Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Infant, Premature, DiseasesFetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Illegitimacy: The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Perinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.United StatesEducational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.NorwayHome Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Maternal-Fetal Relations: The bond or lack thereof between a pregnant woman and her FETUS.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.BrazilRegistries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Leukomalacia, Periventricular: Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Twins, Dizygotic: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Paternal Age: Age of the biological father.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Milk, HumanSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).SwedenDenmarkBody Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Delivery Rooms: Hospital units equipped for childbirth.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.EnglandAbortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Vaginal Birth after Cesarean: Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Infant, Extremely Premature: A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.IllinoisIntelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.IndiaGravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.GuatemalaCrosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.California

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (1/4769)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Precocious estrus and reproductive ability induced by PG 600 in prepuberal gilts. (2/4769)

A total of 29 SPF Large White prepuberal gilts (mean age 152 days at treatment) were examined for estrous and ovulatory responses after PG 600 treatment. After treatment, 85.2% of the gilts showed standing estrus within 6 days. Whereas the treatment-to-estrus interval and duration were 3.7 and 1.9 days respectively. As ovulation occurred on Day 5 to 6, appropriate timing of artificial insemination would be about 4 days after treatment. Fertility of gilts revealed to be excellent, giving rise to a high percentage of normal embryos, 85.3%. Meanwhile, development and growth of fetuses were mostly normal. Other reproductive performances recorded were: mean litter size 6.8; mean birth weight 1.26 kg; weaning-to-return estrus interval 5 to 8 days. In conclusion, PG 600 was found to be useful in inducing fertile estrus in prepuberal gilts, a result which will be of interest for commercial pig farms.  (+info)

Role of intergenerational effects on linear growth. (3/4769)

Current knowledge on the role of intergenerational effects on linear growth is reviewed on the basis of a literature search and recent findings from an ongoing study in Guatemala. Fourteen studies were identified, most of which examined the intergenerational relationships in birth weight. Overall, for every 100 g increase in maternal birth weight, her child's birth weight increased by 10-20 g. The study samples were primarily from developed countries, and birth weight data were extracted from hospital records and/or birth registries. Among the few studies that examined associations between the adult heights of parents and their offspring, correlation coefficients of 0.42-0.5 were reported. None of the studies examined intergenerational relationships in birth length or linear growth patterns during early childhood, preadolescence and/or adolescence. Prospectively collected data from long-term studies being carried out in rural Guatemala provide the first evidence of intergenerational relationships in birth size in a developing country setting. Data were available for 215 mother-child pairs. Maternal birth size was a significant predictor (P < 0.05) of child's birth size after adjusting for gestational age and sex of the child and other potential confounders. Child's birth weight increased by 29 g/100 g increase in maternal birth weight which is nearly twice that reported in developed countries. Similarly, child's birth length increased by 0.2 cm for every 1 cm increase in mother's birth length. The effect of maternal birth weight remained significant even after adjusting for maternal adult size. More evidence from developing countries will help explain the underlying mechanisms and identify appropriate interventions to prevent growth retardation.  (+info)

Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic. (4/4769)

Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival.  (+info)

Management of breast cancer during pregnancy using a standardized protocol. (5/4769)

PURPOSE: No standardized therapeutic interventions have been reported for patients diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy. Of the potential interventions, none have been prospectively evaluated for treatment efficacy in the mother or safety for the fetus. We present our experience with the use of combination chemotherapy for breast cancer during pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the past 8 years, 24 pregnant patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the breast were managed by outpatient chemotherapy, surgery, or surgery plus radiation therapy, as clinically indicated. The chemotherapy included fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m2), doxorubicin (50 mg/m2), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2), administered every 3 to 4 weeks after the first trimester of pregnancy. Care was provided by medical oncologists, breast surgeons, and perinatal obstetricians. RESULTS: Modified radical mastectomy was performed in 18 of the 22 patients, and two patients were treated with segmental mastectomy with postpartum radiation therapy. This group included patients in all trimesters of pregnancy. The patients received a median of four cycles of combination chemotherapy during pregnancy. No antepartum complications temporally attributable to systemic therapy were noted. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks. Apgar scores, birthweights, and immediate postpartum health were reported to be normal for all of the children. CONCLUSION: Breast cancer can be treated with chemotherapy during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy with minimal complications of labor and delivery.  (+info)

Energy intake, not energy output, is a determinant of body size in infants. (6/4769)

BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the primary determinants of body weight at 1 y of age are genetic background, as represented by parental obesity, and low total energy expenditure. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the relative contributions of genetic background and energy intake and expenditure as determinants of body weight at 1 y of age. DESIGN: Forty infants of obese and 38 infants of lean mothers, half boys and half girls, were assessed at 3 mo of age for 10 risk factors for obesity: sex, risk group (obese or nonobese mothers), maternal and paternal body mass index, body weight, feeding mode (breast, bottle, or both), 3-d energy intake, nutritive sucking behavior during a test meal, total energy expenditure, sleeping energy expenditure, and interactions among them. RESULTS: The only difference between risk groups at baseline was that the high-risk group sucked more vigorously during the test meal. Four measures accounted for 62% of the variability in weight at 12 mo: 3-mo weight (41%, P = 0.0001), nutritive sucking behavior (9%, P = 0.0002), 3-d food intake (8%, P = 0.0002), and male sex (3%, P = 0.05). Food intake and sucking behavior at 3 mo accounted for similar amounts of variability in weight-for-length, body fat, fat-free mass, and skinfold thickness at 12 mo. Contrary to expectations, neither total nor sleeping energy expenditure at 3 mo nor maternal obesity contributed to measures of body size at 12 mo. CONCLUSIONS: Energy intake contributes significantly to measures of body weight and composition at 1 y of age; parental obesity and energy expenditure do not.  (+info)

Leucine metabolism in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with medium-chain compared with long-chain triacylglycerol emulsions. (7/4769)

BACKGROUND: Although medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) may be utilized more efficiently than long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs), their effect on protein metabolism remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of mixed MCT-LCT and pure LCT emulsions on leucine metabolism in preterm infants. DESIGN: Fourteen preterm [gestational age: 30+/-1 wk; birth weight: 1409+/-78 g (x +/- SE)] neonates were randomly assigned to receive, from the first day of life, either a 50:50 MCT-LCT (mixed MCT group; n = 7) or an LCT (LCT group; n = 7) lipid emulsion as part of an isonitrogenous, isoenergetic total parenteral nutrition program. On the fourth day, infants received intravenous feeding providing 3 g lipid, 15 g glucose, and 3 g amino acids kg(-1) x d(-1) and underwent 1) indirect calorimetry and 2) a primed, 2-h infusion of H13CO3Na to assess the recovery of 13C in breath, immediately followed by 3) a 3-h infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. RESULTS: The respiratory quotient tended to be slightly but not significantly higher in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (0.96+/-0.06 compared with 0.93+/-0.03). We did not detect a significant difference between the mixed MCT and LCT groups with regard to release of leucine from protein breakdown (B; 309+/-40 compared with 257+/-46 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and nonoxidative leucine disposal (NOLD; 296+/-36 compared with 285+/-49 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). In contrast, leucine oxidation was greater in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (113+/-10 compared with 67+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.007). Net leucine balance (NOLD - B) was less positive in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (-14+/-9 compared with 28+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Mixed MCTs may not be as effective as LCT-containing emulsions in promoting protein accretion in parenterally fed preterm neonates.  (+info)

Accuracy of sonographic estimates of fetal weight in very small infants. (8/4769)

OBJECTIVE: Fetal outcome is inversely related to gestational age and birth weight. Therefore, in very small fetuses, estimated weight may play an important role in clinical management. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of sonographic estimates of fetal weight in very small infants. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SUBJECTS: We retrospectively studied 100 consecutive infants with a birth weight of < 1000 g, at a gestational age between 24.0 and 34.0 weeks, in which biometric data < 2 weeks prior to delivery were available for analysis. METHODS: We estimated fetal weight with the use of two methods--by those of Hadlock and colleagues and Scott and colleagues--and compared the estimated values with measured birth weights. RESULTS: The infants had a mean birth weight of 742 +/- 173 (SD) g, at a gestational age of 28.1 +/- 2.0 (SD) weeks. With Hadlock's method, the mean estimated fetal weight (EFW) was 736 +/- 186 (SD) g, which was not significantly different from birth weight; the mean EFW error was 0.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) %. With Scott's method, the mean EFW was 780 +/- 185 (SD) g, which was significantly increased above birth weight; the mean EFW error was 5.7 +/- 12.5 (SD) %. The accuracy of the weight estimates was not significantly affected by the period between ultrasound examination and delivery if < 2 weeks, or by fetal growth restriction. CONCLUSION: In our population of small fetuses, Hadlock's estimates of fetal weight correlated well with measured birth weight, whereas Scott's method tended to overestimate.  (+info)

A study published in the Journal of Pediatrics suggests that children born with lower or higher weight than normal may be at increased risk for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These children also were at higher risk for more severe disease but in different ways. Advanced scarring of the liver was associated with low birth weight, while more inflammation was linked to high birth weight. The study is the first to characterize the relationship between high birth weight and NAFLD.. "With the obesity epidemic, we are seeing more babies with high birth weight than ever before," said co-author Mark Fishbein, MD, from Stanley Manne Childrens Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Childrens Hospital of Chicago. "Our study shows that these kids are more likely to have serious liver damage by the time they are teenagers.". NAFLD affects up to 25 percent of the U.S. population, according to the American Liver Foundation. It is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in ...
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis of fetal origins of adult disease has during the last decades received interest as an explanation of chronic, e.g. cardiovascular, disease in adulthood stemming from fetal environmental conditions. Early programming and enduring dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis), with cortisol as its end product, has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which birth weight influence later health status. However, the fetal origin of the adult cortisol regulation has been insufficiently studied. The present study aims to examine if body size at birth is related to circadian cortisol levels at 43 years. METHODS: Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study (n = 752, 74.5%). Salivary cortisol samples were collected at four times during one day at 43 years, and information on birth size was collected retrospectively from delivery records. Information on body mass during adolescence and adulthood and on health behavior, medication and medical ...
The negative effect of smoking during a pregnancy on a childs birth weight outcome has been a consistent finding in the economics literature on estimating birth weight production functions. An important result in the literature is that the negative effect of smoking on birth weight is generally robust to the introduction of unobserved heterogeneity in family-specific health endowments. All of the studies have assumed, however, that fertility itself is unrelated to either anticipated or realized birth weight outcomes that depend on such endowments. One purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of relaxing that assumption on the estimates of the smoking effect on birth weight. To that end, a dynamic model of fertility choice that explicitly incorporates the smoking decision, allowing for its addictive nature, and the birth weight technology, is constructed and empirically implemented using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Surveys 1979 youth cohort. In addition to obtaining estimates
The effect of low birth weight on the incidence of asthma by 17 years of age was investigated by studying medical draft examination records of 20,312 male subjects born in Jerusalem between January 1967 and December 1971. Additional information on birth weight and other demographic factors was abstracted from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study computerised database. A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios for developing asthma by 17 years of age in 500 g birthweight categories from less than 2000 g to 4500 g. The odds ratios were adjusted for the confounding effects of ethnic origin, social class (determined by area of residence), paternal education, maternal age, and birth order. The group with low birth weights (less than 2500 g, n = 1004) had a significantly increased risk of developing asthma by 17 years of age, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 2.66) for birthweight group less than 2000 g and 1.49 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.12) ...
In this study we examined the relationship between gestational exposure to 53 different EDCs and birth weight in a prospective birth cohort of mother-infant pairs. We found that exposure to phthalates and BPA, PFAS, PCBs, PBDEs or OCPs had null or small associations with birth weight. Other investigators have reported similar small or statistically non-significant associations between birth weight and phthalates [37], PCBs [15], PBDEs [13], and OCPs [25]. Several other studies, however, have found associations between increased exposure to phthalates, PCBs, PBDEs or OCPs whereas we did not. A case-control study by Zhang et al. [24] revealed that low birth weight infants in China tended to have much higher meconium phthalate levels than infants who were normal weight. Additionally, a meta-analysis by Govarts et al. [21] reported that increased exposure to PCBs was associated with decreased birth weight. Lignell et al. [27] found a statistically significant inverse association between PBDE ...
Downloadable! In this paper we explore the impact of birth weight on childrens cognitive and behavioural outcomes using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. In order to deal with the endogeneity of birth weight we use an estimator based on the eliminant method. When coupled with ordinary least squares, this estimator allows us to bound the effects of birth weight. The results show that birth weight has significant but very small effects on male cognitive development at age 3 and on female cognitive and behavioural outcomes at age 3. We also find that birth weight affects age 5 outcomes only through previous achievements, and that the overall impact fades out over time. These findings call into question the effectiveness of birth weight as a policy target.
Our study adds to the growing literature showing an association between birth weight and cognition across the normal range of birth weight,1-3 but only one such study has shown that the association persists with age beyond childhood.2 Few studies compare the association for birth weight and social background. The stronger influence of social background shown here is consistent with findings from two Scottish studies and with a Swedish study of intrauterine growth retardation in term infants followed to age 5. 1 9 21. Our study extends two strands of work from the late 1970s on developmental trajectories in the 1958 birth cohort. 20 22 23 A previous report estimated that a 1 kg increase in birth weight was associated with a 4 month increase in reading scores at 7 years; this estimate was little changed by adjustment for possible confounding factors.22 Those weighing less than 2 kg at birth had a 1.2 year lower reading age (0.4 SD) than those over 4 kg.22 The difference in maths z scores across ...
EDITOR-Williams and Poulton report that their 22 adolescent twins had lower blood pressure than singletons.1 They interpret their data as being contrary to the fetal origins hypothesis because they presume that twins, being small at birth, would tend to have higher rather than lower blood pressure in later life. As twins have different patterns of fetal growth from singletons, however, they were specifically excluded from the fetal origins hypothesis.2. There are several reasons why the low birth weight of twins may not have the same significance as intrauterine growth retardation in singleton births. Ultrasound evidence suggests that twins down regulate their growth rate early in gestation, possibly during the first trimester.3 Studies in fetal lambs suggest that early down regulation of fetal growth protects against growth retardation induced by undernutrition in later gestation.4 Finally, the metabolic and endocrine changes associated with growth retardation in singleton infants, including ...
Risk factors for low birth weight (LBW) have been indicated in many studies, but in Ja pan few studies have examined the amount of reduction in birth weight (BW). The goal of this study was to examine the association between maternal smoking among pregnant women and subsequent reduction in BW, corrected by the effect of potential confounders. To assess the effect of background factors other than maternal smoking, we established a model to estimate the contribution of each explanatory variable using logarithmic multiple regression. We then used the adjusted BW model to evaluate the direct effect of maternal smoking. To obtain information on maternal characteristics, including smoking status and characteristics of their infants, including BW, we conducted a questionnaire survey. After statistical adjustment for background factors, the mean of BW among infants of participants who smoked during pregnancy was roundtable significantly lower than that of non-smoking participants, but there was no ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Size at birth and height in early adolescence. T2 - A prospective birth cohort study. AU - Araújo, Cora L P. AU - Hallal, Pedro C.. AU - Nader, Gisele A.. AU - Menezes, Ana Maria B. AU - Victora, Cesar G.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between size at birth (birthweight and birth length) and height in early adolescence in a prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Interviews were carried out in 1993, including measurements of birthweight and length, and in 2004-2005, including measurements of weight and height. This analysis includes 4,452 individuals, with a mean age of 11.3 years (standard deviation - SD = 0.3), representing a follow-up rate of 87.5%. Mean height at 11 years was 145.8 cm (SD = 7.9), or 144.9 cm (SD = 7.7) in boys and 146.8 cm (SD = 7.9) in girls. Birthweight and birth length were positively associated with height in early adolescence in the crude analysis, but after adjustment ...
There is an exponential rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in Singapore coincident with rapid nutritional and socioeconomic transition. Differing birth weights, even in the normal ranges, predisposes individuals to the risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. We aim to examine the causal pathways, developmental contribution and effects of a weight loss intervention to this differential by evaluating the hypothesis that genomic, birth weight, developmental, lifestyle and environmental factors contribute to the variation in phenotype observed in adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome.. Although there are many large studies that examined the effect of birth weight on the expression of obesity and the metabolic syndrome phenotype, most of these studies usually lack in-depth physiological and epigenetic/genomic studies due to their large sample sizes. We therefore aim to explore such detailed aspects of physiological and epigenetic/genomic profiles on smaller but statistically ...
Abstract The impact of malaria on low birthweight was investigated in Bougoula village (Sikasso region, Mali). In two successive years, pregnant women were followed until delivery. Phase I (1992) was observational, with 135 complete observations. Phase II (1993) included 126 participants, who were offered malaria prophylaxis with proguanil (200 mg/day) and chloroquine (300 mg/week). The results show that 1) infants of first and second pregnancies had lower birth weights (-382.7 ± 62.6 g; P < 0.0001) compared with higher rank pregnancies; 2) strong seasonal variation in birthweight was observed in Phase I, with an annual cycle, a nadir in January, and an amplitude of 372.4 g (P = 0.0002); 3) parasitemia measured during pregnancy was associated with lower birthweight in infants from first and second pregnancies, but not from higher parity mothers; and 4) malaria prophylaxis taken for 20 weeks or more in Phase II suppressed the seasonal variation of birthweight and the effect of low parity (+423.4 ±
Previous research regarding the effects of exercise on pregnancy outcomes has been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to adopt an objective research technique, meta-analysis, to summarize and analyze different studies with controversial results. Three coding variables (i.e., exercise duration, pre-pregnancy weight, and age) were selected in this study for comparisons. Though the effect size (ES) of the pregnant mothers who exercised under 30 minutes was greater than that of those who exercised between 30 and 60 minutes, the overall ES (-107.838, 95% CI = -482.93 to 267.26) indicated no significant birth weight differences between the two groups. On the whole, the results of this study support the notion that a significant positive relationship exists between birth weight and the prepregnancy weight. However, regression analysis indicated that a significant (p < .05) positive relationship existed between birth weight and the pre-pregnancy weight of the pregnant mothers (R =.75, p=.04). ...
Yang TO, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V, Cairns BJ; Million Women Study Collaborators.. Ann Oncol 2014;25:1836-43. BACKGROUND:. Most evidence about associations between birth weight and adult cancer risk comes from studies linking birth records to cancer registration data, where information on known risk factors for cancer is generally lacking. Here, we report on associations between birth weight and cause-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of UK women, and investigate how observed associations are affected by other factors.. METHODS:. A total of 453 023 women, born in the 1930s and 1940s, reported their birth weight, maternal smoking, parental heights, age at menarche, adult height, adult smoking, and many other personal characteristics. They were followed for incident cancer. Using Cox regression, relative risks by birth weight were estimated for cancers with more than 1500 incident cases, adjusting for 17 potential confounding factors, individually and simultaneously.. RESULTS:. Birth weight ...
Maternal inhibitory KIR2DL1 associates with pregnancy disorders linked to inadequate placentation, whereas maternal-activating KIR2DS1 associates with increased birth weight. These results suggest that variations in immune system genes, KIR and HLA-C, are under selection as a result of the necessity to keep human birth weight within the limits defined by the harmful consequences of low and high birth weight. A territorial demarcation between the mother and her fetus resulting from the interaction of maternal KIR on uNK and fetal HLA-C expressed by invading trophoblast could be the basis for achieving such a compromise. Both the KIR2DL1 and KIR2DS1 associations, at opposite ends of the birth weight spectrum, occur particularly in pregnancies where the fetus carries an additional HLA-C group 2 allele compared with the mother or the fetus has a single C2 allele that is of paternal but not maternal origin. Because C2 is the ligand for KIR2DL1/S1, this argues strongly for a role of the maternal KIR. ...
Definition of birth weight in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is birth weight? Meaning of birth weight as a legal term. What does birth weight mean in law?
Environmental derived abnormalities relate to maternal lifestyle, environment and nutrition and while some of these directly effect embryonic development, there is also growing evidence that some effects are more subtle and relate to later life health events. This theory, now called "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHAD or DOHaD) and also previously Fetal Origins Hypothesis, is based on the early statistical analysis carried out by David Barker (1938 - 2013) of low birth weight data collected in the early 1900s in the south east of England which he then compared with these same babies later health outcomes. The theory was therefore originally called the "Barker Hypothesis" and has recently been renamed as "fetal origins" or "programming". Several origins have been suggested including: fetal undernutrition, endocrine (increased cortisol exposure), genetic susceptibility and accelerated postnatal growth. ...
It has been reported that reduced birth weight is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes later in life (1-3). The largest such study was a meta-analysis of 14 studies involving a total of 132,180 individuals that demonstrated an association between lower birth weight and type 2 diabetes risk with an odds ratio of 1.32 (2). On a global level, reduced birth weight has been shown to be correlated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in 28 of 31 populations studied (3). Furthermore, low birth weight has been associated with both type 2 diabetes (P = 0.008) and impaired insulin secretion (P = 0.04) in 2,003 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) (4).. It has been proposed that the relationship between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes is genetically mediated, namely, the fetal insulin hypothesis (5,6). Because insulin is a key fetal growth factor, the genetic variants that reduce insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity might also reduce birth weight as well as ...
OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) resulting in low birth weight for gestational age may predispose one to development of cardiovascular disease later in life. Abnormal fetal blood flow in the presence of fetal growth restriction helps to distinguish infants with true fetal growth impairment from small but normal infants. Our goal was to investigate associations between IUGR with abnormal fetal blood flow and abnormal retinal vascular morphology at 18 years of age. METHODS: A prospective study was performed with 21 subjects with IUGR (abnormal fetal aortic blood flow velocity; birth weight small for gestational age; median birth weight deviation from the population mean of -31% [range: -22% to -42%] and in 23 subjects with birth weight appropriate for gestational age [normal fetal aortic blood flow velocity; median birth weight deviation of -2% (range: -10% to 22%)]). The retinal vessel morphology was evaluated by digital image analysis. RESULT: Subjects with IUGR (n = 21) had ...
Presents results of a study carried out in The Gambia on birth-weight data recorded between 1986 and 1991 on 3453 NDama calves from the village production systems to identify major factors influencing this trait and to quantify the relationship between birth weight and early calf mortality. Least-squares analysis of the fixed effects of site, year and season of birth, parity of dam, sex, age in days at which birth weight was recorded and random effects of herd and cow nested within site showed that all these factors significantly influenced this trait ...
Birth weights are normally distributed with a mean of 3419 g and a standard deviation of 494 g. If a hospital plans to set up special attention to th...
We have used a large routinely available data set of all births in England and Wales to produce new up-to-date birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts. These updated centiles from births occurring in 2013 and 2014 provide a more valid tool with which to assess fetal growth. In particular, they provide a contemporary and nationally representative tool with which to more appropriately identify the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths affected by IUGR for the analysis of the national perinatal mortality surveillance data. There are also potential implications for use in clinical practice, as the implementation of these new charts offers more accurate identification of the cohort of babies who require increased monitoring in the period immediately following birth for conditions such as hypoglycaemia. This is especially the case in those born at the earliest gestational ages and those born at the lower end of the birth weight distribution, where notable differences were observed ...
We present the results of a prospective longitudinal study of MiP in Latin America to assess the impact of SMIs in pregnancy on delivery outcomes. We observed a high frequency of submicroscopic MiP (25%, 45/180). We did not detect a statistically significant difference in birth weights between infants born of pregnancies complicated by submicroscopic MiP. Of note, our study had adequate statistical power (80%) to detect a clinically meaningful difference in birth weights (250 g), and the mean difference observed in our cohort was 38 g, based on the 95% CI. We can therefore exclude an effect of SMI on infant birth weight in this Colombian cohort. However, in a secondary analysis looking at other delivery outcomes, women with mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax SMIs were at increased risk of PTB. According to the WHO Global Survey on maternal and perinatal health (32), patent malaria infection in pregnancy is not a risk factor for PTB in Latin America. However, the number of malaria cases in Latin ...
In Europe there are more than 20 large longitudinal studies in which the main focus has been or is to study prenatal or early life factors in relation to adult disease risk. Many of them are historical cohort studies, or data collection has started after birth retrospectively at various points of life. The most important historical cohort studies, from the point of view of the fetal origin hypothesis, are the Hertfordshire,4 14Preston,12 21 and Sheffield8 studies, as well as the Helsinki27 and Uppsala28 cohort studies.. The studies to date have had a number of important limitations that complicate interpretation. They have not been able to address the complexities of interactions between environmental and genetic factors in explaining the associations between maternal, fetal, and later life factors in the evolution of adult CVD risk. This is because they have been variously too small; retrospective and therefore subject to survival and selection biases; or prospective, but in children and ...
Definition of ponderal index in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is ponderal index? Meaning of ponderal index as a legal term. What does ponderal index mean in law?
There are few reports of long term follow up of neonatal survivors of corticosteroid treatment. The study by Doyle et al adds to our understanding of the effects of antenatal corticosteroids on key outcomes of growth and intellectual function that are of concern to parents and care providers. Additionally, Doyle et al examine these outcomes in infants who were less mature and had lower birth weights than those in previous studies.. The study sample was from Australia. The decision to provide antenatal steroids to the mothers was based on a clinicians decision and was not random. Thus, initial differences might have existed between the 2 groups of infants. The authors attempted to account for potential differences by adjusting for such confounding variables as birth weight, maternal education, and parental height. The potential confounding variables did not affect any of the statistically significant differences between the groups. The authors further reduced bias by ensuring that the outcome ...
Discussion. In the sample stratified by birth weight, it was observed that the death percentage was inversely proportional to gestational age (GA). The group with birth weight ≤ 1000g had a higher incidence of death, 11 (30.5%), compared to the other groups. The Apgar score less than 7 at 1 and 5 minutes is considered a risk factor for mortality 10. The study by Piccoli et al. 11 also showed a high incidence of prematurity and low birth weight with consequent morbidity and mortality.. Silva et al. 12 found that variables associated with death until the 27th day of life were type of delivery, notusing antenatal corticosteroids, preeclampsia, birth weight , 2500g, Apgar score , 7 at 5 minutes, endotracheal intubation, and notusing exogenous surfactant. For these authors, death was determined by the conditions of the pregnancy, delivery and the newborn.. The group considered extremely low birth weight, or birth weight ≤ 1000g presented a mean gestational age of 26.9 weeks and the group with ...
The Lifeways study is novel in having information on three generations of the same families. It is well established that infant birth weight (IBW) predicts individuals risk of adult chronic disease and more recently studies report cross-generation transmission of risk patterns. The aims of this analysis were to examine whether adults birth weights were associated with measures of own health status or social position and to relate adults birth weights to that of the index childs IBW. Finally, we assessed whether birth weight of either adults or children was associated with adult body mass index (BMI) of parents and grandparents. We included 1075 children whose IBW was recorded at recruitment from hospital records and 2546 adult cohort members followed from 2001 until 2014. At baseline, a sub-group of 920 adults had reported own birth weight (RBW). Results showed male adults RBW were significantly higher than females (P=0.001). Mothers RBW was significantly correlated with IBW (r=0.178, ...
There is lack of evidence on the differential impact of maternal macronutrient consumption: carbohydrates (CHO), fats and protein on birth weight. We investigated the association between maternal dietary macronutrient intakes and their sub-components such as saccharides and fatty acids and birth weight. This analyses included 1,196 women with singleton pregnancies who were part of the CAffeine and REproductive health study in Leeds, UK between 2003 and 2006. Women were interviewed in each trimester. Dietary information was collected twice using a 24-h dietary recall about 8-12 weeks and 13-27 weeks of gestation. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for alcohol and smoking in trimester 1, showed that each additional 10 g/d CHO consumption was associated with an increase of 4 g (95 % CI 1, 7; P=0·003) in birth weight. Conversely, an additional 10 g/d fat intake was associated with a lower birth weight of 8 g (95 % CI 0, 16; P=0·04) when we accounted for energy contributing macronutrients ...
To examine the phenotypic response to a high-fat diet (hfd), mice were fed a normal diet (C) or a diet rich in lipids from weeks 6 to 24 of age (C + hfd). At the end of this period, significant weight and size differences were observed between the M and the control normal birth weight animals, regardless of sex and diet (p , 0.05) (Figure 2). However, these differences were significantly more pronounced throughout the entire life span of the mice in animals receiving the high-fat diet (p , 0.01). In order to assess anatomical variations derived from both diet and corporal condition (M or C), weight of 90 weeks old mice as well as their organs were recorded (Additional file 1: Table S1). Interestingly, liver, which plays an important role in metabolism and thus in the potential hfd outcome, didnt show any significant variation between M and C mice for both diets, regardless of sex. Several differences were found in other organs, however they lacked apparent correlation with the considered ...
Eighty-three percent of respondents eligible cows (2-1/2 years of age or older) produced calves in 1997, of which 54% were male and 46% were female. Seventeen percent of the reported cows lost calves or were open, this figure exhibiting a 3% decrease from the 20% noted in the 1995 survey. Mismarkings occurred in 9% of the reported purebred calves and 17% of calves produced by Appendix cows. Together this comprises 13% of the total reported calf crop, a significant decrease from the 22% and 17% noted in the 1995 and 1991 surveys. Spring is definitely the season of choice for calf production, with 57% of respondents calves born in this season. Eighteen percent opted for summer calves, 13% of the respondents calves arrived in the fall and 12% in winter. Birth weight extremes ranged from a low of 45 lbs. to highs of 101 and 102 lbs., but most calves were close to the overall average birth weights - 74 lbs. for males and 71 lbs. for females. Average reported birth weights for male and female ...
RESULTS Relative to women with NGT, women with predominant insulin sensitivity defects (51% of GDM) had higher BMI and fasting glucose, larger infants (birth weight z score 0.57 [−0.01 to 1.37] vs. 0.03 [−0.53 to 0.52], P = 0.001), and greater risk of GDM-associated adverse outcomes (57.6 vs. 28.2%, P = 0.003); differences were independent of BMI. Women with predominant insulin secretion defects (30% of GDM) had BMI, fasting glucose, infant birth weights, and risk of adverse outcomes similar to those in women with NGT. ...
Southampton researchers have found the first evidence that children who were smaller at birth already have specific alterations in heart and blood vessel function in early childhood, which may help to explain why they are more likely to develop heart disease in later life.
There is no effect on birth weight and feed intake before weaning on piglets with S. suis. This is one of the conclusions from a Dutch study.
Data from a rotational crossbreeding study was used to calculate among-breed heritabilities of birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), and mature cow weight at 5 years of age. The among-breed estimates were higher ...
Author Summary The control of birth timing in humans is the greatest unresolved question in reproductive biology, and preterm birth is the most important medical issue in maternal and child health. To begin to address this critical problem, we test the hypothesis that genes accelerated in their rate of evolution in humans, as compared with other primates and mammals, are involved in birth timing. We first show that human gestational length has been altered relative to other non-human primates and mammals. Using allometric scaling, we demonstrate that human gestation is shorter than predicted based upon gestational length in other mammalian species. Next, we show that genes with rate acceleration in humans-in coding or regulatory regions-are plausible candidates to be involved in birth timing. Finally, we find that polymorphisms in the human accelerated gene (FSHR), not before implicated in the timing for birth, may alter risk for human preterm birth. Our understanding of pathways for birth timing in
Citation: Cai, G., Cole, S.A., Haack, K., Butte, N.F., Comuzzie, A.G. 2007. Bivariate linkage confirms genetic contribution to fetal origins of childhood growth and cardiovascular disease risk in Hispanic children. Human Genetics. 121(6):737-744. Interpretive Summary: The relationship between birth weight and later risk for cardiovascular disease has been well documented in population-based studies and animal studies; however, the genetic contribution to this link has not been addressed. Recent studies have shown relationships between birth weight and later obesity and metabolic diseases; however, the genetic contribution is unknown. In this study, we explored these relationships in 1,030 Hispanic children enrolled in the Viva La Familia Study. Body weight and composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, and liver enzymes were measured. Birth weights were obtained from Texas birth certificates. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted using a family-based genome scan. We ...
People who have a birth weight over ten pounds are twice as likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) when they are adults compared to individuals born with an average birth weight, according to a study
Birth weight of a baby born via in vitro fertilization (IVF) depends up on the length embryos were cultured, before placing in the womb, a new study from Finland, says.
New research finds genetic differences that help to explain why some babies are born bigger or smaller than others. The research, led by the University of Oxford, also reveals how genetic differences provide an important link between an individuals early growth and their chances of developing conditions such as type 2 diabetes or heart disease in later life.. The large-scale study, published in Nature, could help to target new ways of preventing and treating these diseases.. The new study was jointly led by a team of researchers from six institutions including the universities of Oxford, Exeter, Bristol, Cambridge and Queensland, and the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam. The research involved more than 160 international researchers from 17 countries who are members of the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium. The work was supported by more than 120 research funders: the major sources of funding for UK researchers were the Wellcome Trust, the Royal Society, the Medical Research Council, the ...
OBJECTIVE: During the past decade, several researchers have demonstrated a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in relation to lower birth weight. This theory, referred to as the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis, postulates that impaired fetal growth predisposes individuals to the development of diabetes and other metabolic abnormalities. This article examines the importance of fetal growth in the etiology of diabetes by estimating the proportion of diabetes cases associated with this exposure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The importance of an exposure or its correlate as a potential cause of a disease can be assessed by estimating the proportion of cases that could be prevented if the exposure was eliminated from a defined population. This proportion is referred to as the population-attributable fraction (PAF). Published studies of the association between diabetes and birth weight were reviewed and selected for further analysis if data were presented that enabled PAF calculation. In addition, PAFs were ...
In low- and middle-income countries, fast linear growth in the first two years of life is associated with increased adult height and completion of more schooling, while higher weight at birth and later in childhood is associated with increased risk of obesity.
1. The general course of prenatal growth in the mouse, the guinea pig, and the chick can be expressed by straight line relations between the logarithms of the weight and age only when age is counted from the beginning of the embryo proper.. 2. This is interpreted as showing that the manner of growth before the beginning of the embryo proper is essentially different from that after this time.. 3. The velocity constants for the animals mentioned are similar; the major differences in their curves depend on the amount of tissue involved in the first organization of the embryo proper and in the length of prenatal life.. 4. Growth of different animals may be compared more accurately if, instead of either birth age or conception age, embryo age is used.. ...
Eventbrite - Angela Horler RM presents Inspirational Birth: understanding, inspiring and supporting normal birth - Saturday, 17 March 2018 at Shepperton, Shepperton, England. Find event and ticket information.
In order for our associations (AAA & AMAA) to generate accurate and dependable EPDs (which can be a valuable tool when making mating and breeding decisions), accurate, dependable, and complete information must be submitted. If we want to have faith in our EPDs we must be faithful in what we report. Birth dates, birthweights, weaning weights, weaning dates, etc. "pulled out of a hat" so to speak if not changed or manipulated equally on the whole herd provide inaccurate progeny ratios which in the long run negatively impact individuals and the breed as a whole. On another note, as we all know, one of the major strengths of the Maine-Anjou breed is phenotypic excellence. Many are involved in this breed because of a desire to compete and excel in the show ring and thats a good thing. But I would like to encourage us especially to report accurate birth dates and birth weights out of respect for fellow breeders and a desire to exhibit personal integrity and character that others (especially family ...
Birth, Birth Weight, Hypotension, Infants, Low Birth Weight, Morbidity, Pressure, Retrospective Studies, Treatment, Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Newborns, Population, Safety, Surgery
James Poterba is President of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He is also the Mitsui Professor of Economics at M.I.T ...
Birth Characteristics Depending on the users selections of year(s) of interest in Step Three, the selectable birth characteristics in Step Seven change.. ...
I know this quote can sound maybe a little harsh. Unfortunately, in my eyes, it is the truth. As long as we think birth is here to work merely around the care provider, we are on the same course we have been headed down for the last 50 years. Example: 32% c section rate nationwide and lots of complications caused by interventions which I wont delve into here. Since medical personnel have decided they need to control, manipulate, force or actually work against birth in whatever manner suits them or their schedules, birth has wrought against itself as mothers struggle to make their voices heard or take needed actions for positive change.. Birth can be exciting, rewarding, joyful, empowering, trans formative, etc....the list could go on. There are so many wonderful things birth can be and is for many woman and families. If the set and setting of birth is presented and conditioned on those who are NOT the laboring woman, the experience follows suit such as being discouraging, depressing, dis ...
OBE-SITY is be-com-ing more com-mon in women of child-bear-ing age, and it could dra-mat-i-cally af-fect the health of their chil-dren. Ex-cess weight has al-ready been linked to chronic dis-eases and in-fer-til-ity, but new re-search in the ArchivesofPe-di-atri-cand Ado-les-cen-tMedicine now shows a link be-tween a wo-mans weight prior to preg-nancy and the risk of birth de-fects in her child. Re-searchers in-ter-viewed 10,249 Amer-i-can women whose ba-bies were born with birth de-fects be-tween 1997 and 2002. The women were con-tacted be-tween six weeks and two years af-ter the babys birth and asked their height and weight be-fore preg-nancy, along with other de-mo-graphic and med-i-cal in-for-ma-tion. They were com-pared to 4065 women who had ba-bies with-out birth de-fects dur-ing the same time pe-riod. For many types of birth de-fects, in-clud-ing spina bi-fida, heart, limb and gen-i-tal de-fects, moth-ers were be-tween 1.3 and 2.1-fold more likely to have been obese prior to preg-nancy ...
Sometimes birth is not normal. Sometimes there really are complications and problems which need to be dealt with in a hospital setting. Sometimes a medical approach to birth is exactly whats needed. Sometimes interventions during birth ARE lifesaving. Yesterday was a perfect example of that. I was helping to take care of a woman who was incred ...
Ill admit that Ive never been much for the idea of at-home births. Ive heard enough stories to know that even normal, healthy births often require emergency medical attention for some reason or another. Often the window of opportunity for that attention is mere minutes- meaning that even a quick car ride to the hospital could put off treatment long enough to put someone (mama or baby) in trouble. And while, yes, our great-grandmothers may have successfully given birth to 12 children at home, its probably not a coincidence that their rates for infant mortality and birth complications were a lot higher ...
Picture a birth scene for me. Got it? Ok, now remove any blinking machine. Delete those tubes traveling into a womans body. Dim the lights. Erase the hospital bed and the baby warmer. Take the hands off the giant clock. And, finally, get rid of cervical exams. Yes, completely. What are you left with? Hmmm....…
This is our first baby, and though we admittedly have only a little idea of what were in store for, we appreciate your positive support in regards to our preferences for our labor and birth. We would like to try to have a drug-free labor and birth, and have prepared the best we can by practicing the Bradley Method. We understand that there may be circumstances that are out of our hands, but we hope that the information provided below will help in communicating our wishes for an "ideal" labor & birth situation. Thank You ...
This Intuitive Birth weekend childbirth class-Roswell is a comprehensive birth prep class that sets you on the path towards a comfortable, fearless birth
At my weekly appointment this week, we went over my birth plan with my midwife. I was really excited to put this plan together because it outlines the kind of a birth I am hoping and planning to have. Some have a very negative view of birth plans as they feel you are trying to tell the…
Warning: From the current issue, only enterprise births excluding self-managed enterprises (SME) serie is seasonally adjusted. In order to get the total of enterprise births, the raw number
Placenta health defines fetal growth and adult health. Small birth weight causes cardiovascular disease, heart attack, stroke, hypertension, death.
This is the story of my third kiddos birth. It was a crazy situation but turned out pretty amazing. I feel as if this story begins before the night I went to the hospital. My first child, Riley, who was born when I was only 19. I knew very little of birth. I knew very little of the world, really. I was induced on my due date because of… well… there was no reason. I didnt have any idea what it even really meant. All I knew was that I was going to have a baby. I had a fast but incredibly intense pitocin induced birth. He came so fast that I was unable to have an epidural. This opened my eyes to the idea of what birth out of the norm could be like. Im glad I felt it. It sparked an interest in birth. Fast forward to my second. I had read and read but was still not confident in my choices. I still thought that what the doctor said would go. I was induced for a second time. I went through that birth without an epidural as well, but I knew there had to be more. After discussion upon discussion, ...
The Birth, You will know a lot about the birth if you go to antenatal classes. But if you miss them, here is a quick guide. It wont contain everything you need to know - but it will be a good start
Eventbrite - Birth Classes presents One Wonderful Day Birth Class - Saturday, December 2, 2017 at AAMC Belcher Pavilion , Annapolis, MD. Find event and registration information.
Tymaree Cook Renaud LMT,CD(DONA), began her journey as a birth doula in January 2010. She has been fascinated by birth since she first picked up
Birth is beautiful, but in some parts of the world, its also a bit weird. These 10 birth customs may make you feel really thankful you werent born around
A YOUNG man who suffered severe brain damage after he was deprived of oxygen at birth had a €4.25m settlement approved at the High Court yesterday.
9780205417988 Our cheapest price for Infancy: Development from Birth to Age 3 is $55.90. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
A couple in Canada allege that doctors failed to properly evaluate the babys size, leading to a traumatic birth that injured both mom and baby.
Optimum interval between births Your child is already quite grown up, and you want to babysit the baby again, or vice versa - the oldest one is still quite
Wondering what to bring with you to the hospital? Come prepared with hospital bag essentials with everything you need to give birth.
το κείμενο με τίτλο Tzortzakis Name : Nikolaos Father's name : Georgios Day of birth σχετίζετε με Βιοτεχνολογία
Here Laura Uglow of True Vitality 4 Mums explains how you can safely ease yourself into a post-natal health and fitness routine after birth.
The world always brings to human such kinds of wonderful and miracle record that you have never imagined about. When it comes to productive capability of woman, there are some incredible survival birth cases that surprise the whole human beings.
Every woman wants a safe birth that doesnt last any longer than it needs to. Heres how to boost your chances of getting the best experience.possible
No youre not blind. He has a rare birth disorder where he was born with no hands and he has to use his mouth to write. - #92462591 added by anonymous at wtf (description)
Chinese doctors have removed around 13 Kgs of feces from the intestine of a 22 year-old man who was reportedly constipated since birth. The unnamed 22-year
A few weeks ago I noticed that there were a few different threads about Birth Plans and I thought it would be good to see if we can get them all in one place for future reference. The mods have agreed to make this a sticky, so please - page 4
A few weeks ago I noticed that there were a few different threads about Birth Plans and I thought it would be good to see if we can get them all in one place for future reference. The mods have agreed to make this a sticky, so please
Browse detailed company profiles for search term Train Me Bagal Wali Birth Me Anjaan Ladki Ko Choda, including contact info and customer ratings.
There are several categories of factors, which can affect growth in babies, whilst in the womb and after they are born.It is true that growth can be directly affected, and I will describe how in the sections below.For a baby to be born small for gestat...
From the time of conception until the time you give birth, your body is going to go through some major changes. Find out what to expect with our week-by-week look at your changing body.
This study is the first to analyze a comprehensive range of maternal, birth, and childhood measures in relation to adult BP from a large well-characterized general population-based cohort studied since early pregnancy. Our main findings were that (1) the association between birth weight and SBP was inverse-linear, particularly for males, with or without adjustment for current BMI; (2) the association for DBP was inverse but weaker than for SBP; (3) other birth variables (gestational age, birth length, ponderal index, BW-GA) showed a similar pattern with BP, although less consistent than birth weight; (4) among females, the inverse association between gestational age and BP was stronger than that for birth weight; (5) infant change-up growth associated positively with BP; and (6) association of some early life factors (gestational age, ponderal index) with BP seems to be stronger in leaner adults.. A meta-analysis by Huxley et al22 of 82 studies with data on birth weight and BP concluded that ...
Because maternal GDM is associated with birth weight and birth weight is directly associated with later BMI, it makes sense to investigate the role of maternal GDM in the genesis of obesity. In this study, we documented a robust direct relationship between birth weight and BMI measured 9 to 14 years later. Each 1-kg increment of birth weight was associated with approximately a 30% increase in the prevalence of overweight, even after adjusting for maternal BMI and other relevant covariates.. In addition, we found that maternal GDM was associated with an OR of 1.4 for adolescent overweight, before controlling for birth weight and maternal BMI. This estimate was slightly attenuated by addition of birth weight to the model, suggesting that the association of GDM with later obesity could partially be explained by its influence on birth weight.. Maternal BMI played a confounding role in these analyses; adding it to the multivariate models resulted in a blunted association of maternal GDM with ...
The estimated increase in birth weight caused by the offer of incentives in the CPIT trial was 21 g overall, but for the subgroup of women who quit as a result of the offer of incentives, and would not have been able to do so without the offer, it was 145 g. Throughout, we have viewed this as the causal effect of the intervention, within the subgroup who are susceptible to (comply with) it, but the value of 145 g can equally be seen as the causal effect of stopping smoking on birth weight, within this subgroup of women for whom the offer of incentives is sufficient to help them to quit. This is in line with birth weight differences associated with smoking cessation recorded by other researchers - 160 grams for light smoking (1-9 cigarettes per day) and 230 grams for heavy smoking (,9 cigarettes per day) [8].. To try to understand this analysis, Fig. 1 gives the raw data. Comparison of those who continued to smoke shows that those in the incentives group had babies with a slightly lower birth ...
Objectives: The aim of the study is to compare the accuracy of 11 formulas in predicting fetal weight. Material and methods: The study includes 1072 pregnant women of gestational age from 28 to 42 weeks, who gave birth between January and June 2017. Pregnant women were divided into five groups; group 1, where actual birth weight (ABW) was less than 2500 g, group 2, where ABW was between 2500-4000 g, group 3, where ABW was above 4000 g. Group 4 - newborns with birth weight under 10 percentile and group 5 - newborns with birth weight above 90 percentile. The accuracy of the estimated fetal weight (EFW) was assessed by calculating absolute percentage error (APE) and limits-of-agreement. R Spearman correlation was utilized between EFW and ABW. Results: The most accurate formula for group 1 is Hadlock3 (MAPE = 7.04%), the narrowest limits of agreement has Combs - [mean (SD): 99.41 g (269.57 g)]. For group 2, the lowest MAPE (5.43%) has Ott, the narrowest limits of agreement belongs to Combs - [mean ...
As multiple pregnancies show a higher incidence of complications than singletons and carry a higher perinatal risk, the calculation of birth weight - and gestational age (GA)-specific perinatal mortality rates (PMR) for multiple births is necessary in order to estimate the lowest PMR for these groups. Details of all reported twins (192,987 live births, 5,539 stillbirths and 1,830 early neonatal deaths) in Japan between 1990 and 1999 were analyzed and compared with singletons (10,021,275 live births, 63,972 fetal deaths and 16,862 early neonatal deaths) in the annual report of vital statistics of Japan. The fetal death rate (FDR) and PMR were calculated for each category of birth weight at 500-gram intervals and GA at four-week intervals. The FDR according to birth weight and GA category was calculated as fetal deaths/(fetal deaths + live births) × 1000. The perinatal mortality rate (PMR) according to birth weight and GA category, was calculated as (fetal deaths + early neonatal deaths)/(fetal deaths +
What is Low Birth Weight Baby? Babies with birth weight of , 2.5 kg irrespective of gestational age is called Low Birth Weight Baby. Most normal babies weigh 5.5 pounds by 37 weeks of gestation. At birth, most babies weigh 6 to 8 pounds. There are really nothing special to do for preventing Low Birth Weight Baby. But the following …. Read More » ...
Reichman NE, et al. Effects of psychosocial risk factors and prenatal interventions on birthweight: evidence from New Jerseys HealthStart Program. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. May/Jun 2003;35(3):130-137.. This research was done to verify the linkages between the Medicaid prenatal care programs, in response to expansions of the Medicaid eligibility criteria. According to the fully adjusted model, the interventions designed to reduce behaviors like smoking, drinking, and using hard drugs (but not marijuana) during pregnancy had no favorable effects on birthweight. In contrast, participation in the WIC Program was associated with an increase in mean birthweight of 22 grams. The increase was 48 grams among inadequately nourished women only.. ...
Researchers conducted a population-based study and a systematic review to see whether folic acid affects a babys size compared to others of the same gestational age. A small size at birth is associated with health issues later in life. The present study included data from 108,525 pregnancies; 84.9% of the mothers had taken folic acid during pregnancy. About 26% of these cases began supplementation before pregnancy. The highest rate of small size for gestational age was associated with mothers that didnt take folate, with 16.3% having newborns under the 10th percentile for birth weight and 8.9% having newborns under the fifth percentile for birth weight. Women taking folic acid before conception were less like to have a baby with a low birth weight for its gestational size.. Published in WholeFoods Magazine, January 2015 (online 12/11/14). ...
Children born with lower or higher weight than normal may be at increased risk for developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by the time they become teenagers, says a study.. Advanced scarring of the liver was associated with low birth weight, while more inflammation was linked to high birth weight, according to the study published in the Journal of Pediatrics.. With the obesity epidemic, we are seeing more babies with high birth weight than ever before, said study co-author Mark Fishbein from Stanley Manne Childrens Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Childrens Hospital of Chicago in the US. Our study shows that these kids are more likely to have serious liver damage by the time they are teenagers, Fishbein said.. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and typically is diagnosed in early adolescence. In its most severe form it can lead to liver failure and the need for liver transplantation.. Being able to ...
Background and aims:The most common reason in neonatal mortality rate in the world is low birth weight (LBW). The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence and related factors associated in birth weight in Garmsar, Iran in 2013. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on 683 live births which delivered in Garmsar in 2013. The required information was collected by examining the health records of pregnant women and completion of the data registration forms. Data collection was controlled by using SPSSand analyzed by using an Independent T-test, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: According to the results, 32 infants out of 683 infants born in 2013 had low birth weight, i.e. the weight less than 2500g. LBW prevalence estimated in this study was 4.7%. There were significant statistical relations between low birth weight and the variables including number of births, mothers occupation and interval of less than 3 years between pregnancies and systolic and diastolic
Methods Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) were linked with data from RevNatus, a nationwide observational register recruiting women with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Singleton births in women with SLE included in RevNatus 2006-2015 were cases (n=180). All other singleton births registered in MBRN during this time (n=498 849) served as population controls. Z-score for birth weight adjusted for gestational age and gender was calculated. Disease activity was assessed using Lupus Activity Index in Pregnancy. We compared z-scores for birth weight, pre-eclampsia and preterm birth in cases with inactive disease, cases with active disease and population controls. ...
Objective. In recent years, gains in neonatal survival have been most evident among very low birth weight, preterm, and low birth weight (LBW) infants. Most of the improvement in neonatal survival since the early 1980s seems to be the consequence of decreasing birth weight-specific mortality rates, which occurred during a period of increasing preterm and LBW rates. Although the decline in neonatal mortality has been widely publicized in the United States, research suggests that clinicians may still underestimate the chances of survival of an infant who is born too early or too small and may overestimate the eventuality of serious disability. So that clinicians may have current and needed ethnic- and race-specific estimates of the "chances" of early survival for newborn infants, we examined birth weight/gestational age-specific neonatal mortality rates for the 3 largest ethnic/racial groups in the United States: non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic blacks. Marked racial variation in ...
A systematic review published in 2000 studied the association between maternal anemia and birth weight; however, some results were inconclusive. A review of randomized control trials and cohort studies published in 2013 concluded that daily prenatal iron use substantially improves birth weight in a linear dose response manner. Thus, a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies was conducted to contemporarily estimate the relationship between prenatal maternal hemoglobin and birth weight. We searched four electronic databases for observational epidemiological studies, which reported birth weight as an outcome measure and ascertained prenatal maternal anemia by hemoglobin measurement. Thirty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of five studies showed that neonates born to women with anemia were, on average, 303 g lighter in birth weight than those born to women without anemia (95% CI: 19.20 588.26; I = 91%; five studies; p = 0.04). On the basis of ...
16,000 participants showed early weight gain had the largest effect on infants birth weight FOR RELEASE:. August 28, 2017. CONTACT:. Robyn Gordon, The Obesity Society: [email protected] SILVER SPRING, MD: Weight gain in early pregnancy has the greatest impact on infant size at birth, according to a new study published today in Obesity. The study is the largest ever analysis of the effect that weight gain in early pregnancy has on infant size.. The study examined 16,218 pregnant mothers throughout the first, second and third trimesters in Tianjin, China to determine the risk of infants size at birth. Results found weight gain early in pregnancy, before 24 weeks-regardless of the weight gain later-had the greatest impact on infant size. Infants born to women with weight gain that exceeds the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy, prior to 24 weeks, were 2.5 times more likely to be born large.. Maternal obesity and weight gain in pregnancy have been ...
birth weight[tw] OR birth weight[mh] OR low birth weight infant[mh] OR fetal growth retardation[mh] OR ((growth restriction[tw] OR fetal growth[tw]) AND (infant[tw] OR infants[tw] OR fetal[tw] OR fetus[tw]))) AND (caffeine[ti] OR caffeinated[ti] OR caffeine[majr]) AND (pregnancy OR pregnant) AND (Cohort Studies[mh] OR cohort*[tw] OR compar*[tw] OR cross-sectional[tw] OR cross-sectional studies[mh] OR follow-up[tw] OR followup[tw] OR follow up[tw] OR longitudinal*[tw] OR multivariate[tw] OR population surveillance/methods[mh] OR population-based study[tw] OR prospective*[tw] OR random* OR randomized controlled trial[pt] OR reproducib*[tw] OR Reproducibility of Results[mh]) NOT (Meta Analysis[pt] OR meta analy*[tw] OR metaanaly*[tw] OR systematic review*[tw] OR data synthesis[tw] OR data extraction[tw] OR Cochrane Database Syst Rev[ta]) AND english[la] AND humans[mh ...
Caffeine intake from different sources was linked to lower birth weight and a higher number of babies who were small for gestational age. For a child with an expected average birth weight (3.6kg) this is equivalent to 21-28 g lost per 100 mg caffeine per day. An intake of 200-300 mg caffeine per day is associated with an increase in the risk of giving birth to a small for gestational age baby by almost a third. Babies who are small for gestational age are at higher risk of both short-term and lifelong health problems. "Caffeine consumption is strongly correlated with smoking which is known to increase the risk for both preterm delivery and the baby being small for gestational age. In this study we found no association between caffeine intake and preterm delivery but we did find an association between caffeine and babies who were small for gestational age. This association remained even when we corrected for maternal smoking habits and when we only looked at non-smoking mothers, which implies ...
Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced
Lawlor, DA; Davey Smith, G; Whincup, P; Wannamethee, G; Papacosta, O; Dhanjil, S; Griffin, M; Nicolaides, AN; Ebrahim, S; (2003) Association between offspring birth weight and atherosclerosis in middle aged men and women: British Regional Heart Study. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 57 (6). pp. 462-3. ISSN 0143-005X DOI: 10.1136/jech.57.6.462 ...
Learn the risks and issues associated with low birth weight babies, and how you and your baby may be affected by having a low birth weight.
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is related to increased risk of coronary heart disease in adults and recently has been associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in children. We investigated whether the relation between birth weight and endothelial function was still present in early adult life and whether there was an interaction with emerging risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 315 adults (165 women, 150 men, aged 20 to 28 years), high-resolution ultrasound was used to determine endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular responses of the brachial artery. Vascular measures were related to classic risk factors (smoking history, lipid profile, blood pressure, fasting insulin, exercise capacity, body mass index, and combined risk score) and birth weight. Low birth weight was associated with reduced flow-mediated dilation (coefficient=0.18 kg(-1), 95% CI 0.004 to 0.35, P:=0.04) but not with endothelium-independent dilation. The difference in flow-mediated dilation between the top and bottom
LBW means one whose birth weight is less than 2500 gm irrespective of the gestational age. DOWNLOAD LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES ppt. ...
OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to investigate possible factors associated with the recent decrease in birth weight in Kumamoto Prefecture between 1979 and 1997. METHODS Vital statistics on birth between 1979 and 1997 were obtained from the records of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan, on the basis of which, infants were divided into low-birth weight (LBW: |2500 g) group and the normal-birth-weight (| or =2500 g) group, and the proportions of birth and birth weights by gestational age (from 22 to 42 weeks) of both groups between 1979 and 1997 were compared. RESULTS For the normal-birth-weight group, the peaks of the proportions of birth and birth weights by gestational age in 1997 shifted to early gestation, compared with the peaks in 1979. The birth weight by gestational age in 1997 decreased, compared with that in 1979 among the normal-birth-weight group, in particular, the birth weight from 37 to 40 gestational ages decreased significantly, and the mean birth weight showed a linear
Very low birth weight infants (newborns who weigh less than 3 pounds 2 ounces) require intensive medical care. While these infants represent less than 2 percent of all live births, they also account for about two-thirds of the infants who die in the first year of life. Interventions that reduce the very low birth weight rate will also reduce Medicaid expenditures during the first year of life and reduce the infant mortality rate.. The integrated delivery of the WIC and FCM programs is having a significant impact on the states infant mortality rate and health care expenditures. Nine consecutive annual program evaluations have shown that the health status of infants born to Medicaid-eligible women who participated in both WIC and FCM has been substantially better than that of infants born to Medicaid-eligible women who did not participate in either program. In particular, the rate of premature birth is more than 60 percent lower among participants in both programs. The rate of low birth weight is ...
MUDAHEMUKA, J C e BALLOT, D E. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving to discharge from Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. S. Afr. j. child health [online]. 2014, vol.8, n.4, pp.149-153. ISSN 1999-7671. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJCH.709.. BACKGROUND: The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. Several factors have been associated with poor postnatal weight gain. OBJECTIVE: To provide current information on the postnatal growth of VLBW infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH). METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of VLBW infants surviving to discharge from CMJAH neonatal unit from August to October 2013. RESULTS: Sixty-nine infants were included in the study. The mean GV was 13.2 g/kg/day, the median weight loss was 7.69% and the median time for regaining birth weight was 16 days. Fifty-one infants (73.9%) regained their birth weight at or before 21 days. There was a decrease ...
Dietary protein is needed for normal growth and development. The protein intake required for growth of the low birth weight infant has been estimated by the growth rate of the fetus to be 3.5 to 4.0 g/kg/d. Controlling the amount of protein given to low birth weight babies (less than 2.5 kg) fed with formula is important. Too much protein can raise blood urea and amino acid (phenylalanine) levels, and this may harm neurodevelopment. Too low protein intake may limit the growth of these infants. The review authors searched the medical literature to identify studies that compared protein intake as follows: between 3 and 4 g of protein per kg of infant body weight each day versus less than 3.0 g/kg/d or greater than 4.0 g/kg/d by low birth weight infants fed formula during their initial hospital stay. Increased protein intake resulted in greater weight gain of around 2.0 g/kg/d. Based on increased body incorporation of nitrogen, this was associated with increased lean body mass. The present conclusion was
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associations of the pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcomes in Taiwanese women. AU - Tsai, I. Hsien. AU - Chen, Chih Ping. AU - Sun, Fang Ju. AU - Wu, Chia Hsun. AU - Yeh, Sung Ling. PY - 2012/3. Y1 - 2012/3. N2 - Background: Pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) are important factors in both maternal and infant outcomes. Little information is available in relation to different levels of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and body weight gain on obstetric outcomes in Taiwan. This study investigated the associations between pregnancy complications with pre-pregnant BMI and GWG, in Taiwanese women. Methods: Data were extracted from a delivery room information bank on all women delivering singleton babies in a medical center. Eight hundred and sixty pregnant women were included. The collected variables included basic information, GWG, and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Pregnant women were categorized according to their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcome of extremely low birth weight infants who received delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation. AU - Wyckoff, Myra H.. AU - Salhab, Walid A.. AU - Heyne, Roy J.. AU - Kendrick, Douglas E.. AU - Stoll, Barbara J.. AU - Laptook, Abbot R.. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - Objective: To determine whether delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DR-CPR) independently predicts morbidities and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight infants. Study design: We conducted a cohort study of infants born with birth weight of 401 to 1000 g and gestational age of 23 to 30 weeks. DR-CPR was defined as chest compressions, medications, or both. Logistic regression was used to determine associations among DR-CPR and morbidities, mortality, and NDI at 18 to 24 months of age (Bayley II mental or psychomotor index ,70, cerebral palsy, blindness, or deafness). Data are adjusted ORs with 95% CIs. Results: Of 8685 infants, 1333 (15%) received DR-CPR. Infants who ...
Objective: To determine the association between congenital toxoplasmosis and preterm birth, low birthweight and small for gestational age birth. Design: Multicentre prospective cohort study Setting: Ten European Centres offering prenatal screening for toxoplasmosis. Population: Deliveries after 23 weeks of gestation in 386 women with singleton pregnancies who seroconverted to toxoplasma infection before 20 weeks of gestation. Deliveries after 36 weeks in 234 women who seroconverted at 20 weeks or later and tested positive before 37 weeks. Methods: Comparison of infected and uninfected births, adjusted for parity and country of birth. Main outcome measures: Differences in gestational age at birth, birthweight and birthweight centile. Results: Infected babies were born or delivered earlier than uninfected babies: the mean difference for seroconverters before 20 weeks was -5.4 days (95%CI: - 1.4, - 9.4), and at 20 weeks or more, -2.6 days (95% CI: -0.5, -4.7). Congenital infection was associated ...
A slow growth rate and preterm birth are the two factors that can cause a low birth weight. Low birth weight (below 2000 grams ... Low birth weight[edit]. Low birth weight increases an infants risk of long-term growth and cognitive and language deficits.[45] ... low birth weight, and premature births.[34][35][36] Exposure to secondhand smoke leads to higher risks of low birth weight and ... When using cannabis, there is a greater risk of birth defects, low birth weight, and a higher rate of death in infants or ...
1.5 times birth length by first birthday. 9.6 kg (21 lb). Nearly triple the birth weight by first birthday. 500 g per month. 20 ... about 4 times birth weight. 1 kg per year. 20 to 35. Body temperature. Heart rate. ... Doubling birth weight. 500 g per month. 25 to 50. Body temperature. Heart rate. ... Average weight. Weight gain. Respiration rate. (per minute). Normal body temperature. Heart rate (pulse). (per minute). Visual ...
Ziegler EE, Carlson SJ (March 2009). "Early nutrition of very low birth weight infants". J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 22 (3 ... Preterm birth, congenital heart disease, birth asphyxia, exchange transfusion, prolonged rupture of membranes[1]. ... "Slow advancement of enteral feed volumes to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants". The Cochrane ... "Delayed introduction of progressive enteral feeds to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants". The ...
Very low birth weight (less than 1500 grams). *Gestational age less than 32 weeks ...
Baby elephants weight around 232 pounds at birth. Almost immediately, they can already stand up and move around, allowing the ... On average, they begin breeding at the age of 23 and give birth every five to six years.[5] As a result, the birth rate is ... Due to a slower birth rate, the forest elephant takes longer to recover from poaching, which caused its population to fall by ... Their tusks can grow to approximately 1.5 meters long and can weight between 50 and 100 pounds, which is around the same size ...
Nerve damage has been connected to birth weight with larger newborns being more susceptible to the injury but it also has to do ... Studies have shown a relationship between birth weight and brachial plexus injuries; however, the number of cesarean deliveries ... "Birth Weight as a Predictor of Brachial Plexus Injury". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 89 (5): 643-47. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(97) ... necessary to prevent a single injury is high at most birth weights. For the upper brachial plexus injuries, paralysis occurs in ...
Associated with premature birth and low birth weight[6]. Cause[edit]. Because plaque-induced gingivitis is by far the most ... A risk for delivery of premature labor and low-birth-weight infants". Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine. 1 (1 ...
Major causes of PEM in Nepal is low birth weight of below 2.5 kg, due to poor maternal nutrition, inadequate dietary intake, ... Around a quarter of babies are born low birth weight. As per the findings of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011), ... The major causes of neonatal death in Nepal are infection, birth asphyxia, preterm birth, and hypothermia. Given Nepal's ... Life Expectancy at birth for both sexes increased by 6 years over the year 2010 and 2012.In 2012, healthy expectancy in both ...
Greater likelihood of low birth weight, particularly for unwanted pregnancies.[5][18] This may be through increased risk of ... eliminating all unwanted pregnancies would reduce rate of low birth weight by 7% for blacks, and 4% for whites, helping to ... there is no contact between the birth parents and adoptive parents. Information identifying the adoptive parents and the birth ... Open adoption allows birth parents to know and have contact with the adoptive parents and the adopted child.[35] In a closed ...
"Big Birth Weight Babies".. *↑ Khor G (2003). "Update on the prevalence of malnutrition among children in Asia". Nepal Med Coll ... If their brains were better developed at birth, they would be larger, and this would make birth more difficult. In birth, the ... "Country Comparison: Life Expectancy at Birth". CIA. Retrieved 2016-04-17.. *↑ Pinker, Stephen 1994. The language instinct: how ... The average human baby weighs 3 - 4 kg at birth and is 50-60 cm tall. This is often less in poorer countries.[41] Many babies ...
Baby birth weight Information». دریافت‌شده در ۱۴ دسامبر ۲۰۱۱. . 2500 g... 4000 g. ... Water - Density and Specific Weight». The Engineering Tool Box.. *↑ «Chihuahua Weight Chart». دریافت‌شده در ۱۴ دسامبر ۲۰۱۱. . ... Calculated: adult men have a weight of 70 kg, use 55 kg to account for smaller weights of women and children. 7.0e9 people × 55 ... Mass, Weight, Density or Specific Gravity of Water at Various Temperatures». SiMetric. دریافت‌شده در ۱۳ دسامبر ۲۰۱۱. .. ...
The role of obstetrical medical technology in preventing low birth weight. Future Child. 1995 spring; 5(1):71-86.[5] ... "The Role of Obstetrical Medical Technology in Preventing Low Birth Weight". The Future of Children. 5 (1): 71-86. doi:10.2307/ ... Vaginal birth after cesarean: a health policy perspective. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Sep;44(3):553-60. ... Coleman VH, Erickson K, Schulkin J, Zinberg S, Sachs BP, Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery; practice patterns of ...
... and preterm birth is unclear.[100]. Weight gain. The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies.[101] Weight gain ... Final weight gain takes place, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy. The woman's abdomen will transform in ... The Institute of Medicine recommends an overall pregnancy weight gain for those of normal weight (body mass index of 18.5-24.9 ... Prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with premature birth, birth defects and attention deficit disorder.[42] ...
Silverton, Leigh; Karen M.; Schulsinger, Fini; Mednick, Sarnoff A (August 1985). "Low birth weight and ventricular enlargement ... They found that those most vulnerable to low birthweight, a variable representing subtle birth difficulties in utero, were most ... those with the most severe schizophrenia symptoms on outcome had low birthweights decades before.[4] Their hypothesis that low ... In a 1984 study, they found that high risk subjects matched for socioeconomic status at birth drifted into lower social classes ...
A slow growth rate and preterm birth are the two factors that can cause a low birth weight. Low birth weight (below 2000 grams ... Low birth weight. Low birth weight increases an infants risk of long-term growth and cognitive and language deficits. It also ... low birth weight, and premature births.[15] Exposure to secondhand smoke leads to higher risks of low birth weight and ... When using drugs (narcotics), there is a greater risk of birth defects, low birth weight, and a higher rate of death in infants ...
Preterm birth. Low birth weight and preterm birth are strongly associated with many health problems, such as visual impairment ... Low birth weight.[19] In IVF and ICSI, a risk factor is the decreased expression of proteins in energy metabolism; Ferritin ... Some of these include low birth weight, placental insufficiency, chromosomal disorders, preterm deliveries, gestational ... In the largest U.S. study, which used data from a statewide registry of birth defects,[17] 6.2% of IVF-conceived children had ...
Possible weight gain: Some women may experience slight weight gain when using the implant.[13] However, current studies are not ... Etonogestrel birth control implant, sold under the brand names Nexplanon among others, is a device made up of a single rod ... The average increase in body weight in studies was less than 5 pounds (2,25 kg) over 2 years.[14][15] ... containing etonogestrel which is used for birth control.[2] It is one of the most effective forms of birth control with a one- ...
"The Role of Prenatal Care in Preventing Low Birth Weight". The Future of Children. Low Birth Weight. 5 (1): 103-120. doi: ... Common results of smoking during pregnancy include pre-term births, low birth weights, fetal and neonatal deaths, respiratory ... "skilled birth attendants" - people with training in basic and emergency obstetric care - to help women give birth. The ... Gestational weight gain should typically fall between 11-20 pounds (5-9 kg) in order to improve outcomes for both mother and ...
"THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIRTH WEIGHT AND HYPODONTIA IN TWINS, 12 MAY 1969". NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES ILL by ... Also the increased frequency of hypodontia in twins and low birth weight in twins with hypodontia suggests that environmental ... Missing teeth have been reported in association with increased maternal age, low birth weight, multiple births and rubella ...
Premature and low birth weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems as newborns have chronic lifelong ... Smoking nearly doubles the risk of low birthweight babies. In 2004, 11.9% of babies born to smokers had low birthweight as ... babies born to smoking mothers are usually born too early and have low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds), ... Smoking during pregnancy can result in lower birth weight as well as deformities in the baby. ...
"Low Birth Weight Dwarfism". Arch Dis Child. 36 (190): 633-644. 1961. PMC 2012814 . PMID 13869653. doi:10.1136/adc.36.190.633. ...
A Nigerian study showed that the birth weight of the human fetus also depends upon the size and weight of the mother including ... In Africa and South Asia, 27%-50% of women in the reproductive age are underweight resulting in 30 million low birth weight ... Public health aspect of low birth weight, third report of the expert committee on maternal and child health (WHO)" (PDF). World ... Further the weight of the human testes marked as mg/100 gram of body weight was investigated and was observed that there was a ...
"Association between Bacterial Vaginosis and Preterm Delivery of a Low-Birth-Weight Infant". New England Journal of Medicine. ... preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, and postpartum endometritis.[23] Women with BV who are treated with in vitro ... most notably premature birth or miscarriage.[21][22] Pregnant women with BV have a higher risk of chorioamnionitis, miscarriage ... When clindamycin is given to pregnant women symptomatic with BV before 22 weeks of gestation the risk of pre-term birth before ...
A positive deviance-based antenatal nutrition project improves birth-weight in Upper Egypt. J Health Popul Nutr. 2006;24(4): ...
These effects may including birth defects, low birth weight, miscarriage, and preterm birth.[23] ...
If older women do conceive over the age of 40, their offspring may be of lower birth weight, and more likely to requires ... Live birth rate. 40.7. 31.3. 22.2. 11.8. 3.9 In 2006, Canadian clinics reported a live birth rate of 27%.[9] Birth rates in ... Live birth rateEdit. The live birth rate is the percentage of all IVF cycles that lead to a live birth. This rate does not ... Recent evidence also suggest that singleton offspring after IVF is at higher risk for lower birth weight for unknown reasons. ...
Females show aggression towards each other immediately before and after the birth of their young and will chase other females ... Weight 75-100 cm 45-55 cm 6-7.5 cm 9-14 kg ... Young per Birth Sexual Maturity Life Span 180-210 days 1-7 Does ... The doe often gives birth to her spotted young in the open, but they are quickly taken to concealing vegetation, where they ... from their birth territories.[citation needed] Communication[edit]. Water deer are capable of emitting a number of sounds. The ...
Eighth IBM Medical Symposium, p. 165 (1967). Wertelecki, W; Mantel, N (1973). "Increased Birth Weight in Leukemia". Pediatric ... www.reuters.com/article/us-defect-chernobyl/higher-birth-defect-rate-seen-in-chernobyl-area-idUSTRE62N4L820100324 "State birth ... Wertelecki, W (2006). "Birth defects surveillance in Ukraine: A process". Journal of Applied Genetics. 47 (2): 143-9. doi: ... "Ukrainian-American Birth Defects Program: Project on Prenatal Markers of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (in Ukrainian)" "Academicos ...
Unfortunately, however, the presence of an unexpected, disfiguring, and even disabling birth injury can change your outlook ... About Birth Injuries Birth Injuries The day you have a child should be one of the most joyous moments of your life. ... Abnormally large birth weight. Abnormally large fetal head. Unusual shape of the mothers hips. Breeched birth. Premature baby ... About Birth Injuries. About Birth Injuries Birth Injuries. The day you have a child should be one of the most joyous moments of ...
Results: On day 7, twelve infants had a normal echocardiogram (gestation 31 1weeks; birth weight 1.56 0.10 kg) and six an ... birth weight 0.99 0.15 kg). Four of these were treated successfully, one by surgical ligation, 3 with non-steroidal anti- ... Design: We studied 18 preterm infants (12 male), mean gestational age 30 weeks (range 24 - 34 weeks), mean weight 1.37kg (range ...
Higher than average birth weight. *Small or abnormally shaped pelvis of the mother ... Types of Birth Injuries. Birth injuries range in severity, and may be temporary or permanent. Some birth injuries can be ... Birth injuries may occur naturally as a result of a difficult birth or complications with a pregnancy. However, many birth ... Orlando Birth Injury Attorney. In order to determine whether birth injuries were caused by malpractice, a birth injury attorney ...
The lawyers listened to me, believed me, and took a huge weight off of my shoulders the day we first met. I believe I was ... There are birth injuries that could not have been prevented, but the sad truth is that many birth injuries are the result of ... Experienced birth injury attorneys can help you get both the answers that you deserve and the compensation that your child and ... How Do I Know if Surgical Errors Led to My Babys Birth Injury?. If you had to have surgery while you were pregnant or your ...
Some low birth babies may have health issues. Get the facts on your babys birth weight. ... Newborn babies vary in birth weight and size. ... A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high birth weight ... Birth weight is the first weight of your baby, taken just after he or she is born. ... Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for certain health problems. Some may become sick in the first days of life or ...
Srinivas Rao 2nd year PG Community Medicine LOW BIRTH WEIGHT ... 4. LOW BIRTH WEIGHT Any infant with a birth weight of less than ... GRADING Birth weight Grade 2500 - 2000 gm Low birth weight 2000 - 1000 gm Very low birth weight , 1000 gm Extremely low birth ... 3. INTRODUCTION BIRTH WEIGHT 1ST weight of fetus or new born obtained after birth. Importance of birth weight  It is single ... Low birth weight * 1. Dr. Srinivas Rao 2nd year PG Community Medicine LOW BIRTH WEIGHT ...
A new paper provides an updated national birth weight reference for the United States using the most recent, nationally... ... nationally representative birth data. The study, A 2017 US reference for singleton birth weight percentiles using obstetric ... Study Develops Updated National Birth Weight Reference. News provided by. Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute Jun 14, 2019, ... Previous birth weight-for-gestational-age references may not reflect the current socio-demographic composition of the U.S. and ...
The perceived link between birth-control pills and weight gain actually goes back to Americas very first contraceptive, a ... So heres the question: If telling a woman that she might gain weight could actually make her gain weight, why dont the ... "Theyre the aches and pains of daily life," Grimes says, things like headaches and moodiness and, yes, weight gain. Weight gain ... and weight gain. They found no significant differences in any of these among women who took birth control pills and those who ...
Reuters Health) - Women who gain more weight in early pregnancy are more likely to deliver unusually large babies, who may be ... her infants birth weight rose by 13.6 grams. For weight gained from 14-18 weeks, birth weight rose by 26.1 grams for each ... Mothers pre-pregnancy weight was consistently associated with babies birth weight. But only weight gain from pre-pregnancy to ... Early in pregnancy, the authors note, the fetus grows slowly, so weight gain mainly involves the mothers body. Excess weight ...
Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth. The average birth weight in babies of European heritage is 3.5 ... Original citation: "Birthweight: Infants weight recorded at the time of birth" "New birth weight curves tailored to babys ... A low birth weight can be caused either by a preterm birth (low gestational age at birth) or of the infant being small for ... Low birth weight is associated with neonatal infection. There are basically two distinct determinants for birth weight: The ...
Vitamin D levels in early pregnancy are closely related to birth weight, head circumference, and ponderal index, but not ... Birth weight increased by 3.6 g (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 - 6.1 g), and head circumference increased by 0.010 cm (95% ... In a bivariate analysis, women who had 25(OH)D levels of 37.5 nmol/L or more had babies with higher birth weight, head ... The differences in birth weight and head circumference by vitamin D deficiency remained after adjustment for trimester at ...
Birth weight data were obtained from vital statistics and health department birth registrations for over one million live ... Birth weight percentiles (from first to 99th) by gestational age and sex were calculated for singleton and twin live births. ... Charts of birth weight by gestational age show percentiles 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, 97, and 99 by sex for singleton and ... Birth weight percentiles by gestational age in Canada.. Arbuckle TE1, Wilkins R, Sherman GJ. ...
A study has found that up to 66mg of daily iron supplements during pregnancy reduces the risk of giving birth to an underweight ... weight at birth rose by 15g and their risk of low birth weight fell by three per cent.. Publishing their findings in the ... Babies whose mothers took iron supplements every day while pregnant are more likely to have a good birth weight, new research ... may be used as a preventive strategy to improve maternal haematological status and birth weight.. They added that future ...
Many women who use hormonal birth control cite weight gain as a side effect. Learn more about this occurrence and what you can ... hormonal forms of birth control. Stories from friends on birth control whove gained weight may be enough to deter some women ... Choosing Between the Birth Control Pill or the Depo-Provera Shot. Both the birth control pill and the birth control shot, Depo- ... Weight Gain and Birth Control: What You Need To Know. Medically reviewed by Nicole Galan, RN on. February 2, 2016. - Written by ...
A new study has found that the higher a childs weight at birth, the better that child performed on reading and math tests in ... Higher Birth Weight Linked to Better School Performance. By Janice Wood Associate News Editor ... For example, lower-birth-weight babies of highly educated parents tend to perform better in school than heavier babies of high ... A new study has found that the higher a childs weight at birth, the better that child performed on reading and math tests in ...
Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless ... A correlation between maternal exposure to CO and low birth weight has been reported that the effect on birth weight of ... Subcategories include very low birth weight (VLBW), which is less than 1500 g (3 pounds 5 ounces), and extremely low birth ... Aircraft noise exposure caused adverse effects on fetal growth leading to low birth weight and preterm infants. Low birthweight ...
Children born with very low birth weights are at an increased risk of cognitive, emotional and behavioral problems throughout ... How very low birth weight affects brain development New insights into why children with very low birth weights can have ... The very low birth weight study participants completed the tasks as well as the normal birth weight participants, the ... Olsen and his colleagues wanted to see how the brains of very low birth weight individuals differed from their normal birth ...
In the normal birth weight range, previous studies on the associations between birth weight and intelligence are conflicting.1 ... In addition to birth weight, the mean score increased with increasing birth length, head circumference at birth, infant SES, ... These associations were observed in the full range of birth weights and within the normal birth weight range. ... Correlations and Partial Correlations Using Birth Weight as a Continuous Variable (Birth Weights up to 4 kg Included) ...
Higher birth weights have been attributed in part to womens increasing age and weight and decreased smoking. ... Birth weight""a combination of fetal growth and length of gestation""was recorded in grams. The investigators teased out ... "Theres still a lot we dont know about the causes of low birth weight," says Oken. "More research needs to be done." ... In addition to declines in birth weight, average gestation length among these full-term births also dropped by more than two ...
Because maternal GDM is associated with birth weight and birth weight is directly associated with later BMI, it makes sense to ... birth weight, and/or adolescent BMI. We then added birth weight and maternal BMI to the models, separately and in combination. ... before controlling for birth weight and maternal BMI. This estimate was slightly attenuated by addition of birth weight to the ... before adjusting for birth weight or maternal BMI (Table 4). Adjustment for birth weight slightly attenuated the estimates, and ...
Now, a new study from researchers at the University of Florida and Northwestern University shows that lower weights at birth ... Its no secret that low-birth-weight babies face significantly greater risks for certain health problems early on, such as ... Higher birth weight indicates better performance in school. University of Florida. Journal. American Economic Review. Keywords ... For example, lower-birth-weight babies of highly educated parents tend to perform better in school than heavier babies of high ...
... birth weight increased by 15 g and risk of low birth weight decreased by 3%. ... However analysis of cohort studies showed a significantly higher risk of low birth weight and preterm birth with anaemia in the ... daily during pregnancy is associated with a significant increase in birth weight and a reduction in risk of low birth weight, ... Studies suggest an association between prenatal anaemia and risk of premature (preterm) birth, but evidence on other birth ...
Body After Baby! Teen Mom 2 Star Chelsea Houska Explains Weight Loss Plan After Giving Birth March 1, 2017 11:26AM by Lauren ... Body After Baby! Teen Mom 2 Star Chelsea Houska Explains Weight Loss Plan After Giving Birth ... Amber Portwood Admits She Planned To Commit Suicide Following Birth Of James ...
Pregnant women who are exposed to neighborhood violence during their first trimester have a greater risk of having a low birth ... Nearby Violence During Pregnancy Tied to Lower Birth Weight. By Traci Pedersen Associate News Editor ... One extra homicide leads to an increase in the probability of low birth weight by 0.6 percentage points, an 8% increase ... The findings show that birth weight drops significantly among newborns whose mothers had been exposed to a homicide during ...
  • Experienced birth injury attorneys can help you get both the answers that you deserve and the compensation that your child and family need. (baileygreer.com)
  • The compassionate and dedicated Tennessee birth injury attorneys at Bailey & Greer, PLLC will sit down with you and learn what happened in order to present you with some possible solutions. (baileygreer.com)
  • But a mother-to-be's weight gain after 18 weeks was not associated with whether her newborn was large for gestational age, Dr. Ravi Retnakaran of Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, and colleagues found. (reuters.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether use of the disinfectant chlorhexidine administered to the birth canal during labour and newborn at delivery can protect a woman and her bab. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We present a clinical case of a premature birth from a mother of 33+5 weeks gestation where the newborn was admitted to the neonatal unit due to her low weight, chest retraction and prematurity, despi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A baby is said to have a low birth weight if they weigh less than 2,500g (2.5kg) when born. (boots.com)
  • for subjects with birth weight less than or equal to 2,500 g, mean height was 175.7 cm, while for those With birth weight greater than or equal to 4,501 g, mean height was 184.1 cm, A positive association was also found between birth length and adult height. (rti.org)
  • Investigators conducted this project to create an updated reference for clinicians and researchers using the most recent, nationally representative data on birth weight and more reliable obstetric estimates of gestational age. (prnewswire.com)
  • Investigators used their analyses to provide a simple, easy to use online tool for both researchers and clinicians to calculate measures of birth size. (prnewswire.com)
  • It's tricky to recruit women for the placebo arm of a birth-control trial, but researchers have managed to complete three such studies, involving a total of more than 1,200 women total. (slate.com)
  • These were designed to test the pill's ability to reduce acne or menstrual pain, but the researchers also gathered data on rates of headache, nausea, breast tenderness, vomiting, and weight gain. (slate.com)
  • The researchers found no relationship between 25(OH)D level and ponderal index, placental weight, or placental-to-fetal weight ratio in adjusted analyses, regardless of the way vitamin D was specified. (medscape.com)
  • But when researchers compare children with similar family backgrounds, birth weight plays a key role in predicting future school success. (psychcentral.com)
  • Because twins face the same in-utero conditions and early life environment, studying how heavier and lighter twins fared in school offered researchers a natural set of socioeconomic and demographic controls so they could pinpoint the effect of birth weight on education. (psychcentral.com)
  • The researchers found the same patterns of birth weight's effect on school performance among both sets of children. (psychcentral.com)
  • Our results are remarkably consistent: Children with higher birth weight enter school with a cognitive advantage that appears to remain stable through the elementary and middle school years," the researchers reported in the study, which was published in the journal The American Economic Review . (psychcentral.com)
  • That last fact has researchers like Alexander Olsen, an associate professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), working to better understand the consequences of very low birth weights on cognitive development. (eurekalert.org)
  • To study this question, the researchers relied on a group of very low birth weight individuals who were born between 1986 and 1988 in Trondheim, Norway. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using a unique set of data that matched birth and school records from 1.6 million children born in Florida between 1992 and 2002, the researchers found that the higher the weight at birth, the better children performed on reading and math tests in school. (eurekalert.org)
  • Pregnant women who are exposed to neighborhood violence during their first trimester have a greater risk of having a low birth weight baby due to an earlier delivery, according to researchers at Queen Mary University of London and the University of Leicester. (psychcentral.com)
  • Specifically, the researchers found that one additional homicide in small municipalities during the first trimester leads to a reduction in birthweight of around 0.59 ounces. (psychcentral.com)
  • Because of the extremely high levels of violence in Fortaleza, the researchers calculated that homicides account for approximately one percent of the incidence of low birthweight and 3.5 percent of the incidence of very low birthweight. (psychcentral.com)
  • LITTLE FALLS, N.J. -- Prenatal exposure to chemicals found in many common plastic products may be associated with low birth weight, researchers found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • No studies, however, have explored the link between phthalate exposure and low birth weight in humans, according to the researchers. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The researchers adjusted their results for gender, age and the initial weight of the baby when it was born. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers, seeking to clarify whether oral contraceptives lead to weight gain, found birth control pills might even help women lose weight. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The researchers say for women who are overweight, birth control pills might help with weight loss if food consumption remains the same. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Researchers used both head circumference and birth weight to determine the results. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Helsinki found that, similar to previous, smaller studies , having had an abortion prior to giving birth for the first time is associated with a risk of low birth weight or giving birth prematurely. (wkar.org)
  • Southampton researchers have found the first evidence that children who were smaller at birth already have specific alterations in heart and blood vessel function in early childhood, which may help to explain why they are more likely to develop heart disease in later life. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • In a study of the association of stress and health behaviors and low birth weight in a sample of more than 2,000 urban women, the researchers measured stress using a 41-item scale developed specifically for use with pregnant women. (guttmacher.org)
  • After have examined factors associated with depression, researchers at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, were able to show that lower than median birth weight and shorter gestational time increase the risk of depression later in life. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • The researchers did note, however, that the largest errors between predicted and actual birth weight occurred in women in the most obese group. (health.am)
  • Most importantly, the researchers were also able to rule out the risk of a high birth-weight baby in over 80 per cent of cases, regardless of the mother's BMI. (health.am)
  • 1995 ). Since then, a large number of researchers have documented associations between lower birth weight and a range of health problems later in life. (springer.com)
  • Low birth weight is associated with neonatal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that the effects of low birth weight are constant across developmental years, suggesting that poor neonatal care has long term impacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • I also show that' children born at the beginning of this century compared favorably to modern populations in terms' of birth weights, but suffered higher fetal and neonatal death rates because obstetrical and' medical knowledge was poorer. (repec.org)
  • Tara R Allen and Orlando P da Silva, "Choice of Antibiotics in Late Neonatal Sepsis in the Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant," Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases , vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 28-31, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • We know that preterm birth and low birth weight are among the most frequent causes of infant and neonatal death in the United States. (uab.edu)
  • The team then evaluated and compared low birth weight and prematurity trends over two time periods - 1983-1999 and 2000-05 - and their effect on infant and neonatal mortality. (uab.edu)
  • Methods and Results Birth weights of 418 twin pairs were obtained prospectively, and resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressures were obtained at the age of 18 to 34 years. (ahajournals.org)
  • Concern about weight gain can keep women from using these methods. (cochrane.org)
  • The evidence was not strong enough to be sure that these methods did not cause some weight change. (cochrane.org)
  • METHODS: Birth weight data on 960 children were obtained from the New York State Birth Registry. (fluoridealert.org)
  • METHODS In 1985-86 a follow up study was carried out of 1070 children who had been born in St Andrew's from 1921 to 1935 and followed from birth to 14 years of age by the Mackenzie Institute for Medical Research. (bmj.com)
  • Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members of the cohort. (aappublications.org)
  • Influence of variation in birth weight within normal range and within sibships on IQ at age 7 years: cohort study British Medical Journal 11aug01. (bionity.com)
  • Diabetes in fathers and the birth weight of their offspring are strongly associated, according to data from the 1958 birth cohort. (bmj.com)
  • A. The All Birth Cohort (ABC) Study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day is associated with a clinically trivial, and statistically insignificant (less than 1 ounce), reduction in birth weight, compared with consuming no caffeine (strength of recommendation: B, randomized controlled trial [RCT] and large prospective cohort study). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A historical cohort study of men born from 1911 to 1930 in Hertfordshire showed that men who were lighter at birth, and who had had bronchitis, pneumonia or whooping cough in infancy, had lower lung function than other men, after controlling for age, height, smoking, and social class. (bmj.com)
  • The opportunity arose to examine the relations of birth weight and childhood LRTI to adult lung function in a cohort of men and women born from 1921 to 1935 in Scotland. (bmj.com)
  • Perfluorinated compounds in relation to birth weight in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. (healthcanal.com)
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the relationship between birth weight and prospectively measured trajectories of preconception health across adolescence and young adulthood in a diverse national cohort of young adult women. (unc.edu)
  • 10) Average body measurements at birth were as follows: head circumference, 30.5cm, length, 43.9cm, and chest circumference, 27.7 cm and there was tendency of lower value of body measurements in the group of lower birth weight. (koreamed.org)
  • Four different pathways have been identified that can result in preterm birth and have considerable evidence: precocious fetal endocrine activation, uterine overdistension, decidual bleeding, and intrauterine inflammation/infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • A baby is more likely to be very low birth weight if he or she is premature or has intrauterine growth restriction. (ahealthyme.com)
  • However, when comparing discordant twin pairs in within-twin pair analyses, there was no statistically significant association between birth weight, intrauterine growth, and future risk of CD. (dovepress.com)
  • Their findings, published in the February 2010 issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology, suggest that birth weights in this country have declined during the past 15 years. (redorbit.com)
  • These findings call into question the effectiveness of birth weight as a policy target. (repec.org)
  • Alison Edelman, M.D., a physician and researcher in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at OHSU and lead author of the study says, "A simple Google search will reveal that contraceptives and the possibility that they may cause weight gain is a very highly debated topic", but the findings suggest weight gain experienced by women taking birth control pills might be due to other factors, such as age. (emaxhealth.com)
  • "Our findings suggest that iron supplementation may have long-lasting effects on behavioural functions in children born of a low birth weight," ​said first author Dr.Staffan Berglund. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Three recent examinations of stress and low birth weight each had different findings, measured stress differently and analyzed different risk factors. (guttmacher.org)
  • Do birth control pills make women gain weight? (slate.com)
  • The notion that birth control pills make you fat is just part of what the paper's lead author, physician David Grimes of the University of North Carolina, calls an elaborate mythology, one "fueled by rumor, gossip and poor-quality research. (slate.com)
  • According to a 1997 study, users of birth control pills have a basal metabolic rate almost 5 percent higher than people who have never used the pill, and a small 2009 trial concluded that the pill reduced body fat in women who took it. (slate.com)
  • A study published last year tracked nearly 500 women aged 15 to 19 over several years and found that while all the teens gained some weight, those who used birth control pills gained about a pound less than those who didn't. (slate.com)
  • They found no significant differences in any of these among women who took birth control pills and those who got a placebo. (slate.com)
  • The perceived link between birth-control pills and weight gain actually goes back to America's very first contraceptive, a combination pill called Enovid . (slate.com)
  • I stopped taking my birth control pills because I feel like I've gained a lot of weight. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Actually Sandra, a lot of women stop taking birth control pills because they believed that it causes them to gain weight however a study have shown that birth control pills do not cause weight gain in a lot of women. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • If you are noticing unexplained and undesired weight gain while taking birth control pills, I suggest that you involve yourself regularly in a physical activity and eat a healthy diet. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • If you believe that you gained weight with your birth control pills, visit your healthcare provider the soonest possible time. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • It is unlikely for a woman of today who are using birth control pills to gain weight. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Different from the older birth control pills which are high in estrogen, recent birth control pills, almost if not always contain a lower dose of estrogen. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • if you gained weight blame not all to the birth control pills. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Birth Control pills. (healthboards.com)
  • Women might not need to be concerned about gaining weight from birth control pills, shown in a primate study. (emaxhealth.com)
  • During the study the scientists gave the monkeys birth control pills adjusted to weight to mimic the dose in humans. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In the study, the primates given birth control pills and obese experienced an 8.5% weight loss and dropped 12% of body fat. (emaxhealth.com)
  • do diet or weight loss supplements lessen the effectiveness of birth control pills? (yahoo.com)
  • Hi I want to know which birth control pills make you gain weight? (drugs.com)
  • Birth control pills and weight gain. (drugs.com)
  • Observations that higher birth weight is associated with higher attained BMI have led to the hypothesis that in utero determinants of birth weight may also program the fetus for elevated risk of later obesity. (aappublications.org)
  • This study aimed to establish the determinants of survival in this weight category of neonates, who, owing to limited intensive care facilities, were not mechanically ventilated. (scielo.org.za)
  • CONCLUSIONS -The excess mortality observed for diabetes appears disproportionately concentrated among abnormal-birth-weight individuals, thus identifying a subset of at-risk diabetic individuals and reinforcing the importance of NBW deliveries. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lower birth weight did not explain the higher prevalence of dental fluorosis observed among African-American children. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Another recent review paper found little evidence of weight gain among users of progestin-only pills, and a similar study from 2008 likewise failed to find any connection between weight gain and pills that contain progestin and estrogen. (slate.com)
  • Study after study has examined the relationship between today's most popular forms of hormonal contraception and weight gain. (healthline.com)
  • The study data was compiled through a collaboration between the Florida Department of Health and the Florida Department of Education, which worked together to compile birth weight and educational data on 1.6 million children born in Florida between 1992 and 2002 without compromising the privacy of the children. (psychcentral.com)
  • When Olsen was a research fellow at NTNU's Medical Imaging Laboratory, he worked closely with the head of the Trondheim fMRI Group, Asta Håberg, to expand his research to include a collaboration with the Centre for Early Brain Development, which is conducting a long-term study of individuals with low birth weight. (eurekalert.org)
  • Thirty-two individuals between 22 and 24 years of age from this group participated in Olsen's study and were matched with same-aged controls that had normal birth weights. (eurekalert.org)
  • Explain to interested patients that this study could not establish a causal relationship between phthalate exposure and low birth weight. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The study team focused on specific fracking sites, comparing birth weights in nearby families before and after the operations started. (hon.ch)
  • This study essentially shows a dose response between proximity to fracking sites and low birth weight. (hon.ch)
  • Parents may naturally be concerned if their baby is underweight, but this study would suggest low birthweight (at least in the developed world) has little effect in later life. (www.nhs.uk)
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio - A financially strapped pregnant woman's worries about the arrival and care of her little one could contribute to birth of a smaller, medically vulnerable infant, a new study suggests. (eurekalert.org)
  • Intrafamily Resource Allocations: A Dynamic Model of Birth Weight ," IZA Discussion Papers 3704, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
  • In the present study, we tested the association between birth weight and HLA-DQ genotypes known to confer risk for type 1 diabetes among 969 nondiabetic children randomly selected from the Norwegian population. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we applied the twin approach to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental causes that may underlie the birth weight-adult blood pressure association. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we examined the association between birth weight and adult resting and ambulatory BP in young adult twins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Scientists at Oregon National Primate Research Center at Oregon Health & Science University conducted a year long study on a group a of rhesus macaque monkeys that found weight gain associated with taking birth control pill may be nothing but a myth. (emaxhealth.com)
  • At the study start, half of the macaque's were obese and the the other half, normal weight. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The new study seems to support the notion that oral contraceptives can promote weight loss. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. (mdpi.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The association between low birth weight and dental fluorosis was explored in a cross-sectional study to explain the higher prevalence of dental fluorosis among African-American children. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The aim in this study was to d etermine the prevalence of low birth weight in Mbuji-Mayi. (scirp.org)
  • Links between low birthweight and a range of motor and cognitive problems have been well established for some time, but this is the first study that establishes that these children are also at increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). (innovations-report.com)
  • Recall bias in a case-control study of low birth weight. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Overall we found that the GAP method performed equally well for the obese and normal weight pregnant women covered by our study, but did notice some decrease in accuracy in the most obese women" says Dr Thornburg. (health.am)
  • On the whole, the results of this study support the notion that a significant positive relationship exists between birth weight and the prepregnancy weight. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article presents information on a study about a supervised exercise-program on birth weight and gestational age at delivery. (ebscohost.com)
  • This population-based study found that in male twins, higher birth weight was associated with higher risk of CD. (dovepress.com)
  • The association between birth weight and intelligence is stable from young adulthood into midlife. (aappublications.org)
  • Lower birth weight has been associated with lower intelligence in childhood and young adulthood. (aappublications.org)
  • Population-based studies have suggested that there is a positive association, although probably of small magnitude, between birth weight and intelligence in childhood 1 , 2 and young adulthood, 3 , 4 even in the normal range of birth weights. (aappublications.org)
  • Several studies have addressed the association between birth weight and body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early adulthood. (aappublications.org)
  • There is, however, an open discussion on whether birth weight is important in determining health status profiles and labor productivity later in adulthood or if this indicator of early nutritional status (arguably, in utero nutritional condition) captures other unobservable factors. (jhu.edu)
  • Our analysis considers both inpatient visits and sickness absences, examining how the effect changes from birth until adulthood (individuals who are in their 30s). (springer.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies examining the effect of birth weight on days of sickness absence in adulthood. (springer.com)
  • To determine the value of principal component analysis in the combined method of three-dimensional ultrasonography assessing fetal limb volume and circumference and conventional two-dimensional ultrasonography for prediction of birth weight in southern Chinese population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Perinatal data were collected at birth, and placental examination was performed within 24 hours after delivery. (ahajournals.org)
  • The Journal of Perinatal Education is the official journal of Lamaze International , whose mission is to promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth through education and advocacy. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The large data base assembled for this analysis provides current, stable birth weight-gestational age percentiles for classifying newborns from a developed country as small, appropriate, or large for gestational age. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, for every 10mg increase in iron taken per day up to a total of 66mg, newborns' weight at birth rose by 15g and their risk of low birth weight fell by three per cent. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Most developed countries have therefore implemented health policies related to the improvement of birth weight of newborns. (jhu.edu)
  • One environmental exposure which has been found to increase the risk of low birth weight is particulate matter, a component of ambient air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particulate matter exposure can cause inflammation, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and impaired oxygen transport access to the placenta, all of which are mechanisms for heightening the risk of low birth weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was revealed that, exposure of pregnant women to airplane noise was found to be associated with low birth weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • DBP exposure was associated with low birth weight and DEHP exposure was associated with shorter birth length ( P ≤0.05 for both). (medpagetoday.com)
  • Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification. (mdpi.com)
  • Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. (mdpi.com)
  • In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. (mdpi.com)
  • In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. (mdpi.com)
  • Associations among birth weight, race, and fluoride exposure from fluoridated water, regular use of supplements, brushing before the age of 2 years, and subject-level dental fluorosis were explored using logistic regression procedures. (fluoridealert.org)
  • RESULTS: The regression coefficients for the main effects and the two-way interaction effects associated with low birth weight, race, and fluoride exposure were not statistically significant. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Even after controlling for low birth weight and fluoride exposure, African-American children had a statistically significant higher odds ratio (OR = 2.0). (fluoridealert.org)
  • For example, Celiac disease confers an odds ratio of low birth weight of approximately 1.8. (wikipedia.org)
  • In multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and Tanner stage, the odds ratio for adolescent overweight for each 1-kg increment in birth weight was 1.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.2-1.6). (aappublications.org)
  • These calculations revealed that compared with women who had no diagnosis, those with a psychiatric disorder had twice the odds of bearing a low-birth-weight infant (odds ratio, 2.0), those with a substance-related disorder had almost four times the odds (3.7) and those with both types of diagnoses had three times the odds (3.0). (guttmacher.org)
  • Each category of diagnosis was associated with about a tripling of the risk of very low birth weight: Odds ratios were 2.8-3.0. (guttmacher.org)
  • Because there are indications that genes in the HLA complex are associated with fetal growth ( 9 ), we tested whether HLA-DQ genotypes previously found to confer risk for type 1 diabetes were associated with increased birth weight among Norwegian children randomly selected from the official population registry. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To investigate the relations of fetal growth retardation and childhood LRTI to lung function in late adult life it is necessary to follow up individuals, for whom information about birth weight and LRTI has been collected in early childhood, for 60 years or more. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Most studies, however, focus on clinically low birth weight groups, although evidence of the association across the full birth weight range in the general population is of particular interest, because this would imply potential benefits of birth weight interventions targeting women with normal pregnancies. (aappublications.org)
  • We provide evidence that these effects on birthweight are driven by prematurity rather than growth retardation of full lengths pregnancies, in line with evidence from the medical literature," said Dr. Martin Foureaux Koppensteiner at the University of Leicester's Department of Economics. (psychcentral.com)
  • Effective steps are required to avoid extreme prematurity, encourage antenatal care, and provide antenatal steroids when preterm birth is anticipated. (scielo.org.za)
  • There is considerable evidence that small size at birth is associated with poorer cognitive development. (aappublications.org)
  • Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial. (ebscohost.com)
  • The main source of data on birth weight in developing countries is statistics from health facilities, although most developing countries do not produce annual estimates of the incidence of low birth weight from these data. (unc.edu)
  • In this article, we show that these cross-sectional surveys can provide a useful data source for making national estimates of mean birth weight and the incidence of low birth weight. (unc.edu)
  • Additional analyses--one including a larger number of potentially confounding variables and one that was restricted to women who had not given birth before, to control for the possible confounding effect of a history of preterm delivery--produced essentially similar results. (guttmacher.org)
  • Psychiatric and substance use disorders as risk factors for low birth weight and preterm delivery, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2002, 100(2):297-304. (guttmacher.org)
  • Young women who used injectable hormonal contraceptives like Depo-Provera did pack on extra weight-they gained twice as much, on average, as everyone else. (slate.com)
  • Stories from friends on birth control who've gained weight may be enough to deter some women from trying birth control, but it shouldn't. (healthline.com)
  • Still, some women may experience increased breakouts when they begin using birth control. (healthline.com)
  • But, keep in mind that a lot of women who start the pill, start it at a time in their lives when they may be naturally gaining weight. (hollywoodlife.com)
  • Women who had multiple abortions before giving birth to a first child were more likely to have that child very prematurely or to deliver a child with a low birth weight, according to one of the first large-scale studies to look at the issue. (wkar.org)
  • Women who'd had three or more abortions were a third more likely to deliver a first baby earlier than 37 weeks, 43 percent more likely to have a baby with a low birth weight and twice as likely to have a baby with a very low birth weight. (wkar.org)
  • For these women, weight loss may pick up when a doctor gives them permission to resume exercise routines, usually at the 6-week postpartum checkup. (livestrong.com)
  • Also, women did not stop using the pill or patch because of weight change. (cochrane.org)
  • The role of report/recall bias in case-control studies of low birth weight (LBW) was investigated in women who gave birth at a tertiary hospital. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1 If this is true, we expect non-insulin dependent diabetes in parents to be associated with lower birth weight among their offspring. (bmj.com)
  • Larger studies are warranted to find further correlation and perhaps causation between Roundup use and lower birth weights. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Lower birth weight for a given gestational age, 2 and a history of bronchitis, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis 3-7 have been associated with lower lung function. (bmj.com)
  • 7) Higher mortality rate was noted in the group of lower birth weight infant, the group of more shortened gestational period and the group of lower Apgar score. (koreamed.org)
  • This clinically important benefit from early iron supplementation gives further support to recommend iron supplementation of all low birth weight children, including those with marginally low birth weight. (nutraingredients.com)
  • It found a statistically significant, but clinically trivial, association between caffeine intake and birth weight. (thefreelibrary.com)