a selective gastric proton pump inhibitor, which suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. It is used as an effective therapy for various gastrointestinal disorders, including gastric and duodenal ulcers, erosive esophagitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Lansoprazole is available in the form of capsules or oral granules for delayed-release oral administration.

Here's a brief overview of its mechanism of action:

* Lansoprazole is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the parietal cells in the stomach, where it is converted into its active form.
* The active form of lansoprazole binds to and inhibits the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system, which is responsible for pumping hydrogen ions (protons) from the cytoplasm of the parietal cell into the lumen of the stomach, where they combine with chloride ions to form hydrochloric acid.
* By inhibiting this proton pump, lansoprazole reduces the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which helps to relieve symptoms and promote healing of gastrointestinal disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "silicates" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Silicates are a broad class of minerals that are composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in various arrangements. They are abundant in Earth's crust and are commonly found in sand, quartz, and many types of rocks.

While not directly related to human health, some silicate-based materials can have medical applications. For example, certain forms of magnesium silicate (talc) have been used as a component in some medications for their ability to absorb moisture and help reduce the risk of skin irritation. However, exposure to certain types of silica dust (like crystalline silica) has been linked to lung diseases such as silicosis, bronchitis, and lung cancer, especially in occupational settings like construction, sandblasting, and mining.

If you have any concerns about silicates or their potential impact on your health, I would recommend consulting a healthcare professional for personalized advice based on your specific situation.

Heavy metals are a group of elements with a specific gravity at least five times greater than that of water. They include metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb). These metals are considered toxic when they accumulate in the body beyond certain levels, interfering with various biological processes and causing damage to cells, tissues, and organs.

Heavy metal exposure can occur through various sources, including occupational exposure, contaminated food, water, or air, and improper disposal of electronic waste. Chronic exposure to heavy metals has been linked to several health issues, such as neurological disorders, kidney damage, developmental problems, and cancer. Monitoring and controlling exposure to these elements is essential for maintaining good health and preventing potential adverse effects.

Campylobacter infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium *Campylobacter jejuni* or other species of the genus *Campylobacter*. These bacteria are commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly birds, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food, water, or contact with infected animals.

The most common symptom of Campylobacter infection is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be bloody. Other symptoms may include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness usually lasts about a week, but in some cases, it can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Campylobacter infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but in mild cases, they may resolve on their own without treatment. Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces that come into contact with raw meat, avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and untreated water, and handling pets, particularly birds and reptiles, with care.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

Indium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. It is a soft, silvery-white, post-transition metal that is rarely found in its pure form in nature. It is primarily used in the production of electronics, such as flat panel displays, and in nuclear medicine as a radiation source for medical imaging.

In nuclear medicine, indium-111 is used in the labeling of white blood cells to diagnose and locate abscesses, inflammation, and infection. The indium-111 labeled white blood cells are injected into the patient's body, and then a gamma camera is used to track their movement and identify areas of infection or inflammation.

Therefore, while indium itself is not a medical term, it does have important medical applications in diagnostic imaging.

Cholangiocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the cells that line the bile ducts, which are small tubes that carry digestive enzymes from the liver to the small intestine. It can occur in different parts of the bile duct system, including the bile ducts inside the liver (intrahepatic), the bile ducts outside the liver (extrahepatic), and the area where the bile ducts join the pancreas and small intestine (ampulla of Vater).

Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence has been increasing in recent years. It can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are often nonspecific and similar to those of other conditions, such as gallstones or pancreatitis. Treatment options depend on the location and stage of the cancer, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Nitroimidazoles are a class of antibiotic drugs that contain a nitro group (-NO2) attached to an imidazole ring. These medications have both antiprotozoal and antibacterial properties, making them effective against a range of anaerobic organisms, including bacteria and parasites. They work by being reduced within the organism, which leads to the formation of toxic radicals that interfere with DNA function and ultimately kill the microorganism.

Some common examples of nitroimidazoles include:

* Metronidazole: used for treating infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and protozoa, such as bacterial vaginosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.
* Tinidazole: similar to metronidazole, it is used to treat various infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and protozoa, including trichomoniasis, giardiasis, and amebiasis.
* Secnidazole: another medication in this class, used for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and amebiasis.

Nitroimidazoles are generally well-tolerated, but side effects can include gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Rare but serious side effects may include peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage) and central nervous system toxicity, particularly with high doses or long-term use. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage and duration closely to minimize potential risks while ensuring effective treatment.

Radiation-protective agents, also known as radioprotectors, are substances that help in providing protection against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. They can be used to prevent or reduce damage to biological tissues, including DNA, caused by exposure to radiation. These agents work through various mechanisms such as scavenging free radicals, modulating cellular responses to radiation-induced damage, and enhancing DNA repair processes.

Radiation-protective agents can be categorized into two main groups:

1. Radiosensitizers: These are substances that make cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation therapy, increasing their susceptibility to damage and potentially improving treatment outcomes. However, radiosensitizers do not provide protection to normal tissues against radiation exposure.

2. Radioprotectors: These agents protect both normal and cancerous cells from radiation-induced damage. They can be further divided into two categories: direct and indirect radioprotectors. Direct radioprotectors interact directly with radiation, absorbing or scattering it away from sensitive tissues. Indirect radioprotectors work by neutralizing free radicals and reactive oxygen species generated during radiation exposure, which would otherwise cause damage to cellular structures and DNA.

Examples of radiation-protective agents include antioxidants like vitamins C and E, chemical compounds such as amifostine and cysteamine, and various natural substances found in plants and foods. It is important to note that while some radiation-protective agents have shown promise in preclinical studies, their efficacy and safety in humans require further investigation before they can be widely used in clinical settings.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria that are facultative anaerobes and are motile due to peritrichous flagella. They are non-spore forming and often have a single polar flagellum when grown in certain conditions. Salmonella species are important pathogens in humans and other animals, causing foodborne illnesses known as salmonellosis.

Salmonella can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, birds, reptiles, and mammals. They can contaminate various foods, including meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fresh produce. The bacteria can survive and multiply in a wide range of temperatures and environments, making them challenging to control completely.

Salmonella infection typically leads to gastroenteritis, characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection may spread beyond the intestines, leading to more severe complications like bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or focal infections in various organs.

There are two main species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is further divided into six subspecies and numerous serovars, with over 2,500 distinct serotypes identified to date. Some well-known Salmonella serovars include S. Typhi (causes typhoid fever), S. Paratyphi A, B, and C (cause paratyphoid fever), and S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (common causes of foodborne salmonellosis).

Levofloxacin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the fluoroquinolone class. It works by interfering with the bacterial DNA replication, transcription, and repair processes, leading to bacterial cell death. Levofloxacin is used to treat a variety of infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including respiratory, skin, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal infections. It is available in various forms, such as tablets, oral solution, and injection, for different routes of administration.

The medical definition of Levofloxacin can be stated as:

Levofloxacin is a synthetic antibacterial drug with the chemical name (-)-(S)-9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methoxy-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-9-oxoanthracene-1-carboxylic acid l-alanyl-l-proline methylester monohydrate. It is the levo isomer of ofloxacin and is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase, thereby preventing DNA replication and transcription. Levofloxacin is available as tablets, oral solution, and injection for oral and parenteral administration.

Urease is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In medicine, urease is often associated with certain bacterial infections, such as those caused by Helicobacter pylori, which can produce large amounts of this enzyme. The presence of urease in these infections can lead to increased ammonia production, contributing to the development of gastritis and peptic ulcers.

Stomach diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the stomach, a muscular sac located in the upper part of the abdomen and is responsible for storing and digesting food. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, indigestion, loss of appetite, and bloating. Some common stomach diseases include:

1. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining that can cause pain, irritation, and ulcers.
2. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and damage to the esophageal lining.
3. Peptic ulcers: Open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infections or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. Stomach cancer: Abnormal growth of cancerous cells in the stomach, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
5. Gastroparesis: A condition where the stomach muscles are weakened or paralyzed, leading to difficulty digesting food and emptying the stomach.
6. Functional dyspepsia: A chronic disorder characterized by symptoms such as pain, bloating, and fullness in the upper abdomen, without any identifiable cause.
7. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A condition where eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, accumulate in the esophagus, causing inflammation and difficulty swallowing.
8. Stomal stenosis: Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and small intestine, often caused by scar tissue or surgical complications.
9. Hiatal hernia: A condition where a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity, causing symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.

These are just a few examples of stomach diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the stomach. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing these conditions and preventing complications.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond or seal restorative dental materials, such as crowns, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, to natural tooth structures. They can be made from various materials including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc oxide eugenol, polycarboxylate, and composite resins. The choice of cement depends on the specific clinical situation and the properties required, such as strength, durability, biocompatibility, and esthetics.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

In the context of medicine, there is no specific medical definition for 'metals.' However, certain metals have significant roles in biological systems and are thus studied in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Some metals are essential to life, serving as cofactors for enzymatic reactions, while others are toxic and can cause harm at certain levels.

Examples of essential metals include:

1. Iron (Fe): It is a crucial component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in energy production, DNA synthesis, and electron transport.
2. Zinc (Zn): This metal is vital for immune function, wound healing, protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis. It acts as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes.
3. Copper (Cu): Copper is essential for energy production, iron metabolism, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue formation. It serves as a cofactor for several enzymes.
4. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium plays a crucial role in many biochemical reactions, including nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, and blood pressure regulation.
5. Manganese (Mn): This metal is necessary for bone development, protein metabolism, and antioxidant defense. It acts as a cofactor for several enzymes.
6. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is essential for the function of certain enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and drugs.
7. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12, which plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and nerve function.

Examples of toxic metals include:

1. Lead (Pb): Exposure to lead can cause neurological damage, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and developmental issues.
2. Mercury (Hg): Mercury is highly toxic and can cause neurological problems, kidney damage, and developmental issues.
3. Arsenic (As): Arsenic exposure can lead to skin lesions, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
4. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is toxic and can cause kidney damage, bone demineralization, and lung irritation.
5. Chromium (Cr): Excessive exposure to chromium can lead to skin ulcers, respiratory issues, and kidney and liver damage.

Anti-infective agents, local, are medications that are applied directly to a specific area of the body to prevent or treat infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. These agents include topical antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, and anti-parasitic drugs. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the infectious organisms, thereby preventing their spread and reducing the risk of infection. Local anti-infective agents are often used to treat skin infections, eye infections, and other localized infections, and can be administered as creams, ointments, gels, solutions, or drops.

Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of small, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins found in the cells of many organisms, including humans. They play important roles in various biological processes such as:

1. Metal homeostasis and detoxification: MTs can bind to various heavy metals like zinc, copper, cadmium, and mercury with high affinity. This binding helps regulate the concentration of these metals within cells and protects against metal toxicity.
2. Oxidative stress protection: Due to their high cysteine content, MTs act as antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, thus protecting cells from oxidative damage.
3. Immune response regulation: MTs are involved in the modulation of immune cell function and inflammatory responses. They can influence the activation and proliferation of immune cells, as well as the production of cytokines and chemokines.
4. Development and differentiation: MTs have been implicated in cell growth, differentiation, and embryonic development, particularly in tissues with high rates of metal turnover, such as the liver and kidneys.
5. Neuroprotection: In the brain, MTs play a role in protecting neurons from oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and heavy metal toxicity. They have been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

There are four main isoforms of metallothioneins (MT-1, MT-2, MT-3, and MT-4) in humans, each with distinct tissue expression patterns and functions.

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

Aminosalicylic acids are a group of medications that contain a chemical structure related to salicylic acid, which is the active ingredient in aspirin. These medications are primarily used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The most common aminosalicylates used for IBD include mesalamine, sulfasalazine, and olsalazine.

These drugs work by reducing the production of chemicals in the body that cause inflammation in the lining of the intestines. By decreasing inflammation, they can help alleviate symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding associated with IBD. Additionally, aminosalicylates may also have a protective effect on the lining of the intestines, helping to prevent further damage.

Aminosalicylates are available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suppositories, and enemas, depending on the specific medication and the location of the inflammation within the digestive tract. While these medications are generally well-tolerated, they can cause side effects such as headache, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain in some individuals. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking aminosalicylates to ensure their safe and effective use.

The glycocalyx is a complex, thin layer of sugars, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins that covers the exterior surface of many cell types, including the endothelial cells that line the interior of blood vessels. It plays crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, recognition, signaling, and protection against mechanical stress and pathogens. The glycocalyx also contributes to the regulation of vascular permeability, coagulation, and inflammation. Damage to the endothelial glycocalyx has been implicated in several diseases, including cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Radioisotopes, also known as radioactive isotopes or radionuclides, are variants of chemical elements that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or conversion electrons. These isotopes are formed when an element's nucleus undergoes natural or artificial radioactive decay.

Radioisotopes can be produced through various processes, including nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and particle bombardment in a cyclotron or other types of particle accelerators. They have a wide range of applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, research, and energy production. In the medical field, radioisotopes are used for diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, and in the labeling of molecules for research purposes.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires proper training, safety measures, and regulatory compliance due to their ionizing radiation properties, which can pose potential health risks if not handled correctly.

Ofloxacin is an antibacterial drug, specifically a fluoroquinolone. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is essential for the bacteria to replicate. This results in the death of the bacteria and helps to stop the infection. Ofloxacin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. It is available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, and eye drops. As with any medication, it should be used only under the direction of a healthcare professional, and its use may be associated with certain risks and side effects.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Gastrins are a group of hormones that are produced by G cells in the stomach lining. These hormones play an essential role in regulating gastric acid secretion and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most well-known gastrin is known as "gastrin-17," which is released into the bloodstream and stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.

Gastrins are stored in secretory granules within G cells, and their release is triggered by several factors, including the presence of food in the stomach, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and vagus nerve stimulation. Once released, gastrins bind to specific receptors on parietal cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of enzymes that promote hydrochloric acid secretion.

Abnormalities in gastrin production can lead to several gastrointestinal disorders, including gastrinomas (tumors that produce excessive amounts of gastrin), which can cause severe gastric acid hypersecretion and ulcers. Conversely, a deficiency in gastrin production can result in hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid levels) and impaired digestion.

In the context of medicine, "lead" most commonly refers to lead exposure or lead poisoning. Lead is a heavy metal that can be harmful to the human body, even at low levels. It can enter the body through contaminated air, water, food, or soil, and it can also be absorbed through the skin.

Lead poisoning occurs when lead builds up in the body over time, causing damage to the brain, nervous system, red blood cells, and kidneys. Symptoms of lead poisoning may include abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue, headache, irritability, memory problems, and in severe cases, seizures, coma, or even death.

Lead exposure is particularly dangerous for children, as their developing bodies are more sensitive to the harmful effects of lead. Even low levels of lead exposure can cause learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and developmental delays in children. Therefore, it's important to minimize lead exposure and seek medical attention if lead poisoning is suspected.

In the context of medicine, Mercury does not have a specific medical definition. However, it may refer to:

1. A heavy, silvery-white metal that is liquid at room temperature. It has been used in various medical and dental applications, such as therapeutic remedies (now largely discontinued) and dental amalgam fillings. Its use in dental fillings has become controversial due to concerns about its potential toxicity.
2. In microbiology, Mercury is the name of a bacterial genus that includes the pathogenic species Mercury deserti and Mercury avium. These bacteria can cause infections in humans and animals.

It's important to note that when referring to the planet or the use of mercury in astrology, these are not related to medical definitions.

In the field of medical imaging, "phantoms" refer to physical objects that are specially designed and used for calibration, quality control, and evaluation of imaging systems. These phantoms contain materials with known properties, such as attenuation coefficients or spatial resolution, which allow for standardized measurement and comparison of imaging parameters across different machines and settings.

Imaging phantoms can take various forms depending on the modality of imaging. For example, in computed tomography (CT), a common type of phantom is the "water-equivalent phantom," which contains materials with similar X-ray attenuation properties as water. This allows for consistent measurement of CT dose and image quality. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), phantoms may contain materials with specific relaxation times or magnetic susceptibilities, enabling assessment of signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and other imaging parameters.

By using these standardized objects, healthcare professionals can ensure the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of medical images, ultimately contributing to improved patient care and safety.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Salicylic Acid is a type of beta hydroxy acid (BHA) that is commonly used in dermatology due to its keratolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. It works by causing the cells of the epidermis to shed more easily, preventing the pores from becoming blocked and promoting the growth of new skin cells. Salicylic Acid is also a potent anti-inflammatory agent, which makes it useful in the treatment of inflammatory acne and other skin conditions associated with redness and irritation. It can be found in various over-the-counter skincare products, such as cleansers, creams, and peels, as well as in prescription-strength formulations.

Infantile diarrhea is a medical condition characterized by loose, watery stools in infants and young children. It can be caused by various factors such as viral or bacterial infections, food intolerances, allergies, or malabsorption disorders. In some cases, it may also be associated with certain medications or underlying medical conditions.

Infantile diarrhea can lead to dehydration and other complications if not treated promptly and properly. It is important to monitor the infant's hydration status by checking for signs of dehydration such as dry mouth, sunken eyes, and decreased urine output. If diarrhea persists or is accompanied by vomiting, fever, or other concerning symptoms, it is recommended to seek medical attention promptly.

Treatment for infantile diarrhea typically involves rehydration with oral electrolyte solutions, as well as addressing the underlying cause of the diarrhea if possible. In severe cases, hospitalization and intravenous fluids may be necessary.

Radiation dosage, in the context of medical physics, refers to the amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by a material or tissue, usually measured in units of Gray (Gy), where 1 Gy equals an absorption of 1 Joule of radiation energy per kilogram of matter. In the clinical setting, radiation dosage is used to plan and assess the amount of radiation delivered to a patient during treatments such as radiotherapy. It's important to note that the biological impact of radiation also depends on other factors, including the type and energy level of the radiation, as well as the sensitivity of the irradiated tissues or organs.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

Medical definitions generally refer to terms and concepts within the medical field. The term "metal nanoparticles" is more commonly used in materials science, chemistry, and physics. However, I can provide a general scientific definition that could be relevant to medical applications:

Metal nanoparticles are tiny particles with at least one dimension ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm), composed of metals or metal compounds. They have unique optical, electronic, and chemical properties due to their small size and high surface-to-volume ratio, making them useful in various fields, including medical research. In medicine, metal nanoparticles can be used in drug delivery systems, diagnostics, and therapeutic applications such as photothermal therapy and radiation therapy. Examples of metals used for nanoparticle synthesis include gold, silver, and iron.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a type of microscopy in which an electron beam is transmitted through a ultra-thin specimen, interacting with it as it passes through. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the specimen; the image is then magnified and visualized on a fluorescent screen or recorded on an electronic detector (or photographic film in older models).

TEM can provide high-resolution, high-magnification images that can reveal the internal structure of specimens including cells, viruses, and even molecules. It is widely used in biological and materials science research to investigate the ultrastructure of cells, tissues and materials. In medicine, TEM is used for diagnostic purposes in fields such as virology and bacteriology.

It's important to note that preparing a sample for TEM is a complex process, requiring specialized techniques to create thin (50-100 nm) specimens. These include cutting ultrathin sections of embedded samples using an ultramicrotome, staining with heavy metal salts, and positive staining or negative staining methods.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

An exanthem is a skin eruption or rash that often occurs as a symptom of various diseases, such as infectious illnesses. It can appear in different forms, including maculopapular (consisting of both macules and papules), vesicular (small fluid-filled blisters), petechial (small purple or red spots caused by bleeding under the skin), or erythematous (reddened). The rash can be localized to certain areas of the body or generalized, covering large parts or the entire body. Exanthems are usually accompanied by other symptoms related to the underlying disease, such as fever, cough, or muscle aches.

Citrates are the salts or esters of citric acid, a weak organic acid that is naturally found in many fruits and vegetables. In a medical context, citrates are often used as a buffering agent in intravenous fluids to help maintain the pH balance of blood and other bodily fluids. They are also used in various medical tests and treatments, such as in urine alkalinization and as an anticoagulant in kidney dialysis solutions. Additionally, citrate is a component of some dietary supplements and medications.

Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy. It involves the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move, resulting in the transfer of electrical charge, and the reverse processes by which electrical energy can be used to drive chemical reactions. This field encompasses various phenomena such as the generation of electricity from chemical sources (as in batteries), the electrolysis of substances, and corrosion. Electrochemical reactions are fundamental to many technologies, including energy storage and conversion, environmental protection, and medical diagnostics.

In the context of pharmacology, "half-life" refers to the time it takes for the concentration or amount of a drug in the body to be reduced by half during its elimination phase. This is typically influenced by factors such as metabolism and excretion rates of the drug. It's a key factor in determining dosage intervals and therapeutic effectiveness of medications, as well as potential side effects or toxicity risks.

Metabolic clearance rate is a term used in pharmacology to describe the volume of blood or plasma from which a drug is completely removed per unit time by metabolic processes. It is a measure of the body's ability to eliminate a particular substance and is usually expressed in units of volume (e.g., milliliters or liters) per time (e.g., minutes, hours, or days).

The metabolic clearance rate can be calculated by dividing the total amount of drug eliminated by the plasma concentration of the drug and the time over which it was eliminated. It provides important information about the pharmacokinetics of a drug, including its rate of elimination and the potential for drug-drug interactions that may affect metabolism.

It is worth noting that there are different types of clearance rates, such as renal clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the kidneys) or hepatic clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the liver). Metabolic clearance rate specifically refers to the elimination of a drug through metabolic processes, which can occur in various organs throughout the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spectrum analysis" is not a commonly used medical term. Spectrum analysis is a term that is more frequently used in the fields of physics, mathematics, and engineering to describe the process of breaking down a signal or a wave into its different frequencies and amplitudes, creating a visual representation called a spectrum.

If you have any concerns about a medical issue, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for accurate information and guidance.

The digestive system is a complex group of organs and glands that process food. It converts the food we eat into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. The digestive system also eliminates waste from the body. It is made up of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food.

The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. Other organs that are part of the digestive system include the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands.

The process of digestion begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva. The food then travels down the esophagus and into the stomach, where it is broken down further by stomach acids. The digested food then moves into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. The remaining waste material passes into the large intestine, where it is stored until it is eliminated through the anus.

The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder play important roles in the digestive process as well. The liver produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats in the small intestine. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digest proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The gallbladder stores bile until it is needed in the small intestine.

Overall, the digestive system is responsible for breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and eliminating waste. It plays a critical role in maintaining our health and well-being.

Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that is a byproduct of the mining and smelting of zinc, lead, and copper. It has no taste or smell and can be found in small amounts in air, water, and soil. Cadmium can also be found in some foods, such as kidneys, liver, and shellfish.

Exposure to cadmium can cause a range of health effects, including kidney damage, lung disease, fragile bones, and cancer. Cadmium is classified as a known human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP).

Occupational exposure to cadmium can occur in industries that produce or use cadmium, such as battery manufacturing, metal plating, and pigment production. Workers in these industries may be exposed to cadmium through inhalation of cadmium-containing dusts or fumes, or through skin contact with cadmium-containing materials.

The general population can also be exposed to cadmium through the environment, such as by eating contaminated food or breathing secondhand smoke. Smoking is a major source of cadmium exposure for smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke.

Prevention measures include reducing occupational exposure to cadmium, controlling emissions from industrial sources, and reducing the use of cadmium in consumer products. Regular monitoring of air, water, and soil for cadmium levels can also help identify potential sources of exposure and prevent health effects.

Adsorption is a process in which atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid accumulate on the surface of a material. This occurs because the particles in the adsorbate (the substance being adsorbed) have forces that attract them to the surface of the adsorbent (the material that the adsorbate is adhering to).

In medical terms, adsorption can refer to the use of materials with adsorptive properties to remove harmful substances from the body. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the treatment of poisoning because it can adsorb a variety of toxic substances and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream.

It's important to note that adsorption is different from absorption, which refers to the process by which a substance is taken up and distributed throughout a material or tissue.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Peptide Elongation Factor 1 (PEF1) is not a commonly used medical term, but it is a term used in biochemistry and molecular biology. Here's the definition:

Peptide Elongation Factor 1 (also known as EF-Tu in prokaryotes or EFT1A/EFT1B in eukaryotes) is a protein involved in the elongation phase of protein synthesis, specifically during translation. It plays a crucial role in delivering aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome, enabling the addition of new amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, EF1A and EF1B (also known as EF-Ts) form a complex that helps facilitate the binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome. In prokaryotic cells, EF-Tu forms a complex with GTP and aminoacyl-tRNA, which then binds to the ribosome. Once bound, GTP is hydrolyzed to GDP, causing a conformational change that releases the aminoacyl-tRNA into the acceptor site of the ribosome, allowing for peptide bond formation. The EF-Tu/GDP complex then dissociates from the ribosome and is recycled by another protein called EF-G (EF-G in prokaryotes or EFL1 in eukaryotes).

Therefore, Peptide Elongation Factor 1 plays a critical role in ensuring that the correct amino acids are added to the growing peptide chain during protein synthesis.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Chelating agents are substances that can bind and form stable complexes with certain metal ions, preventing them from participating in chemical reactions. In medicine, chelating agents are used to remove toxic or excessive amounts of metal ions from the body. For example, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a commonly used chelating agent that can bind with heavy metals such as lead and mercury, helping to eliminate them from the body and reduce their toxic effects. Other chelating agents include dimercaprol (BAL), penicillamine, and deferoxamine. These agents are used to treat metal poisoning, including lead poisoning, iron overload, and copper toxicity.

Biofilms are defined as complex communities of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that adhere to surfaces and are enclosed in a matrix made up of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix is composed of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA, and other molecules that provide structural support and protection to the microorganisms within.

Biofilms can form on both living and non-living surfaces, including medical devices, implants, and biological tissues. They are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectants, and host immune responses, making them difficult to eradicate and a significant cause of persistent infections. Biofilms have been implicated in a wide range of medical conditions, including chronic wounds, urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, and device-related infections.

The formation of biofilms typically involves several stages, including initial attachment, microcolony formation, maturation, and dispersion. Understanding the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation and development is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat biofilm-associated infections.

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Sulfhydryl compounds, also known as thiol compounds, are organic compounds that contain a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (-SH). This functional group is also called a sulfhydryl group. Sulfhydryl compounds can be found in various biological systems and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of proteins, enzymes, and other biomolecules. They can also act as antioxidants and help protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Examples of sulfhydryl compounds include cysteine, glutathione, and coenzyme A.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

Thoracic radiography is a type of diagnostic imaging that involves using X-rays to produce images of the chest, including the lungs, heart, bronchi, great vessels, and the bones of the spine and chest wall. It is a commonly used tool in the diagnosis and management of various respiratory, cardiovascular, and thoracic disorders such as pneumonia, lung cancer, heart failure, and rib fractures.

During the procedure, the patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a cassette containing a film or digital detector. The X-ray beam is directed at the chest, and the resulting image is captured on the film or detector. The images produced can help identify any abnormalities in the structure or function of the organs within the chest.

Thoracic radiography may be performed as a routine screening test for certain conditions, such as lung cancer, or it may be ordered when a patient presents with symptoms suggestive of a respiratory or cardiovascular disorder. It is a safe and non-invasive procedure that can provide valuable information to help guide clinical decision making and improve patient outcomes.

Bismuth is a heavy, brittle, white metallic element (symbol: Bi; atomic number: 83) that is found in various minerals and is used in several industrial, medical, and household products. In medicine, bismuth compounds are commonly used as antidiarrheal and anti-ulcer agents due to their antibacterial properties. They can be found in medications like Pepto-Bismol and Kaopectate. It's important to note that bismuth itself is not used medically, but its compounds have medical applications.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

Glycine is a simple amino acid that plays a crucial role in the body. According to the medical definition, glycine is an essential component for the synthesis of proteins, peptides, and other biologically important compounds. It is also involved in various metabolic processes, such as the production of creatine, which supports muscle function, and the regulation of neurotransmitters, affecting nerve impulse transmission and brain function. Glycine can be found as a free form in the body and is also present in many dietary proteins.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

Guanidines are organic compounds that contain a guanidino group, which is a functional group with the formula -NH-C(=NH)-NH2. Guanidines can be found in various natural sources, including some animals, plants, and microorganisms. They also occur as byproducts of certain metabolic processes in the body.

In a medical context, guanidines are most commonly associated with the treatment of muscle weakness and neuromuscular disorders. The most well-known guanidine compound is probably guanidine hydrochloride, which has been used as a medication to treat conditions such as myasthenia gravis and Eaton-Lambert syndrome.

However, the use of guanidines as medications has declined in recent years due to their potential for toxicity and the development of safer and more effective treatments. Today, guanidines are mainly used in research settings to study various biological processes, including protein folding and aggregation, enzyme inhibition, and cell signaling.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The breast is the upper ventral region of the human body in females, which contains the mammary gland. The main function of the breast is to provide nutrition to infants through the production and secretion of milk, a process known as lactation. The breast is composed of fibrous connective tissue, adipose (fatty) tissue, and the mammary gland, which is made up of 15-20 lobes that are arranged in a radial pattern. Each lobe contains many smaller lobules, where milk is produced during lactation. The milk is then transported through a network of ducts to the nipple, where it can be expressed by the infant.

In addition to its role in lactation, the breast also has important endocrine and psychological functions. It contains receptors for hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, which play a key role in sexual development and reproduction. The breast is also a source of sexual pleasure and can be an important symbol of femininity and motherhood.

It's worth noting that males also have breast tissue, although it is usually less developed than in females. Male breast tissue consists mainly of adipose tissue and does not typically contain functional mammary glands. However, some men may develop enlarged breast tissue due to conditions such as gynecomastia, which can be caused by hormonal imbalances or certain medications.

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the body, including cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays a role in producing prostaglandins, chemicals involved in the inflammatory response.

Indomethacin is available in various forms, such as capsules, suppositories, and injectable solutions, and is used to treat a wide range of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, and bursitis. It may also be used to relieve pain and reduce fever in other conditions, such as dental procedures or after surgery.

Like all NSAIDs, indomethacin can have side effects, including stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, it is important to use indomethacin only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

The term "Area Under Curve" (AUC) is commonly used in the medical field, particularly in the analysis of diagnostic tests or pharmacokinetic studies. The AUC refers to the mathematical calculation of the area between a curve and the x-axis in a graph, typically representing a concentration-time profile.

In the context of diagnostic tests, the AUC is used to evaluate the performance of a test by measuring the entire two-dimensional area underneath the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which plots the true positive rate (sensitivity) against the false positive rate (1-specificity) at various threshold settings. The AUC ranges from 0 to 1, where a higher AUC indicates better test performance:

* An AUC of 0.5 suggests that the test is no better than chance.
* An AUC between 0.7 and 0.8 implies moderate accuracy.
* An AUC between 0.8 and 0.9 indicates high accuracy.
* An AUC greater than 0.9 signifies very high accuracy.

In pharmacokinetic studies, the AUC is used to assess drug exposure over time by calculating the area under a plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t) or AUC(0-\∞)) following drug administration. This value can help determine dosing regimens and evaluate potential drug interactions:

* AUC(0-t): Represents the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (t).
* AUC(0-\∞): Refers to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity, which estimates total drug exposure.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

In the context of medicine, iron is an essential micromineral and key component of various proteins and enzymes. It plays a crucial role in oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production within the body. Iron exists in two main forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products, while non-heme iron comes from plant sources and supplements.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron varies depending on age, sex, and life stage:

* For men aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 8 mg/day
* For women aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 18 mg/day
* During pregnancy, the RDA increases to 27 mg/day
* During lactation, the RDA for breastfeeding mothers is 9 mg/day

Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Excessive iron intake may result in iron overload, causing damage to organs such as the liver and heart. Balanced iron levels are essential for maintaining optimal health.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Drug synergism is a pharmacological concept that refers to the interaction between two or more drugs, where the combined effect of the drugs is greater than the sum of their individual effects. This means that when these drugs are administered together, they produce an enhanced therapeutic response compared to when they are given separately.

Drug synergism can occur through various mechanisms, such as:

1. Pharmacodynamic synergism - When two or more drugs interact with the same target site in the body and enhance each other's effects.
2. Pharmacokinetic synergism - When one drug affects the metabolism, absorption, distribution, or excretion of another drug, leading to an increased concentration of the second drug in the body and enhanced therapeutic effect.
3. Physiochemical synergism - When two drugs interact physically, such as when one drug enhances the solubility or permeability of another drug, leading to improved absorption and bioavailability.

It is important to note that while drug synergism can result in enhanced therapeutic effects, it can also increase the risk of adverse reactions and toxicity. Therefore, healthcare providers must carefully consider the potential benefits and risks when prescribing combinations of drugs with known or potential synergistic effects.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

... bismuth oxychloride), and bismuth-containing bullets. Recycling bismuth from these uses is impractical. Bismuth has few ... Bismuth sulfide, Bi 2S 3, occurs naturally in bismuth ores. It is also produced by the combination of molten bismuth and sulfur ... "Milk of bismuth" (an aqueous suspension of bismuth hydroxide and bismuth subcarbonate) was marketed as an alimentary cure-all ... Bismuth white (also "Spanish white") can refer to either bismuth oxychloride or bismuth oxynitrate (BiONO3), when used as a ...
... s, Bismuth-antimonys, or Bismuth-antimony alloys, (Bi1−xSbx) are binary alloys of bismuth and antimony in ... Bismuth antimonide itself (see box to right) is sometimes described as Bi2Sb2. Crystals of bismuth antimonides are synthesized ... Pure bismuth is a semimetal, containing a small band gap, which leads to it having a relatively high conductivity (7.7×105 S/m ... Bismuth antimonides are used as the n-type legs in many thermoelectric devices below room temperature. The thermoelectric ...
3 H2O Bismuth tribromide can also be produced by the direct oxidation of bismuth in bromine. 2 Bi + 3 Br2 → 2 BiBr3 Bismuth ... Bismuth tribromide is an inorganic compound of bismuth and bromine with the chemical formula BiBr3. It may be formed by the ... Bismuth bromide is highly water-soluble. It is a Lewis acid and accepts bromide ions to form monomeric and oligomeric anionic ... ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. "Sigma-Aldrich: 654981 Bismuth(III) bromide anhydrous, powder, 99.999% trace metals basis". Archived ...
"Bismuth Hydroxide , 10361-43-0". "USP Monographs: Milk of Bismuth". "Milk of Bismuth -- Medical Definition". Archived from the ... Bismuth hydrate is a component used in milk of bismuth which is used in gastrointestinal disorders as a protective agent. ... Bismuth hydroxide (Bi(OH) 3) is non-fully characterised chemical compound of bismuth. It is produced as white flakes when ... Aqueous ammonia reacts with bismuth(III) ions to precipitate white bismuth hydroxide. It is used as an absorbent, and in the ...
Bismuth began his business career in the construction sector in 1940. Bismuth founded the Groupe Bismuth, a holding company ... Senator Bismuth was also a member of the International Council of Jewish Parliamentarians.[citation needed] Bismuth was born in ... "GROUPE BISMUTH". www.groupebismuth.com. Retrieved 8 February 2021. "Roger Bismuth : « Oui, il y a une exception tunisienne » - ... In March 2012 Bismuth condemned individuals in Tunis who called for the murder of Jews, telling the press he was "no longer ...
... (Bi2Se3) is a gray compound of bismuth and selenium also known as bismuth(III) selenide. Bismuth selenide is a ... "bismuth selenide , Bi2Se3". ChemSpider. Retrieved 2011-11-01. "Bismuth Selenide , Bismuth Selenide". Espimetals.com. Archived ... and so bismuth selenide used for research is often synthesized in the laboratory. A stoichiometric mixture of elemental bismuth ... "Electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride and bismuth selenide". Journal of Physics: Condensed ...
... very little bismuth subgallate passes over to the child. Crystal structure determination of bismuth subgallate revealed it is a ... Bismuth subgallate is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to the substance, and should be used with caution in people ... Bismuth subgallate, with a chemical formula C7H5BiO6, is commonly used to treat malodor by deodorizing flatulence and stools. ... Bismuth Gallic acid American Cancer Society: Ileostomy Guide [1] Cleveland Clinic-Having an Ileostomy- A Primer for New ...
In older texts bismuth oxynitrate is often simply described as BiONO3 or basic bismuth nitrate. Bismuth oxynitrate was once ... Bismuth oxynitrates can be prepared from bismuth(III) nitrate. For example, hydrolysis of a solution of bismuth nitrate through ... "Bismuth subnitrate". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-11-11. PubChem. "Bismuth subnitrate monohydrate". pubchem.ncbi. ... Other names for bismuth oxynitrate include bismuth subnitrate and bismuthyl nitrate. ...
... melts incongruently, but it can be grown from a bismuth oxide rich flux (e.g. a 4:1:1 mixture of Bi2O3, Fe2O3 ... In this direction bismuth ferrite has shown a great potential since a large photocurrent effect and above bandgap voltage is ... Bismuth ferrite is not a naturally occurring mineral and several synthesis routes to obtain the compound have been developed. ... In the solid state reaction method bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) in a 1:1 mole ratio are mixed with a mortar or ...
... or bismuth brass is a copper alloy which typically contains 1-3% bismuth by weight, although some alloys contain ... Bismuth bronze was rediscovered in the 1880s by James Webster for telegraph wires. Webster developed two bismuth-tin-bronze ... Modern "bismuth bronze" is technically neither an alloy nor a bronze, but a composite material containing brass and bismuth ( ... Bismuth-tin bronze is not easily corrosive to water; preliminary bismuth is not easily oxidized. Used in faucets, pump ...
Bismuth studied the violin with Roland Charmy at the Conservatoire de Paris. From 1993 to 1998, Bismuth was teacher of baroque ... Patrick Bismuth (born 15 December 1954) is a French classical violinist and conductor. ... Atlantis Quartet Official website of La Tempest ensemble Ensemble La Tempesta, Patrick Bismuth, direction Discography (Discogs ... J.S. Bach - Sonatas & Partitas for Solo Violin, BWV 1001~1006 - Patrick Bismuth, Baroque Violin (Youtube) Portals: classical ...
... bismuth tetroxide or bismuth trioxide. bismuth pentoxide www.prepchem.com/synthesis-of-bismuth-pentoxide/ (Articles needing ... Bismuth pentoxide is a chemical compound containing bismuth and oxygen. It is a dark red powder decomposing above 20 °C. It has ... additional references from November 2016, All articles needing additional references, Bismuth compounds, Oxides). ...
Bismuth germanium oxide or bismuth germanate is an inorganic chemical compound of bismuth, germanium and oxygen. Most commonly ... This bismuth germanate has high electro-optic coefficients (3.3 pm/V for Bi12GeO20), making it useful in nonlinear optics for ... Bismuth germanate arrays are used for gamma pulse spectroscopy. BGO crystals are also used in positron emission tomography ... Single crystal rods and fibers can be grown by floating zone process from a rod of mixture of bismuth oxide and germanium oxide ...
The elements bismuth and indium have relatively low melting points when compared to other metals, and their alloy bismuth- ... Bismuth has many unique characteristics. When solidifying, bismuth's volume expands by roughly 2.32%.[citation needed] Its ... Bismuth is used as catalyst in the production of plastics and cosmetics, as an additive in steel alloys, and in electronics. It ... Bismuth has one of the lowest thermal conductivities of pure elemental metals. It is fragile, highly diamagnetic and it has a ...
... may refer to: Bismuth trifluoride, BiF3 Bismuth pentafluoride, BiF5 This set index article lists chemical ...
... can be prepared by reacting bismuth chloride and tris(trimethylsilyl)arsenic in toluene at room temperature: ... Bismuth arsenide is an inorganic compound, with the chemical formula BiAs. Its α-modification and β-modification have been ... Bismuth Phosphide) and Other Intergroup 15 Element Phases". Chemistry of Materials. 9 (6): 1385-1392. doi:10.1021/cm960606f. ...
Bismuth sulfide, Bi 2S 3, occurs naturally in bismuth ores. It is also produced by the combination of molten bismuth and sulfur ... Bismuth compounds are compounds containing the element bismuth (Bi). Bismuth forms trivalent and pentavalent compounds, the ... Bismuth subnitrate is a component of glazes that produces an iridescence and is used as a pigment in paint. Bismuth telluride ... Bismuth germanate is a scintillator, widely used in X-ray and gamma ray detectors. Bismuth vanadate is an opaque yellow pigment ...
Bismuth(III) fluoride or bismuth trifluoride is a chemical compound of bismuth and fluorine. The chemical formula is BiF3. It ... Bismuth fluoride can be prepared by reacting bismuth(III) oxide with hydrofluoric acid: Bi2O3 + 6 HF → 2 BiF3 + 3 H2O α-BiF3 ... β-BiF3 has the YF3 structure where the bismuth atom has distorted 9 coordination, tricapped trigonal prism. This structure is ... and bismuth. Springer. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-7514-0389-3. Xie, Zhi; Wei, Bin; Wang, Zhongchang (2018-06-01). "Structural stability ...
Bismuth salts were in use in Europe by the late 1700s. The combination of bismuth subsalicylate and zinc salts for astringency ... Bismuth subsalicylate, sold generically as pink bismuth and under the brand names Pepto-Bismol and BisBacter, is an antacid ... Bismuth oxychloride and bismuth hydroxide are both believed to have bactericidal effects, as is salicylic acid for ... Bismuth subsalicylate, DrugBank. Sox TE, Olson CA (December 1989). "Binding and killing of bacteria by bismuth subsalicylate". ...
Bismuth is a metallic chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. Bismuth may also refer to: "Bismuth" (Steven ... People with the name include: David Bismuth (born 1975), French classical pianist Henri Bismuth [fr] (born 1934), French ... with bismuth All pages with titles containing bismuth This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Bismuth ... French artist Nadine Bismuth (born 1975), Canadian short story writer and writer Patrick Bismuth (born 1954), French classical ...
... is an inorganic compound of bismuth with the formula BiOCl. It is a lustrous white solid used since ... The structure of bismuth oxychloride can be thought of as consisting of layers of Cl−, Bi3+ and O2− ions (in the image Bi = ... An analogous compound, bismuth oxynitrate, is used as a white pigment. Anthony, John W.; Bideaux, Richard A.; Bladh, Kenneth W ... BiOCl is formed during the reaction of bismuth chloride with water, i.e. the hydrolysis: BiCl3 + H2O → BiOCl + 2 HCl When ...
... (Bi2Te3) is a gray powder that is a compound of bismuth and tellurium also known as bismuth(III) telluride. ... Media related to Bismuth telluride at Wikimedia Commons Bismuth Telluride and its Alloys (Chapter 4.5 of Martin Wagner ... Bismuth telluride may be prepared simply by sealing mixed powders of bismuth and tellurium metal in a quartz tube under vacuum ... Bismuth telluride is a narrow-gap layered semiconductor with a trigonal unit cell. The valence and conduction band structure ...
... is an inorganic compound of bismuth and phosphorus with the chemical formula BiP. The reaction of sodium ... "A synthesis of bismuth(III) phosphide: the first binary phosphide of bismuth". Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical ... "Bismuth Phosphide". American Elements. Retrieved 22 December 2021. Carmalt, Claire J.; Cowley, Alan H.; Hector, Andrew L.; ... bismuth phosphide burns. When heated in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide, a gradual volatilization of phosphorus is observed. ...
... is an inorganic compound, an oxyiodide of bismuth, with the chemical formula BiOI. Bismuth oxyiodide can be ... Bismuth oxyiodide forms a brick red crystalline powder or copper-colored crystals. It is insoluble in water and ethanol, is ... The aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate acidified with nitric acid is adjusted by sodium hydroxide and then added dropwise with ... It has a tetragonal crystal structure (isotypical with bismuth oxychloride) with space group P4/nmm (No. 129). Handbuch der ...
... is a chemical compound of bismuth containing both oxide and carbonate anions. Bismuth is in the +3 oxidation state. Bismuth ... It is a constituent of milk of bismuth which was a popular digestive tract panacea in the 1930s. Bismuth subcarbonate may be ... Bismuth subcarbonate can be attained from the reaction between bismuth nanoparticles and the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) ... "Fabrication of bismuth subcarbonate nanotube arrays from bismuth citrate". Chem. Commun. (21): 2265-2267. doi:10.1039/b601764a ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula BiF5. It is a white solid that is highly reactive. The compound ... bismuth pentafluoride fluorinates Br2 to BrF3 and Cl2 to ClF. BiF5 also reacts with alkali metal fluorides, MF, to form ... ClF Bismuth pentafluoride is the most reactive of the pnictogen pentafluorides and is an extremely strong fluorinating agent. ... Bismuth compounds, Fluorides, Metal halides, Oxidizing agents, Fluorinating agents, Inorganic polymers, Coordination polymers) ...
Bismuth made his directorial debut with the 2016 feature film Where is Rocky II?. Pierre Bismuth was originally a visual ... Pierre Bismuth, Centre d'Art Contemporain de Brétigny, Brétigny Pierre Bismuth, Dvir Gallery, Tel Aviv Closed, Diana Stigter ... Glasgow 1995 Pierre Bismuth, CCC Centre de Création Contemporaine, Tours Pierre Bismuth, FRAC Languedoc Roussillon, Montpellier ... Pierre Bismuth (6 June 1963) is a French artist and filmmaker based in Brussels. His practice can be placed in the tradition of ...
"Site officiel de David Bismuth". Retrieved 9 December 2018. Debussy : Clair de lune, by David Bismuth (YouTube) Portals: Music ... David Bismuth on La Dépêche du Midi "David Bismuth : portrait et biographie sur France Musique" (in French). Retrieved 9 ... David Bismuth (born 10 January 1975) is a French classical pianist. Born in Nice of music-loving parents, he studied at the ... Bismuth made his debut with the Orchestre national de France in 2009. He mainly interprets Bach, Mozart, and French composers. ...
... potassium is a salt of bismuth (Bi3+), potassium (K+) and citrate (C6H4O74−) in a molar ratio of about 1:5:2 ... Bismuth subcitrate potassium is a bismuth salt used in combination with antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor for the ... A known side effect of bismuth salts is harmless and reversible darkening of tongue and stool by formation of bismuth sulfite. ... Bismuth absorption is increased by ranitidine and omeprazole. The mechanism of action of bismuth is not known. It has been ...
... can be synthesized directly by passing chlorine over bismuth. 2 Bi + 3 Cl2 → 2 BiCl3 or by dissolving bismuth ... Bismuth chloride (or butter of bismuth) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula BiCl3. It is a covalent compound and ... Bismuth chloride is hydrolyzed readily to bismuth oxychloride, BiOCl: Bi3+ (aq) + Cl− (aq) + H 2O(l) ⇌ BiOCl (s) + 2 H+ (aq) ... Bismuth chloride is an oxidizing agent, being readily reduced to metallic bismuth by reducing agents. In contrast to the usual ...
... bismuth oxychloride), and bismuth-containing bullets. Recycling bismuth from these uses is impractical. Bismuth has few ... Bismuth sulfide, Bi 2S 3, occurs naturally in bismuth ores. It is also produced by the combination of molten bismuth and sulfur ... "Milk of bismuth" (an aqueous suspension of bismuth hydroxide and bismuth subcarbonate) was marketed as an alimentary cure-all ... Bismuth white (also "Spanish white") can refer to either bismuth oxychloride or bismuth oxynitrate (BiONO3), when used as a ...
Bismuth Subsalicylate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Take bismuth subsalicylate exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than recommended by the ... Bismuth subsalicylate comes as a liquid, tablet, or chewable tablet to be taken by mouth, with or without food. Follow the ... Before taking bismuth subsalicylate,. *tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to salicylate pain relievers such as ...
Physician reviewed bismuth subsalicylate patient information - includes bismuth subsalicylate description, dosage and ... Bismuth subsalicylate. Generic name: bismuth subsalicylate [ BIZ-muth-sub-sa-LISS-i-late ]. Brand names: Bismarex, Bismatrol, ... What is bismuth subsalicylate?. Bismuth subsalicylate is used to treat diarrhea, nausea, heartburn, indigestion, gas, or upset ... What other drugs will affect bismuth subsalicylate?. Ask a doctor or pharmacist before using bismuth subsalicylate with any ...
BISMUTH SUBSALICYLATE (UNII: 62TEY51RR1) (BISMUTH CATION - UNII:ZS9CD1I8YE) BISMUTH SUBSALICYLATE. 262 mg. ... BISMATROL- bismuth subsalicylate tablet, chewable. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your ... BISMATROL- bismuth subsalicylate tablet, chewable. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance ...
On Sunday, the 15th of July, about noon, we were at Hunters Point and they put upon us what we now know was the atomic bomb." - Capt. Charles McVay III, US Navy Commanding Officer, USS Indianapolis (Operational Archives Branch, Naval Historical Center ...
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Bismuth Powder Bi bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term contracts ... Bismuth. 83 Bi 208.980400000 Bismuth See more Bismuth products. Bismuth (atomic symbol: Bi, atomic number: 83) is a Block P, ... The bismuth atom has a radius of 156 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 207 pm. In its elemental form, bismuth is a silvery white ... About Bismuth Powder. American Elements specializes in producing high purity Bismuth Powder with the smallest possible average ...
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: bismuth oxide, 1304-76-3.
Bismuth(III) sulphide can be precipitated by hydrogen sulphide from bismuth solutions , Buy chemicals and reagents online from ... Bismuth(III) sulphide can be precipitated by hydrogen sulphide from bismuth solutions. 1 ...
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Find patient medical information for Pink Bismuth Extra Strength oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, ... Pink Bismuth Extra Strength Suspension - Uses, Side Effects, and More Generic Name(S): bismuth subsalicylate. ... Before taking bismuth subsalicylate, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you are allergic to ... Bismuth subsalicylate is a salicylate. Salicylates can cause serious bleeding problems when used alone in patients with ulcers. ...
Mineralogy: Bismuth (Bi) is a chemical element. Its a very useful post-transition metal that occurs naturally and is used to ... Metaphysical Properties: Bismuth is a great choice for go-getters! It stimulates, energizes, and makes it easier to achieve ...
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Bismuth Ingots products for sale from more than 289 Bismuth Ingots manufacturers and Bismuth Ingots suppliers. ... Bismuth Ingots. All Bismuth Ingots wholesalers & Bismuth Ingots manufacturers come from members. We doesnt provide Bismuth ... Bismuthi Carbonicum Basicum Bismuth Subcarbonate CAS: 5892-10-4 Bismuth Subcarbonate MF: (BiO)2CO3.1/2H2O Bismuth Subcarbonate ... Product Description Bismuth telluride is a compound of tellurium and bismuth. It is a narrow gap layered semiconductor with a ...
Bismuth telluride (Bi 2Te 3) is a gray powder that is a compound of bismuth and tellurium also known as bismuth(III) telluride ... Bismuth telluride is the dominant thermoelectric material for ap ... What is Bismuth telluride?. Bismuth telluride (Bi 2Te 3) is a ... Is bismuth technically radioactive?. Bismuth was long considered the element with the highest atomic mass whose nuclei do not ... Price of Bismuth telluride. Bismuth telluride particle size and purity will affect the products Price, and the purchase volume ...
The bismuth in this mineral has an effect similar to the presence of lead in other minerals. It increases both the density and ... is a rare bismuth vanadate mineral. Pucherite is found at the Wolfgang Mine near Schneeburg in Saxony, Germany and a few other ...
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Mary Boone Gallery was founded in New York in 1977. The first Gallery was a small ground floor space at the renowned SoHo address 420 West Broadway. From the outset, the Gallery was committed to showing the work of innovative young artists. Today, in addition to artists long-associated with the Gallery - Ross Bleckner, Francesco Clemente, Barbara Kruger, Barry Le Va, Keith Sonnier - the gallery represents internationally established artists such as Ai Weiwei, Robert Barry, Ericka Beckman, Sadie Benning, Tomoo Gokita, Ed Paschke, and Peter Saul. Mary Boone Gallery is actively involved in the secondary market of artists important to its history, including Jean-Michel Basquiat, Jeff Koons, Brice Marden, and Julian Schnabel.
This was at one time the largest known (to me at least) bismuth crystal, made by a guy whose goal in life is to make the ... worlds largest bismuth crystal. Then I dropped it. ARGGGGHHH. Worse, I dropped before I even had a chance to photograph it, so ...
FieldsMetal2 at The Wooden Periodic Table Table by Theodore Gray
This sample represents bismuth in the "The Grand Tour of the Periodic Table" mineral collection from Jensan Scientifics. Visit ...
Bismuth in the United States, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii January 1, 1962 ...
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Diagnosing Bismuth. Diagnosis of bismuth intoxification is usually made easily from a history of ingestion of a bismuth- ... Diagnosis of bismuth intoxication is usually made easily from a history of ingestion of a bismuth-containing oral preparation ... Likewise, preparations containing bismuth subnitrate taken orally may cause nitrite poisoning.. Bismuth toxicity like that of ... Prevention of bismuth toxicity can be achieved easily by avoiding bismuth medications and cosmetics. Pepto-Bismol and ...
Electrodeposition of Bismuth on Polycrystalline Copper (Accepted). Publication Type : Journal Article. Publisher : Frontiers of ... Murali Rangarajan, M, D. Kumar, Rajamani, A. R., and Srikaanth, S., "Electrodeposition of Bismuth on Polycrystalline Copper ( ...
Bismuth telluride and its alloys are unique materials. ThWhat is Bismuth telluride?Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is a gray or ... It is an alloy of two metallic elements (Bismuth and tellurium), also known as Bismuth (III) telluride. When alloyed with ... It is an alloy of two metallic elements (bismuth and tellurium), also known as bismuth(III) telluride. When alloyed with ... ThisBismuth telluride, bismuth selenide, and all intermediate alloys Bi2Te3−xSex have the tetradymite crystal structure in the ...
Pierre Bismuth (2016) / (1hr 33min). It is believed that in 1979 internationally acclaimed American Artist, Ed Ruscha produced ... Pierre Bismuth. This film was part of AND Festival 2017.. Where is Rocky II, Dir. ... artist and filmmaker Pierre Bismuth has set out to find this mysterious hidden artwork with the help of a private detective and ...
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  • and a few pharmaceuticals, notably bismuth subsalicylate, used to treat diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth subsalicylate is used to treat diarrhea, heartburn, and upset stomach in adults and children 12 years of age and older. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bismuth subsalicylate is in a class of medications called antidiarrheal agents. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bismuth subsalicylate comes as a liquid, tablet, or chewable tablet to be taken by mouth, with or without food. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take bismuth subsalicylate exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • if you are taking tetracycline antibiotics such as demeclocycline (Declomycin), doxycycline (Doryx, Vibramycin), minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin), and tetracycline (Sumycin), take them at least 1 hour before or 3 hours after taking bismuth subsalicylate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Also ask your doctor before taking bismuth subsalicylate if you have a fever or mucus in your stool. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you will be giving bismuth subsalicylate to a child or teenager, tell the child's doctor if the child has any of the following symptoms before he or she receives the medication: vomiting, listlessness, drowsiness, confusion, aggression, seizures, yellowing of the skin or eyes, weakness, or flu-like symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If your doctor has told you to take bismuth subsalicylate regularly, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bismuth subsalicylate may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What is bismuth subsalicylate? (drugs.com)
  • Bismuth subsalicylate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (drugs.com)
  • Bismuth subsalicylate can cause you to have a black or darkened tongue. (drugs.com)
  • Do not give bismuth subsalicylate to a child or teenager with a fever, flu symptoms, or chickenpox. (drugs.com)
  • How should I take bismuth subsalicylate? (drugs.com)
  • Drink plenty of liquids while you are taking bismuth subsalicylate. (drugs.com)
  • Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using bismuth subsalicylate. (drugs.com)
  • Since bismuth subsalicylate is used when needed, you may not be on a dosing schedule. (drugs.com)
  • What should I avoid while taking bismuth subsalicylate? (drugs.com)
  • Bismuth subsalicylate is a salicylate . (webmd.com)
  • There are many brands and forms of bismuth subsalicylate available. (webmd.com)
  • In the U.S., Pepto-Bismol (and many imitators) contains bismuth subsalicylate, 262 or 524 mg/ml, widely used and available without prescription for dyspepsia, nausea, stomach ulcer, and diarrhea. (lww.com)
  • Heliac, a prescription medication composed of bismuth subsalicylate 250 mg, tetracycline 500 mg, and metroniadazole 200 mg is used for Heliobactor pylori infections. (lww.com)
  • The average dose of bismuth subsalicylate contained in Pepto-Bismol has a dose of salicylate almost equal to that of an aspirin once the compound dissociates in the stomach. (lww.com)
  • dichlorphenamide increases levels of bismuth subsalicylate by unknown mechanism. (medscape.com)
  • bismuth subsalicylate decreases levels of demeclocycline by inhibition of GI absorption. (medscape.com)
  • bismuth subsalicylate increases effects of warfarin by anticoagulation. (medscape.com)
  • bismuth subsalicylate, acebutolol. (medscape.com)
  • bismuth subsalicylate decreases effects of benazepril by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
  • Bismuth subsalicylate and bismuth subcitrate have complementary effects with most antimicrobials. (medscape.com)
  • Elemental bismuth occurs naturally, and its sulfide and oxide forms are important commercial ores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth is a brittle metal with a dark, silver-pink hue, often with an iridescent oxide tarnish showing many colors from yellow to blue. (wikipedia.org)
  • When burned in oxygen, bismuth burns with a blue flame and its oxide forms yellow fumes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A zinc oxide ointment, it also contained bismuth subnitrate as an active ingredient. (lww.com)
  • Future Market Insights has announced the addition of the "Bismuth Oxide Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment 2015 - 2025' report to their offering. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth oxide is the most important industrial compound manufactured from bismuth. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth oxide has a common starting point as that of similar to the bismuth chemistry. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth oxide is naturally found as the mineral bismite, however, it is also obtained as a by-product from the smelting of lead ores and copper ores. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth oxide is mainly found as a heavy yellow powder. (sbwire.com)
  • Thus, bismuth is an essential raw material used to manufacture bismuth oxide. (sbwire.com)
  • none of applications use bismuth oxide on a large scale. (sbwire.com)
  • However, the use of bismuth oxide in dental materials is slowly declining. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth oxide is used as a pigment in manufacturing paints for eye shadows, nail polishes and hair sprays. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth oxide are widely used in manufacturing of several machineries such as automatic sprinkler systems for fires. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth oxide is used as an alternative to lead and hence, has been used in range of applications where previously lead was used. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth oxide is mainly used as an alternative for lead especially in the manufacturing of bullets, shots and other ammunition. (sbwire.com)
  • Currently, bismuth oxide is being evaluated as a lead replacement in manufacturing free machining brasses especially for plumbing applications. (sbwire.com)
  • Owing to its low toxicity bismuth oxide is used in the manufacturing of food processing equipments and other copper processing pipes. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth oxide is also used in automobile industry. (sbwire.com)
  • Asia Pacific is expected to be the leading manufacturer of bismuth oxide. (sbwire.com)
  • North America and Europe are expected to be the major consumers of bismuth oxide. (sbwire.com)
  • Hunan Jinwang Bismuth Industrial Co., Ltd, The Shepherd Chemical Company and The Kurt J. Lesker Company are among the major participants of the bismuth oxide market. (sbwire.com)
  • What nano bismuth oxide? (thisisdrugs.com)
  • Nanometer bismuth oxide , additionally known as bismuth trioxide, is a not natural substance with the molecular formula of Bi2O3, which is just one of one of the most important substances of bismuth. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • Bismuth oxide-based glass has excellent optical homes, such as high refractive index, infrared transmission and nonlinear optics, so it is stunning in the material application of photoelectric devices, optical fiber transmission, etc. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • Among these products, bismuth oxide is just one of the necessary application directions of bismuth oxide as an additive. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • Its bismuth oxide material is up to 63.3%, representing 92% of the weight of the glass. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • Researchers from Taiwan National College evenly dispersed titanium dioxide and also bismuth oxide fragments (particle size has to do with 10nm) in polyacrylate. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • The application of bismuth oxide in catalysts can be split into three categories: molybdenum bismuth stimulant, such as the bismuth molybdenum titanium blended oxide prepared by the sol-gel method, with a certain area of 32-67m2/ g, which is a reliable and economical catalytic material for the oxidation response. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • The bismuth oxide material doped with yttrium oxide is a lovely driver which can be used in the oxidation combining response of methane to ethane as well as ethylene. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • For instance, BY25, bismuth oxide doped with 25% yttrium oxide, the ideal stimulant (such as LiMgO) currently utilized for methane oxidation combining response, has 15 times higher effectiveness as well as can be recycled for as numerous as 18 times: the third kind is shedding price driver, and also bismuth oxide is progressively changing lead oxide as a necessary stimulant in strong propellants. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • Nanometer bismuth oxide fragment size as well as pureness will influence the item'' s Rate, and the purchase quantity can additionally impact the expense of Nanometer bismuth oxide. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • The Cost of Nanometer bismuth oxide can be found on our business'' s official internet site. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • It has more than 12 years of experience giving ultra-high quality chemicals and also nanotechnology materials, consisting of Nanometer bismuth oxide, nitride powder, graphite powder, sulfide powder, as well as 3D printing powder. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • If you are looking for high-quality and affordable Nanometer bismuth oxide, you are welcome to call us or inquire whenever. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • Bi 2 Te 3 becomes compensated around room temperature, forcing the materials used in power-generation devices to be an alloy of bismuth, antimony, tellurium, and selenium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth is a pentavalent chemical that resembles chemically with antimony and arsenic. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth trioxide is widely used to manufacture the dragon eggs effects in fireworks as it is a major alternative for lead. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth trioxide is commercially manufactured using from bismuth subnitrate. (sbwire.com)
  • Although bismuth trioxide can be obtained from all-natural bismuth flower (a mineral), its key source is normally the by-product of copper smelting or lead smelting or the straight combustion of bismuth (blue fire). (thisisdrugs.com)
  • Bi 2 Te 3 ) is a gray powder that is a compound of bismuth and tellurium also known as bismuth(III) telluride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth telluride is a narrow-gap layered semiconductor with a trigonal unit cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to this, bismuth-telluride-based materials used for power generation or cooling applications must be polycrystalline. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one such instance n-type bismuth telluride was shown to have an improved Seebeck coefficient (voltage per unit temperature difference) of −287 μV/K at 54 °C, [6] However, one must realize that Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity have a tradeoff: a higher Seebeck coefficient results in decreased carrier concentration and decreased electrical conductivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In another case, researchers report that bismuth telluride has high electrical conductivity of 1.1×10 5 S·m/m 2 with its very low lattice thermal conductivity of 1.20 W/(m·K), similar to ordinary glass . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth telluride is a well-studied topological insulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Product Description Bismuth telluride is a compound of tellurium and bismuth. (chinaqualitycrafts.com)
  • Bismuth telluride is the dominant thermoelectric material for applications near room temperature due to its inherently low lattice thermal conductivity and high electronic weighted mobility. (mis-asia.com)
  • Materials that are composed of p-type bismuth telluride, which are suitable for low-temperature power generation (near 380 K), were successfully obtained through Sb-alloying, which suppresses detrimental intrinsic conduction at elevated temperatures by increasing hole concentrations and material band gaps. (mis-asia.com)
  • Bismuth telluride particle size and purity will affect the product's Price, and the purchase volume can also affect the cost of Bismuth telluride. (mis-asia.com)
  • The Price of Bismuth telluride is on our company's official website. (mis-asia.com)
  • It has over 12 years of experience providing ultra-high quality chemicals and nanotechnology materials, including Bismuth telluride, nitride powder, graphite powder, sulfide powder, and 3D printing powder. (mis-asia.com)
  • If you are looking for high-quality and cost-effective Bismuth telluride, you are welcome to contact us or inquire any time. (mis-asia.com)
  • This article gives you a detailed understanding of the difference between P-type bismuth telluride and N-type bismuth telluride The Ti-doped Bi 2 Te 3 with concentrations 1, 3, and 5 in % Ti were synthesized using a simple powder metallurgy method. (mis-asia.com)
  • He believed this phenomenon to be a new electromotive An experimental investigation of the electronic transport properties of bismuth telluride nanocomposite materials is presented. (mis-asia.com)
  • The Hall effect and Seebeck coefficient measurements are two of Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is a gray or black hexagonal platelet with a metallic luster or gray powder. (mis-asia.com)
  • It is an alloy of two metallic elements (Bismuth and tellurium), also known as Bismuth (III) telluride. (mis-asia.com)
  • Topologically protected surface states have been observed in Bismuth telluride. (mis-asia.com)
  • Bismuth telluride and its alloys are unique materials. (mis-asia.com)
  • Th What is Bismuth telluride?Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is a gray or black hexagonal platelet with a metallic luster or gray powder. (mis-asia.com)
  • This Bismuth telluride, bismuth selenide, and all intermediate alloys Bi2Te3−xSex have the tetradymite crystal structure in the symmetry group R3¯m. (mis-asia.com)
  • Bismuth subnitrate is manufactured by dissolving bismuth in hot nitric acid. (sbwire.com)
  • Objective: The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of bismuth subnitrate (SN) on the properties of denture base materials. (bvsalud.org)
  • Of the heavy metals including lead, mercury, arsenic, and bismuth, it is the latter whose salts are relatively the least toxic. (lww.com)
  • The spiral, stair-stepped structure of bismuth crystals is the result of a higher growth rate around the outside edges than on the inside edges. (wikipedia.org)
  • These Bismuth crystals are lab-grown in the United Kingdom, as natural crystals are extremely rare. (theevolutionstore.com)
  • Regardless, no one can deny that this bizarre, rainbow-hued mineral is seriously cool, and now NightHawkInLight on YouTube has got the recipe you need to make your very own bismuth crystals on your stove at home. (sciencealert.com)
  • Once the bismuth has cooled down enough, crystals will start forming on the surface, and grow down into the molten metal pool below. (sciencealert.com)
  • If you peel back the top layer, you'll have yourself some brand new bismuth crystals. (sciencealert.com)
  • Chemistry: BiVO 4 , Bismuth Vanadate. (galleries.com)
  • Pucherite, whose name comes from the actual mine shaft (Pucher Shaft) from where the first specimens were found, is a rare bismuth vanadate mineral. (galleries.com)
  • promoted bismuth vanadate (BiVO 4 ) photocatalysts was synthesized and physicochemical characterized by means of X-Ray diffraction, nitrogen isotherm absorption diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. (mdpi.com)
  • Development of novel nanocomposite-modified photoelectrochemical sensor based on the association of bismuth vanadate and MWCNT-grafted-molecularly imprinted poly(acrylic acid) for dopamine determination at nanomolar level. (bvsalud.org)
  • The PEC sensor was based on a physical mixture of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) with nanocomposite molecularly imprinted poly(acrylic acid ) (MIP-AA) grafted onto MWCNTox by using the surface-controlled radical polymerization strategy with an INIFERTER reagent . (bvsalud.org)
  • Common initial choices for empiric treatment include a 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy or rifabutin-based triple therapy. (medscape.com)
  • [ 10 ] or 10-day concomitant non-bismuth quadruple therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Non-bismuth quadruple therapy may be given sequentially or concomitantly. (medscape.com)
  • As the toxicity of lead and the cost of its environmental remediation became more apparent during the 20th century, suitable bismuth alloys have gained popularity as replacements for lead. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore, it was long a component of low-melting typesetting alloys, where it compensated for the contraction of the other alloying components to form almost isostatic bismuth-lead eutectic alloys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth has been used in solders, various other alloys, metallurgical additives, medications and atomic research. (mis-asia.com)
  • Pharmaceutical Ingredients Ranitidinebismuthcitrate Ranitidinebismuthcitrate FacebookTwitter CAS: 128345-62-0 Molecular Formula: C13H22N4O3S.C6H5BiO7 Molecular Weight: 651 Product description:This product is acid and bismuth agent complex, can restrain. (chinaqualitycrafts.com)
  • Bismuth is brittle metal that is silvery white in color when produced freshly. (sbwire.com)
  • The many other products containing bismuth as an active ingredient are now available from other countries or underground sources ( Federal Register 1992;57:165). (lww.com)
  • Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth Toxicity, Often Mild, Can Result in Severe Poisoning. (lww.com)
  • This experience emphasizes the importance of solubility of the bismuth salts in relation to toxicity. (lww.com)
  • The table has a useful classification of commonly used salts of bismuth and their toxicity potential. (lww.com)
  • An important additional factor is that some salts of bismuth have the additional toxicity potential of the anion apart from the metal component. (lww.com)
  • Bismuth is a brittle, crystalline material, classified as a semi-precious semi-metal, that naturally forms into unique geometric shapes. (theevolutionstore.com)
  • Using the Arkansas High Performance Computing Center, these researchers created simulations of bismuth ferrite, a synthetic, crystalline material. (nanowerk.com)
  • Bismuth-based glasses included with caesium, such as 63.3Bi2O3-32.6 B2O3-41Si2O3-0.24 CeO2, have more excellent performance. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • All Bismuth Ingots wholesalers & Bismuth Ingots manufacturers come from members. (chinaqualitycrafts.com)
  • We doesn't provide Bismuth Ingots products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (chinaqualitycrafts.com)
  • First you're gonna need some solid bismuth ingots, which you buy online really cheaply. (sciencealert.com)
  • You need to place your bismuth ingots in a small, stainless steel saucepan, and pop it on the stovetop. (sciencealert.com)
  • Compounds such as bismuth oxychloride have a wide range of applications in the cosmetic industry. (sbwire.com)
  • A witty and mysterious object that absolutely no one seems to be aware of, now almost 40 years later, Academy-Award® Winner, artist and filmmaker Pierre Bismuth has set out to find this mysterious hidden artwork with the help of a private detective and two talented Hollywood screenwriters. (andfestival.org.uk)
  • This was at one time the largest known (to me at least) bismuth crystal, made by a guy whose goal in life is to make the world's largest bismuth crystal. (theodoregray.com)
  • Everyone remembers the first time they saw a bismuth crystal and it blew their tiny human mind. (sciencealert.com)
  • The video also shows you how to make bismuth crystal geodes, but this is more of an 'advanced' activity, so you probably don't want to try this one at home. (sciencealert.com)
  • Bismuth is both the most diamagnetic element and one of the least thermally conductive metals known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth metal has been known since ancient times and it was one of the first 10 metals to have been discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agricola (1546) states that bismuth is a distinct metal in a family of metals including tin and lead. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's produced by sealing bismuth and tellurium metals in a quartz tube under vacuum. (chinaqualitycrafts.com)
  • Bismuth is one of the most abundantly available diamagnetic elements and thus, has one of the lowest thermal conductivity among other metals. (sbwire.com)
  • Then you'll need safety goggles and leather gloves, because while bismuth has a much lower melting point than many other types of metals - ​271.5 °C (​520.7 °F) - you don't exactly want to expose your naked flesh and eyeballs to that kind of heat. (sciencealert.com)
  • Elemental bismuth is denser in the liquid phase than the solid, a characteristic it shares with germanium, silicon, gallium, and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elemental bismuth occurs naturally and is a free element that is 86% as dense as lead. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth is a chemical element with the symbol Bi and atomic number 83. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth (Bi) is a chemical element. (mamasminerals.com)
  • Chemical properties of Bismuth Atomic number: 83 Atomic mass: 208.9804 g.mol -1 Electronegativity according to Pauling: 1.9 Density: 9.80 g.cm-3 at 20°C Melting point: 271 °C Boiling point: 1420 °C Vanderwaals radius: 0.152 nm Ionic radius: 0.074 nm (+5. (chinaqualitycrafts.com)
  • Valley Cottage, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 06/06/2018 -- Bismuth is a chemical element that is represented using symbol Bi. (sbwire.com)
  • Bismuth was also known to the Incas and used (along with the usual copper and tin) in a special bronze alloy for knives. (wikipedia.org)
  • This sample represents bismuth in the "The Grand Tour of the Periodic Table" mineral collection from Jensan Scientifics . (theodoregray.com)
  • The bismuth in this mineral has an effect similar to the presence of lead in other minerals. (galleries.com)
  • Bismuth and its salts can cause kidney damage, although the degree of such damage is usually mild. (mis-asia.com)
  • This is probably because of the great insolubility of many bismuth salts that prevents their absorption. (lww.com)
  • Bismuth salts likewise have modest antibiotic properties, which may be useful in surface inflammation and for deodorizing fecal material. (lww.com)
  • It is no wonder that bismuth salts have been widely used since antiquity, and still hold a secure place in medicinal therapy today. (lww.com)
  • This was generally attributed to sales promotion of cosmetic preparations containing bismuth salts. (lww.com)
  • Before 1950, syphilis and other parasitic diseases were treated with soluble salts of bismuth by a parenteral route. (lww.com)
  • No other metal is verified to be more naturally diamagnetic than bismuth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally such therapy is long-term, and this greatly increases the chance of bismuth intoxication. (lww.com)
  • The researchers found that the displacement current, which is an alternating current, or AC, naturally moves along the domain walls in the bismuth ferrite, and they also found that it is comparable in magnitude to the direct current, or DC, currently used in electrical devices. (nanowerk.com)
  • Typical Applications of Bismuth The electronic transport properties vary significantly with alloy composition. (mis-asia.com)
  • When deposited in sufficiently thin layers on a substrate, bismuth is a semiconductor, despite being a post-transition metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chalcogen atoms octahedrally coordinate bismuth atoms, and Bi octahedrally coordinates the X(2) site atoms. (mis-asia.com)
  • Further oxidation under heat can give bismuth a vividly iridescent appearance due to thin-film interference. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, bismuth turns into pink tinge mainly after its surface oxidation. (sbwire.com)
  • drivers for the oxidation of butadiene to furan and various other processes: the second kind is yttrium bismuth driver. (thisisdrugs.com)
  • Bismuth compounds account for about half the global production of bismuth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth was long considered the element with the highest atomic mass whose nuclei do not spontaneously decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • By adjusting the substrate temperature, the thickness and length of the bismuth nanowires can be tuned over very wide ranges (60-400 nm) and (1- >100 mm), respectively. (bnl.gov)
  • This technique produces bismuth nanowires in quantities limited only by the size of the substrate on which they are deposited. (bnl.gov)
  • EAST ALTON, IL (January 19, 2022) - Winchester continues to evolve in the arena of ammunition for waterfowl hunters with its new Bismuth shotshell. (winchester.com)
  • Winchester Bismuth will be available in 2022 in 25-cartridge boxes at a price meant for dropping birds, not breaking the bank. (winchester.com)
  • Bismuth subgallate, Devrom 200 mg tablets, also is available over-the-counter for controlling the fecal odor in colostomy patients. (lww.com)
  • Bismuth-based therapy is an alternative first-line therapy or second-line therapy (see below). (medscape.com)
  • Even if you're never going to follow this recipe, you should see this in the video above, it looks incredible to see the pure bismuth floating beneath a thin, silvery skin. (sciencealert.com)