Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Organometallic compounds which contain tin and three alkyl groups.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inorganic compounds that contain ruthenium as an integral part of the molecule.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Compounds containing the PhCH= radical.
Inorganic compounds that contain vanadium as an integral part of the molecule.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.

Triethylcholine compared with other substances affecting neuromuscular transmission. (1/18)

Triethylcholine (triethyl-2-hydroxyethyl ammonium) has been compared, in its actions on neuromuscular transmission, with the motor end-plate blocking drugs tubocurarine and decamethonium, with the anticholinesterase neostigmine, and with the closely related drug tetraethylammonium. The experiments were carried out on conscious rabbits and mice, on the tibialis anterior muscle of cats under chloralose anaesthesia and on the isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation of the rat. Anticholinesterase activity was determined manometrically using the Warburg apparatus. Triethylcholine possessed a slight curare-like action, but this effect was shown to be too weak and transient to contribute to the slowly developing and long-lasting transmission failure which occurs selectively in frequently excited nervemuscle preparations and in exercised conscious animals. It was confirmed that the site of the blocking action of triethylcholine was pre-junctional. Triethylcholine often produced a slight potentiation of the contractions before blocking them. This effect was not due to a depolarizing or an anticholinesterase action, and it was concluded that the slight initial facilitating action of triethylcholine on neuromuscular transmission was due to an increase in the quantity of acetylcholine released by the nerve impulse. Tetraethylammonium was much more powerful than triethylcholine in this respect. The pre-junctional transmission failure produced by triethylcholine could not be explained simply on the basis that an initial excessive release led to exhaustion of transmitter.  (+info)

Effect of beta-diethylaminoethyl 3,3-diphenylpropylacetate on the action of suxamethonium and other neuromuscular blocking drugs. (2/18)

On the frog rectus abdominis muscle and on sciatic nerve-tibialis anterior muscle preparations, beta-diethylaminoethyl 3,3-diphenylpropylacetate (SKF 525A) antagonized the actions of acetylcholine and potassium chloride as well as having an antiveratrine action. The blocking action at the skeletal neuromuscular junction of suxamethonium and its disulphonium analogue, decamethonium, tubocurarine and gallamine was enhanced by SKF 525A in the rabbit and in the isolated rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. The activity of suxamethonium and decamethonium in the cat was reduced. On the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation, pretreatment with SKF 525A abolished both the mutual antagonism between suxamethonium and tubocurarine and the antagonizing effect of tetraethylammonium against suxamethonium. Theantagonism between tetraethylammonium and tubocurarine was unimpaired.  (+info)

Stimulus frequency and neuromuscular block. (3/18)

Muscle twitches of the rat isolated diaphragm and frog sartorius preparations were recorded. It was confirmed that, in the presence of tubocurarine, the degree of neuromuscular block was greater the higher the frequency of stimulation. The results suggest that the quantity of acetylcholine released by each nerve impulse was reduced by increasing the rate of stimulation so that, in a tubocurarine solution, muscle fibres which were only just being fired at a slow rate of stimulation failed to fire at a faster rate.  (+info)

Interaction of competitive antagonists: the anti-curare action of hexamethonium and other antagonists at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. (4/18)

1. In the rat isolated diaphragm preparation hexamethonium and other low potency competitive antagonists of acetylcholine (ACh), including gallamine and hyoscine butylbromide, reverse block by the potent antagonists tubocurarine, pancuronium and alcuronium. 2. In the presence of tubocurarine, hexamethonium increases the amplitude of the end-plate potential without increasing the quantal content. It enhances the response to ACh applied iontophoretically to the end-plate but does not enhance the response to ACh applied in the bath. 3. The anti-curare effect of hexamethonium is abolished in the diaphragm of the rat, guinea-pig and mouse by inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. The effect is not observed in the indirectly stimulated toad sartorius muscle. 4. The effect is explained if tubocurarine does not dissociate appreciably in the time taken for ACh to achieve high occupancy of receptors, so that a fraction of receptors is completely excluded from occupation by ACh. Equilibration with hexamethonium reduces the fraction excluded by tubocurarine and the transmitter now competes with hexamethonium for more receptors and produces a larger response. 5. On the basis of this explanation the half-time for dissociation of tubocurarine must be about 1 millisecond. It follows that tubocurarine does not act competitively with ACh at synapses when transmitter action is sufficiently brief, and that its binding to the receptor is probably diffusion-limited.  (+info)

RNA extraction from various recalcitrant plant tissues with a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment. (5/18)

High-quality total RNA was extracted using a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment from recalcitrant plant tissues such as tree leaves (pine, Norway spruce, ginkgo, Japanese cedar, rose), flowers (rose, Lotus japonicus) and storage tissues (seeds of Lotus japonicus and rice, sweet potato tuber, banana fruit). This protocol greatly reduced the time required for RNA extraction.  (+info)

Discovery of a sensitive, selective, and tightly binding fluorogenic substrate of bovine plasma amine oxidase. (6/18)


Ionic control of the size of the vesicle matrix of beige mouse mast cells. (7/18)

Isolated matrices of the giant secretory vesicles of mast cells of the beige mouse were reliably produced by the osmotic lysis of isolated vesicles. These matrices maintained their form, and their sizes were easily measured using Nomarski optics. The size of the matrix depended on the ionic composition of the bathing solution. The physiologically relevant ions, histamine and serotonin, contracted the matrix. Multivalent cations condensed the matrix relative to univalents. Ag+, acid pH (below 5), and basic pH (above 9) expanded the matrix. In the presence of 10 mM histamine, lowering the pH from 9 to 5 contracted the matrix more than can be attributed to the pH-dependent matrix contraction in zero histamine. The nontitratable organic cation, dimethonium, contracts the matrix with little effect of pH in the range of 5-9. These results suggest that histamine acts as a matrix contractor in the divalent form. The dose-response (contraction) relation for histamine was gradual from micromolar to 316 mM (millimolar) histamine. Experiments with mixtures of histamine and sodium show antagonistic effects on the matrix but are inconsistent with either a model where ions compete for identical sites or a parallel model where ions interact with separate independent sites. In vigorous histamine washoff experiments, the half time for vesicle expansion in 10(-4) M pH buffer was approximately 4 s; in isotonic NaCl solution, it was 0.5 s. When 1 M histamine was presented to closely apposed matrices, fusion resulted. The matrix material returned to its initial shape after being mechanically deformed with a glass probe. These results suggest that the matrix size is controlled by its ion exchange properties. The matrix expansion can quantitatively account for the vesicular size increase observed upon exocytosis (as a postfusional event) and the osmotic nonideality of intact vesicles. The mechanical expansion is probably significant in the widening of the exocytotic pore and the dispersal of the vesicular contents.  (+info)

Composition-insensitive highly viscous wormlike micellar solutions formed in anionic and cationic surfactant systems. (8/18)

We investigated phase behavior and rheological properties of aqueous micellar phase formed in water/cocoyl glutamate neutralized with triethanol amine (CGT-n)/hexadecyl trimethylammonium salt (CTAB or CTAC) systems, where n is a degree of neutralization. Micellar phase appears in wide composition range with respect to the surfactant mixing fraction in ternary phase diagrams at 25 degrees C. At high mixing fraction of cationic surfactant in the water/CGT-n/CTAB systems, one can observe a highly viscous micellar phase in which worm-like micelles are expected to form. Contrary to conventional systems in which worm-like micelles are formed, the zero-shear viscosity of the micellar solution in the water/CGT-n/CTAB system with n=1.2 increases with the addition of cationic cosurfactant and once decreases after a maximum, then increases again and decreases after the second maximum. At n=1.5 and 2, highly viscous solution is observed in the relatively wide range of surfactant mixing fraction instead of two maxima of the viscosity curve observed at n=1.2. In the case of CTAC instead of CTAB we can observe narrow composition range for the maximum viscosity. Frequency sweep measurements were performed on the highly viscous samples in the water/CGT-1.5/CTAB system. Typical viscoelastic behavior of worm-like micellar solutions is observed; i.e. the curves of storage (G') and loss (G") moduli make a crossover and the data points of G' and G" can be fitted to the Maxwell model. Relaxation time against the mixing fraction of two surfactants behaves similarly to the zero-shear viscosity change, whereas the plateau modulus continuously increases in the plateau region for the zero-shear viscosity curve.  (+info)

Cubic Au-AgCdS core-shell nanostructures were synthesized through cation exchange method assisted by tributylphosphine (TBP) as a phase-transfer agent. Among intermediate products, Au-Ag core-shell nanocubes exhibited many high-order plasmon resonance modes related to the special cubic shape, and these plasmon bands red-shifted along with the increasing of particle size. The plasmon band of Au core first red-shifted and broadened at the step of Au-Ag2S and then blue-shifted and narrowed at the step of Au-AgCdS. Since TBP was very crucial for the efficient conversion from Ag2S to CdS, we found that both absorption and fluorescence of the final products could be controlled by TBP.. © 2013 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Confirming the findings of Barlow, Ing, Paton and Zaimis, decamethylene- 1, 10-bis-trimethylammonium bromide (C 10) Syncurine brand decamethonium bromide injection, has been found to have a curare-like activity exceeding that of d-tubocurarine chloride, the potency varying with the species and the method of test. It causes less embarrassment of the respiration than d-tubocurarine chloride. In cats and dogs the intravenous injection of C 10 causes no significant change in blood pressure unless a big dose sufficient to depress the respiration is given, in which case a typical asphyxial rise in blood pressure is observed.. The curare-like action of C 10 is not antagonized by neostigmine (Prostigmin) in doses adequate to counteract the effect of d-tubocurarine chloride but, under certain conditions, is antagonized by the corresponding C 5 compound which is virtually devoid of curare-like activity. An interesting finding is the fact that if a dose of C 10 is preceded by a dose of d-tubocurarine ...
In Alaska, microbes in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants such as moose help break down recalcitrant plant biomass into carbon nutrients, but how do they do this over the course of seasons when the moose diet changes, and what microbes are involved? Now, an international research team has studied microbial communities in the rumen of […]. ...
Bromate is a disinfection byproduct (DBP) that forms during the ozonation of bromide-containing natural water, which may cause health risks to humans. In this review, we provide an overview of the...
Video articles in JoVE include Study of Protein-protein Interactions in Autophagy Research, Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes: Synthesis from Benzimidazolium Salts and Catalytic Activity in Carbon-carbon Bond-forming Reactions, Fiber Connections of the Supplementary Motor Area Revisited: Methodology of Fiber Dissection, DTI, and Three Dimensional Documentation, En Face Preparation of Mouse Blood Vessels, Evaluating the Effect of Environmental Chemicals on Honey Bee Development from the Individual to Colony Level, Preparation and Observation of Thick Biological Samples by Scanning Transmission Electron Tomography, Efficient and Site-specific Antibody Labeling by Strain-promoted Azide-alkyne Cycloaddition, Preparation and In Vitro Characterization of Dendrimer-based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hybrid-Cut: An Improved Sectioning Method for Recalcitrant Plant Tissue Samples, Assessment of the Immunomodulatory Properties of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs).
Pages in category Molecular biology The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 643 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). (previous page) (next page) Molecular biology* Index of molecular biology articlesA Acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction Adaptor hypothesis Affinity electrophoresis Affinity magnetic separation Agarose gel electrophoresis Alkaline lysis Allele-specific oligonucleotide Alloenzyme Alpha globulin Aminoallyl nucleotide Amphipathic lipid packing sensor motifs Amplicon Amplified fragment length polymorphism Analysis of molecular variance Ancestral sequence reconstruction Anfinsens dogma Ankyrin-G binding motif of KCNQ2-3 Arc (protein) Arginine catabolic mobile element AveciaB Bacterial artificial chromosome Bacterial conjugation BamHI Base calling BglII Biochemistry Biochip Biodistribution Biological pathway BioModels Database Biomolecular complex BIOPAN Biopolymer Biotransducer Bis-peptide Bisulfite sequencing ...
Saunders developed a method whereby the species is isotopically labeled and then examined by NMR.1-3 For case B, isotopic labeling will desymmetrize the two structures and so the chemical shifts of what were equivalent nuclei will become (often quite) different. But the isotopic labeling of A, while breaking the symmetry, does so to a much lesser extent, and the chemical shit difference of the (former) equivalent nuclei will be similar.. Singelton has employed this concept using both experiment and theory for two interesting cases.4 For the bromonium cation 1, Ohta5 discovered that the 13C NMR chemical shifts differed by 3.61 ppm with the deuterium labels. This led Ohta to conclude that the bomonium cation is really two equilibrating structures. It should be noted that the DFT optimized structure has C2v symmetry (a single symmetric structure). Singleton applied a number of theoretical methods, the most interesting being an MD simulation of the cation. A large number of trajectories were ...
Our results suggest that the inhibitory effect of adrenomedullin on the expression of HGF and COX-2 is mediated by CGRP receptors. DFT calculations of structures, (13)C NMR chemical shifts, and Raman RBM mode of simple models of small-diameter zigzag (4,0) carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes. At the end of the experiment, the corneas were processed for histological study. The patients with HK2 expression showed a worse prognosis compared to the HK2 negative cases, and patients who were negative in Bcl-2 and positive in HK2 represented the lowest survival rate. In this paper we have shown for first time that cationically modified pullulan has antiatherogenic potential and influences on lipid metabolism. Tissue was sampled generic cialis from the cranial part of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia in the tarso-crural joint. Cortactin, an actin-interacting protein, is implicated in cytoskeletal architecture and often amplified in several types of cancer including gastric ...
You will help to be an ciprofloxacin on the bioequivalent and Try him to the methonium if it helps to check registered or if he presents also result to have ordering well. You will even Get to correct him for a cost, as this reacts Usually a cream that an use may answer taking. The reaction to please a d believed increases there cautioned on sexual and dizzy After-images.
Page contains details about bimetallic PtxCoy nanocubes . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
I have just started a PhD and have been trying to extract total RNA from skin samples from mice for RT-PCR analysis of cytokines. I know that other people have managed to do this type of analysis before as there is published data. My RT-PCR step is fine as my positive controls are working beautifully but the message from the skin samples is at best very weak. So if any one has any suggestions re: more efficient extraction methods (currently using Guanidium, CsCl gradient and phenol method) or any other helpful tips for this work I would be very grateful if they could get in touch. Thanks, Ginny Shires University of York ...
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The Centre for Territory, Environment and Construction (CTAC) is a R&D unit of the School of Engineering of University of Minho, recognised by the
The automated structure elucidation of organic molecules from experimentally obtained properties is extended by an entirely new approach. A genetic algorithm is implemented that uses molecular constitution structures as individuals. With this approach, the structure of organic molecules can be optimized to meet experimental criteria, if in addition a fast and accurate method for the prediction of the used physical or chemical features is available. This is demonstrated using (13)C NMR spectrum as readily obtainable information. (13)C NMR chemical shift, intensity, and multiplicity information is available from (13)C NMR DEPT spectra. By means of artificial neural networks a fast and accurate method for calculating the (13)C NMR spectrum of the generated structures exists. The approach is limited by the size of the constitutional space that has to be searched and by the accuracy of the shift prediction for the unknown substance. The method is implemented and tested successfully for organic molecules with
Iron porphyrins with the intermediate spin S = 3/2 or admixed with S = 5/2 or 1/2 are models for a number of heme protein systems, including cytochromes c. The (57)Fe Mossbauer quadrupole splittings and (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts have been found to be useful probes of their electronic states. We present the results of the first successful quantum chemical calculations of the Mossbauer and NMR properties in various S = 3/2 iron porphyrin complexes, covering four-, five-, and six-coordinate states and three commonly seen porphyrin conformations: planar, ruffled, and saddled. Several interesting correlations among these useful experimental spectroscopic probes and geometric and electronic properties were discovered. These results should facilitate future investigations of related heme proteins and model systems.
Lateral organs are formed in plants by post embryonic developmental programs. Leaves, and flowers differentiate from the shoot apical meristem and lateral roots from the primary root pericycle meristem. Adventitious roots are roots formed from non-root lateral meristematic tissues, mostly the cambium, in many cases in response to stress signals. The ability of plants to regenerate adventitious roots is fundamental for selection and breading programs which are based on vegetative propagation of elite clones. Thus, recalcitrant plants, losing their rooting capability, may form a genuine commercial barrier in agricultural and forestry improvement programs. Some cellular mechanisms underlying adventitious root formation have been revealed, but much is yet to be clarified. The plant primary cell wall is a dynamic organ that can change its form, and perceive and relay molecular signals inward and outward during certain stages of development in particular cells. Therefore, before the secondary cell ...
To access the sugars in lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment is an essential step to deconstruct the recalcitrant plant cell wall structures and facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis of recovered cellulose. Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment is gaining substantial attention as a potential pretreatment process that can efficiently fractionate biomass and provide clean sugar substrate for the production of ethanol and other advanced biofuels. Previous work at Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) has demonstrated at milliliter scales that IL can dissolve significant amounts of several feedstocks and produce highly digestible polysaccharides. However, a key factor in the development of economically viable lignocellulosic biofuels is to establish novel pretreatment technologies coupled with saccharification by advanced enzyme systems at process relevant scales.. ...
I am working with a recombinant protein which is expressed in the periplasmic compartment of E. coli. Somehow, most of the expressed and secreted protein is stuck with the bacterial membrane. So, I need to solublized the membrane in order to isolate the recombinant protein. Id like to know if there are any detergent which can solublized the bacterial membrane, in the same time does not do much harm to the rProtein (I dont want to use guanidium HCl, for example). Will Triton X-100 do the job? Alex Chang Pathology University of British Columbia alex at ...
are little complicated. Just remember, that lysine has epsilon-NH2, it is often used for binding, modifications etc. Thus it must have alpha-carbon (the one between NH2 and COOH), beta, gamma, delta and epsilon and then there is the other NH2. Arginine is a little tough, probably easiest way is to remember it is one carbon shoter than Lys and there is the guanidium group. If you look on the urea cycle, you can see there is the arginine as well as ornithin, which is one-carbon-shorter homologue of lysine ...
The Centre for Territory, Environment and Construction (CTAC) is a R&D unit of the School of Engineering of University of Minho, recognised by the
Cytotoxicity of weak electrolytes after the adaptation of cells to low pH: role of the transmembrane pH gradient. Br J Cancer. 1998 May; 77(10):1580-5 ...
The growth modes of self-assembled mesocrystals and ordered arrays from dispersions of iron oxide nanocubes with a mean edge length of 9.6 nm during controlled solvent removal have been investigated with a combination of visible light video microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Mesocrystals with translational and orientational order of sizes up to 10 μm are formed spontaneously during the final, diffusion-controlled, drop-casting stage when the liquid film is very thin and the particle concentration is high. Convection-driven deposition of ordered nanocube arrays at the edge of the drying droplet is a manifestation of the so called coffee-ring effect. Dendritic growth or fingering of rapidly growing arrays of ordered nanocubes could also be observed in a transition regime as the growth front moves from the initial three-phase contact line towards the centre of the original droplet.. ...
Page contains details about 4-mercaptobenzoic acid-modified silver nanocubes . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
Interpreting Protein Structural Dynamics from NMR Chemical Shifts Paul Robustelli, Kate A. Stafford and Arthur G. Palmer Journal of the American
Domestos Extended Germ Kill Thick Bleach kills all known germs dead with its special CTAC™ formula. Nothing protects for as long when it comes to toilet bleach, as the extended Germ Kill formula gives you long lasting protection in the toilet ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Butyrate-induced differentiation of Caco-2 cells is associated with apoptosis and early induction of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1). AU - Litvak, D. A.. AU - Evers, B. M.. AU - Hwang, K. O.. AU - Hellmich, M. R.. AU - Ko, T. C.. AU - Townsend, Jr. AU - Mercer, D. W.. AU - Hodin, R. A.. AU - Postier, R. G.. AU - Soybel, D. I.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Background. Intestinal mucosal turnover is a process of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis; the mechanisms remain largely undefined. The purpose of our study was to (I) assess the relationship between apoptosis and enterocyte differentiation and (2) determine whether the cell-cycle inhibitors, p21(Wafl/cip1) and p27(Kip1), or the apoptosis inhibitors, Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), may be involved. Methods. Gut-derived Caco-2 cells were treated with sodium butyrate. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst stain, DNA laddering, and annexin V assay; differentiation was determined by alkaline phosphatase and sucrase activity. RNA and protein ...
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Self-assembly of nanoparticles is a promising route to form complex, nanostructured materials with functional properties. Nanoparticle assemblies characterized by a crystallographic alignment of the nanoparticles on the atomic scale, i.e. mesocrystals, are commonly found in nature with outstanding functional and mechanical properties. This thesis aims to investigate and understand the formation mechanisms of mesocrystals formed by self-assembling iron oxide nanocubes.. We have used the thermal decomposition method to synthesize monodisperse, oleate-capped iron oxide nanocubes with average edge lengths between 7 nm and 12 nm and studied the evaporation-induced self-assembly in dilute toluene-based nanocube dispersions. The influence of packing constraints on the alignment of the nanocubes in nanofluidic containers has been investigated with small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS, respectively). We found that the nanocubes preferentially orient one of their {100} faces with the ...
The submandibular ganglion is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. It receives parasympathetic fibres from the facial nerve. Gross anatomy small ganglion suspended from the undersurface of the lingual nerve inferior to sub...
The submandibular ganglion is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. It receives parasympathetic fibers from the facial nerve. Gross anatomy small ganglion suspended from the undersurface of the lingual nerve inferior to sub...
With the aim of advancing anatase TiO2 anodes for sodium ion batteries, crystalline titania nanocubes were employed and they delivered a gradually increasing capacity during the initial cycles, termed as an activation process. The number of necessary discharge-charge loops for total activation is dependent o
Tissue RNA PrepMate™ uses a modified guanidium salt-lysis method to optimally extract total RNA from tissue. The amount of extracted total RNA can differ according to the tissue or cell type, so the starting amount should be adjusted to your needs. The extracted viral RNA can be used as a template of the RT-PCR or quantitative real time RT-PCR and cDNA synthesis, cDNA library construction, Microarray ...
Achieve cleansed and youthful skin with the Filorga Anti-Ageing Micellar Solution, a no-rinse makeup remover. Suitable for all skin types, the Filorga Micellar water effectively cleanses away makeup, dirt, impurities and oils, without the nee
سابقه و هدف: تاکنون فرم جنسی برای گونه آلترناریا آلترناتا گزارش نشده است. اما سطوح بالایی از تنوع ژنتیکی و ریخت شناسی مشاهده شده در بین جمعیت های این قارچ بیانگر وجود مکانیسم های ناشناخته و مرموز تولید مثل جنسی است. در قارچ های آسکومیستی مشابه با این قارچ، تولید مثل جنسی توسط یک ژن گاه منفرد به نام MAT1 کنترل می شود که دارای دو آلل MAT1-1 و MAT1-2 می باشند. این مطالعه با هدف تعیین فراوانی و نحوه پراکنش آلل های ژن MAT1 در جمعیت قارچ آلترناریا آلترناتا مرکبات جنوب کشور انجام شد. مواد و روش ها: در این مطالعه مقطعی- توصیفی، استخراج DNA با روش CTAB، از ریسه های جوان نمونه های برگی
Schiff bases compounds are of the great interest in many fields of chemistry and biochemistry. In this study, a new Schiff base compound C11H7IN2O2S has been synthesized and characterized using FT-IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n. The molecular geometry obtained from the X-ray structure determination was optimized using Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-311G++(d, p) basis set in ground state [1]. The vibrational frequencies, gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C -NMR chemical shift values and electronic properties in the ground state were investigated same level of theory. For the purpose of the structural conformity of the title molecule, the theoretical results were compared with the experimental values and similar literature [2, 3]. This comparison indicated that the theoretically calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data on the whole ...
Protein coronas around silver nanocubes were quantified in serum-containing media using localized surface plasmon resonances. Both soft and hard coronas showed exposure-time and concentration-dependent changes in protein surface density with time-dependent hardening. We observed spatially dependent kinetics of the corona-formation at cube edges/corners versus facets at short incubation times, where the polymer stabilization agent delayed corona hardening. The soft corona contained more protein than the hard corona at all time-points (8-fold difference with 10% serum conditions ...
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The MBI Cell & Tissue Analysis Core (CTAC) has been established to provide a centralized imaging, analysis & histology resource for the UF/ MBI research community.
Faceted colloidal nanoparticles are currently of immense interest due to their unique electronic, optical, and catalytic properties. However, continuous flow synthesis that enables rapid formation of faceted nanoparticles of single or multi-elemental composition is not trivial. We present a continuous flow synthesis route for the synthesis of uniformly sized Pd nanocubes and PdPt core-shell nanoparticles in a single-phase microfluidic reactor, which enables rapid formation of shaped nanoparticles with a reaction time of 3 min. The PdPt core-shell nanoparticles feature a dendritic, high surface area with the Pt shell covering the Pd core, as verified using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Pd nanocubes and PdPt core-shell particles are catalytically tested during NO2 reduction in the presence of H2 in a flow pocket reactor. The Pd nanocubes exhibited low-temperature activity (i.e., <136 °C) and poor selectivity performance toward
This is an abstract from UK Colloids 2011: An International Colloid and Surface Science Symposium, July 4-6 2011, DeVere Venue, Canary Wharf - London. A journal paper of this title was subsequently published in the journal, Progress in Colloid and Polymer Science [© Springer]: www.springerlink. ...
Looking for online definition of CTAB in the Medical Dictionary? CTAB explanation free. What is CTAB? Meaning of CTAB medical term. What does CTAB mean?
PS1 and PS2 mRNA analysis. Total RNA was isolated by homogenization of selected tissue in 4 m guanidium thiocyanate and centrifugation of the lysates over a 5.7 mcesium chloride cushion (Chirgwin et al., 1979).. The levels of PS1 and PS2 mRNA in mouse and human brain, peripheral tissues, and developmental stages were assayed by PCR of reverse-transcribed RNA (RT-PCR; Chelly et al., 1988; Golde et al., 1990; Slunt et al., 1994). Reverse-transcribed RNA was added to a PCR reaction mixture containing degenerate primers (1 μmeach) and 32P-end-labeled sense primer (10 pm), reaction buffer, and Taq DNA polymerase. For mouse, we used a sense primer, 5′-(A/G)ACGG(G/T)CAGCT(A/C)ATCTACAC-3′, and an antisense primer, 5′-GAT(A/G)AA(C/T)ACCAGGGCCATGAG-3′, to amplify a 386 bp fragment encoding amino acids 110-238 of PS1 and the homologous region of mouse PS2. For human, we used a sense primer, 5′-ATCATGCT(G/C)TTTGT(G/C)CCTG-3′, and an antisense primer, 5′-TTCTCTCCTG(A/G)GC(A/T)GTTTC-3′, to ...
31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Chemical Shifts of 4-TERT.-BUTYL-2,2,6,6-TETRAMETHYL-1-PHENYL-4-PHOSPHORINANOL-1-OXIDE with properties.
A prospective approach was used to synthesize carbohydrate nanocapsules with a macromolecule payload and suitable interfacial properties for in vivo systemic circulation. Spatially directed carbohydrate assembly and polymerization resulted in structured hydrophilic vesicles with diameters of 200-300 nm. Mononucleated dispersions with monodisperse distributions were demonstrated in aqueous vehicles. The effects of pH, buffer capacity and reaction time on the molar degree of substitution of terephthaloyl chloride, trimesoyl chloride, and diethylmalonyl chloride were evaluated. The delivery of a test protein, lysozyme showed continuous release for 7 days. Immobilization of lysozyme caused by co-polymerization was 20% based on asymptotic recovery of released lysozyme. A theoretical shell thickness of 9.5 nm was estimated from a relative core volume of 80% and the average vesicle size ...
1. Grind young leaf tissues. Place about 50ul ground tissues into 2ml microtubes. Add 750 ul of 2x CTAB buffer and 50 ul of 20% SDS. Mix thoroughly. ...
Aeris by Phenomenex is core-shell precision engineered specifically for Protein and Peptide separation resulting in higher efficiency.
Medical definition of submandibular ganglion: an autonomic ganglion that is situated on the hyoglossus muscle above the deep part of the submandibular gland, receives preganglionic fibers from the facial nerve by way of the chorda tympani, and sends postganglionic fibers to the submandibular and sublingual glands -called also submaxillary ganglion.
A micellar solution consists of a dispersion of micelles in a solvent (most usually water). Micelles consist of aggregated amphiphiles, and in a micellar solution these are in equilibrium with free, unaggregated amphiphiles. Micellar solutions form when the concentration of amphiphile exceeds the critical micellar concentration (CMC) or critical aggregation concentration - CAC, and persist until the amphiphile concentration becomes sufficiently high to form a lyotropic liquid crystal phase.[1][2][3][4] Although micelles are often depicted as being spherical, they can be cylindrical or oblate depending on the chemical structure of the amphiphile. Micellar solutions are isotropic phases. Micellar water has been used in France since 1913.[5] ...
This volume reviews the brief history of NMR chemical shielding and presents snap shots of the developing field, including: new methodologies to calculate NMR chemical shifts, calculation of chemical shifts in molecular systems of biological interest, advances in the undestanding of chemical shifts, and the modelling of chemical shifts in inorganic compounds.
Mahmoud MA, Chamanzar M, Adibi A, El-Sayed MA. Effect of the Dielectric Constant of the Surrounding Medium and the Substrate on the Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrum and Sensitivity Factors of Highly Symmetric Systems: Silver Nanocubes. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2012 ;134:6434-6442. ...
Mahmoud MA, Chamanzar M, Adibi A, El-Sayed MA. Effect of the Dielectric Constant of the Surrounding Medium and the Substrate on the Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrum and Sensitivity Factors of Highly Symmetric Systems: Silver Nanocubes. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2012 ;134:6434-6442. ...
These compounds can be liquid until a certain temperature, then solid even as the temperature increases, and finally liquid ... Due to severe steric constraint, the protonated form of Proton Sponge (1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene) and its derivatives ... Moore and Winmill used the hydrogen bond to account for the fact that trimethylammonium hydroxide is a weaker base than ... Lipinski CA (December 2004). "Lead- and drug-like compounds: the rule-of-five revolution". Drug Discovery Today: Technologies. ...
4N+ or abbreviated Bu 4N+ trimethyl ammonium compounds, (CH 3) 3RN+ didecyldimethylammonium, (C 10H 21) 2(CH 3) 2N+ ... NO+ 2 bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium, ((C 6H 5) 3P) 2N+ tertiary ammonium cations having one triple-bonded substitution, R≡NH+ ... Onium compounds at IUPAC Onium compounds at IUPAC Overview at Onium compounds at the US National Library of ... Compounds of an onium cation and some other negative ion are known as onium compounds or onium salts. Onium ions and onium ...
4N+ or abbreviated Bu4N+ trimethyl ammonium compounds, (CH3)3RN+ didecyldimethylammonium, (C10H21)2(CH3)2N+ ... bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium, ((C6H5)3P)2N+ quaternary ammonium cations having one triple-bonded substitution and one single- ... Compounds of an onium cation and some other anion are known as onium compounds or onium salts. Onium ions and onium compounds ... Cations, Queen Mary University of London) Ions and Radicals, Queen Mary University of London Onium compounds at the US National ...
The trimethyl ammonium group of Ach binds to the aromatic residue of tryptophan (Trp). The indole site provides a much more ... S-Adenosyl methionine (SAM) can act as a catalyst for the transfer of methyl group from the sulfonium compound to nucleophile. ... Complexes of Bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) Ligands Containing [Ni2(μ-OH)] Cores as Highly Efficient Catalysts for the Coupling of ... These interactions are commonly referred to as sandwich compounds. Specific research Due to reasons explained earlier in the ...
"Molybdenum and Molybdenum Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 2005; Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/ ... S. Ghammami (2003). "The crystal and molecular structure of bis(tetramethylammonium) hexamolybdate(VI)". Crystal Research and ... 26 in trimethylammonium salt. The naming of molybdates generally follows the convention of a prefix to show the number of Mo ... In chemistry a molybdate is a compound containing an oxoanion with molybdenum in its highest oxidation state of 6. Molybdenum ...
Ammonium Compounds. *Bis-Trimethylammonium Compounds. *Central Nervous System Depressants. *Cholinesterase Inhibitors. * ...
The new compounds are useful in the treatment of aqueous systems, in particular to inhibit scale deposition from aqueous ... Compounds having the formula I: ##STR1## wherein M1, M2, M3 , independently, are hydrogen, C1 -C4 alkkyl, phenyl, a monovalent ... Substituted ammonium ions include e.g. trimethylammonium, triethylammonium, bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium, tris(2-hydroxyethyl) ... quaternary ammonium compounds, chlorophenols, sulphur-containing compounds such as sulphones, methylene bis thiocyanates and ...
Confirming the findings of Barlow, Ing, Paton and Zaimis, decamethylene- 1, 10-bis-trimethylammonium bromide (C 10) Syncurine ... is antagonized by the corresponding C 5 compound which is virtually devoid of curare-like activity. An interesting finding is ... THE CURARIFORM ACTION OF DECAMETHYLENE-1 , 10-BISTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE. JULIO C. CASTILLO, ARTHUR P. PHILLIPS and EDWIN J. ... THE CURARIFORM ACTION OF DECAMETHYLENE-1 , 10-BISTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE. JULIO C. CASTILLO, ARTHUR P. PHILLIPS and EDWIN J. ...
Examples of these antistatic agents are monoalkyl cationic quaternary ammonium compounds, e.g., mono(C10 -C14 alkyl)trimethyl ... 3-bis(hydroxymethyl)2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl]-N,N -bis(hydroxy-methyl) urea, commonly known as diazolidinyl urea, available ... halogenated compounds, cyclic organic nitrogen compounds, low molecular weight aldehydes, quaternary compounds, dehydroacetic ... hexamethylene bis(5-(p-chlorophenyl)biguanide), commonly known as chlorhexidine, and its salt 95:5 mixture of 1,3-bis( ...
Compounds of this type are similar to the Rosenthal Inhibitor (RI) of phospholipase A (Rosenthal, A. F. and Geyer, R. P. (1960 ... 5,264,618 describes cationic lipids such as DOTAP (1,2-bis(oleoyloxy)-3-(trimethylammonio)propane. These lipids differ from ... of cationic lipids related in structure to DOTMA and DOTAP are those in which one of the methyl groups of the trimethylammonium ... In addition, compounds which interfere with the Tf-facilitated gene transfer were present in the ,100 Kd and also in ,30 Kd ...
Other compounds are bis[4-(R-amino)-1-pyridinium] alkanes as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,206,215, issued Jun. 3, 1980, to ... Dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, tetradecylpyridinium chloride, domiphen bromide, N-tetradecyl-4-ethyl pyridinium chloride, ... Antimicrobial bis-[4-(substituted-amino)-1-pyridinium]alkanes. US4244931. 29 May 1979. 13 Ene 1981. Monsanto Company. Dicalcium ... The purpose of this technique is to provide a simple and quick method for determining if compounds have a direct effect on the ...
Other compounds are bis[4-(R-amino)-1-pyridinium] alkanes as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,206,215, issued to Bailey. Other ... cetyl trimethylammonium bromide; coconut alkyltrimethylammonium nitrite; cetyl pyridinium fluoride; etc. Preferred compounds ... Where no data are reported is not an indication that the compound/active has no activity; rather that the compound was not ... inhibition ,25% at 200 uM for compounds, 0.001% for oils/extracts. ++ % inhibition ≧25% at 200 uM for compounds, 0.001% for ...
Other compounds are bis[4-(R-amino)-1-pyridinium]alkanes as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,206,215 to Bailey. Other ... ammonium compounds having one long alkyl chain containing from about 8 to 18 carbon atoms such as lauryl trimethylammonium ... A large number of coolant compounds of natural or synthetic origin have been described. The most well-known compound is menthol ... such as phosphate compounds, for example phytate, polyphosphate and organophosphates. It is believed that such compounds ...
Other compounds are bis[4-(R-amino)-1-pyridinium] alkanes as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,206,215, issued Jun. 3, 1980, to ... Dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, tetradecylpyridinium chloride, domiphen bromide, N-tetradecyl-4-ethyl pyridinium chloride, ... Nonionic surfactants which can be used in the compositions of the present invention can be broadly defined as compounds ... Dentifrice compositions containing reactive ingredients stabilized with alkali metal compounds. US5571501 *. 15 Mar 1994. 5 Nov ...
S,S1-ethylene bis cysteine was isolated from extracted protein but was found to be unstable to autoclaving (Morrison & Munro, ... The formation of toxic interaction compounds with certain food constituents occurs under grossly abnormal and excessively ... 1965). Chlorocholine chloride (2-chloroethyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride) is also formed only under extreme conditions of ... The compound has the anaesthetic and CNS depressant properties common to chlorinated hydrocarbons and causes lacrimation, ...
These experiments employ the photoisomerizable compound, 3,3-bis- [alpha-(trimethylammonium)methyl]azobenzene (Bis-Q), to ... In homogenates from the heart, trans-Bis-Q blocks the binding of [3H]-N-methylscopolamine to muscarinic receptors. In voltage- ... Both the biochemical and electrophysiological data yield a dissociation constant of 4-5 microM for trans-Bis-Q; the cis ... Voltage-clamped preparations were exposed simultaneously to carbachol and Bis-Q and were subjected to appropriately filtered ...
... and plant extract compounds; at least one acute skin care active selected from the group consisting of particulate materials ( ... Other compounds that may be included are bis-4-(R-amino)-l -pyridinium alkanes as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,206,215. Cetyl ... methacryloylethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride homopolymer). This polymer may be added to the composition as a powder or as a ... Vitamin B3 compounds are particularly useful for regulating skin conditions. Vitamin B3 compounds may be present in an amount ...
This is probably the bis salt of formula No. I, 2-hydroxypropane-1, 3-bis (trimethylammonium chloride) first reported by ... trimethylammonium chloride (CH2 OHCH2 = CHN(CH3)3 Cl) are also present. This compound was described by Burness in the J. ... The compound of formula No. I is not as hydroscopic as the products containing 1.14 moles of amine and this would cause the ... N,N-Bridged-bis[N,Nsubstituted-2-hydroxy alkaneammonium] salts. US4259411 *. 5 Sep 1979. 31 Mar 1981. Calgon Corporation. ...
Particularly widely used are ester compounds based on triethanolamine such as N-methyl, N,N-bis(β-C14-18-acyloxyethyl), N-β- ... trimethyl ammonium halide, such as monolauryl trimethyl ammonium chloride, hydroxycetyl iiydroxyethlyl dimethyl ammonium ... Additional conventional quaternary ammonium compounds or salts may be present with the compound or compounds of formulas (I) ... halogenated compounds, cyclic organic nitrogen compounds, low molecular weight aldehydes, quaternary compounds, dehydroacetic ...
Other compounds are bis[4-(R-amino)-l -pyridinium] alkanes as disclosed in U.S. Patent 4,206,215, issued June 3, 1980, to ... Dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, tetradecylpyridinium chloride, domiphen bromide, N-tetradecyl-4-ethyl pyridinium chloride, ... Oral compositions containing stabilized stannous compounds having antiplaque and antitartar efficacy US5658553A (en) 1995-05-02 ... These polymeric agents are believed to bind to the tooth surface or form compounds or complexes on the tooth surface, thereby ...
Bis-Ts), long-chain amines and ammonium salts [collectively known as MiTMABs (myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromides)], and ... Therefore, we do not consider the 4- to 8-fold differences in DynII/I selectivity ratio as indicating that the compounds have ... Myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and octadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide are surface-active small molecule dynamin ... The Bis-Ts inhibit dynamin GTPase activity in vitro. Their effect on endocytosis in cells has not yet been reported. MiTMABs ...
Methonium Compounds. Bis-Trimethylammonium Compounds. D03 - Heterocyclic Compounds. Kinetins. Kinetin. D06 - Hormones, Hormone ... Ammonium Compounds. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds. D02 - Organic Chemicals. 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine. 1-(5 ...
bis-trimethylammonium compounds - administration & dosage (3) 3 Filter by. Remove filter. bis-trimethylammonium compounds - ... Bis-Trimethylammonium Compounds - therapeutic use , Chlorthalidone - therapeutic use , Hexamethonium Compounds - therapeutic ... Bis-Trimethylammonium Compounds , Cardiovascular Agents , Hypertension - therapy , Muscle Relaxants, Central - therapeutic use ... Bis-Trimethylammonium Compounds , Cardiovascular Agents , Hypertension - therapy , Muscle Relaxants, Central - therapeutic use ...
phenylene bis-benzimidazyl tetrasulfonic acid disodium salt (Neo Heliopan®AP) • 2,2-(l,4-phenylene)-bis-(lH-benzimidazole-4,6- ... Mixtures of compounds from several of these classes are also suitable; • addition products of 2 to 15 mol ethylene oxide onto ... acrylamidopropyl trimethylammonium chloride/acrylate copolymers, octylacryl- amide/methyl methacrylate/tert.-butylaminoethyl ... phenylene bis-benzimidazyl tetrasulfonic acid disodium salt (Neo Heliopan®AP) 2,4-bis-[{(4-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-2-hydroxy}phenyl]- ...
The depolarizing potency of polymethylene-bis-trimethylammonium and alkyl-trimenthylammonium compounds with 3-10 methylene ... N-cholinoreceptors of the isolated neuron of the mollusk Planorbarius corneus to polymethylene-bis-trimethylammonium compounds ... Sensitivity of the cholinoreceptive membrane of Lymnaea stagnalis neurons to mono- and bisquaternary ammonium compounds. ... Factors affecting the cholinomimetic activity of alkyltrimethylammonium compounds in experiments on isolated neurons of the ...
... a novel series of bis [(aminoethyl)]-amine cationic lipid derivatives have been synthesized and identified to purity by NMR and ... N, N-dilauroyl-1,3-diaminopropyl-2-[bis-(2-aminoethyl)] carbamate (20, LDVAD). Compound 15 (1.5 g, 1.8 mmol) was dissolved in ... N-trimethylammonium (DOTMA) and dioleoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE) [5] [6] , many cationic lipids bearing either a ... The crude residue was chromatographed on silica gel to give a light yellowish oil compound 24 (0.42 g, 70%). Rf = 0.53 (10% ...
These compounds can be liquid until a certain temperature, then solid even as the temperature increases, and finally liquid ... Due to severe steric constraint, the protonated form of Proton Sponge (1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene) and its derivatives ... Moore and Winmill used the hydrogen bond to account for the fact that trimethylammonium hydroxide is a weaker base than ... Lipinski CA (December 2004). "Lead- and drug-like compounds: the rule-of-five revolution". Drug Discovery Today: Technologies. ...
Compounds that inhibit the activity of NF-.kappa.B or inhibit the activity of the proteasome or both promote bone formation and ... 2-bis(oleoyloxy)-3-(trimethyl ammonio) propane (DOTAP), N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyl) propyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTMA), ... The active compounds ("BMP promoter-active compounds" or "active compounds") are useful in promoting bone or cartilage growth, ... Nature of the Compounds Useful in the Invention. The compounds useful in the methods and compositions of the invention are ...
Ammonium Compounds. *Bis-Trimethylammonium Compounds. *Central Nervous System Depressants. *Cholinesterase Inhibitors. * ... Organic compounds. Super Class. Organic nitrogen compounds. Class. Organonitrogen compounds. Sub Class. Quaternary ammonium ... This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as decamethonium compounds. These are quaternary ammonium ... KEGG Compound. C11733. PubChem Compound. 2968. PubChem Substance. 46507737. ChemSpider. 2862. BindingDB. 50060582. ChEBI. 41934 ...
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds. *Benzylammonium Compounds. *Betalains. *Bis-Trimethylammonium Compounds. *Butylscopolammonium ... "Benzylammonium Compounds" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS based on BENZYLAMINES with the general formula phenyl-CN+R3. ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Benzylammonium Compounds" by people in Harvard Catalyst ...
4N+ or abbreviated Bu4N+ trimethyl ammonium compounds, (CH3)3RN+ didecyldimethylammonium, (C10H21)2(CH3)2N+ ... bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium, ((C6H5)3P)2N+ quaternary ammonium cations having one triple-bonded substitution and one single- ... Compounds of an onium cation and some other anion are known as onium compounds or onium salts. Onium ions and onium compounds ... Cations, Queen Mary University of London) Ions and Radicals, Queen Mary University of London Onium compounds at the US National ...
"Molybdenum and Molybdenum Compounds" in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 2005; Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/ ... S. Ghammami (2003). "The crystal and molecular structure of bis(tetramethylammonium) hexamolybdate(VI)". Crystal Research and ... 26 in trimethylammonium salt. The naming of molybdates generally follows the convention of a prefix to show the number of Mo ... In chemistry a molybdate is a compound containing an oxoanion with molybdenum in its highest oxidation state of 6. Molybdenum ...

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