The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The sequence in which children are born into the family.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.
Female parents, human or animal.
A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.
Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
Care of infants in the home or institution.
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The physical measurements of a body.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Male parents, human or animal.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
Childbirth taking place in the home.
The bond or lack thereof between a pregnant woman and her FETUS.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
Age of the biological father.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Hospital units equipped for childbirth.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The consumption of edible substances.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.
The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The practice of assisting women in childbirth.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (1/4769)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Precocious estrus and reproductive ability induced by PG 600 in prepuberal gilts. (2/4769)

A total of 29 SPF Large White prepuberal gilts (mean age 152 days at treatment) were examined for estrous and ovulatory responses after PG 600 treatment. After treatment, 85.2% of the gilts showed standing estrus within 6 days. Whereas the treatment-to-estrus interval and duration were 3.7 and 1.9 days respectively. As ovulation occurred on Day 5 to 6, appropriate timing of artificial insemination would be about 4 days after treatment. Fertility of gilts revealed to be excellent, giving rise to a high percentage of normal embryos, 85.3%. Meanwhile, development and growth of fetuses were mostly normal. Other reproductive performances recorded were: mean litter size 6.8; mean birth weight 1.26 kg; weaning-to-return estrus interval 5 to 8 days. In conclusion, PG 600 was found to be useful in inducing fertile estrus in prepuberal gilts, a result which will be of interest for commercial pig farms.  (+info)

Role of intergenerational effects on linear growth. (3/4769)

Current knowledge on the role of intergenerational effects on linear growth is reviewed on the basis of a literature search and recent findings from an ongoing study in Guatemala. Fourteen studies were identified, most of which examined the intergenerational relationships in birth weight. Overall, for every 100 g increase in maternal birth weight, her child's birth weight increased by 10-20 g. The study samples were primarily from developed countries, and birth weight data were extracted from hospital records and/or birth registries. Among the few studies that examined associations between the adult heights of parents and their offspring, correlation coefficients of 0.42-0.5 were reported. None of the studies examined intergenerational relationships in birth length or linear growth patterns during early childhood, preadolescence and/or adolescence. Prospectively collected data from long-term studies being carried out in rural Guatemala provide the first evidence of intergenerational relationships in birth size in a developing country setting. Data were available for 215 mother-child pairs. Maternal birth size was a significant predictor (P < 0.05) of child's birth size after adjusting for gestational age and sex of the child and other potential confounders. Child's birth weight increased by 29 g/100 g increase in maternal birth weight which is nearly twice that reported in developed countries. Similarly, child's birth length increased by 0.2 cm for every 1 cm increase in mother's birth length. The effect of maternal birth weight remained significant even after adjusting for maternal adult size. More evidence from developing countries will help explain the underlying mechanisms and identify appropriate interventions to prevent growth retardation.  (+info)

Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic. (4/4769)

Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival.  (+info)

Management of breast cancer during pregnancy using a standardized protocol. (5/4769)

PURPOSE: No standardized therapeutic interventions have been reported for patients diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy. Of the potential interventions, none have been prospectively evaluated for treatment efficacy in the mother or safety for the fetus. We present our experience with the use of combination chemotherapy for breast cancer during pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the past 8 years, 24 pregnant patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the breast were managed by outpatient chemotherapy, surgery, or surgery plus radiation therapy, as clinically indicated. The chemotherapy included fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m2), doxorubicin (50 mg/m2), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2), administered every 3 to 4 weeks after the first trimester of pregnancy. Care was provided by medical oncologists, breast surgeons, and perinatal obstetricians. RESULTS: Modified radical mastectomy was performed in 18 of the 22 patients, and two patients were treated with segmental mastectomy with postpartum radiation therapy. This group included patients in all trimesters of pregnancy. The patients received a median of four cycles of combination chemotherapy during pregnancy. No antepartum complications temporally attributable to systemic therapy were noted. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks. Apgar scores, birthweights, and immediate postpartum health were reported to be normal for all of the children. CONCLUSION: Breast cancer can be treated with chemotherapy during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy with minimal complications of labor and delivery.  (+info)

Energy intake, not energy output, is a determinant of body size in infants. (6/4769)

BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the primary determinants of body weight at 1 y of age are genetic background, as represented by parental obesity, and low total energy expenditure. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the relative contributions of genetic background and energy intake and expenditure as determinants of body weight at 1 y of age. DESIGN: Forty infants of obese and 38 infants of lean mothers, half boys and half girls, were assessed at 3 mo of age for 10 risk factors for obesity: sex, risk group (obese or nonobese mothers), maternal and paternal body mass index, body weight, feeding mode (breast, bottle, or both), 3-d energy intake, nutritive sucking behavior during a test meal, total energy expenditure, sleeping energy expenditure, and interactions among them. RESULTS: The only difference between risk groups at baseline was that the high-risk group sucked more vigorously during the test meal. Four measures accounted for 62% of the variability in weight at 12 mo: 3-mo weight (41%, P = 0.0001), nutritive sucking behavior (9%, P = 0.0002), 3-d food intake (8%, P = 0.0002), and male sex (3%, P = 0.05). Food intake and sucking behavior at 3 mo accounted for similar amounts of variability in weight-for-length, body fat, fat-free mass, and skinfold thickness at 12 mo. Contrary to expectations, neither total nor sleeping energy expenditure at 3 mo nor maternal obesity contributed to measures of body size at 12 mo. CONCLUSIONS: Energy intake contributes significantly to measures of body weight and composition at 1 y of age; parental obesity and energy expenditure do not.  (+info)

Leucine metabolism in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with medium-chain compared with long-chain triacylglycerol emulsions. (7/4769)

BACKGROUND: Although medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) may be utilized more efficiently than long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs), their effect on protein metabolism remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of mixed MCT-LCT and pure LCT emulsions on leucine metabolism in preterm infants. DESIGN: Fourteen preterm [gestational age: 30+/-1 wk; birth weight: 1409+/-78 g (x +/- SE)] neonates were randomly assigned to receive, from the first day of life, either a 50:50 MCT-LCT (mixed MCT group; n = 7) or an LCT (LCT group; n = 7) lipid emulsion as part of an isonitrogenous, isoenergetic total parenteral nutrition program. On the fourth day, infants received intravenous feeding providing 3 g lipid, 15 g glucose, and 3 g amino acids kg(-1) x d(-1) and underwent 1) indirect calorimetry and 2) a primed, 2-h infusion of H13CO3Na to assess the recovery of 13C in breath, immediately followed by 3) a 3-h infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. RESULTS: The respiratory quotient tended to be slightly but not significantly higher in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (0.96+/-0.06 compared with 0.93+/-0.03). We did not detect a significant difference between the mixed MCT and LCT groups with regard to release of leucine from protein breakdown (B; 309+/-40 compared with 257+/-46 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and nonoxidative leucine disposal (NOLD; 296+/-36 compared with 285+/-49 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). In contrast, leucine oxidation was greater in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (113+/-10 compared with 67+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.007). Net leucine balance (NOLD - B) was less positive in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (-14+/-9 compared with 28+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Mixed MCTs may not be as effective as LCT-containing emulsions in promoting protein accretion in parenterally fed preterm neonates.  (+info)

Accuracy of sonographic estimates of fetal weight in very small infants. (8/4769)

OBJECTIVE: Fetal outcome is inversely related to gestational age and birth weight. Therefore, in very small fetuses, estimated weight may play an important role in clinical management. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of sonographic estimates of fetal weight in very small infants. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SUBJECTS: We retrospectively studied 100 consecutive infants with a birth weight of < 1000 g, at a gestational age between 24.0 and 34.0 weeks, in which biometric data < 2 weeks prior to delivery were available for analysis. METHODS: We estimated fetal weight with the use of two methods--by those of Hadlock and colleagues and Scott and colleagues--and compared the estimated values with measured birth weights. RESULTS: The infants had a mean birth weight of 742 +/- 173 (SD) g, at a gestational age of 28.1 +/- 2.0 (SD) weeks. With Hadlock's method, the mean estimated fetal weight (EFW) was 736 +/- 186 (SD) g, which was not significantly different from birth weight; the mean EFW error was 0.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) %. With Scott's method, the mean EFW was 780 +/- 185 (SD) g, which was significantly increased above birth weight; the mean EFW error was 5.7 +/- 12.5 (SD) %. The accuracy of the weight estimates was not significantly affected by the period between ultrasound examination and delivery if < 2 weeks, or by fetal growth restriction. CONCLUSION: In our population of small fetuses, Hadlock's estimates of fetal weight correlated well with measured birth weight, whereas Scott's method tended to overestimate.  (+info)

In the present study, we analyzed the impact of birth weight on various metabolic phenotypes in a young cohort aged 6-18 years based on a nationwide screening program from 1992 to 1997. We first confirmed a U-shaped relation between birth weight and the risk of type 2 diabetes, which was originally demonstrated in children and young adults in a study of Pima Indians (28). In the type 2 diabetic subjects born with high birth weight, blood pressure was higher, BMI was greater, and the incidence of positive family history of diabetes was higher than in those born with low birth weight, indicating a possibility of a different pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in subjects with low and high birth weight. The constellation of diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure, collectively termed metabolic syndrome, was more frequently observed in the subjects born with high birth weight.. The discovery that childhood type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity in the present study was consistent with previous ...
A study published in the Journal of Pediatrics suggests that children born with lower or higher weight than normal may be at increased risk for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These children also were at higher risk for more severe disease but in different ways. Advanced scarring of the liver was associated with low birth weight, while more inflammation was linked to high birth weight. The study is the first to characterize the relationship between high birth weight and NAFLD.. With the obesity epidemic, we are seeing more babies with high birth weight than ever before, said co-author Mark Fishbein, MD, from Stanley Manne Childrens Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Childrens Hospital of Chicago. Our study shows that these kids are more likely to have serious liver damage by the time they are teenagers.. NAFLD affects up to 25 percent of the U.S. population, according to the American Liver Foundation. It is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in ...
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis of fetal origins of adult disease has during the last decades received interest as an explanation of chronic, e.g. cardiovascular, disease in adulthood stemming from fetal environmental conditions. Early programming and enduring dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis), with cortisol as its end product, has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which birth weight influence later health status. However, the fetal origin of the adult cortisol regulation has been insufficiently studied. The present study aims to examine if body size at birth is related to circadian cortisol levels at 43 years. METHODS: Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study (n = 752, 74.5%). Salivary cortisol samples were collected at four times during one day at 43 years, and information on birth size was collected retrospectively from delivery records. Information on body mass during adolescence and adulthood and on health behavior, medication and medical ...
The negative effect of smoking during a pregnancy on a childs birth weight outcome has been a consistent finding in the economics literature on estimating birth weight production functions. An important result in the literature is that the negative effect of smoking on birth weight is generally robust to the introduction of unobserved heterogeneity in family-specific health endowments. All of the studies have assumed, however, that fertility itself is unrelated to either anticipated or realized birth weight outcomes that depend on such endowments. One purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of relaxing that assumption on the estimates of the smoking effect on birth weight. To that end, a dynamic model of fertility choice that explicitly incorporates the smoking decision, allowing for its addictive nature, and the birth weight technology, is constructed and empirically implemented using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Surveys 1979 youth cohort. In addition to obtaining estimates
TY - THES. T1 - Polyunsaturated fatty acids and the fetal origins hypothesis : a study on cardiovascular risk indicators in children. AU - Rump, P.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. M3 - Doctoral Thesis. SN - 90 9016164 3. PB - Universiteit Maastricht. CY - [Maastricht. ER - ...
Objective To investigate the obesogenic influence of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on infant weight at birth and 12 months postpartum in an Australian general population sample. Methods Data on 1,305 pregnant women were collected on prepregnancy BMI and GWG through maternal interview, on infant weight at birth through hospital records, and on infant weight 12 months postbirth through direct measurement. Relationships between prepregnancy, gestational weight exposures, and infant weight outcomes were assessed with and without adjustment for potential confounding. Results We observed a 14 to 24 g increase in infant birth weight for every 1 kg increase in maternal weight (infant birth weight: β(BMI) = 0.014, p , 0.000; β(GWG) = 0.012, p , 0.000; and 12 months: β(BMI) = 0.018, p , 0.000; β(GWG) = 0.024, p , 0.000). Effects remained after adjustment for potential confounders (infant birth weight: β(BMI) = 0.014, p , 0.000; β(GWG) = 0.012, p , ...
Background: Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower birth weight in epidemiologic studies. This association could be attributable to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is related to PFAS concentration and birth weight. Objectives: We used a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of pregnancy to assess how much of the PFAS-birth weight association observed in epidemiologic studies might be attributable to GFR. Methods: We modified a PBPK model to reflect the association of GFR with birth weight (estimated from three studies of GFR and birth weight) and used it to simulate PFAS concentrations in maternal and cord plasma. The model was run 250,000 times, with variation in parameters, to simulate a population. Simulated data were analyzed to evaluate the association between PFAS levels and birth weight due to GFR. We compared simulated estimates with those from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Results: The reduction in birth weight ...
We have shown that a lower birth weight and a higher BMI in adult life were associated with a higher prevalence of asthma and wheeze among individuals in a national birth cohort studied at 26 years of age. The association with BMI was stronger in women.. The association with lower birth weight, after controlling for gestational age, suggests that impaired fetal growth is a determinant of adult asthma. In older adults lower birth weight is associated with lower lung function, a relation which is likely to be explained by impaired fetal airway growth leading to suboptimal airway calibre in adult life.29 We believe that small airway size is also likely to explain the association between lower birth weight and asthma. It seems plausible that, for a given degree of atopy and bronchial hyperreactivity, a young adult with smaller airways would be more likely to experience asthma symptoms. It seems less likely that the association between lower birth weight and asthma is explained by a higher prevalence ...
The effect of low birth weight on the incidence of asthma by 17 years of age was investigated by studying medical draft examination records of 20,312 male subjects born in Jerusalem between January 1967 and December 1971. Additional information on birth weight and other demographic factors was abstracted from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study computerised database. A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios for developing asthma by 17 years of age in 500 g birthweight categories from less than 2000 g to 4500 g. The odds ratios were adjusted for the confounding effects of ethnic origin, social class (determined by area of residence), paternal education, maternal age, and birth order. The group with low birth weights (less than 2500 g, n = 1004) had a significantly increased risk of developing asthma by 17 years of age, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 2.66) for birthweight group less than 2000 g and 1.49 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.12) ...
This study examines the joint and separate influence of birth weight and body mass in young adulthood on subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. A cohort of 9,143 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1953, for whom information on birth weight and body weight and height around age 19 years were retrieved from birth certificates and conscript records, respectively, were followed from 1978 until 2005 (between age 25 and 52 years) for incident fatal and non-fatal CHD. Data on CHD were obtained through record linkage to the Cause of Death Registry and the National Patient Registry. During follow-up, a total of 475 men had a CHD diagnosis. Men with low birth weight, high body mass index (BMI) at age 19, a father from the working class, and low educational level at age 19 had an increased risk for CHD. Birth weight was inversely associated with CHD only in men with BMI of 25 kg/m(2) or above. Adjustment for childhood social circumstances and educational status at age 19 had minor influence on the ...
In this study we examined the relationship between gestational exposure to 53 different EDCs and birth weight in a prospective birth cohort of mother-infant pairs. We found that exposure to phthalates and BPA, PFAS, PCBs, PBDEs or OCPs had null or small associations with birth weight. Other investigators have reported similar small or statistically non-significant associations between birth weight and phthalates [37], PCBs [15], PBDEs [13], and OCPs [25]. Several other studies, however, have found associations between increased exposure to phthalates, PCBs, PBDEs or OCPs whereas we did not. A case-control study by Zhang et al. [24] revealed that low birth weight infants in China tended to have much higher meconium phthalate levels than infants who were normal weight. Additionally, a meta-analysis by Govarts et al. [21] reported that increased exposure to PCBs was associated with decreased birth weight. Lignell et al. [27] found a statistically significant inverse association between PBDE ...
Downloadable! In this paper we explore the impact of birth weight on childrens cognitive and behavioural outcomes using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. In order to deal with the endogeneity of birth weight we use an estimator based on the eliminant method. When coupled with ordinary least squares, this estimator allows us to bound the effects of birth weight. The results show that birth weight has significant but very small effects on male cognitive development at age 3 and on female cognitive and behavioural outcomes at age 3. We also find that birth weight affects age 5 outcomes only through previous achievements, and that the overall impact fades out over time. These findings call into question the effectiveness of birth weight as a policy target.
Maternal fatty acids (FAs) intake has an effect on birth weight, birth length, and gestational age, as fetal development is entirely dependent on the maternal essential FA supply. This study aimed to identify the association between the maternal intake of FAs and birth outcomes among pregnant women who participated in the Mothers and Childrens Environmental Health (MOCEH) prospective cohort study in South Korea. A total of 1407 pregnant women, aged 30.2 ± 3.7 years, at 12 to 28 weeks gestation were recruited between August 2006 and December 2010. Their dietary intake during pregnancy was investigated by the 1-day 24-h dietary recall method. The pregnancy outcome data-namely infants gestational age, birth weight, and birth length-were analyzed for their associations with their mothers intake of FAs. When adjusted for confounding factors, multiple regression analysis revealed adverse effects on birth weight (P = 0.031) and birth length (P = 0.025) with high maternal intake of omega-6 FAs. In the
Our study adds to the growing literature showing an association between birth weight and cognition across the normal range of birth weight,1-3 but only one such study has shown that the association persists with age beyond childhood.2 Few studies compare the association for birth weight and social background. The stronger influence of social background shown here is consistent with findings from two Scottish studies and with a Swedish study of intrauterine growth retardation in term infants followed to age 5. 1 9 21. Our study extends two strands of work from the late 1970s on developmental trajectories in the 1958 birth cohort. 20 22 23 A previous report estimated that a 1 kg increase in birth weight was associated with a 4 month increase in reading scores at 7 years; this estimate was little changed by adjustment for possible confounding factors.22 Those weighing less than 2 kg at birth had a 1.2 year lower reading age (0.4 SD) than those over 4 kg.22 The difference in maths z scores across ...
EDITOR-Williams and Poulton report that their 22 adolescent twins had lower blood pressure than singletons.1 They interpret their data as being contrary to the fetal origins hypothesis because they presume that twins, being small at birth, would tend to have higher rather than lower blood pressure in later life. As twins have different patterns of fetal growth from singletons, however, they were specifically excluded from the fetal origins hypothesis.2. There are several reasons why the low birth weight of twins may not have the same significance as intrauterine growth retardation in singleton births. Ultrasound evidence suggests that twins down regulate their growth rate early in gestation, possibly during the first trimester.3 Studies in fetal lambs suggest that early down regulation of fetal growth protects against growth retardation induced by undernutrition in later gestation.4 Finally, the metabolic and endocrine changes associated with growth retardation in singleton infants, including ...
Risk factors for low birth weight (LBW) have been indicated in many studies, but in Ja pan few studies have examined the amount of reduction in birth weight (BW). The goal of this study was to examine the association between maternal smoking among pregnant women and subsequent reduction in BW, corrected by the effect of potential confounders. To assess the effect of background factors other than maternal smoking, we established a model to estimate the contribution of each explanatory variable using logarithmic multiple regression. We then used the adjusted BW model to evaluate the direct effect of maternal smoking. To obtain information on maternal characteristics, including smoking status and characteristics of their infants, including BW, we conducted a questionnaire survey. After statistical adjustment for background factors, the mean of BW among infants of participants who smoked during pregnancy was roundtable significantly lower than that of non-smoking participants, but there was no ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Size at birth and height in early adolescence. T2 - A prospective birth cohort study. AU - Araújo, Cora L P. AU - Hallal, Pedro C.. AU - Nader, Gisele A.. AU - Menezes, Ana Maria B. AU - Victora, Cesar G.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between size at birth (birthweight and birth length) and height in early adolescence in a prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Interviews were carried out in 1993, including measurements of birthweight and length, and in 2004-2005, including measurements of weight and height. This analysis includes 4,452 individuals, with a mean age of 11.3 years (standard deviation - SD = 0.3), representing a follow-up rate of 87.5%. Mean height at 11 years was 145.8 cm (SD = 7.9), or 144.9 cm (SD = 7.7) in boys and 146.8 cm (SD = 7.9) in girls. Birthweight and birth length were positively associated with height in early adolescence in the crude analysis, but after adjustment ...
There is an exponential rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in Singapore coincident with rapid nutritional and socioeconomic transition. Differing birth weights, even in the normal ranges, predisposes individuals to the risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. We aim to examine the causal pathways, developmental contribution and effects of a weight loss intervention to this differential by evaluating the hypothesis that genomic, birth weight, developmental, lifestyle and environmental factors contribute to the variation in phenotype observed in adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome.. Although there are many large studies that examined the effect of birth weight on the expression of obesity and the metabolic syndrome phenotype, most of these studies usually lack in-depth physiological and epigenetic/genomic studies due to their large sample sizes. We therefore aim to explore such detailed aspects of physiological and epigenetic/genomic profiles on smaller but statistically ...
Abstract The impact of malaria on low birthweight was investigated in Bougoula village (Sikasso region, Mali). In two successive years, pregnant women were followed until delivery. Phase I (1992) was observational, with 135 complete observations. Phase II (1993) included 126 participants, who were offered malaria prophylaxis with proguanil (200 mg/day) and chloroquine (300 mg/week). The results show that 1) infants of first and second pregnancies had lower birth weights (-382.7 ± 62.6 g; P < 0.0001) compared with higher rank pregnancies; 2) strong seasonal variation in birthweight was observed in Phase I, with an annual cycle, a nadir in January, and an amplitude of 372.4 g (P = 0.0002); 3) parasitemia measured during pregnancy was associated with lower birthweight in infants from first and second pregnancies, but not from higher parity mothers; and 4) malaria prophylaxis taken for 20 weeks or more in Phase II suppressed the seasonal variation of birthweight and the effect of low parity (+423.4 ±
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Previous research regarding the effects of exercise on pregnancy outcomes has been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to adopt an objective research technique, meta-analysis, to summarize and analyze different studies with controversial results. Three coding variables (i.e., exercise duration, pre-pregnancy weight, and age) were selected in this study for comparisons. Though the effect size (ES) of the pregnant mothers who exercised under 30 minutes was greater than that of those who exercised between 30 and 60 minutes, the overall ES (-107.838, 95% CI = -482.93 to 267.26) indicated no significant birth weight differences between the two groups. On the whole, the results of this study support the notion that a significant positive relationship exists between birth weight and the prepregnancy weight. However, regression analysis indicated that a significant (p < .05) positive relationship existed between birth weight and the pre-pregnancy weight of the pregnant mothers (R =.75, p=.04). ...
Yang TO, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V, Cairns BJ; Million Women Study Collaborators.. Ann Oncol 2014;25:1836-43. BACKGROUND:. Most evidence about associations between birth weight and adult cancer risk comes from studies linking birth records to cancer registration data, where information on known risk factors for cancer is generally lacking. Here, we report on associations between birth weight and cause-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of UK women, and investigate how observed associations are affected by other factors.. METHODS:. A total of 453 023 women, born in the 1930s and 1940s, reported their birth weight, maternal smoking, parental heights, age at menarche, adult height, adult smoking, and many other personal characteristics. They were followed for incident cancer. Using Cox regression, relative risks by birth weight were estimated for cancers with more than 1500 incident cases, adjusting for 17 potential confounding factors, individually and simultaneously.. RESULTS:. Birth weight ...
Maternal inhibitory KIR2DL1 associates with pregnancy disorders linked to inadequate placentation, whereas maternal-activating KIR2DS1 associates with increased birth weight. These results suggest that variations in immune system genes, KIR and HLA-C, are under selection as a result of the necessity to keep human birth weight within the limits defined by the harmful consequences of low and high birth weight. A territorial demarcation between the mother and her fetus resulting from the interaction of maternal KIR on uNK and fetal HLA-C expressed by invading trophoblast could be the basis for achieving such a compromise. Both the KIR2DL1 and KIR2DS1 associations, at opposite ends of the birth weight spectrum, occur particularly in pregnancies where the fetus carries an additional HLA-C group 2 allele compared with the mother or the fetus has a single C2 allele that is of paternal but not maternal origin. Because C2 is the ligand for KIR2DL1/S1, this argues strongly for a role of the maternal KIR. ...
Definition of birth weight in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is birth weight? Meaning of birth weight as a legal term. What does birth weight mean in law?
Limited research on cardiovascular disease in women has been done despite the fact that cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality for women in industrial nations. The study by Rich-Edwards et al gives attention to birth weight as a marker of non-fatal cardiovascular disease including myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, and stroke.. In this substudy of the Nurses Health Study, the authors are thorough in their description of the purpose, design, data collection, data analysis, and limitations, which helps to establish credibility and context for the findings. They caution the reader in the interpretation of the data, noting that information was missing on several factors that affect birth weight; some misclassification of self reported birth weight existed; no data existed for 723 deaths caused by cardiovascular disease between 1976 and 1992; and several environmental and genetic factors that determine birth weight may have influenced cardiovascular risk. They noted ...
Q. Please help. I am trying to find information on the causes of my grandchilds low birth weight. She was full term and weighed 4 pounds 7 ounces. I am concerned about the consequences for her growth and development.. Should my daughter be concerned about the outcome of future pregnancies?. A. There are many causes for low birth weight. Some may predict future pregnancies resulting in low birth weight babies, or at least suggest some increased risk for more small babies, while others may be more likely to be once-only occurrences.. Among the possible causes: cigarette smoking during pregnancy, elevated blood pressure, problems with the placenta (which brings nutrition to the fetus blood stream from the mothers), and inadequate maternal weight gain during pregnancy.. The impact of a mothers health on her pregnancy and her babys future is one reason why prenatal care is so important. High blood pressure can develop for the first time during pregnancy in women with no prior history of it, and ...
This paper tests whether parents reinforce or compensate for child endowments. We employ birth weight as a proxy for endowments and estimate how the difference in birth weight across siblings impacts specific parental investments, including breastfeeding initiation and duration, well-baby visits, immunizations, preschool attendance, and kindergarten entry age. We also examine whether parental investment in a child is impacted by her siblings endowments. Our results indicate that heavier birth weight children receive higher levels of most parental investment than their lower birth weight siblings suggesting that parental investments in infancy and early childhood reinforce differences in endowments. In one exception, we find weak evidence that lower birth weight children enter kindergarten slightly later than their normal birth weight siblings, which could be interpreted as a compensating parental investment. Presence of a low birth weight sibling in the household increases the likelihood of ...
Environmental derived abnormalities relate to maternal lifestyle, environment and nutrition and while some of these directly effect embryonic development, there is also growing evidence that some effects are more subtle and relate to later life health events. This theory, now called developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD or DOHaD) and also previously Fetal Origins Hypothesis, is based on the early statistical analysis carried out by David Barker (1938 - 2013) of low birth weight data collected in the early 1900s in the south east of England which he then compared with these same babies later health outcomes. The theory was therefore originally called the Barker Hypothesis and has recently been renamed as fetal origins or programming. Several origins have been suggested including: fetal undernutrition, endocrine (increased cortisol exposure), genetic susceptibility and accelerated postnatal growth. ...
It has been reported that reduced birth weight is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes later in life (1-3). The largest such study was a meta-analysis of 14 studies involving a total of 132,180 individuals that demonstrated an association between lower birth weight and type 2 diabetes risk with an odds ratio of 1.32 (2). On a global level, reduced birth weight has been shown to be correlated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in 28 of 31 populations studied (3). Furthermore, low birth weight has been associated with both type 2 diabetes (P = 0.008) and impaired insulin secretion (P = 0.04) in 2,003 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) (4).. It has been proposed that the relationship between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes is genetically mediated, namely, the fetal insulin hypothesis (5,6). Because insulin is a key fetal growth factor, the genetic variants that reduce insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity might also reduce birth weight as well as ...
stages of pregnancy yahoo, pregnancy vs pms, 42 and trying to get pregnant, during pregnancy loss of weight means, trying to get pregnant at 43 impossible, statistics on teenage pregnancy in canada, exercise during pregnancy lower birth weight, folic acid pregnancy cvs, pregnancy early symptoms before missed period, pregnant young pictures
Caffeine intake during pregnancy has shown to impact on infant birth weight. However factors that influence birth weight are complex, as this research finds
OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) resulting in low birth weight for gestational age may predispose one to development of cardiovascular disease later in life. Abnormal fetal blood flow in the presence of fetal growth restriction helps to distinguish infants with true fetal growth impairment from small but normal infants. Our goal was to investigate associations between IUGR with abnormal fetal blood flow and abnormal retinal vascular morphology at 18 years of age. METHODS: A prospective study was performed with 21 subjects with IUGR (abnormal fetal aortic blood flow velocity; birth weight small for gestational age; median birth weight deviation from the population mean of -31% [range: -22% to -42%] and in 23 subjects with birth weight appropriate for gestational age [normal fetal aortic blood flow velocity; median birth weight deviation of -2% (range: -10% to 22%)]). The retinal vessel morphology was evaluated by digital image analysis. RESULT: Subjects with IUGR (n = 21) had ...
Presents results of a study carried out in The Gambia on birth-weight data recorded between 1986 and 1991 on 3453 NDama calves from the village production systems to identify major factors influencing this trait and to quantify the relationship between birth weight and early calf mortality. Least-squares analysis of the fixed effects of site, year and season of birth, parity of dam, sex, age in days at which birth weight was recorded and random effects of herd and cow nested within site showed that all these factors significantly influenced this trait ...
Birth weights are normally distributed with a mean of 3419 g and a standard deviation of 494 g. If a hospital plans to set up special attention to th...
We have used a large routinely available data set of all births in England and Wales to produce new up-to-date birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts. These updated centiles from births occurring in 2013 and 2014 provide a more valid tool with which to assess fetal growth. In particular, they provide a contemporary and nationally representative tool with which to more appropriately identify the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths affected by IUGR for the analysis of the national perinatal mortality surveillance data. There are also potential implications for use in clinical practice, as the implementation of these new charts offers more accurate identification of the cohort of babies who require increased monitoring in the period immediately following birth for conditions such as hypoglycaemia. This is especially the case in those born at the earliest gestational ages and those born at the lower end of the birth weight distribution, where notable differences were observed ...
Everything you need to know about baby birth weight, average baby birth weight, and low baby birth weight, plus why it matters and when it doesnt.
We present the results of a prospective longitudinal study of MiP in Latin America to assess the impact of SMIs in pregnancy on delivery outcomes. We observed a high frequency of submicroscopic MiP (25%, 45/180). We did not detect a statistically significant difference in birth weights between infants born of pregnancies complicated by submicroscopic MiP. Of note, our study had adequate statistical power (80%) to detect a clinically meaningful difference in birth weights (250 g), and the mean difference observed in our cohort was 38 g, based on the 95% CI. We can therefore exclude an effect of SMI on infant birth weight in this Colombian cohort. However, in a secondary analysis looking at other delivery outcomes, women with mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax SMIs were at increased risk of PTB. According to the WHO Global Survey on maternal and perinatal health (32), patent malaria infection in pregnancy is not a risk factor for PTB in Latin America. However, the number of malaria cases in Latin ...
In Europe there are more than 20 large longitudinal studies in which the main focus has been or is to study prenatal or early life factors in relation to adult disease risk. Many of them are historical cohort studies, or data collection has started after birth retrospectively at various points of life. The most important historical cohort studies, from the point of view of the fetal origin hypothesis, are the Hertfordshire,4 14Preston,12 21 and Sheffield8 studies, as well as the Helsinki27 and Uppsala28 cohort studies.. The studies to date have had a number of important limitations that complicate interpretation. They have not been able to address the complexities of interactions between environmental and genetic factors in explaining the associations between maternal, fetal, and later life factors in the evolution of adult CVD risk. This is because they have been variously too small; retrospective and therefore subject to survival and selection biases; or prospective, but in children and ...
Definition of ponderal index in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is ponderal index? Meaning of ponderal index as a legal term. What does ponderal index mean in law?
There are few reports of long term follow up of neonatal survivors of corticosteroid treatment. The study by Doyle et al adds to our understanding of the effects of antenatal corticosteroids on key outcomes of growth and intellectual function that are of concern to parents and care providers. Additionally, Doyle et al examine these outcomes in infants who were less mature and had lower birth weights than those in previous studies.. The study sample was from Australia. The decision to provide antenatal steroids to the mothers was based on a clinicians decision and was not random. Thus, initial differences might have existed between the 2 groups of infants. The authors attempted to account for potential differences by adjusting for such confounding variables as birth weight, maternal education, and parental height. The potential confounding variables did not affect any of the statistically significant differences between the groups. The authors further reduced bias by ensuring that the outcome ...
Discussion. In the sample stratified by birth weight, it was observed that the death percentage was inversely proportional to gestational age (GA). The group with birth weight ≤ 1000g had a higher incidence of death, 11 (30.5%), compared to the other groups. The Apgar score less than 7 at 1 and 5 minutes is considered a risk factor for mortality 10. The study by Piccoli et al. 11 also showed a high incidence of prematurity and low birth weight with consequent morbidity and mortality.. Silva et al. 12 found that variables associated with death until the 27th day of life were type of delivery, notusing antenatal corticosteroids, preeclampsia, birth weight , 2500g, Apgar score , 7 at 5 minutes, endotracheal intubation, and notusing exogenous surfactant. For these authors, death was determined by the conditions of the pregnancy, delivery and the newborn.. The group considered extremely low birth weight, or birth weight ≤ 1000g presented a mean gestational age of 26.9 weeks and the group with ...
The Lifeways study is novel in having information on three generations of the same families. It is well established that infant birth weight (IBW) predicts individuals risk of adult chronic disease and more recently studies report cross-generation transmission of risk patterns. The aims of this analysis were to examine whether adults birth weights were associated with measures of own health status or social position and to relate adults birth weights to that of the index childs IBW. Finally, we assessed whether birth weight of either adults or children was associated with adult body mass index (BMI) of parents and grandparents. We included 1075 children whose IBW was recorded at recruitment from hospital records and 2546 adult cohort members followed from 2001 until 2014. At baseline, a sub-group of 920 adults had reported own birth weight (RBW). Results showed male adults RBW were significantly higher than females (P=0.001). Mothers RBW was significantly correlated with IBW (r=0.178, ...
Proportion of Indigenous babies born within the previous 12 months whose birth weight has been recorded at the primary health care service.. Birth weight is defined as the first weight of a baby obtained after birth.. Only live births are included.. Results arising from measurements conducted outside of the service, that are known by the service, are included in the calculation of this indicator.. Presented as a percentage.. Previous 12 months refers to the previous financial year or previous calendar year. ...
The possibility that our findings were chance, bias, or residual confounding cannot be discounted. The effect sizes we found were small and the confidence intervals were large. Residual confounding by gestational age, social position, mid-parental height, birth order, or current weight and other factors could partly explain results. Adjustment for these factors greatly attenuated effect sizes, and despite the fact that attention was paid to the quality of measurement, these may have been made with error. The number of children with complete data to age 7 years was modest in comparison with the total number of children in our study, and our analysis restricted to these children assumed their data to be missing completely at random, which we know not to be the case. Hence bias attributable to selective loss to follow up could have weakened our results. However, the measurement of diet carries with it a degree of imprecision, and the true effect size of birth weight on macronutrient intakes could ...
Records of 606 animals from a crossbreeding experiment between Charlolais (Ch) and Caracu (Ca), carried out at Estacao Experimental Fazenda Modelo, in ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil, from 1981 to 1992, were analyzed to estimate additive and heterozygotic effects on birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), daily gain from birtht to weaning (DBGW), yearling weight (YW) and daily gain from weaning to yearling (DGWY).. ...
There is lack of evidence on the differential impact of maternal macronutrient consumption: carbohydrates (CHO), fats and protein on birth weight. We investigated the association between maternal dietary macronutrient intakes and their sub-components such as saccharides and fatty acids and birth weight. This analyses included 1,196 women with singleton pregnancies who were part of the CAffeine and REproductive health study in Leeds, UK between 2003 and 2006. Women were interviewed in each trimester. Dietary information was collected twice using a 24-h dietary recall about 8-12 weeks and 13-27 weeks of gestation. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for alcohol and smoking in trimester 1, showed that each additional 10 g/d CHO consumption was associated with an increase of 4 g (95 % CI 1, 7; P=0·003) in birth weight. Conversely, an additional 10 g/d fat intake was associated with a lower birth weight of 8 g (95 % CI 0, 16; P=0·04) when we accounted for energy contributing macronutrients ...
To examine the phenotypic response to a high-fat diet (hfd), mice were fed a normal diet (C) or a diet rich in lipids from weeks 6 to 24 of age (C + hfd). At the end of this period, significant weight and size differences were observed between the M and the control normal birth weight animals, regardless of sex and diet (p , 0.05) (Figure 2). However, these differences were significantly more pronounced throughout the entire life span of the mice in animals receiving the high-fat diet (p , 0.01). In order to assess anatomical variations derived from both diet and corporal condition (M or C), weight of 90 weeks old mice as well as their organs were recorded (Additional file 1: Table S1). Interestingly, liver, which plays an important role in metabolism and thus in the potential hfd outcome, didnt show any significant variation between M and C mice for both diets, regardless of sex. Several differences were found in other organs, however they lacked apparent correlation with the considered ...
Cheap Open korea maternal birth dedicated abdomen with plastic cummerbund postpartum month of summer tied cummerbund abdomen with cotton,You can get more details about Open korea maternal birth dedicated abdomen with plastic cummerbund postpartum month of summer tied cummerbund abdomen with cotton:Shopping Guide on Alibaba.com
This study is the first to analyze a comprehensive range of maternal, birth, and childhood measures in relation to adult BP from a large well-characterized general population-based cohort studied since early pregnancy. Our main findings were that (1) the association between birth weight and SBP was inverse-linear, particularly for males, with or without adjustment for current BMI; (2) the association for DBP was inverse but weaker than for SBP; (3) other birth variables (gestational age, birth length, ponderal index, BW-GA) showed a similar pattern with BP, although less consistent than birth weight; (4) among females, the inverse association between gestational age and BP was stronger than that for birth weight; (5) infant change-up growth associated positively with BP; and (6) association of some early life factors (gestational age, ponderal index) with BP seems to be stronger in leaner adults.. A meta-analysis by Huxley et al22 of 82 studies with data on birth weight and BP concluded that ...
Because maternal GDM is associated with birth weight and birth weight is directly associated with later BMI, it makes sense to investigate the role of maternal GDM in the genesis of obesity. In this study, we documented a robust direct relationship between birth weight and BMI measured 9 to 14 years later. Each 1-kg increment of birth weight was associated with approximately a 30% increase in the prevalence of overweight, even after adjusting for maternal BMI and other relevant covariates.. In addition, we found that maternal GDM was associated with an OR of 1.4 for adolescent overweight, before controlling for birth weight and maternal BMI. This estimate was slightly attenuated by addition of birth weight to the model, suggesting that the association of GDM with later obesity could partially be explained by its influence on birth weight.. Maternal BMI played a confounding role in these analyses; adding it to the multivariate models resulted in a blunted association of maternal GDM with ...
The estimated increase in birth weight caused by the offer of incentives in the CPIT trial was 21 g overall, but for the subgroup of women who quit as a result of the offer of incentives, and would not have been able to do so without the offer, it was 145 g. Throughout, we have viewed this as the causal effect of the intervention, within the subgroup who are susceptible to (comply with) it, but the value of 145 g can equally be seen as the causal effect of stopping smoking on birth weight, within this subgroup of women for whom the offer of incentives is sufficient to help them to quit. This is in line with birth weight differences associated with smoking cessation recorded by other researchers - 160 grams for light smoking (1-9 cigarettes per day) and 230 grams for heavy smoking (,9 cigarettes per day) [8].. To try to understand this analysis, Fig. 1 gives the raw data. Comparison of those who continued to smoke shows that those in the incentives group had babies with a slightly lower birth ...
Objectives: The aim of the study is to compare the accuracy of 11 formulas in predicting fetal weight. Material and methods: The study includes 1072 pregnant women of gestational age from 28 to 42 weeks, who gave birth between January and June 2017. Pregnant women were divided into five groups; group 1, where actual birth weight (ABW) was less than 2500 g, group 2, where ABW was between 2500-4000 g, group 3, where ABW was above 4000 g. Group 4 - newborns with birth weight under 10 percentile and group 5 - newborns with birth weight above 90 percentile. The accuracy of the estimated fetal weight (EFW) was assessed by calculating absolute percentage error (APE) and limits-of-agreement. R Spearman correlation was utilized between EFW and ABW. Results: The most accurate formula for group 1 is Hadlock3 (MAPE = 7.04%), the narrowest limits of agreement has Combs - [mean (SD): 99.41 g (269.57 g)]. For group 2, the lowest MAPE (5.43%) has Ott, the narrowest limits of agreement belongs to Combs - [mean ...
As multiple pregnancies show a higher incidence of complications than singletons and carry a higher perinatal risk, the calculation of birth weight - and gestational age (GA)-specific perinatal mortality rates (PMR) for multiple births is necessary in order to estimate the lowest PMR for these groups. Details of all reported twins (192,987 live births, 5,539 stillbirths and 1,830 early neonatal deaths) in Japan between 1990 and 1999 were analyzed and compared with singletons (10,021,275 live births, 63,972 fetal deaths and 16,862 early neonatal deaths) in the annual report of vital statistics of Japan. The fetal death rate (FDR) and PMR were calculated for each category of birth weight at 500-gram intervals and GA at four-week intervals. The FDR according to birth weight and GA category was calculated as fetal deaths/(fetal deaths + live births) × 1000. The perinatal mortality rate (PMR) according to birth weight and GA category, was calculated as (fetal deaths + early neonatal deaths)/(fetal deaths +
What is Low Birth Weight Baby? Babies with birth weight of , 2.5 kg irrespective of gestational age is called Low Birth Weight Baby. Most normal babies weigh 5.5 pounds by 37 weeks of gestation. At birth, most babies weigh 6 to 8 pounds. There are really nothing special to do for preventing Low Birth Weight Baby. But the following …. Read More » ...
Reichman NE, et al. Effects of psychosocial risk factors and prenatal interventions on birthweight: evidence from New Jerseys HealthStart Program. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. May/Jun 2003;35(3):130-137.. This research was done to verify the linkages between the Medicaid prenatal care programs, in response to expansions of the Medicaid eligibility criteria. According to the fully adjusted model, the interventions designed to reduce behaviors like smoking, drinking, and using hard drugs (but not marijuana) during pregnancy had no favorable effects on birthweight. In contrast, participation in the WIC Program was associated with an increase in mean birthweight of 22 grams. The increase was 48 grams among inadequately nourished women only.. ...
Researchers conducted a population-based study and a systematic review to see whether folic acid affects a babys size compared to others of the same gestational age. A small size at birth is associated with health issues later in life. The present study included data from 108,525 pregnancies; 84.9% of the mothers had taken folic acid during pregnancy. About 26% of these cases began supplementation before pregnancy. The highest rate of small size for gestational age was associated with mothers that didnt take folate, with 16.3% having newborns under the 10th percentile for birth weight and 8.9% having newborns under the fifth percentile for birth weight. Women taking folic acid before conception were less like to have a baby with a low birth weight for its gestational size.. Published in WholeFoods Magazine, January 2015 (online 12/11/14). ...
Children born with lower or higher weight than normal may be at increased risk for developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by the time they become teenagers, says a study.. Advanced scarring of the liver was associated with low birth weight, while more inflammation was linked to high birth weight, according to the study published in the Journal of Pediatrics.. With the obesity epidemic, we are seeing more babies with high birth weight than ever before, said study co-author Mark Fishbein from Stanley Manne Childrens Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Childrens Hospital of Chicago in the US. Our study shows that these kids are more likely to have serious liver damage by the time they are teenagers, Fishbein said.. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and typically is diagnosed in early adolescence. In its most severe form it can lead to liver failure and the need for liver transplantation.. Being able to ...
Background and aims:The most common reason in neonatal mortality rate in the world is low birth weight (LBW). The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence and related factors associated in birth weight in Garmsar, Iran in 2013. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on 683 live births which delivered in Garmsar in 2013. The required information was collected by examining the health records of pregnant women and completion of the data registration forms. Data collection was controlled by using SPSSand analyzed by using an Independent T-test, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: According to the results, 32 infants out of 683 infants born in 2013 had low birth weight, i.e. the weight less than 2500g. LBW prevalence estimated in this study was 4.7%. There were significant statistical relations between low birth weight and the variables including number of births, mothers occupation and interval of less than 3 years between pregnancies and systolic and diastolic
Methods Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) were linked with data from RevNatus, a nationwide observational register recruiting women with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Singleton births in women with SLE included in RevNatus 2006-2015 were cases (n=180). All other singleton births registered in MBRN during this time (n=498 849) served as population controls. Z-score for birth weight adjusted for gestational age and gender was calculated. Disease activity was assessed using Lupus Activity Index in Pregnancy. We compared z-scores for birth weight, pre-eclampsia and preterm birth in cases with inactive disease, cases with active disease and population controls. ...
Objective. In recent years, gains in neonatal survival have been most evident among very low birth weight, preterm, and low birth weight (LBW) infants. Most of the improvement in neonatal survival since the early 1980s seems to be the consequence of decreasing birth weight-specific mortality rates, which occurred during a period of increasing preterm and LBW rates. Although the decline in neonatal mortality has been widely publicized in the United States, research suggests that clinicians may still underestimate the chances of survival of an infant who is born too early or too small and may overestimate the eventuality of serious disability. So that clinicians may have current and needed ethnic- and race-specific estimates of the chances of early survival for newborn infants, we examined birth weight/gestational age-specific neonatal mortality rates for the 3 largest ethnic/racial groups in the United States: non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic blacks. Marked racial variation in ...
A systematic review published in 2000 studied the association between maternal anemia and birth weight; however, some results were inconclusive. A review of randomized control trials and cohort studies published in 2013 concluded that daily prenatal iron use substantially improves birth weight in a linear dose response manner. Thus, a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies was conducted to contemporarily estimate the relationship between prenatal maternal hemoglobin and birth weight. We searched four electronic databases for observational epidemiological studies, which reported birth weight as an outcome measure and ascertained prenatal maternal anemia by hemoglobin measurement. Thirty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of five studies showed that neonates born to women with anemia were, on average, 303 g lighter in birth weight than those born to women without anemia (95% CI: 19.20 588.26; I = 91%; five studies; p = 0.04). On the basis of ...
16,000 participants showed early weight gain had the largest effect on infants birth weight FOR RELEASE:. August 28, 2017. CONTACT:. Robyn Gordon, The Obesity Society: [email protected] SILVER SPRING, MD: Weight gain in early pregnancy has the greatest impact on infant size at birth, according to a new study published today in Obesity. The study is the largest ever analysis of the effect that weight gain in early pregnancy has on infant size.. The study examined 16,218 pregnant mothers throughout the first, second and third trimesters in Tianjin, China to determine the risk of infants size at birth. Results found weight gain early in pregnancy, before 24 weeks-regardless of the weight gain later-had the greatest impact on infant size. Infants born to women with weight gain that exceeds the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy, prior to 24 weeks, were 2.5 times more likely to be born large.. Maternal obesity and weight gain in pregnancy have been ...
BACKGROUND: The risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with low birth weight and low gestational age. For ROP screening examination is recommended in infants weighing , or = 1500 g or of less than 32 weeks gestational age. METHODS: From 1991 ROP screening was performed in 452 premature infants with either a birth weight , or = 1500 g (n = 303) or a birth weight , 1500 g (n = 149) and who required additional oxygen supplementation or underwent surgery with general anaesthesia before estimated term. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, three infants with birth weights between 2080 and 2325 g and a gestational age of 32 or 33 weeks developed stage 2 or 3 ROP. One of these underwent cryocoagulation. In three infants, preterm birth was induced by sudden placental abruption with severe prenatal blood loss followed by haemorrhagic shock. The umbilical cord packed cell volume was reduced to 0.14-0.19 (normal 0.43-0.63). All three infants underwent surgery with general anaesthesia within the first ...
Responsibility of the Obstetrician to the Fetus: II. Influence of Prepregnancy Weight and Pregnancy Weight Gain on Birthweight Obstet. Gynecol., May 1975; 45: 481 - 487.
birth weight[tw] OR birth weight[mh] OR low birth weight infant[mh] OR fetal growth retardation[mh] OR ((growth restriction[tw] OR fetal growth[tw]) AND (infant[tw] OR infants[tw] OR fetal[tw] OR fetus[tw]))) AND (caffeine[ti] OR caffeinated[ti] OR caffeine[majr]) AND (pregnancy OR pregnant) AND (Cohort Studies[mh] OR cohort*[tw] OR compar*[tw] OR cross-sectional[tw] OR cross-sectional studies[mh] OR follow-up[tw] OR followup[tw] OR follow up[tw] OR longitudinal*[tw] OR multivariate[tw] OR population surveillance/methods[mh] OR population-based study[tw] OR prospective*[tw] OR random* OR randomized controlled trial[pt] OR reproducib*[tw] OR Reproducibility of Results[mh]) NOT (Meta Analysis[pt] OR meta analy*[tw] OR metaanaly*[tw] OR systematic review*[tw] OR data synthesis[tw] OR data extraction[tw] OR Cochrane Database Syst Rev[ta]) AND english[la] AND humans[mh ...
Caffeine intake from different sources was linked to lower birth weight and a higher number of babies who were small for gestational age. For a child with an expected average birth weight (3.6kg) this is equivalent to 21-28 g lost per 100 mg caffeine per day. An intake of 200-300 mg caffeine per day is associated with an increase in the risk of giving birth to a small for gestational age baby by almost a third. Babies who are small for gestational age are at higher risk of both short-term and lifelong health problems. Caffeine consumption is strongly correlated with smoking which is known to increase the risk for both preterm delivery and the baby being small for gestational age. In this study we found no association between caffeine intake and preterm delivery but we did find an association between caffeine and babies who were small for gestational age. This association remained even when we corrected for maternal smoking habits and when we only looked at non-smoking mothers, which implies ...
Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced
Lawlor, DA; Davey Smith, G; Whincup, P; Wannamethee, G; Papacosta, O; Dhanjil, S; Griffin, M; Nicolaides, AN; Ebrahim, S; (2003) Association between offspring birth weight and atherosclerosis in middle aged men and women: British Regional Heart Study. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 57 (6). pp. 462-3. ISSN 0143-005X DOI: 10.1136/jech.57.6.462 ...
Learn the risks and issues associated with low birth weight babies, and how you and your baby may be affected by having a low birth weight.
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is related to increased risk of coronary heart disease in adults and recently has been associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in children. We investigated whether the relation between birth weight and endothelial function was still present in early adult life and whether there was an interaction with emerging risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 315 adults (165 women, 150 men, aged 20 to 28 years), high-resolution ultrasound was used to determine endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular responses of the brachial artery. Vascular measures were related to classic risk factors (smoking history, lipid profile, blood pressure, fasting insulin, exercise capacity, body mass index, and combined risk score) and birth weight. Low birth weight was associated with reduced flow-mediated dilation (coefficient=0.18 kg(-1), 95% CI 0.004 to 0.35, P:=0.04) but not with endothelium-independent dilation. The difference in flow-mediated dilation between the top and bottom
LBW means one whose birth weight is less than 2500 gm irrespective of the gestational age. DOWNLOAD LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES ppt. ...
An innovative feature of the current study is the use of twins to test the prenatal programming hypothesis. Twins share the same maternal environment, and monozygotic twins are genetically identical. Nevertheless, each fetus has its own fetoplacental environment, as reflected by its birth weight, that may differ substantially between twin members. By comparing the BP of the heaviest twin at birth with that of the lighter sibling, potential confounding maternal and genetic characteristics can be controlled. So far, only 4 studies have applied this twin approach for BP,4-7 but their results have not been consistent. Dwyer et al4 and Poulter et al5 found a tendency for the monozygotic twin who was lightest at birth to have the highest BP later in life, suggesting that the association between birth weight and adult BP is at least partly independent from maternal and genetic influences. Ijzerman et al6 observed an inverse relationship between intrapair birth weight difference and intrapair difference ...
High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) ...
Ranchers have asked that question during many springs and veterinarians have speculated for years. The debate rages on. This is obviously a difficult subject to research because you cannot have a control group of cows to compare to a treatment group that is exposed to a cold winter while still running on the same pasture. Therefore research data on this subject is limited.. University of Nebraska researchers (Colburn and co-workers) have done the next best thing. They have monitored the birth weights of genetically similar calves across three different winters and have related average winter temperatures to birth weights. A 3-year study was conducted to evaluate effects of high and low air temperatures and wind chills during winter months on subsequent calf birth weights and calving difficulty of spring-born calves. Records on approximately 400 2-year-old heifers and their calves were used. Heifer and calf genetics were the same each year. Heifers were fed similar quality hay free-choice ...
Low birth weight is known to increase the risk for major disabilities such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation, but researchers now suspect that low birth weight may also
Animal data show that decreased activity of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which potently inactivates glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) to inert forms (cortisone), allows increased access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetus and programs hypertension. Data in humans are limited. We examined in humans the association between venous umbilical cord blood glucocorticoids, a potential marker for placental 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity, and blood pressure at age 3 years. Among 286 newborns in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study based in eastern Massachusetts, we measured cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) in venous cord blood and used the ratio of F/E as a marker for placental 11β-HSD2 activity. We measured blood pressure (BP) when the offspring reached age 3 years. Using mixed effects regression models to control for BP measurement conditions, maternal and child characteristics, we examined the association between the F/E ratio and child BP. At age 3 years,
Animal data show that decreased activity of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which potently inactivates glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) to inert forms (cortisone), allows increased access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetus and programs hypertension. Data in humans are limited. We examined in humans the association between venous umbilical cord blood glucocorticoids, a potential marker for placental 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity, and blood pressure at age 3 years. Among 286 newborns in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study based in eastern Massachusetts, we measured cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) in venous cord blood and used the ratio of F/E as a marker for placental 11β-HSD2 activity. We measured blood pressure (BP) when the offspring reached age 3 years. Using mixed effects regression models to control for BP measurement conditions, maternal and child characteristics, we examined the association between the F/E ratio and child BP. At age 3 years,
Background: Fetal and early life growth is associated with adult risk of obesity and cardiometabolic disease. However, little is known about the relative importance of birth weight and successive periods of weight gain on markers of cardiometabolic risk in childhood in low-income populations. Objectives: The objective was to study associations of birth weight and weight gain velocities in selected age intervals from birth to 60 mo with height, fat-free mass (FFM), and markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk at 60 mo. Methods: In a prospective cohort study of 375 Ethiopian children aged 60 mo, we estimated individual weight gain velocities in the periods between birth and 3, 6, 24, 48, and 60 mo using linear-spline mixed-effects modeling. Subsequently, we analyzed associations of birth weight, weight gain velocities, and current weight with height, FFM, and markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk. Results: Weight gain from 48 to 60 mo and weight at 60 mo rather than birth weight were ...
According to researchers from Johns Hopkins Childrens Center, an infant with low birth weight carries particles in the blood that can lower the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol that it produces. These particles in the blood contain apolipoprotein C-1, known for lowering HDL, or good cholesterol. Blood from the umbilical cords of 163 infants born at 28 or more gestational weeks and at approximately 1.3 lb less than normal weight were analyzed. Researchers found higher levels of apolipoprotein C-1 in 19% of these infants. Low birth weight and higher-than-normal levels of this substance have been associated with the death of the hearts smooth-muscle cells. These cells are important to protecting the circulatory system from artery-clogging plaque, which can lead to a heart attack. Researchers concluded that it is important to check C-1 levels in low-birth-weight infants, and that these children should eat low-fat diets to reduce their risk of heart disease. ...
Although neurodevelopmental outcome of very preterm neonates has also significantly improved over this period, the pace of improvement in central nervous system morbidity appears to have lagged behind that of survival. In addition, neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born extremely immature persists into school age, and the level of impairment is often underestimated when standardized tests are being used for the assessment of these patients cognitive and neurological status. Among extremely preterm children, cognitive and neurologic impairment is common at school age. A comparison with their classroom peers indicates a level of impairment that is greater than is recognized with the use of standardized norms. The extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survivors in school at age 8 years who were born in the 1990s have considerable long-term health and educational needs. A meta-analysis of case-control studies reported from 1980 to November 2001 that examined cognitive and behavioral outcomes ...
Authors: Adrianne R. Bischoff, André K. Portella, Catherine Paquet, Roberta Dalle Molle, Aida Faber, Narendra Arora, Robert D. Levitan, Patrícia P. Silveira and Laurette Dubé Publication: British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 119, No. 11, June 2018 Abstract: Evidence suggests that both high and low birth weight children have increased the risk for obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Previously we have found altered feeding behaviour and food preferences in pre-school children and adults born with low birth weight. In this study, we investigated if birth weight was associated with different intake of fat, carbohydrate and/or protein at 6-12 years of age. This is a cross-sectional study where 255 guardians answered online and telephone questions including anthropometrics and demographic data, parental family food rules (food control, encouragement and restriction) and a complete web-based FFQ for their children (130 boys and 125 girls). Baseline demographic and parental food rules
Posted By BestCellulite on Sep 12, 2016 , Women who undergo gastric bypass surgery for weight loss risk giving birth to babies that are small or have lower average birth weights.. Cellulite Solution. Free Yourself from the unsightly appearance of cellulite dimples with an all-natural formula that effectively reduces the appearance of cellulite while eliminating inches from problem areas.. In addition to the latest in obesity news, discover all our best cellulite treatment cream recommendations.. ...
Psychosocial predictors of labor/ delivery complications and infant birth weight: a prospective multivariate study. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001;21(3).
OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight has been associated with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease in adult life, but the precise mechanism is debated. The endothelium is thought to play a pivotal role in each of the above conditions with abnormalities being detectable before the development of overt disease. To investigate the possibility that endothelium has a role in mediating the excessive risk of adult vascular disease associated with low birth weight, endothelial function was assessed in young healthy adults who were either of low or normal birth weight at term. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twelve low birth weight (2.2 +/- 0.05 kg, mean +/- SEM) subjects (six men/six women; age 28 +/- 0.2 years) and twelve age- and sex-matched normal birth weight (3.3 +/- 0.07 kg) control subjects were studied. The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway was assessed in the forearm vascular bed by using venous occlusion plethysmography during intra-arterial brachial infusion of acetylcholine, ...
What is Low Birth Weight Baby? Babies with birth weight of , 2.5 kg irrespective of gestational age is called Low Birth Weight Baby. Most normal babies weigh 5.5 pounds by 37 weeks of gestation. At birth, most babies weigh 6 to 8 pounds. There are really nothing special to do for preventing Low Birth Weight Baby. But the following …. Read More » ...
Modern sow lines have been genetically selected for increased litter size. This increase in litter size, however, is also associated with higher piglet mortality. This piglet mortality can be partly explained by lower piglet birth weights and higher within-litter variation in birth weight. The main hypothesis of this thesis is that these factors, the lower piglet birth weights and the higher within-litter variation, are (at least partly) explained by impaired follicular development of sows during and after lactation, as this is the period in which antral follicles develop that contain the oocytes that will give rise to the next litter. Increased litter size also results in increased metabolic demands of modern sows during lactation, due to the necessary higher milk production. As the metabolic state highly influences follicular development, the increased metabolic demands may therefore impair follicular development and contribute to lower piglet birth weights and higher within-litter variation ...
A baby is considered as having a low birth weight if he or she weighs less than 2,500g (2.5kg) when born. Learn about the causes and risk factors for having a low birth weight baby.
In the U.S. teen mothers are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies than non-teen mothers. There is also substantial evidence that smoking is a risk factor correlated with low birth weight. Low birth weight is a costly outcome in both the short and long term for parents, children, and society at large. This paper examines the causal link between teen age smoking behavior and low birth weight. We use a variety of empirical techniques including fixed effects and a matching estimator to identify the impact of smoking on babies of teen and non-teen mothers. We find that both OLS and matching estimator results yield large impacts of smoking on birth weight for teens and adults. However, when we control for unobservables through a fixed effects model, the impact of smoking on birth ...
Determine if the clinical risk factors for low birth weight are independent of socioeconomic risk factors in a sample from a developing country.
Health, ...TUESDAY Jan. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Low birth weight does not increas...Researchers looked at data on nearly 4000 children (193 low birth wei...Of the children with a low birth weight nearly 7 percent developed as...The study was published Jan. 15 in the journal Annals of Allergy A...,No,Link,Between,Low,Birth,Weight,,Asthma:,Study,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Objectives We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design. Methods We used data from ,200 000 mother-child pairs enrolled in 13 European birth cohorts and compared employed versus non-employed women. Among employees, we defined groups of occupations representing the main sectors of employment for women where potential reproductive hazards are considered to be present. The comparison group comprised all other employed women not included in the occupational sector being assessed. We performed meta-analyses of cohort-specific estimates and explored heterogeneity. Results Employees had a lower risk of preterm delivery than non-employees [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-0.91]. Working in most of the occupational sectors studied ...
Babies with low birth weights face increased risks of infection, impaired development, developmental delays, and higher rates of infant death.[i] They are more likely to suffer from long-term disabilities, including cerebral palsy and blindness. Low birth weight can be influenced by a number of factors, including maternal and fetal health. For example, women who use tobacco, have poor nutrition, consume alcohol, or use illegal or some prescription drugs while pregnant are at increased risk of giving birth to low-weight babies.[ii] Chronic conditions including diabetes, heart defects, and kidney disease can also increase a womans risk of giving birth to a low-weight baby.. Metadata. ...
Sow Nutrition. What are the piglet birth weights?. Birth weights are a direct reflection of how the sow is fed during the last 15 to 20 days of gestation. What are the days return to first estrus?. Long days to estrus is a result of expended energy during lactation. Generally as a function of low energy intake to meet these needs.. What are the weaning weights?. Weaning weights are a reflection of sow milk production and piglet health. Generally the sow should be able to milk 11 to 12 liters of milk per day.. Lactation feed intake and proper lactation feed density (nutrients) is needed to get the required milk production.. What is the milk production of your sow during lactation?. To determine what your sows are milking take the 21 day liter weight subtract the litter birth weight, divide by 21 days and multiply by 4. (It takes 4 grams of milk to make one gram of gain). 82 Kgs (wean weight) - 21.5 Kgs birth weight is 60.5 Kgs of growth, divide by 21 days is 2.87 grams per day times 4 is 11.5 ...
We have studied 477 8-year-old Indian children to define the relationship between birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors, including insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) variables and plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. All risk factors were strongly related to current weight. After adjustment for current weight, age, and sex, lower birth weight was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008), fasting plasma insulin and 32-33 split proinsulin concentrations (P = 0.08 and 0.02), glucose and insulin concentrations 30 min postglucose (P = 0.06 and 0.04), subscapular/triceps skinfold ratio (P = 0.003), and plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.002 and 0.001). Lower birth weight was associated with increased calculated insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA], P = 0.03), but was not related to the HOMA index of beta-cell function. The highest levels of IRS variables and total and LDL cholesterol were in children of low birth weight but ...
"The Role of Prenatal Care in Preventing Low Birth Weight". The Future of Children. Low Birth Weight. 5 (1): 103-120. doi: ... Common results of smoking during pregnancy include pre-term births, low birth weights, fetal and neonatal deaths, respiratory ... are recommended by the US Surgeon General to help prevent birth complications for mothers and babies such as low birth weight, ... "skilled birth attendants" - people with training in basic and emergency obstetric care - to help women give birth. The ...
Low birth weight 6. Antepartum hemorrhage and 7.Cord prolapse. The rate of perinatal death at this hospital was higher than ...
"Low Birth Weight Dwarfism". Arch Dis Child. 36 (190): 633-644. 1961. doi:10.1136/adc.36.190.633. PMC 2012814. PMID 13869653. ...
A Nigerian study showed that the birth weight of the human fetus also depends upon the size and weight of the mother including ... In Africa and South Asia, 27%-50% of women in the reproductive age are underweight resulting in 30 million low birth weight ... Public health aspect of low birth weight, third report of the expert committee on maternal and child health (WHO)" (PDF). World ... Further the weight of the human testes marked as mg/100 gram of body weight was investigated and was observed that there was a ...
... low birth weight and poor growth; severe cognitive, speech and motor disabilities; behavioural problems such as hyperactivity, ... In a series of case reports, the mortality rate was about 10%, 75% of deaths occurring within 3 months of birth, and 90% within ... Affected children are typically diagnosed by a doctor at birth. Genetic counseling and genetic testing may be offered to ...
2.0 lbs ... > 6 lbs "Baby birth weight Information". Retrieved 14 December 2011. 2500 g ... 4000 g "Shot Put - Introduction". ... 6,981,057,639 Calculated: adult men have a weight of 70 kg, use 55 kg to account for smaller weights of women and children. 7.0 ... Retrieved 2018-07-04 "Water - Density and Specific Weight". The Engineering Tool Box. "Chihuahua Weight Chart". Retrieved 14 ... "The dry weight of individual pollen grains has been estimated at 250 ng" "Volume of human oocyte - Human Homo sapiens". ...
low birth weight: usually described as ...
This administration, given from day to one week before delivery, has been associated with low birth weight, although not with ... "Antenatal dexamethasone and decreased birth weight". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 97 (4): 485-90. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(00)01206 ... Dexamethasone is given in legal Bangladesh brothels to prostitutes not yet of legal age, causing weight gain aimed at making ... Acne Insomnia Vertigo Increased appetite Weight gain Impaired skin healing Depression Euphoria Hypertension Increased risk of ...
21.1% of the babies had low birth weight, with 18.1% being due to intrauterine growth retardation and 3% with preterm births. ... "Maternal influences on low birth weight". Malays J Reprod Health. 12 (1): 32-7. PMID 12320337. WAI MOE (23 April 2009). " ...
In Uncle Styopa and Yegor Styopa's wife Manya gives birth to a son named Yegor. His birth weight is 8 kg. The poem follows his ... It introduced Styopa's son named Yegor, "a new Heracles" whose birth weight was 8 kg. In the preface Mikhalkov explained that ...
Morton, By NEWTON E. (1955-11-01). "The Inheritance of Human Birth Weight*". Annals of Human Genetics. 20 (2): 125-134. doi: ... nonrandomness of consanguineous marriage and the inheritance of human birth weight. In 1955-1956, Morton was made a National ...
LXXX1, 462-463, 1927 Weight and the Month of Birth, W.T. Porter and P.C. Baird, Jr. The American Journal of Physiology, Vol.81 ... Porter, W. T.; Baird, P. C. (1927-06-01). "Weight and the month of birth". American Journal of Physiology. Legacy Content. 81 ( ...
Rosenzweig, M.R., Zhang, J. (2009). Do Population Control Policies Induce More Human Capital Investment? Twins, Birth Weight ... Birth Weight and China's "One-Child" Policy. Profile of Mark Rosenzweig on the website of Yale University. Retrieved March 1, ... and Their Effects on Birth Weight. Journal of Political Economy, 91(5), pp. 723-746. Behrman, J.R., Rosenzweig, M.R. (2004). ... and thereby ultimately significantly affect fetal growth and birth weight. By contrast, Rosenzweig, Mark Pitt and Mohammed ...
"Adolescent Gestational Weight Gain and Birth Weight". Pediatrics. 92 (6): 805-809. PMID 8233741.. ...
Leutenegger, W. (1973). "Gestation Period and Birth Weight of Australopithecus". Nature. 243 (5383): 568-9. doi:10.1038/ ... "estimates on gestation periods based on this rate and birth weight are useless." In 1985, British biologists Paul H. Harvey and ... and birth interval, and for humans all metrics except birth interval. Based on a sample of 402 teeth, P. robustus seems to have ... In 1972, after estimating a foetal size of 1,230-1,390 g (2.7-3.1 lb) based on an adult female weight of 50 kg (110 lb), ...
103 babies are born low birth weight. 8 babies die before their first birthday In an average week in Alabama: 1,241 babies are ... 102 babies are born low birth weight. 9 babies die before reaching their first birthday. In an average week in West Virginia: ... 131 babies are born low birth weight. 11 babies die before reaching their first birthday. In an average week in Mississippi: ... 39 babies are born low birth weight. 3 babies die before reaching their first birthday. Many people in the region consider ...
Children born with a low birth weight (. ... The average life expectancy at birth in Lesotho is 53.7 years ( ... Under-five mortality rate is the probability of dying between birth and exactly 5 years of age, expressed per 1,000 live births ...
Gillman, MW; Rifas-Shiman S; Berkey CS; Field AE; Colditz GA (2003). "Maternal diabetes, birth weight, and adolescent obesity ... Dieting to control weight is ineffective for many adolescents and may actually promote weight gain. Being born to a mother with ... Children who perceive that their mother is frequently trying to lose weight are more likely to become highly concerned with ... Berkey, CS; Rockett HR; Field AE; Gillman MW; Colditz GA (2004). "Sugar-added beverages and adolescent weight change". Obesity ...
A slow growth rate and preterm birth are the two factors that can cause a low birth weight. Low birth weight (below 2000 grams ... Low birth weight[edit]. Low birth weight increases an infants risk of long-term growth and cognitive and language deficits.[45] ... low birth weight, and premature births.[34][35][36] Exposure to secondhand smoke leads to higher risks of low birth weight and ... When using cannabis, there is a greater risk of birth defects, low birth weight, and a higher rate of death in infants or ...
Possible weight gain: Some women may experience slight weight gain when using the implant.[13] However, current studies are not ... Etonogestrel birth control implant, sold under the brand names Nexplanon among others, is a device made up of a single rod ... The average increase in body weight in studies was less than 5 pounds (2,25 kg) over 2 years.[14][15] ... containing etonogestrel which is used for birth control.[2] It is one of the most effective forms of birth control with a one- ...
"From the cradle to the labor market? The effect of birth weight on adult outcomes." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 122, no ... "The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth order on children's education." The Quarterly Journal of Economics ...
Rosenzweig, M. R., & Zhang, J. (2009). Do Population Control Policies Induce More Human Capital Investment? Twins, Birth Weight ... Birth Weight and China's "One-Child" Policy. Junsen Zhang works in the fields of labor economics and development economics and ... Hongbin Li and Junsen Zhang (2007) show that the one-child policy reduces birth rate and thus has a short-run positive effect ... the rising returns to skills and women's comparative advantage in brain-intensive tasks and use variations in the birth weights ...
... those born with low birth weight, birth asphyxia, jaundice or meningitis) for early assessment of hearing, prompt diagnosis and ... Birth weight less than 1,500g (3.3 lbs). Hyperbilirubinemia at levels quiring exchange transfusion. Bacterial meningitis. ... Birth asphyxia with Apgar scores less than or equal to 5 at 1 minute or less than or equal to 6 at 5 minutes. In order to ... this low number is due to the limitations of high risk factors either being difficult to detect at birth or during early ...
Length is about 1 m (3.3 ft) at birth. Birth weight is about 10 kg (22 lb). Weaning is after two years. Lifespan is about 30 ... It ranges in weight from 90 to 200 kg (200 to 440 lb) with a length of 2.3 m (7.5 ft) at full maturity. Maximum recorded length ... Its gestation period is 14 months; cows give birth to a single calf every two to three years. ...
1995). Long-term developmental outcomes of low birth weight infants. In: The Future of Children: Low Birth Weight. Vol. 5(1):19 ... Evaluation of the Healthy Birth Initiative showed more intermediary results. Rates of gestational age, pre-term birth weight, ... Children maintain a healthy weight. First 5 LA seeks to ensure that children maintain a healthy weight by supporting local ... Declining birth and smoking rates is causing First 5 LA's revenue stream to decrease. First 5 faces decreasing funding due to ...
Low birth weight is also a known factor. A contributing role of environmental chemicals called endocrine disruptors that ... Spermatogenesis continues after birth. In the third to fifth months of life, some of the fetal spermatogonia residing along the ... In the even smaller minority of cryptorchid infants who have other obvious birth defects of the genitalia, further testing is ... More gradually, other fetal spermatogonia become type B spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes by the fifth year after birth. ...
His first study examined IQ and birth weight differences between identical twins, finding that the twin who had been heavier at ... 1967). Intelligence and birth weight in identical twins. Child Development, 38, 623-9. Gottfredson, Linda (December 13, 1994). ... birth tended to be higher in IQ. Willerman worked with Joseph M. Horn and John C. Loehlin on a major study of adoptive families ...
Higher birth weight is an additional risk factor. There may be a slightly increased risk in males, but this association is ...
Published the first study of "small-for-dates" infants in his studies of "the difference in birth weight of human twins." ... Clemetson CA (February 1956). "The difference in birth weight of human twins. Twin blood studies. III. Placental transfer of ... Clemetson CA (February 1956). "The difference in birth weight of human twins. Twin blood studies. II. Cord blood haemoglobin ... Clemetson CA (February 1956). "The difference in birth weight of human twins. Twin blood studies. I. Oxygen analysis of ...
... while for a birth weight of 3500-3999 g, it was only 0.51/1000. Premature birth increases the risk of SIDS death roughly ... Low birth weight is a significant risk factor. In the United States from 1995 to 1998, the SIDS death rate for infants weighing ... Given a 5% male excess birth rate, there appears to be 3.15 male SIDS cases per 2 female, for a male fraction of 0.61. This ... Pollack HA, Frohna JG (May 2001). "A competing risk model of sudden infant death syndrome incidence in two US birth cohorts". ...
Females show aggression towards each other immediately before and after the birth of their young and will chase other females ... Weight 75-100 cm 45-55 cm 6-7.5 cm 9-14 kg ... Young per Birth Sexual Maturity Life Span 180-210 days 1-7 Does ... The doe often gives birth to her spotted young in the open, but they are quickly taken to concealing vegetation, where they ... from their birth territories.[citation needed] Communication[edit]. Water deer are capable of emitting a number of sounds. The ...
There has been controversy over both the location and year of Mayow's birth, with both Cornwall and London claimed, along with ... Mayow perceived the part "spiritus nitro-aereus" plays in combustion and in increasing the weight of the calces (oxides) of ... Mayow noted, as had others before him, that some materials gain weight on strong heating. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) and ... undergoes an increase of weight which can be attributed to nothing else but these particles. Mayow argued that the same ...
He was one of the smallest premature births in New Jersey to survive. He also holds the record as one of the world's smallest ... In June 2004, Saint Barnabas Medical Center delivered a 23-week-old twin boy with weight of 320 grams. The boy was hospitalized ... 2009 Infant heading home after underweight birth, The Times of Trenton, August 16, 2007 - accessed July 11, 2009 The Tiniest ...
The invention of the transistor & the birth of the information age. *. Warnes, Lionel (1998). Analogue and Digital Electronics ... Very small size and weight, reducing equipment size.. *Large numbers of extremely small transistors can be manufactured as a ... and the birth of modern electronics.[65] The MOS transistor has been the fundamental building block of modern digital ...
Twin births have not been reported.[2]. The calf has a tawny, shaggy coat and weighs about 11 kg (24 lb). By the end of the ... The black wildebeest is typically 170-220 cm (67-87 in) in head-and-body length, and the typical weight is 110-180 kg (240-400 ... Births normally take place in areas with short grass when the cow is in the lying position. She stands up immediately ... The calf is able to stand and run shortly after birth, a period of great danger for animals in the wild. It is fed by its ...
... premature births, or low birth weight.[152] Similarly, in studies examining the effects of topical retinoids during pregnancy, ... Unlike combined birth control pills, it is not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for this purpose.[1][ ... In women, the use of combined birth control pills can improve acne.[100] These medications contain an estrogen and a progestin. ... Approximately 160 babies were born with birth defects due to maternal use of isotretinoin during pregnancy.[186][187] ...
He died in 2010 aged 76 in the town of his birth. He was survived by Jans Geesink, his wife of more than 50 years; his sons ... Although Japan dominated three of the four weight divisions (light, middle and heavy), Anton Geesink won the final of the open ... weight division, defeating Akio Kaminaga in front of his home crowd.[6][7] ...
Major causes of PEM in Nepal is low birth weight of below 2.5 kg, due to poor maternal nutrition, inadequate dietary intake, ... Around a quarter of babies are born low birth weight. As per the findings of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011), ... Maternal mortality rate was reduced from 748 per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 190 per 100,000 live births on 2014. Nepal also ... The major causes of neonatal death in Nepal are infection, birth asphyxia, preterm birth, and hypothermia. Given Nepal's ...
Mannix, Loretta H.; Stratton, Julius Adams (2005). Mind and Hand: The Birth of MIT. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 190-92. ISBN ... Continuous studies have shown that increased BMI and weight gain are associated with people who spend long hours online and not ... "The First Baby Boom: Skeletal Evidence Shows Abrupt Worldwide Increase In Birth Rate During Neolithic Period". ScienceDaily ...
Dosages vary according to the age groups and the individual condition of the person, body weight and compliance to the ... and premature birth.[20] ... Side effects from excessive doses include weight loss, trouble ... It is not indicated for weight loss.[1] Levothyroxine is taken by mouth or given by injection into a vein.[1] Maximum effect ... weight loss, and increased appetite.[22] Allergic reactions to the drug are characterized by symptoms such as difficulty ...
For years she has mixed up her own birth year with that of her late husband, and in actuality, she is only 90 years old. Once a ... He is saved by the intervention of Elisabeth Friis and the doctor who carries a lot of weight within the resistance movement. ...
a b c d The weight of added alcohol must be below 10% of the weight of the rice (after polishing) used in the brewing process. ... The Birth of Saké. References[edit]. *^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Houghton Mifflin ... Seimai-buai (精米歩合) is the rice polishing ratio, the percentage of weight remaining after polishing. Generally, the lower the ... It is generally held that the lower the rice polishing ratio (the percent weight after polishing), the better the potential of ...
... and at risk for a preterm birth, when cerclage is compared with no treatment, there is a reduction in preterm birth and there ... as well as change the inclination of the cervical canal so that the pregnancy weight is not directly above the internal os. ... A c-section is required for women giving birth with a TAC. A transabdominal cerclage can also be placed pre-pregnancy if a ... In women with a prior spontaneous preterm birth and who are pregnant with one baby, and have shortening of the cervical length ...
The cost of treatment depends on the amount of growth hormone given, which in turn depends on the child's weight and age. One ... being small for gestational age at birth, Prader-Willi syndrome, Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome, or other conditions. Genetic ...
... reductions in preterm births and hospital attendance for asthma, but not with a decrease in low birth weight.[70][71] A 2016 ... "Smoking bans cut asthma and premature births by 10%, study says". BBC News. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2015.. ... Banning smoking in public places has helped to cut premature births by 10 percent, according to new research from the United ... "Smoking bans cut premature births and child asthma attacks". Reuters. 28 March 2014.. ...
The date of his birth and the year of his death are disputed,[5] but 6 December has long been established as the traditional ... When they arrived later in the capital, they made a surprising find: the weight of the load had not changed, although the wheat ... The date of their death rather than their birth is commemorated."[6] ...
Litter size at birth, stillborn, early neonatal mortality for poodles in the Norwegian Kennel Club[88][89]. Size. Average ... The sizes of the official AKC-recognized Poodle breeds are determined by height, not by weight. ... Borge, K. S.; Tønnessen, R.; Nødtvedt, A.; Indrebø, A. (2011). "Litter size at birth in purebred dogs-A retrospective study of ... death within 1 week from birth) in poodles are lower than the average across all breeds.[89] ...
His last writings were memoirs on the convolutions of the human brain, on the weight of brains, and on the brains of idiots ( ... 1805 births. *1864 deaths. Hidden categories: *Articles with hCards. *Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ...
Weight of the soul[edit]. In 1901 Duncan MacDougall conducted an experiment in which he made weight measurements of patients as ... According to this belief until the time the soul is liberated from the saṃsāra (cycle of repeated birth and death), it gets ... He claimed that there was weight loss of varying amounts at the time of death; he concluded the soul weighed 21 grams, based on ... "How much does the soul weights?". Archived from the original on 28 April 2016.. ...
Billed weight. 111 kg (245 lb)[1]. Trained by. Koji Kitao. Debut. 1996[1]. ... 1964 births. *Living people. *Japanese male professional wrestlers. *Sportspeople from Kobe. Hidden categories: *CS1 Japanese- ...
Birth to adulthood. New York: Academic Press. *^ a b Case, R., Okamoto, Y., Griffin, S., McKeough, A., Bleiker, C., Henderson, ... weight, volume, etc., and, in adolescence, hypothesis testing, controlled experimentation, and abstract concepts, such as ... In the age span from birth to middle adolescence, the changes are faster in all of the domains. With development, thought in ... Case, R. (1985). Intellectual development: Birth to adulthood. New York: Academic Press. ...
Still, I'm getting more skeptical in my old age." In the opinion of interviewer Sheaffer, Randle "gives more weight to ' ... 1949 births. *Living people. *People from Cheyenne, Wyoming. *United States Army officers ...
Diamond JM (1987). "Causes of death before birth". Nature. 329 (6139): 487-8. doi:10.1038/329487a0. PMID 3657971. S2CID 4338257 ... Fareed M, Afzal M (2014). "Evidence of inbreeding depression on height, weight, and body mass index: a population-based child ... These ties were often sealed only upon the birth of progeny within the arranged marriage. Thus marriage was seen as a union of ... Offspring of biologically related persons are subject to the possible effects of inbreeding, such as congenital birth defects. ...
Johnson, Nelson (2012-02-01). Boardwalk Empire: The Birth, High Times, and Corruption of Atlantic City (Kindle ed.). ... Light weight and high cost are related in the manual wheelchair market. At the low-cost end, heavy, folding steel chairs with ... They are usually constructed from steel as light weight is less of a concern when the user is not required to self-propel. ... As the wheels necessarily come at a weight penalty it is often possible to exchange them with standard wheels to match the ...
It can constitute as much as 50% of a whale's body weight. Calves are born with only a thin layer of blubber, but some species ... Whales are creatures of the open ocean; they feed, mate, give birth, suckle and raise their young at sea. So extreme is their ... Whales are fully aquatic creatures, which means that birth and courtship behaviours are very different from terrestrial and ... and migrate to the equator to give birth. Species such as humpbacks and blue whales are capable of travelling thousands of ...
At birth[edit]. Main article: Sex assignment § Assignment in cases of infants with intersex traits, or cases of trauma ... Surgeons may require overweight patients to reduce their weight before surgery, any patients to refrain from hormone ... Infants born with intersex conditions might undergo interventions at or close to birth.[45] This is controversial because of ...
"National Pasta Association: "The story that it was Marco Polo who imported noodles to Italy and thereby gave birth to the ... of the combined weight of the wheat and soy ingredients.. State mandates. It is important to note that the federal regulations ... by weight of the finished macaroni product. The vegetable additions may be in the form of fresh, canned, dried or a puree or ... of the finished product weight. The vegetable component may be added as fresh, canned, dried, or in the form of a puree or ...
The body weight was not centered over the limbs, but was rather transferred 90 degrees outward and down through the lower limbs ... With the birth of modern biological classification in the 18th century, Linnaeus used the same division, with the tetrapods ... With the move from water to land, the spine had to resist the bending caused by body weight and had to provide mobility where ... The hind legs were somewhat specialized in that they not only supported weight, but also provided propulsion. The dorsal ...
Average global birth rates are declining fast, but vary greatly between developed countries (where birth rates are often at or ... "Global weight gain more damaging than rising numbers". BBC. June 18, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2013.. ... Total annual births were highest in the late 1980s at about 139 million,[8] and as of 2011 were expected to remain essentially ... Haub also stated that "life expectancy at birth probably averaged only about ten years for most of human history",[171] which ...
Theodor Gross to make tests of possible materials and to assess available engines for both fuel efficiency and power-to-weight ... 1838 births. *1917 deaths. *19th-century German people. *20th-century German people ...
Srinivas Rao 2nd year PG Community Medicine LOW BIRTH WEIGHT ... 4. LOW BIRTH WEIGHT Any infant with a birth weight of less than ... GRADING Birth weight Grade 2500 - 2000 gm Low birth weight 2000 - 1000 gm Very low birth weight , 1000 gm Extremely low birth ... 3. INTRODUCTION BIRTH WEIGHT 1ST weight of fetus or new born obtained after birth. Importance of birth weight  It is single ... Low birth weight * 1. Dr. Srinivas Rao 2nd year PG Community Medicine LOW BIRTH WEIGHT ...
Some low birth babies may have health issues. Get the facts on your babys birth weight. ... Newborn babies vary in birth weight and size. ... A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high birth weight ... Birth weight is the first weight of your baby, taken just after he or she is born. ... Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for certain health problems. Some may become sick in the first days of life or ...
A new paper provides an updated national birth weight reference for the United States using the most recent, nationally... ... nationally representative birth data. The study, A 2017 US reference for singleton birth weight percentiles using obstetric ... Study Develops Updated National Birth Weight Reference. News provided by. Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute Jun 14, 2019, ... Previous birth weight-for-gestational-age references may not reflect the current socio-demographic composition of the U.S. and ...
... exercise during pregnancy lower birth weight, folic acid pregnancy cvs, pregnancy early symptoms before missed period, pregnant ... during pregnancy loss of weight means, trying to get pregnant at 43 impossible, statistics on teenage pregnancy in canada, ... Exercise during pregnancy lower birth weight. Maternal exercise may reduce risk of high birth weights without changing the risk ... Low-birth-weight babies are also at higher risk of dying in infancy than normal weight babies. Women who lived in rural areas, ...
A pregnant womans exposure to outdoor air pollution may increase the risk of her baby being born at a lower birth weight, ... and infants were 3 percent more likely to be a low birth weight. An infant is considered low birth weight if he or she weighs ... including low birth weight, preterm birth, stillbirth and congenital abnormalities, have turned up mixed results. While some of ... Low birth weight is a known risk factor for infant mortality as well as heart, breathing and behavior problems later in life. ...
The perceived link between birth-control pills and weight gain actually goes back to Americas very first contraceptive, a ... So heres the question: If telling a woman that she might gain weight could actually make her gain weight, why dont the ... "Theyre the aches and pains of daily life," Grimes says, things like headaches and moodiness and, yes, weight gain. Weight gain ... and weight gain. They found no significant differences in any of these among women who took birth control pills and those who ...
Reuters Health) - Women who gain more weight in early pregnancy are more likely to deliver unusually large babies, who may be ... her infants birth weight rose by 13.6 grams. For weight gained from 14-18 weeks, birth weight rose by 26.1 grams for each ... Mothers pre-pregnancy weight was consistently associated with babies birth weight. But only weight gain from pre-pregnancy to ... Early in pregnancy, the authors note, the fetus grows slowly, so weight gain mainly involves the mothers body. Excess weight ...
... employment and independence as normal birth-weight infants, according to a study by researchers at the Michael G. DeGroote ... the majority of extremely low birth-weight infants are attaining similar levels of education, ... the normal birth-weight children were recruited at age eight years. Both the low birth-weight and normal birth-weight children ... 82 percent of low birth weight infants compared to 87 percent of those with normal birth weight). Overall, no statistically ...
Many women who use hormonal birth control cite weight gain as a side effect. Learn more about this occurrence and what you can ... hormonal forms of birth control. Stories from friends on birth control whove gained weight may be enough to deter some women ... Choosing Between the Birth Control Pill or the Depo-Provera Shot. Both the birth control pill and the birth control shot, Depo- ... Weight Gain and Birth Control: What You Need To Know. Medically reviewed by Nicole Galan, RN on. February 2, 2016. - Written by ...
A new study has found that the higher a childs weight at birth, the better that child performed on reading and math tests in ... Higher Birth Weight Linked to Better School Performance. By Janice Wood Associate News Editor ... For example, lower-birth-weight babies of highly educated parents tend to perform better in school than heavier babies of high ... A new study has found that the higher a childs weight at birth, the better that child performed on reading and math tests in ...
Low Birth Weight, the second album by Piano Magic, then a loose collective of musicians centred around founder songwriter, ... Low Birth Weight is undoubtedly of its time, though undoubtedly more playful and literary than much of the music made during ... Low Birth Weight is undoubtedly of its time, though undoubtedly more playful and literary than much of the music made during ... Low Birth Weight is undoubtedly of its time, though undoubtedly more playful and literary than much of the music made during ...
Children born with very low birth weights are at an increased risk of cognitive, emotional and behavioral problems throughout ... How very low birth weight affects brain development New insights into why children with very low birth weights can have ... The very low birth weight study participants completed the tasks as well as the normal birth weight participants, the ... Olsen and his colleagues wanted to see how the brains of very low birth weight individuals differed from their normal birth ...
In the normal birth weight range, previous studies on the associations between birth weight and intelligence are conflicting.1 ... In addition to birth weight, the mean score increased with increasing birth length, head circumference at birth, infant SES, ... These associations were observed in the full range of birth weights and within the normal birth weight range. ... Correlations and Partial Correlations Using Birth Weight as a Continuous Variable (Birth Weights up to 4 kg Included) ...
Higher birth weights have been attributed in part to womens increasing age and weight and decreased smoking. ... Birth weight""a combination of fetal growth and length of gestation""was recorded in grams. The investigators teased out ... "Theres still a lot we dont know about the causes of low birth weight," says Oken. "More research needs to be done." ... In addition to declines in birth weight, average gestation length among these full-term births also dropped by more than two ...
Because maternal GDM is associated with birth weight and birth weight is directly associated with later BMI, it makes sense to ... birth weight, and/or adolescent BMI. We then added birth weight and maternal BMI to the models, separately and in combination. ... before controlling for birth weight and maternal BMI. This estimate was slightly attenuated by addition of birth weight to the ... before adjusting for birth weight or maternal BMI (Table 4). Adjustment for birth weight slightly attenuated the estimates, and ...
Now, a new study from researchers at the University of Florida and Northwestern University shows that lower weights at birth ... Its no secret that low-birth-weight babies face significantly greater risks for certain health problems early on, such as ... Higher birth weight indicates better performance in school. University of Florida. Journal. American Economic Review. Keywords ... For example, lower-birth-weight babies of highly educated parents tend to perform better in school than heavier babies of high ...
... use birth control. Birth control can have other benefits, too (like helping with PMS and acne). ... Current: What do I need to know about birth control? What do I need to know about birth control?. In This Section * STDs, Birth ... Read more about birth control, your parents, and privacy.. What if I mess up or dont use birth control?. If you make a birth ... Some types of birth control work better than others. You need to see a doctor or nurse to get the types of birth control that ...
Body After Baby! Teen Mom 2 Star Chelsea Houska Explains Weight Loss Plan After Giving Birth March 1, 2017 11:26AM by Lauren ... Body After Baby! Teen Mom 2 Star Chelsea Houska Explains Weight Loss Plan After Giving Birth ... Amber Portwood Admits She Planned To Commit Suicide Following Birth Of James ...
The most typical cause of low birth weight is premature birth (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) as well as fetal growth ... "The study talks about birth weight being off by 2 or 3 percent," Grossman said. "We worry about extremely low weight babies, ... "The technical definition is growth restriction," Grossman said of low birth weight. "That means a weight less than the 10th ... "There have been studies that look at preterm birth and miscarriages associated with caffeine, but the birth weight is still ...
... for women at risk of giving birth prematurely should be reviewed to avoid low birth weights in born babies. ... This study adds weight to calls for a review of the current guidelines for management of threatened preterm birth and for who ... It is still unclear whether the reduction in birth weight of the treated infants is directly caused by the drug or due to the ... In the latest study, researchers used data from 278,508 births in Finland to see if the link between reduced birth weight and ...
Well I have no idea if this is related to the birth control that Im using, but I have gained 10 lbs (seriously) within the ... that if you gain a lot of weight on birth control the doctors can give you this water pill to help you lose that weight again ... that if you gain a lot of weight on birth control the doctors can give you this water pill to help you lose that weight again ... Weight Gain Well I have no idea if this is related to the birth control that Im using, but I have gained 10 lbs (seriously) ...
Children of mothers with rheumatoid arthritis are more likely to be delivered preterm and have a lower birth weight than ... Rheumatoid arthritis linked to increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight. Written by Honor Whiteman on November 13, ... Mothers with rheumatoid arthritis are more likely to give birth prematurely and have babies of a lower birth weight than ... Although the team says the association between RA, preterm birth and low birth weight warrants further investigation, Rom ...
Birth weight of offspring as a function of birth order for parents with or without diabetes; numbers relate to each birth order ... Type 2 diabetes and low birth weight: the role of paternal inheritance in the association of low birth weight and diabetes. ... The childs birth order made no difference to the effect of a fathers diabetes on the birth weight of his offspring (P=0.21). ... Diabetes in fathers and the birth weight of their offspring are strongly associated, according to data from the 1958 birth ...
Increased home ventilation could protect pregnant women against low-birth weight and preterm birth resulting from secondhand ... 17 (UPI) -- Increased home ventilation could protect pregnant women against low-birth weight and preterm birth resulting from ... had 49 percent higher chances of low-birth weight and 25 percent higher chances of preterm birth than non-smoking households ... found women with exposure to secondhand smoke at home were three times as likely to experience low-birth weights and were 92 ...
21 (UPI) -- Mom-of-two Blac Chyna says she didnt have weight loss surgery following her daughters birth this month. ... Blac Chyna denies having weight loss surgery after daughters birth. The model welcomed daughter Dream with Rob Kardashian on ... Im not saying I lost all my baby weight, which I have not. I still have, like, 40 pounds to go," the star revealed. "I did ...
Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth. The average birth weight in babies of European heritage is 3.5 ... Low birth weight babies are more likely to develop the following conditions after birth compared to normal birth weight babies ... Birthweight: Infants weight recorded at the time of birth "New birth weight curves tailored to babys ethnicity , Toronto Star ... A low birth weight can be caused either by a preterm birth (low gestational age at birth) or of the infant being small for ...
Eating a sensible diet and adopting a regular workout regimen will help you maintain a healthy weight. ... It is possible to lose weight while on the birth control pill, but every womans body is different and reacts differently to ... Can You Lose Weight While on the Birth Control Pill?. *Medical Author: Karthik Kumar, MBBS ... It is possible to lose weight while on the birth control pill, but every womans body is different and reacts differently to ...
... infant is defined as one with a birth weight of less than 1000 g (2 lb, 3 oz). Most extremely low birth weight infants are also ... An extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant is defined as one with a birth weight of less than 1000 g (2 lb, 3 oz). Most ... First year survival was 15.5% for infants with a birth weight less than 500g. [2] Infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW ... Infants with extremely low birth weight are at higher risk for hearing impairment because of their low birth weight. [150] ...
Financial strain felt by a mother-to-be can potentially increase her risk for giving birth to a low birth weight baby, new ... Lower birth weights To conduct the study, the investigators asked pregnant women questions about how difficult it would be to ... Low birth weight is defined as being below 5 pounds and 8 ounces. Beyond having to spend their first weeks in intensive care, ... "We found that the more stress a woman reported, the greater the likelihood that she would have a baby of low birth weight," ...
  • Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for certain health problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • High birth weight babies are often big because the parents are big, or the mother has diabetes during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These babies may be at a higher risk of birth injuries and problems with blood sugar. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pregnant women who are vaccinated against the flu are significantly less likely to deliver premature or low-birth-weight babies compared to unvaccinated expectant mothers, new Canadian research finds. (amazonaws.com)
  • Low-birth-weight babies are also at higher risk of dying in infancy than normal weight babies. (amazonaws.com)
  • An earlier study from Nova Scotia showed that women who are admitted to hospital with respiratory illnesses during flu season while pregnant are more likely to deliver babies that are small for their gestational age or have a low birth weight. (amazonaws.com)
  • Reuters Health) - Women who gain more weight in early pregnancy are more likely to deliver unusually large babies, who may be prone to a host of health problems later in life, new research shows. (reuters.com)
  • Mothers' pre-pregnancy weight was consistently associated with babies' birth weight. (reuters.com)
  • In a bivariate analysis, women who had 25(OH)D levels of 37.5 nmol/L or more had babies with higher birth weight, head circumference, and ponderal index when compared with those whose 25(OH) levels were less than 37.5 nmol/L, but there were no differences in placental weight and placental-to-fetal weight ratio. (medscape.com)
  • Babies whose mothers took iron supplements every day while pregnant are more likely to have a good birth weight, new research has shown. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • For example, lower-birth-weight babies of highly educated parents tend to perform better in school than heavier babies of high school dropouts because the educational level of a child's mother is a stronger predictor of school success, Roth said. (psychcentral.com)
  • The study analyzed data on birth weight, maternal and neonatal characteristics, obstetric care and other trends from the National Center for Health Statistics Natality Data Sets, looking at 36,827,828 U.S. babies born at full-term between 1990 and 2005. (redorbit.com)
  • In contrast to previous research findings, birth weights plummeted even further in infants born to a subset of women considered to be at low risk for small babies: Mothers who were white, well-educated, married, didn't smoke, received early prenatal care, and delivered vaginally with no complications had babies who weighed an average of 79 grams (2.78 ounces) less at birth during the study period. (redorbit.com)
  • While the decline may simply represent a reversal of previous increases in birth weights, it may also be cause for concern: babies born small not only face short-term complications such as increased likelihood of requiring intensive care after birth and even higher risk of death, they may also be at higher risk for chronic diseases in adulthood. (redorbit.com)
  • GAINESVILLE, Fla. -- It's no secret that low-birth-weight babies face significantly greater risks for certain health problems early on, such as respiratory distress or infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now, a new study from researchers at the University of Florida and Northwestern University shows that lower weights at birth also have an adverse effect on children's performance in school, which is likely due to the early health struggles small babies often face. (eurekalert.org)
  • Analysis revealed that compared to non-treated babies, those babies exposed to steroids were on average born with lower birth weights, whether they were preterm, near-term or born at term. (medindia.net)
  • The weight difference was 141 grams for near term babies and 89 grams for full-term babies. (medindia.net)
  • Mothers with rheumatoid arthritis are more likely to give birth prematurely and have babies of a lower birth weight than mothers without the condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The average birth weight in babies of European heritage is 3.5 kilograms (7.7 lb), though the range of normal is between 2.5 and 4.5 kilograms (5.5 and 9.9 lb). (wikipedia.org)
  • The birth weight of a baby is notable because very low birth weight babies are 100 times more likely to die compared to normal birth weight babies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those mothers who have stressful events during pregnancy, especially during the first and second trimester, are at higher risk to deliver low-birth weight babies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers furthered this study and found that maternal stressful events that occur prior to conception have a negative impact on birth weight as well, and can result in a higher risk for preterm and lower birth weight babies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings can pose evidence for future prevention efforts for low birth weight babies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center say they've found a link between anxiety over financial stress and babies being born at lower birth weights. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • These "low birth weight" babies face challenges that others will never know-challenges that begin with a greater risk of infant mortality and extend well into adulthood in the form of health and developmental problems. (indiebound.org)
  • Among babies born in a Shanghai hospital, those with low birth weight had significantly higher levels of phthalates in their cord blood and meconium, according to Renshan Ge, MD, of the Population Council and Rockefeller University in New York, and colleagues. (medpagetoday.com)
  • After adjusting for potential confounders, babies with the highest levels of a particular phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), in their cord blood were 3.5 times more likely to have low birth weight than those with lower levels, the researchers reported online in the Journal of Pediatrics . (medpagetoday.com)
  • All babies were born at term at the Shanghai Medical Center for Maternal and Child Health -- 88 were born with a birth weight of less than 2,500 grams and 113 were born with normal weight. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Pregnant women who showed higher exposure to a common agricultural pesticide had babies with slightly lower birth weights, a study by Canadian and U.S. researchers has found. (cbc.ca)
  • Lamphear said that's comparable to the decrease in birth weight seen in the babies of women who smoke. (cbc.ca)
  • Women were 25 percent more likely to deliver low birth weight babies after hydraulic fracturing operations commenced within a half-mile of their homes, said the study's lead researcher, Janet Currie. (hon.ch)
  • Low birth weight babies have a greater risk for infant mortality, asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, according to the researchers. (hon.ch)
  • Low birth weights -- referring to babies who weigh less than 5.5 pounds at birth -- occurred most often among pregnant women living nearest to a fracking site, the investigators found. (hon.ch)
  • Babies who gain weight slowly will catch up with their peers by the age of 13, according to the BBC News website. (www.nhs.uk)
  • It found that on average, babies who had poor weight gain as infants achieved more-or-less average heights and weights by 13 years. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Babies with later weight gain problems gained weight steadily to the age of 13 years. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Generally, these babies with low-weight problems went on to have slightly lower weight and height as teenagers, compared with teenagers who did not have growth problems in the first nine months of life. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Babies with extreme weight measurements were also excluded. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Babies who had difficulties putting on weight and had weight gain in the lowest 5% of normal weight gains for age were compared to babies who had normal weight gain at each time interval of the study and at 13 years. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Babies are classed as being very low birth weight (VLBW) if they weigh less than 1,500g at birth and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) below 1,000g. (boots.com)
  • Low birth weight babies are also weaker and find it harder to keep warm. (boots.com)
  • In the United States black women have for decades been twice as likely as white women to give birth to babies of low birth weight who are at elevated risk for developmental disabilities. (nih.gov)
  • The author summarizes the cognitive and behavioral problems that beset many low birth weight children and notes that not only are the problems greatest for the smallest babies, but black babies are two to three times as likely as whites to be very small. (nih.gov)
  • After the participants' babies were born, researchers were able to review medical records to compare birth weight against moms' questionnaire responses during pregnancy. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers knew from previous studies that pregnant moms who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have a higher likelihood of having smaller babies and worse birth outcomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • What they wanted to learn was whether specific factors could be driving that connection - factors that could lead to positive interventions for women at risk of delivering low-birth-weight babies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Low-birth-weight babies often suffer from serious health problems and spend their first weeks or months in intensive care. (eurekalert.org)
  • About 8 percent of babies born in the United States are underweight at birth. (eurekalert.org)
  • Limitations of the study include the fact that it was a secondary analysis of data collected during a different study, and that the overall number of low-birth-weight babies was small, at 11. (eurekalert.org)
  • Very low birth weight (VLBW) is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 3 pounds, 4 ounces (1.5 kilograms). (rochester.edu)
  • Only about 1% of babies born in the U.S. are very low birth weight. (rochester.edu)
  • Very-low-birth-weight babies are often born before 30 weeks of pregnancy. (rochester.edu)
  • Most very low birth weight babies who have IUGR are also born early. (rochester.edu)
  • Babies with very low birth weight look much smaller than other babies of normal birth weight. (rochester.edu)
  • Babies weighing less than 3 pounds, 4 ounces (1.5 kilograms) at birth are considered very low birth weight. (rochester.edu)
  • Many very-low-birth-weight babies are referred to special follow-up healthcare programs. (rochester.edu)
  • Babies with a very low birth weight have a greater risk of developing problems. (rochester.edu)
  • Their tiny bodies are not as strong as babies of normal weight. (rochester.edu)
  • Most babies with a very low birth weight are also premature. (rochester.edu)
  • In 450 women whose newborn's weight was known, the delivery of macrosomic babies was associated with a twofold higher relative risk for GDM in women who themselves had low birth weight. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Such a risk was highest in women with low birth weight who delivered macrosomic babies, and in the group with low birth weight, the relationship between maternal glucose tolerance or insulin resistance and offspring's neonatal weight was much more evident. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Maternal insulin sensitivity is inversely related to offspring's neonatal weight ( 10 , 11 ), and a small maternal birth weight could therefore hypothetically modify the risk of giving birth to macrosomic babies. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Indeed, very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, less than 1500 grams, often represent the smallest and the newest members of our communities and are often at greatest risk for mortality and morbidity. (hindawi.com)
  • 1 Among infants born there in 1995, those whose mothers had a diagnosed psychiatric or substance-related disorder had roughly 2-4 times the odds of other babies of having a low or very low birth weight, and of being delivered preterm. (guttmacher.org)
  • A new survey carried out by leading weight loss company, VLCC has expressed concerns over the rising instances of babies with low birth weight of less than 2.5 kgs in India. (medindia.net)
  • Nearly 20 percent of all the babies born in India have a birth weight of less than 2.5 kgs compared with the normal birth weight of 3 kgs. (medindia.net)
  • This is more prevalent among urban mothers with 24 percent of babies born in urban areas have a low birth rate compared to 14.7 percent in rural areas. (medindia.net)
  • Babies of mothers who exercise are born with healthier weights", Aggarwal added. (medindia.net)
  • Based on more than 12,000 women in Nova Scotia who gave birth in the immediate aftermath of the H1N1 flu pandemic, the study adds to mounting evidence that the flu can have "really detrimental effects for both mothers and their babies," said first author Alexandra Legge, a fourth-year medical student at Dalhousie University in Halifax. (nationalpost.com)
  • Overall, the odds of preterm birth (defined as deliveries at less than 37 weeks' gestation) and lower-birth-weight infants were lower among the babies of vaccinated women. (nationalpost.com)
  • NEARLY half a million Filipino babies are born with low birth weights (LBW) each year, increasing the risk of stunting and even death for these newborns, according to a report released by the United Nations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 34 gave birth to male babies with a mean birth weight of 2.91 [+ or -] 0.30 or female babies with a mean birth weight of 2.89 [+ or -] 0.51. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A global network of researchers and health care professionals called INTERGROWTH-21st looked at babies' growth in the womb and size at birth in eight urban areas across the world. (thebump.com)
  • The children had been healthy babies, born in Southampton, and were within the normal birth weight range. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Babies born below 5 pounds, 8 ounces are defined as low-birth-weight. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • Taking care of a newborn infant, or what would happen during labor and delivery, or how the infant might change their life - that particular type of distress was kind of the reason that greater financial stress in pregnant women was associated with delivering babies of lower birth weight," she states. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • Babies born below 5 pounds, 8 ounces are defined as low-birth-weight, and can suffer from serious health problems and spend their first weeks or months in intensive care. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • More than 8 percent of babies born in Ohio are underweight at birth. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • What we did not know before this study was if the increasing proportion of very preterm births (babies born at less than 28 weeks' gestation) and very low birth weight (babies weighing less than 3.3 pounds at delivery), particularly those less than 1.1 pound, disproportionately affect mortality rates. (uab.edu)
  • Low-birthweight babies (% of births) in Guam was reported at 8 % in 1999, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. (tradingeconomics.com)
  • Low-birthweight babies are newborns weighing less than 2,500 grams, with the measurement taken within the first hours of life, before significant postnatal weight loss has occurred. (tradingeconomics.com)
  • However, the overall rate of very low birthweight babies in the U.S. is increasing. (chop.edu)
  • This is primarily due to the greater numbers of multiple birth babies who are more likely to be born early and weigh less. (chop.edu)
  • Babies with very low birthweight look much smaller than other babies of normal birthweight. (chop.edu)
  • Very low birthweight babies are often born before 30 weeks of pregnancy. (chop.edu)
  • Most very low birthweight babies who have IUGR are also born early, and are both very small and physically immature. (chop.edu)
  • African-American babies are twice as likely to have very low birthweight than white babies. (chop.edu)
  • Multiple birth babies are at increased risk of very low birthweight because they often are premature. (chop.edu)
  • Women who are exposed to drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes during pregnancy are more likely to have low or very low birthweight babies. (chop.edu)
  • Because they have so little body fat, very low birthweight babies often have difficulty staying warm in normal temperatures. (chop.edu)
  • Because many babies with very low birthweight are also premature, it can be difficult to separate the problems due to the prematurity from the problems of just being so tiny. (chop.edu)
  • Nearly all very low birthweight babies need specialized care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) until they can gain weight and are well enough to go home. (chop.edu)
  • The survival of these tiny babies is directly related to their weight at birth. (chop.edu)
  • Risks for long-term complications and disability are increased for babies with very low birthweight. (chop.edu)
  • Most of the existing literature evaluating the effects of nutritional programs targeted to pregnant and nursing women in developed countries emphasizes their positive effects on birth outcomes and the physical development of children, yet developing countries are still resistant to implementing social welfare programs aiming to enhance the nutritional status and prenatal care of pregnant women in order to improve the health of their babies. (jhu.edu)
  • Babies who are born very low in birth-weight can face a variety of negative outcomes including an increased risk of infant mortality, heightened risk for long term disability and impaired development such as delayed motor and social development. (kidscount.org)
  • Given the concerns regarding the validity of previous birth weight references based on maternal reports of last menstrual period, the need for an obstetric estimate-based reference has become increasingly appreciated. (prnewswire.com)
  • Maternal exercise may reduce risk of high birth weights without changing the risk of have a small or premature baby. (amazonaws.com)
  • Altogether, researchers analyzed data from roughly 3 million pregnancies and births, making this the largest study to date to assess the relationship between maternal air pollution exposure and low birth weight . (foxnews.com)
  • Previous studies assessing the relationship between maternal exposure to air pollution and a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm birth, stillbirth and congenital abnormalities, have turned up mixed results. (foxnews.com)
  • For weight gained from 14-18 weeks, birth weight rose by 26.1 grams for each additional kilogram of maternal weight gain. (reuters.com)
  • Excess weight gain may expose the fetus to an excess of "maternal fuels," such as glucose and amino acids, affecting development and increasing the risk of metabolic problems. (reuters.com)
  • Alison D. Gernand, PhD, MPH, a postdoctoral associate in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health and School of Medicine in Pennsylvania, and colleagues measured maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels to study the relationship between maternal 25(OH)D levels and newborn and placental weight. (medscape.com)
  • The differences in birth weight and head circumference by vitamin D deficiency remained after adjustment for trimester at maternal blood draw, maternal race/ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index, height, smoking, season, and study site. (medscape.com)
  • Birth weight increased by 3.6 g (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 - 6.1 g), and head circumference increased by 0.010 cm (95% CI, 0.002 - 0.018 cm) per 1 nmol/L increase in maternal 25(OH)D level up to 37.5 nmol/L, leveling off after that. (medscape.com)
  • The objectives of this study were to examine associations of birth weight and GDM with adolescent body mass index (BMI) and to determine the extent to which the effect of GDM is explained by its influence on birth weight or by maternal adiposity. (aappublications.org)
  • Dr. Tracy Grossman , maternal-fetal medicine specialist in the department of obstetrics and gynecology at NYU Langone Health, explains that low birth weight can be associated with a variety of increased health risks. (healthline.com)
  • Of the children identified, 13,566 were born to mothers with either maternal RA (diagnosis received before giving birth) or preclinical RA (diagnosis received after giving birth). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • On analyzing the birth weight of children born to mothers with maternal RA, the team found that they were around 87 g lighter than children of mothers without RA, while the placenta weight was around 14 g lower. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 4 The association between maternal diabetes and the child's birth weight, however, is likely to reflect immediate effects of the mother's metabolic control, possibly masking genetic effects operating in the opposite direction. (bmj.com)
  • Low birth weight can also vary by maternal age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because low birth weight is often accompanied by social risk factors such as minority racial status, low education, young maternal age, and low income, the question of causes and consequences-of precisely how biological and social factors figure into this equation-becomes especially tricky to sort out. (indiebound.org)
  • A correlation between maternal exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and low birth weight has been reported that the effect on birth weight of increased ambient CO was as large as the effect of the mother smoking a pack of cigarettes per day during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A positive association between birth weight and risk of type 1 diabetes has recently been described in large epidemiological studies, even after exclusion of maternal diabetes ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Of the 1,056 who returned the buccal cell samples, 1,008 were linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, which stores computerized information on birth weight, gestational age, maternal age at delivery, maternal parity, and other perinatal factors for all births in Norway since 1967 ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We suggest that particularly maternal influences, experienced by both twin members, may underlie the association between birth weight and blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • By comparing the heavier and the lighter twin member within a pair, the influence of birth weight can be estimated while potential confounding maternal and genetic characteristics are controlled for. (ahajournals.org)
  • I argue' that maternal height, and therefore the mother's nutritional status during her growing years accounted for most of the socioeconomic differences in birth weight in the past implying that in the past health inequality was transmitted across generations. (repec.org)
  • In the latter, the relationships between their newborn's weight and either maternal glucose tolerance (positive) or ISI OGTT (negative) were amplified. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS -Low maternal birth weight was associated with a twofold higher risk for GDM, independent of major confounders. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is still unknown whether insulin resistance and a woman's own birth weight are linked during pregnancy, and there are conflicting results regarding the relationship between GDM and maternal birth weight ( 12 , 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We therefore designed our study to evaluate whether there is a relationship between maternal birth weight and peripheral insulin resistance or the presence of GDM in a group of pregnant women. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A second purpose of this study was to verify whether low maternal birth weight modifies the relationship between insulin resistance or GDM and the neonatal offspring's weight. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our results indicate that as birth weight decreases, the prevalence of grade failure, placement in special classes, and classification as handicapped increases, even when controlling for maternal education and neonatal stay. (nih.gov)
  • Fetoinfant deaths are sorted into four categories: maternal health/prematurity, maternal care, newborn care, and infant care, by birth weight and age at death. (hindawi.com)
  • Using a data set that links statewide birth and infant death records with maternal and infant hospital discharge records, the analysts gathered information on more than 521,000 women who delivered in 1995 and on their liveborn, singleton infants. (guttmacher.org)
  • Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity. (hindawi.com)
  • Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. (mdpi.com)
  • As researchers and doctors start to remedy maternal health and low newborn birth weight, they're running into another problem. (thebump.com)
  • A Cochrane systematic review of the effects of caffeine on pregnancy identified 2 studies, only one of which addressed the question of maternal caffeine intake and infant birth weight. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Cochrane systematic review (described above) and a meta-analysis of 9 prospective cohort studies with a total of 90,000 patients that evaluated maternal caffeine intake found that it was associated with increased low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), or small for gestational age (SGA) infants. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In this study, we aimed to establish whether domestic use of wood fuel is associated with reduced birth weight, independent of key maternal, social, and economic confounding factors. (burningissues.org)
  • Since twins are exposed to the same conditions during pregnancy and the very moment of birth (for example, maternal stress, length of pregnancy, and institutionalized delivery), twin-based estimates successfully [End Page 162] identify the effect of physical growth under age five. (jhu.edu)
  • Factors linked with low birth-weight include: tobacco use, alcohol or drug use, poor nutrition, excessive stress and anxiety, inadequate prenatal care, chronic maternal illness, premature labor, low weight of mother, genetic disorders or short interval between pregnancies. (kidscount.org)
  • Fetal growth, typically measured as birth weight-for-gestational-age is an important clinical indicator of morbidity, survival, and long-term health outcomes in children and their mothers. (prnewswire.com)
  • Researchers may also use this reference to derive continuous measures of birth size for studies examining predictors of fetal growth or associations of fetal growth with later health outcomes. (prnewswire.com)
  • Dr. Saroj Saigal, professor of pediatrics, conducted a study over two years to determine the outcomes at young adulthood of extremely low birth-weight infants, in comparison to a group of normal birth-weight children. (news-medical.net)
  • Scientists at Harvard School of Public Health and Imperial College London looked at the results of more than 90 previous studies that had assessed the effects of prenatal iron supplementation on birth outcomes. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • For the study, the researchers looked at the birth outcomes of Brazilian children whose mothers were exposed to local violence as measured by homicide rates in small Brazilian municipalities and the neighborhoods of the city of Fortaleza. (psychcentral.com)
  • The researchers compared the birth outcomes of mothers who were exposed to a homicide during pregnancy to otherwise similar mothers living in the same area, who happened not to be exposed to homicides. (psychcentral.com)
  • We also find that socio-economic factors, such as the mothers' low level of education appear to amplify the adverse consequences of violence on birth outcomes, implying that violence compounds the disadvantage that newborns from low socio-economic status already suffer. (psychcentral.com)
  • There is an opportunity here to look for interventions during pregnancy that could help mitigate the effects of financial strain on birth outcomes," Mitchell said in a statement . (consumeraffairs.com)
  • The author applauds the post-1980 expansions of Medicaid for increasing rates of prenatal care use among poor pregnant women but stresses that standard prenatal medical care cannot improve aggregate birth outcomes substantially. (nih.gov)
  • The author stresses the importance of reducing rates of low birth weight generally and of extending to all children who need them the interventions that have improved cognitive outcomes among low birth weight children. (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential usefulness of volume as a quality indicator for very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants and compare volume with other potential indicators based on readily available hospital characteristics and patient outcomes. (rand.org)
  • There is an opportunity here to look for interventions during pregnancy that could help mitigate the effects of financial strain on birth outcomes," said lead author Amanda Mitchell, a postdoctoral researcher in Ohio State Wexner Medical Center's Stress and Health in Pregnancy Research Program. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this paper we explore the impact of birth weight on children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. (repec.org)
  • The results show that birth weight has significant but very small effects on male cognitive development at age 3 and on female cognitive and behavioural outcomes at age 3. (repec.org)
  • We also find that birth weight affects age 5 outcomes only through previous achievements, and that the overall impact fades out over time. (repec.org)
  • The categories roughly represent risk factors that can be used to guide interventions, specifically targeting the risk category with the greatest excess fetoinfant mortality in the target community in reference to a population that often has better birth outcomes. (hindawi.com)
  • Pregnant women with a documented psychiatric disorder or substance abuse problem have a significantly elevated risk of having poor birth outcomes, according to results of a population-based study conducted in California. (guttmacher.org)
  • As the analysts observe, the findings are important because psychiatric disorders are not uncommon among pregnant women, and earlier studies of their relationship to poor birth outcomes have examined symptoms or stress rather than documented diagnoses. (guttmacher.org)
  • could enhance timely interventions and improve birth outcomes. (guttmacher.org)
  • One is that because it is observational, in that it looked only at medical records, comparing the birth outcomes for women with varying number of abortions. (wkar.org)
  • No matter how large and well-controlled, it only shows there is a link between abortion and some adverse birth outcomes," said lead author Reija Klemetti , an epidemiologist at the National Institute for Health and Welfare in Helsinki. (wkar.org)
  • Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. (mdpi.com)
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio - Motherhood is certainly known for being stressful, but the worries of lower-income moms-to-be might contribute to poor birth outcomes. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • Moreover, empirical evidence [End Page 161] is based on data sets linking clinical birth records with outcomes later in life, potentially introducing additional biases such as attrition and selection caused by the survival condition of individuals, reinforcing skepticism about the results. (jhu.edu)
  • First, in contrast to previous empirical studies focusing on adult outcomes, this paper examines the effects of birth weight on the physical development of children under age five. (jhu.edu)
  • Early developmental stages can have long-term effects on health, educational, and labor market outcomes, which can mediate the birth weight and educational or labor market gradients during adulthood. (jhu.edu)
  • These data were used to search for possible effects of parental occupational exposures on birth outcomes. (ilo.org)
  • They then modelled birth outcomes with the matched group to estimate the effect of deworming during antenatal care after accounting for various risk factors. (news-medical.net)
  • Typically in pregnancy we're very focused on weight gain, and pregnant women have their weight measured at every appointment to see how much they are gaining," Dr. Retnakaran noted in a telephone interview with Reuters Health. (reuters.com)
  • The timing is difficult to study, he added, because researchers typically rely on a woman's own reporting of her pre-pregnancy weight, which may not be accurate. (reuters.com)
  • In the new study, reported last month in JAMA Pediatrics, Dr. Retnakaran and his team enrolled 1,164 newly married women living in the Liuyang region of China, measuring their weight before they became pregnant and at intervals throughout pregnancy. (reuters.com)
  • But only weight gain from pre-pregnancy to less than 14 weeks, and from 14 to 18 weeks, was associated with birth weight. (reuters.com)
  • But weight gain later in pregnancy had no effect on newborn size. (reuters.com)
  • Early in pregnancy, the authors note, the fetus grows slowly, so weight gain mainly involves the mother's body. (reuters.com)
  • This is adding further evidence that it may be particularly important to optimize weight before pregnancy. (reuters.com)
  • Vitamin D levels in early pregnancy are closely related to birth weight, head circumference and ponderal index, but not placental growth, in term infants, according to a study published online November 16 and in the January 2013 issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism . (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnancy Linked to Low Birth Weight - Medscape - Dec 13, 2012. (medscape.com)
  • The investigators teased out certain factors, including the mothers' age, race or ethnicity, education level, marital status and tobacco use, as well as the amount of weight the women gained during pregnancy and how early in pregnancy they received prenatal care. (redorbit.com)
  • Preventing pregnancy isn't the only reason people use birth control - it can have lots of other benefits, too. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Bottom line: if there's a chance you'll be doing any sexy stuff that can lead to pregnancy, birth control is your friend. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • You need to see a doctor or nurse to get the types of birth control that work best to prevent pregnancy - like the IUD , implant , shot , pill , patch , or ring . (plannedparenthood.org)
  • If you make a birth control mistake or have sex without using birth control at all, don't freak out - you still have a few days to try to prevent pregnancy. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Emergency contraception is a kind of birth control that can help prevent pregnancy up to 5 days after unprotected sex. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • The findings show that birth weight drops significantly among newborns whose mothers had been exposed to a homicide during pregnancy. (psychcentral.com)
  • The most typical cause of low birth weight is premature birth (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) as well as fetal growth restriction . (healthline.com)
  • According to the research team, led by Ane Rom of Copenhagen University Hospital in Denmark, past studies have associated rheumatic diseases with a number of pregnancy complications, such as preterm birth and low birth weight. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The health of the mother during the pregnancy can affect birth weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pre-existing disease or acquired disease in pregnancy is sometimes associated with decreased birth weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who experienced abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional) during pregnancy are also at increased risk of delivering a low-birth weight baby. (wikipedia.org)
  • A condom with any type of birth control is the only way to get protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases ( STDs ) during vaginal sex. (rxlist.com)
  • Neither end of the weight spectrum is optimal when it comes to development of the brain and body, and having a baby that's either too heavy or too light is associated with many problems, both during pregnancy and beyond. (parents.com)
  • Pregnancy complications, including pregnancy-induced hypertension, diabetes, infection, and intrahepatic cholestasis syndrome, were more common in the low birth weight group (36.4% versus 15.9%, P =0.001). (medpagetoday.com)
  • The study, published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives this week, found that for every 10-fold increase in the concentration of the chemicals found in a pregnant woman's urine, her pregnancy was reduced by half a week and her child's birth weight decreased about 150 grams. (cbc.ca)
  • Researchers at The Ohio State University found that pregnancy-specific distress, such as concerns that the baby's needs won't be met, appears to be a pathway between financial strain and higher likelihood of a low-birth-weight infant. (eurekalert.org)
  • Much of a baby's weight is gained during the later part of pregnancy. (rochester.edu)
  • Another cause of very low birth weight is when a baby does not grow well during pregnancy. (rochester.edu)
  • A woman of normal weight who gained up to 35 pounds during pregnancy can be at her pre-pregnancy weight within two months, explains WebMD. (reference.com)
  • A woman who was already overweight before pregnancy or gained too much weight may need at least a year to lose her pregnancy weight. (reference.com)
  • Does the impact of a plant-based diet during pregnancy on birth weight differ by ethnicity? (bmj.com)
  • Those who were part of a twin pregnancy, whose mother had gestational diabetes or diabetes diagnosed up to the time of study, or who had missing data for birth weight were also excluded, leaving 969 children for analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE -To study the relationship between low birth weight and the presence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or peripheral insulin resistance during pregnancy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The researchers note avoiding birth control pills for fear of weight gain puts women at risk for unplanned pregnancy . (emaxhealth.com)
  • Kylie Jenner is no fan of the weight she has gained throughout her pregnancy, it has been alleged. (inquisitr.com)
  • Kylie Jenner absolutely hates it, but she knows it's not much longer before she can start working out and getting rid of the baby weight because hiding in her home for the entire pregnancy has been a challenge in itself. (inquisitr.com)
  • However, the effects of the widely promoted and recommended approaches of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy and insecticide-treated nets for pregnant women on low birth weight have been insufficiently examined. (malariaworld.org)
  • This analysis investigates the independent and combined effects of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy and insecticide-treated nets on low birth weight among Malawian children. (malariaworld.org)
  • Yet flu shots remain a notoriously tough sell among pregnant women: of the 12,233 women who gave birth to a live-born or stillborn infant between November 2010 and March 2012, a "disappointingly low" 16% received the flu vaccine during their pregnancy, the researchers said. (nationalpost.com)
  • Q/ Does caffeine intake during pregnancy affect birth weight? (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 1) The double-blind RCT evaluating caffeine intake during pregnancy found no significant differences in birth weight or length of gestation between women who drank regular coffee and women who drank decaffeinated coffee. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The hope is that psychological interventions that address pregnancy-specific concerns would actually help reduce the effects of financial stress on birth weight," she explains. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • A woman who was of normal weight prior to getting pregnant can expect to gain between 25 and 35 pounds during her pregnancy, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. (livestrong.com)
  • While most of this weight will taper off soon after you give birth, the 5 to 10 pounds of body fat gained during pregnancy may stick around longer. (livestrong.com)
  • The good news is that most women will lose about half of their pregnancy weight gain by 6 weeks postpartum, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine article, 'Losing Weight After Pregnancy. (livestrong.com)
  • Some women may not lose much weight during that time, especially if they did not gain much weight during pregnancy. (livestrong.com)
  • Eating a varied diet with plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables and grains, as well as getting back into an exercise routine, may also help you get back to your pre-baby weight sooner, according to The Mayo Clinic article, 'Weight Loss After Pregnancy: Reclaiming Your Body. (livestrong.com)
  • This is when a baby does not grow well during pregnancy because of problems with the placenta, the mother's health, or birth defects. (chop.edu)
  • Mothers of lower socioeconomic status are also more likely to have poorer pregnancy nutrition, inadequate prenatal care, and pregnancy complications--all factors that can contribute to very low birthweight. (chop.edu)
  • During pregnancy, a baby's birthweight can be estimated in different ways. (chop.edu)
  • Birth weight and exposure to kitchen wood smoke during pregnancy in rural Guatemala. (burningissues.org)
  • In this regard, children's birth weight and physical growth are mutually determined by genetics, environmental conditions to which the mother was exposed during pregnancy, family background, and socioeconomic status, among other factors. (jhu.edu)
  • Researchers from Syracuse University, the World Health Organization, and SUNY Upstate measured the impact of deworming medicine during pregnancy on the subsequent risk of neonatal mortality and low birthweight. (news-medical.net)
  • A recent study has found that mothers receiving deworming treatment during pregnancy reduce by 14% the risk of their child dying within the first four weeks after birth. (news-medical.net)
  • Many causes of infant low birth-weight can be linked to the mother's behavior or health during pregnancy. (kidscount.org)
  • The study team used data on over 3 million live births from the 2017 U.S. Natality files, a database of U.S. birth certificates publicly available from the National Vital Statistics System of the National Center for Health Statistics. (prnewswire.com)
  • In addition to declines in birth weight, average gestation length among these full-term births also dropped by more than two days. (redorbit.com)
  • In a study of more than a quarter of a million births, researchers found an association between steroid treatment - used to help an unborn baby's lungs develop - and reduced birth weight. (medindia.net)
  • In the latest study, researchers used data from 278,508 births in Finland to see if the link between reduced birth weight and size was related to the steroid treatment, or to other factors. (medindia.net)
  • For their study, Rom and colleagues identified 1,917,723 singleton births that occurred in Denmark between 1977 and 2008 using data from national registries, including the Civil Registration System, the Medical Birth Registry and the Danish National Hospital Registry. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We used data from the large cohort study of British births in 1958 to evaluate whether a father's non-insulin dependent diabetes or a mother's diabetes starting after childbirth is associated with the birth weight of their offspring. (bmj.com)
  • We used random effects models on birth weight (adjusted for gestational age) to allow for dependence between a parent's subsequent births. (bmj.com)
  • The interaction between birth order and diabetes for mothers (not fathers) may also reflect the different intervals between the onset of diabetes and the timing of births. (bmj.com)
  • Jo Kay Ghosh of the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California said opening windows more could lower the risk of pregnant women having low-birth weight and preterm births due to secondhand smoke and other indoor-source volatile organic compounds. (upi.com)
  • The study, published online ahead of the April print edition of the American Journal of Public Health, found women with exposure to secondhand smoke at home were three times as likely to experience low-birth weights and were 92 percent more likely to have a preterm births compared to women who opened their windows for less than half a day. (upi.com)
  • Multiple births, where a mother has more than one child at one time, can also be a determinant in birth weight as each baby is likely to be outside the AGA (appropriate for gestational age). (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the last 2 decades, there has been a consistent downward shift in the US birth weight distribution, driven by a steady increase in births with weights less than 3500 g and a relative decrease in births with weights over 3500 g. (medscape.com)
  • Lower birth weights and premature births are linked to respiratory problems and problems with learning and behaviour. (cbc.ca)
  • Around 7% of all live births are low birth weight. (boots.com)
  • They conducted the study in the fifth conscription district of Denmark including all the men born after January 1, 1973 who were residents in the study area during the period August 1, 1993 to July 31, 1994, The Danish Medical Birth Register contains information on all births in Denmark since January 1, 1973. (rti.org)
  • Mireille - We took every every singleton live birth in London during 2006-2010, that's a five year period, and that means we were looking at 540,000 births. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Objective is to review studies of the risk of low birth weight (LBW)/preterm births (PTB) associated with unintended pregnancies ending in a live birth. (springer.com)
  • Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows that from 1983-2005, preterm birth rates increased from 9 percent to 12.7 percent, and the percentage of low birth weight infant births increased from 6.8 percent to 8.2 percent. (uab.edu)
  • For each year, the percentage of live births, percentage of infant deaths, percentage of neonatal deaths, infant mortality and neonatal mortality rates were calculated for each weight subgroup in the database. (uab.edu)
  • Analysis over these time periods, Carlo said, allowed the team to confirm whether or not the mortality rates had significantly changed over time, and to determine the contribution of low birth weight and preterm births to infant mortality and neonatal mortality rates. (uab.edu)
  • We identified subjects through home births reported by traditional birth attendants in six rural districts ((italic)n(/italic) = 572) and all public hospital births in Quetzaltenango city during the study period ((italic)n(/italic) = 1,145). (burningissues.org)
  • The study, conducted on 95 Demographic Health Survey datasets and collected on more than 800 000 births, utilized birth histories to measure the impact of routine deworming medicine during antenatal care on subsequent neonatal mortality and low birthweight for births between 1998 and 2018 in 56 lower income countries. (news-medical.net)
  • Numerator: Number of low birth-weight births to Georgia residents. (kidscount.org)
  • But a mother-to-be's weight gain after 18 weeks was not associated with whether her newborn was large for gestational age, Dr. Ravi Retnakaran of Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, and colleagues found. (reuters.com)
  • What is the normal birth weight of a newborn kitten? (ehow.co.uk)
  • We studied periventricular/intraventricular type intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) by cranial ultrasonography in 82 low-birth-weight (LBW) newborn infants with admission hypothermia against the gestational-age-matched 82 normothermic neonates. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether use of the disinfectant chlorhexidine administered to the birth canal during labour and newborn at delivery can protect a woman and her bab. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We present a clinical case of a premature birth from a mother of 33+5 weeks gestation where the newborn was admitted to the neonatal unit due to her low weight, chest retraction and prematurity, despi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The mean birth weight for flour mill workers' newborn boys was 3180g compared to an overall mean of 3511g for all newborn boys. (ilo.org)
  • The mean birth weight of flour mill workers' newborn girls was 3602 compared to an overall mean of 3389 for all newborn girls. (ilo.org)
  • Investigators conducted this project to create an updated reference for clinicians and researchers using the most recent, nationally representative data on birth weight and more reliable obstetric estimates of gestational age. (prnewswire.com)
  • Investigators used their analyses to provide a simple, easy to use online tool for both researchers and clinicians to calculate measures of birth size. (prnewswire.com)
  • Researchers then looked at the birth weights of infants that were carried to term. (foxnews.com)
  • The researchers found that for every 10-microgram increase of pollution particles per cubic meter of air, birth weight decreased by 8.9 grams, roughly one-third of an ounce, and infants were 3 percent more likely to be a low birth weight. (foxnews.com)
  • Still, the fact that the researchers found a small but consistent shift in birth weight across so many pregnancies shows there is something significant going on at the population level, according to Virginia Guidry, Ph.D., who studies the impact of air pollution on children's respiratory health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (foxnews.com)
  • It's tricky to recruit women for the placebo arm of a birth-control trial, but researchers have managed to complete three such studies, involving a total of more than 1,200 women total. (slate.com)
  • These were designed to test the pill's ability to reduce acne or menstrual pain, but the researchers also gathered data on rates of headache, nausea, breast tenderness, vomiting, and weight gain. (slate.com)
  • The researchers found no relationship between 25(OH)D level and ponderal index, placental weight, or placental-to-fetal weight ratio in adjusted analyses, regardless of the way vitamin D was specified. (medscape.com)
  • As young adults, the majority of extremely low birth-weight infants are attaining similar levels of education, employment and independence as normal birth-weight infants, according to a study by researchers at the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine at McMaster University in the February 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) . (news-medical.net)
  • But when researchers compare children with similar family backgrounds, birth weight plays a key role in predicting future school success. (psychcentral.com)
  • Because twins face the same in-utero conditions and early life environment, studying how heavier and lighter twins fared in school offered researchers a natural set of socioeconomic and demographic controls so they could pinpoint the effect of birth weight on education. (psychcentral.com)
  • The researchers found the same patterns of birth weight's effect on school performance among both sets of children. (psychcentral.com)
  • Our results are remarkably consistent: Children with higher birth weight enter school with a cognitive advantage that appears to remain stable through the elementary and middle school years," the researchers reported in the study, which was published in the journal The American Economic Review . (psychcentral.com)
  • That last fact has researchers like Alexander Olsen, an associate professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), working to better understand the consequences of very low birth weights on cognitive development. (eurekalert.org)
  • To study this question, the researchers relied on a group of very low birth weight individuals who were born between 1986 and 1988 in Trondheim, Norway. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using a unique set of data that matched birth and school records from 1.6 million children born in Florida between 1992 and 2002, the researchers found that the higher the weight at birth, the better children performed on reading and math tests in school. (eurekalert.org)
  • Pregnant women who are exposed to neighborhood violence during their first trimester have a greater risk of having a low birth weight baby due to an earlier delivery, according to researchers at Queen Mary University of London and the University of Leicester. (psychcentral.com)
  • Specifically, the researchers found that one additional homicide in small municipalities during the first trimester leads to a reduction in birthweight of around 0.59 ounces. (psychcentral.com)
  • Because of the extremely high levels of violence in Fortaleza, the researchers calculated that homicides account for approximately one percent of the incidence of low birthweight and 3.5 percent of the incidence of very low birthweight. (psychcentral.com)
  • According to the team, led by researchers at Imperial College London, current guidelines on the use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy (ACT) for women at risk of giving birth prematurely should be reviewed. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers highlight that while there is an association between steroid treatment and lower birth weight, it remains unclear whether this effect is a direct cause of the drug, or an indirect consequence through some other mechanism. (medindia.net)
  • LOS ANGELES, Feb. 17 (UPI) -- Increased home ventilation could protect pregnant women against low-birth weight and preterm birth resulting from secondhand smoke, U.S. researchers say. (upi.com)
  • LITTLE FALLS, N.J. -- Prenatal exposure to chemicals found in many common plastic products may be associated with low birth weight, researchers found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • No studies, however, have explored the link between phthalate exposure and low birth weight in humans, according to the researchers. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The researchers adjusted their results for gender, age and the initial weight of the baby when it was born. (www.nhs.uk)
  • But because black infants are more likely to be born at the lowest birth weights, preventing low birth weight--when researchers learn how to--is likely to be more effective than early intervention in narrowing birth weight-related racial gaps in school readiness. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers, seeking to clarify whether oral contraceptives lead to weight gain, found birth control pills might even help women lose weight. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The researchers say for women who are overweight, birth control pills might help with weight loss if food consumption remains the same. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Helsinki found that, similar to previous, smaller studies , having had an abortion prior to giving birth for the first time is associated with a risk of low birth weight or giving birth prematurely. (wkar.org)
  • Southampton researchers have found the first evidence that children who were smaller at birth already have specific alterations in heart and blood vessel function in early childhood, which may help to explain why they are more likely to develop heart disease in later life. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Mitchell notes researchers are also studying blood biomarkers that might explain biological changes that could be linked to low-birth weight. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • A study by University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) researchers published April 1, 2013, in the journal Pediatrics showed that increasing numbers of premature and other low birth weight infants are the leading cause for the leveling off of infant mortality and neonatal mortality rates in the United States. (uab.edu)
  • Researchers concluded the leveling off of these rates is due to increases in live birth registration of smaller and more immature infants, particularly infants with birth weights of less than 500 grams or 1.1 pounds. (uab.edu)
  • On average, for every kilogram (2.2 lbs) a woman gained during this earliest period, her infant's birth weight rose by 13.6 grams. (reuters.com)
  • When children are born too soon, they are at higher risk of mental and physical disabilities, especially if they weigh less than 1500 grams at birth. (eurekalert.org)
  • Birth weight""a combination of fetal growth and length of gestation""was recorded in grams. (redorbit.com)
  • Instead, Oken and her colleagues found that birth weights had decreased by an average of 52 grams (1.83 ounces) between 1990 and 2005. (redorbit.com)
  • Low birth weight is clinically defined as below 2,500 grams, or 5 pounds and 8 ounces. (eurekalert.org)
  • The average kitten weighs about 99 grams at birth. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Less than 88 grams is considered low birth weight. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Buy a scale that weighs in grams to accurately measure your kitten's weight. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The purpose of this pilot study was to compare blood pressure values in term low-birth weight infants (≤2500 grams) born to smoking mothers to the blood pressure values of term, low-birth weight infants born to nonsmoking mothers. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21). (mdpi.com)
  • Low birth weight is associated with neonatal infection and infant mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 2 ] Infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are more susceptible to all complications of premature birth, both in the immediate neonatal period and after discharge from the nursery. (medscape.com)
  • I also show that' children born at the beginning of this century compared favorably to modern populations in terms' of birth weights, but suffered higher fetal and neonatal death rates because obstetrical and' medical knowledge was poorer. (repec.org)
  • According to the hypothesis of the thrifty phenotype, low neonatal weight is related to a higher peripheral insulin resistance as well as to the appearance, during adult life, of the clinical correlates of the insulin resistance syndrome, including type 2 diabetes ( 1 - 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Generic Database (GDB) is a registry of very low birth weight infants born alive in NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) centers. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We further hypothesized that because fetal inflammation increases the risk of NEC, infants who develop NEC have elevated blood cytokine levels in early neonatal period.Methods:Data on 104 extremely-low-birth-weight infants with NEC and 893 without NEC from 17 centers were analyzed. (rti.org)
  • We know that preterm birth and low birth weight are among the most frequent causes of infant and neonatal death in the United States. (uab.edu)
  • The team then evaluated and compared low birth weight and prematurity trends over two time periods - 1983-1999 and 2000-05 - and their effect on infant and neonatal mortality. (uab.edu)
  • Routine deworming during antenatal care decreases risk of neonatal mortality and low birthweight: a retrospective cohort of survey data' (to hyperlink) authored by Syracuse University, the World Health Organization (WHO) and SUNY Upstate is published in the journal, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases . (news-medical.net)
  • A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A high birth weight is more than 8.8 pounds. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An infant is considered low birth weight if he or she weighs less than 5 pounds 8 ounces at birth. (foxnews.com)
  • Weight gain is especially pervasive-the average adult gains about a pound per year-so even if people taking a medication do put on a few pounds, it's hard to pin the effect on a particular drug. (slate.com)
  • About 53 percent of twins were born at a low birth weight, meaning they weighed less than 5.5 pounds. (psychcentral.com)
  • March of Dimes defines low birth weight as a baby being born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces. (healthline.com)
  • Many studies found that some participants lost weight whereas others gained a few pounds while on the pill. (rxlist.com)
  • Low birth weight is defined as being below 5 pounds and 8 ounces. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • My son Darrel was 9 pounds at birth, and im tiny! (justparents.co.uk)
  • A birth weight of less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2.5 kilograms) is diagnosed as low birth weight. (rochester.edu)
  • She loses another 5 pounds during the next few days while shedding excess water weight. (reference.com)
  • Blake Lively hasn't been shy about flaunting her weight loss since announcing she dropped 61 pounds after giving birth to her second daughter , Ines, in September 2016. (cbsnews.com)
  • It's also your thing, where you want to like, put on Spanx and be like, 'Look how skinny I look after a baby,' but really, it doesn't matter how many corsets you put on -- I was still a full 61 pounds over my weight," she explained. (cbsnews.com)
  • Life & Style , as cited by Hollywood Life , claims that Kylie has gained a whopping 40 pounds, and her diet isn't exactly the best right now, as she craves nothing but junk food and candy that's only made the weight gain process worse for the TV star. (inquisitr.com)
  • Losing the weight naturally will take an additional three months, at the very least, in order to shed 40 pounds on a healthy diet. (inquisitr.com)
  • I started the program at my highest weight of 183 pounds and have lost 34 pounds of fat in 11 weeks. (amazonaws.com)
  • Labor and delivery may mean a sudden and dramatic drop in weight, while some pounds may linger for weeks or months after delivery. (livestrong.com)
  • Moms-to-be can look at averages to get an idea of how many pounds they can expect to drop from minutes to months after giving birth. (livestrong.com)
  • Immediately after giving birth, moms can expect to shed the weight of the baby, as well as some weight from blood, amniotic fluid and placenta, which may leave you around 12 pounds lighter, according to the Baby Center article, 'Body Changes After Childbirth. (livestrong.com)
  • By the end of that week, you may find yourself about 5 pounds lighter -- meaning a total loss of 17 pounds since giving birth. (livestrong.com)
  • I'm still quite muscular, so if you're running around carrying 40 pounds of extra weight, you're going to build extra muscle. (webpronews.com)
  • The estimated effects of low birth weight are present for children of highly educated and poorly educated parents alike, for children of both young and old mothers, and for children of all races and ethnicities, parental immigration status, parental marital status, and other background characteristics. (psychcentral.com)
  • Future research may identify other factors not included in the current data that might contribute to lower birth weight, such as trends in mothers' diets, physical activity, stress, and exposure to environmental toxins. (redorbit.com)
  • We linked these data with information reported by their mothers, participants in the Nurses' Health Study II, including GDM, height, current weight, and child's birth weight. (aappublications.org)
  • Thus, offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have higher birth weights. (aappublications.org)
  • Infants born to mothers with the highest blood levels of caffeine were an average of 3 ounces lighter and 0.17 inches shorter at birth compared with infants born to mothers with no or minimal blood levels of caffeine. (healthline.com)
  • Children born to mothers with preclinical RA were also found to be of a lower weight at birth, compared with those born to mothers free of RA. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Of the 11 276 participants contacted at age 41 years, 3777 mothers and 4364 fathers gave information on the birth characteristics for at least one (range 1-9) singleton liveborn child. (bmj.com)
  • We observed some evidence for a lower birth weight for offspring of the mothers who were likely to have been free of metabolic disturbances related to diabetes at the time of childbirth. (bmj.com)
  • While hospitalized at birth, the infants of smoking mothers shared a trend toward higher blood pressure readings for all measures, with the t -test differences reaching statistical significance for systolic arm ( p = .024), diastolic leg ( p = .03), and mean arterial pressure of the arm ( p = .038). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Lead researcher Veena Aggarwal said that one of the major reasons for low birth weight is the life style of would be mothers, especially in the first trimester. (medindia.net)
  • Lead author Amanda Mitchell says prior studies have shown a greater risk of low-birth weights among socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • Mothers who are younger than age 17 or older than age 35 have a much higher risk of having a baby with very low birthweight. (chop.edu)
  • Altogether, these facts call into question the role of birth weight as a key indicator for the design of health-related policies and the effectiveness of government policies attempting to improve the healthcare of expectant mothers to reduce the prevalence of low birth weight. (jhu.edu)
  • Birth weight may be considered a crude marker of the developmental quality of the prenatal environment, and the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis 11 suggests that fetal growth has long-term consequences on health and morbidity. (aappublications.org)
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) reflects a metabolically altered fetal environment associated with high birth weight, itself associated with later obesity. (aappublications.org)
  • Exposure of pregnant women to airplane noise was found to be associated with low birth weight via adverse effects on fetal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because there are indications that genes in the HLA complex are associated with fetal growth ( 9 ), we tested whether HLA-DQ genotypes previously found to confer risk for type 1 diabetes were associated with increased birth weight among Norwegian children randomly selected from the official population registry. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To determine the value of principal component analysis in the combined method of three-dimensional ultrasonography assessing fetal limb volume and circumference and conventional two-dimensional ultrasonography for prediction of birth weight in southern Chinese population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The accuracy of the model in predicting fetal birth weight was reassured by validation group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The key insight of this approach is to assume that differences in birth weight between twins are purely due to nutritional intake within the womb, which depends on either the fetal position or the connection between the umbilical cord and the placenta, both of which are determined by nature. (jhu.edu)
  • It isn't clear what factors contributed to the positive outcome beyond adolescence, as all through childhood the low birth weight cohort was significantly compromised in comparison with their peers. (news-medical.net)
  • Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow-up assessments, with intelligence scores increasing across 4 birth weight categories and declining for the highest birth weight category. (aappublications.org)
  • Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at 3 follow-up assessments between the ages of 19 and 50 years. (aappublications.org)
  • Specifically, low birth weight infants had significantly higher levels of DBP and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in cord blood samples and higher levels of monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in meconium samples ( P ≤0.003 for all). (medpagetoday.com)
  • There were significantly increased odds of LBW among unintended pregnancies [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25, 1.48] ending in a live birth. (springer.com)
  • Unintended, unwanted, and mistimed pregnancies ending in a live birth are associated with a significantly increased risk of LBW and PTB. (springer.com)
  • Contrary to current study, findings birth year was a non-significant source of variation for birth weight , however weaning weight was affected significantly in the study by Manzi et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Second, results arising from twin comparisons suggest that increasing birth weight significantly increases the height. (jhu.edu)
  • In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. (mdpi.com)
  • Most extremely low birth weight infants are also the youngest of premature newborns, usually born at 27 weeks' gestational age or younger. (medscape.com)
  • 2500 g) had a higher systolic blood pressure compared with twins who both had a high birth weight (≥2500 g). (ahajournals.org)
  • Inclusion criteria were: being born with a birth weight between 2000 and 2500 g, not having a chronic disease, and not having been treated with blood transfusion or iron supplements. (nature.com)
  • A new study has found that the higher a child's weight at birth, the better that child performed on reading and math tests in school. (psychcentral.com)
  • The child's birth order made no difference to the effect of a father's diabetes on the birth weight of his offspring (P=0.21). (bmj.com)
  • What Happens When You Choose 'Gender Neutral' On Your Child's Birth Certificate? (parents.com)
  • A pregnant woman's exposure to outdoor air pollution may increase the risk of her baby being born at a lower birth weight, according to a large multinational study. (foxnews.com)
  • Participants' weight was recorded an average of about 20 weeks before they became pregnant. (reuters.com)
  • If you have vaginal sex and you don't want to get pregnant, use birth control. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • People who have vaginal sex without birth control have an 85% chance of getting pregnant within a year. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Now a new study finds that pregnant people who ingest a moderate amount of caffeine tend to give birth to slightly smaller infants. (healthline.com)
  • In many countries, including the UK, US and in Europe, steroids may be offered to pregnant women at risk of giving birth before their baby has reached full term (after 37 weeks). (medindia.net)
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio - A financially strapped pregnant woman's worries about the arrival and care of her little one could contribute to birth of a smaller, medically vulnerable infant, a new study suggests. (eurekalert.org)
  • Elevated blood lead levels in pregnant women, even those well below the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 10 ug/dL "level of concern", can cause miscarriage, premature birth, and LBW in the offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -We studied the relationship between peripheral insulin sensitivity (calculated by Matsuda and DeFronzo's oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived insulin sensitivity index [ISI OGTT ]) or GDM prevalence and birth weight in 604 pregnant women, classified as normally glucose tolerant ( n = 462) or affected with GDM ( n = 142) after a 100-g 3-h oral glucose tolerance test. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation) were taken at birth. (hindawi.com)
  • Another benefit is that treating pregnant women with anthelminthic medicines can avoid low birthweight. (news-medical.net)
  • 1500g) than for infants with birth weights of 2500g or more. (medscape.com)
  • The study, ' A 2017 US reference for singleton birth weight percentiles using obstetric estimates of gestation ,' led by the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, appears in the June 14 issue of Pediatrics online. (prnewswire.com)
  • A logical conclusion might be that trends in obstetric management, such as greater use of cesarean delivery and induction of labor, might account for these decreases in birth weight and gestation length," says Oken. (redorbit.com)
  • Yes both same gestation exactly (they were even both born in the morning)but bit of a weight difference! (justparents.co.uk)
  • The outcome for a baby with VLBW depends mainly on how much the baby weighs and how many weeks of gestation the baby is at birth. (rochester.edu)
  • Female cats typically give birth after 63 to 67 days of gestation, but some may go as long as 70 days. (ehow.co.uk)
  • A / No. Reducing caffeinated coffee consumption by 180 mg of caffeine (the equivalent of 2 cups) per day after 16 weeks' gestation doesn't affect birth weight. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The primary cause of very low birthweight is preterm birth (born before 37 weeks gestation). (chop.edu)
  • Infants born with a birth weight less than 1500 g are defined as very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. (medscape.com)
  • VLBW, 1:153, with the highest incidence of atypical hypothyroidism in the VLBW category (48% of cases in this weight category, 56% of all cases of atypical hypothyroidism). (nih.gov)
  • Very low birth weight (VLBW) is a significant issue in St. Louis, Missouri. (hindawi.com)
  • Do birth control pills make women gain weight? (slate.com)
  • The notion that birth control pills make you fat is just part of what the paper's lead author, physician David Grimes of the University of North Carolina, calls an elaborate mythology, one "fueled by rumor, gossip and poor-quality research. (slate.com)
  • Another recent review paper found little evidence of weight gain among users of progestin-only pills, and a similar study from 2008 likewise failed to find any connection between weight gain and pills that contain progestin and estrogen. (slate.com)
  • According to a 1997 study, users of birth control pills have a basal metabolic rate almost 5 percent higher than people who have never used the pill, and a small 2009 trial concluded that the pill reduced body fat in women who took it. (slate.com)
  • A study published last year tracked nearly 500 women aged 15 to 19 over several years and found that while all the teens gained some weight, those who used birth control pills gained about a pound less than those who didn't. (slate.com)
  • They found no significant differences in any of these among women who took birth control pills and those who got a placebo. (slate.com)
  • The perceived link between birth-control pills and weight gain actually goes back to America's very first contraceptive, a combination pill called Enovid . (slate.com)
  • Most, if not all, pills lack high enough estrogen levels to cause weight gain. (healthline.com)
  • Yes, but it is important to understand that despite what the evidence suggests, everybody is different and may react differently to hormones in birth control pills. (rxlist.com)
  • However, it is better to be on a good diet and workout regimen while on birth control pills . (rxlist.com)
  • The decision about whether to use birth control pills and/or another method of contraception is personal. (rxlist.com)
  • I stopped taking my birth control pills because I feel like I've gained a lot of weight. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Actually Sandra, a lot of women stop taking birth control pills because they believed that it causes them to gain weight however a study have shown that birth control pills do not cause weight gain in a lot of women. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • If you are noticing unexplained and undesired weight gain while taking birth control pills, I suggest that you involve yourself regularly in a physical activity and eat a healthy diet. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • If you believe that you gained weight with your birth control pills, visit your healthcare provider the soonest possible time. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • It is unlikely for a woman of today who are using birth control pills to gain weight. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Different from the older birth control pills which are high in estrogen, recent birth control pills, almost if not always contain a lower dose of estrogen. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • true enough, some pills will make you gain weight. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • if you gained weight blame not all to the birth control pills. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • some pills will make you gain weight especially pills that contain high hormones. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • i have gain weight since i have been using pills. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • i used to be chubby even before i started using pills and while using it makes me more gain weight. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Birth Control pills. (healthboards.com)
  • Women might not need to be concerned about gaining weight from birth control pills, shown in a primate study. (emaxhealth.com)
  • During the study the scientists gave the monkeys birth control pills adjusted to weight to mimic the dose in humans. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Alison Edelman, M.D., a physician and researcher in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at OHSU and lead author of the study says, "A simple Google search will reveal that contraceptives and the possibility that they may cause weight gain is a very highly debated topic", but the findings suggest weight gain experienced by women taking birth control pills might be due to other factors, such as age. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In the study, the primates given birth control pills and obese experienced an 8.5% weight loss and dropped 12% of body fat. (emaxhealth.com)
  • do diet or weight loss supplements lessen the effectiveness of birth control pills? (yahoo.com)
  • Hi I want to know which birth control pills make you gain weight? (drugs.com)
  • I'm AGAINST birth control pills now. (personallifemedia.com)
  • Weight Loss and best weight loss pills for hypothyroidism me minutes 30 help day can walking Beauty Tips and Tricks. (amazonaws.com)
  • Many women and healthcare providers believe that pills and patches cause weight gain. (cochrane.org)
  • The four trials with a dummy or no method group did not show that these pills or patches led to weight change. (cochrane.org)
  • According to a review published in a recent issue of the journal Contraception , concern about weight gain is among the most common reasons people quit the pill (or decide not to take it in the first place), and most women who discontinue the pill switch to something less effective or nothing at all. (slate.com)
  • As it turns out, there's never been convincing evidence that the pill in any of its forms provokes weight gain. (slate.com)
  • If the pill doesn't cause weight gain, how did it get its reputation? (slate.com)
  • Changes in hormonal birth control and advances in combination forms of the pill have addressed this issue. (healthline.com)
  • Your weight when you begin taking the pill shouldn't affect your risk, either. (healthline.com)
  • obese aren't at a higher risk of gaining weight when taking the pill. (healthline.com)
  • Some kinds of hormonal birth control (like the pill , patch , ring , shot , implant , and the hormonal IUD ) can do things like ease cramps and PMS, and make your periods lighter. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • I'm really not sure if this is true but my friend said, that if you gain a lot of weight on birth control the doctors can give you this 'water pill' to help you lose that weight again. (healthboards.com)
  • The pill = weight gain? (healthboards.com)
  • Can You Lose Weight While on the Birth Control Pill? (rxlist.com)
  • diseases, conditions and tests a-z list can you lose weight while on the birth control pill? (rxlist.com)
  • It is possible to lose weight while on the birth control pill , but every woman's body is different and reacts differently to hormones. (rxlist.com)
  • Using condoms with another type of birth control (such as an implant , intrauterine device or IUD or birth control pill) gives backup protection in case either method fails. (rxlist.com)
  • If you are on a higher-dose pill,better if you switch to a low-estrogen birth control pill, it can help reduce fluid retention. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • i do not experience gaining weight with my pill. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • i'm off the pill but still have not lose weight. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • i honestly do hope that this is a rare condition.i just came off the pill yesterday because of weight gain. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • i mean, i did gain weight but never really thought it was as a result of discontinuing the pill. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • same thing happened to me, i went off pill for the thought that somehow i would lose weight which the pill has caused me. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • came off the pill and eventually still gaining weight. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • but now i'm off pill, i started losing weight. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Scientists at Oregon National Primate Research Center at Oregon Health & Science University conducted a year long study on a group a of rhesus macaque monkeys that found weight gain associated with taking birth control pill may be nothing but a myth. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Birth Control - Is this pill going to make me gain weight? (drugs.com)
  • Will minastrin make me gain weight even though this is my first birth control pill? (drugs.com)
  • Only three to four percent of women actually gain weight on the birth control pill , according to Dr. Anne Burke, associate professor of gynecology at Johns Hopkins. (thefrisky.com)
  • As the blog Her Campus reports, "Many girls begin taking the Pill at a time in their lives when weight gain happens naturally - during adolescence and while in college. (thefrisky.com)
  • So, if you gain weight while on the Pill, it's important to look at different factors that could be causing you to gain weight. (thefrisky.com)
  • There's the pill and other forms of birth control available these days. (hollywoodlife.com)
  • Many years ago, birth control came in its most common form, a pill. (hollywoodlife.com)
  • A third of women on the pill will lose weight, a third will gain weight and a third will stay the same," she says. (hollywoodlife.com)
  • But, keep in mind that a lot of women who start the pill, start it at a time in their lives when they may be naturally gaining weight. (hollywoodlife.com)
  • It's not so easy to tease out whether they're gaining weight from a pill. (hollywoodlife.com)
  • Anemia Weight Loss Blood In Stool Pill Off When Control Do Go Birth vuzix Anemia Weight Loss Blood In Stool Pill Off When Control Do Go Birth says received Intel investment for smart glasses. (amazonaws.com)
  • Fear of weight gain keeps some women from starting the pill or patch. (cochrane.org)
  • Women may stop using the pill because they think it caused weight gain. (cochrane.org)
  • Also, women did not stop using the pill or patch because of weight change. (cochrane.org)
  • These findings hold even though participants included the 27 per cent of low birth-weight and two per cent of normal birth-weight people with disabilities. (news-medical.net)
  • Their findings, published in the February 2010 issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology, suggest that birth weights in this country have declined during the past 15 years. (redorbit.com)
  • These findings call into question the effectiveness of birth weight as a policy target. (repec.org)
  • This study increases our confidence that the impact of air pollution on birth weight is real. (foxnews.com)
  • The authors of this latest study cannot say for sure whether the lower birth weights were due to air pollution levels or some other factor that they were unable to fully account for, such as the mother's socioeconomic status and whether or not she smoked , two variables that have been linked to low birth weight in previous studies. (foxnews.com)
  • This study indicates that birth weight should be considered when air pollution policies are made," she said. (foxnews.com)
  • The study included 166 extremely low birth-weight people who weighed 1.1 to 2.2 lbs. at birth and were born between 1977 and 1982 as well as 145 socio-demographically comparable normal birth-weight participants. (news-medical.net)
  • Study after study has examined the relationship between today's most popular forms of hormonal contraception and weight gain. (healthline.com)
  • The study data was compiled through a collaboration between the Florida Department of Health and the Florida Department of Education, which worked together to compile birth weight and educational data on 1.6 million children born in Florida between 1992 and 2002 without compromising the privacy of the children. (psychcentral.com)
  • When Olsen was a research fellow at NTNU's Medical Imaging Laboratory, he worked closely with the head of the Trondheim fMRI Group, Asta Håberg, to expand his research to include a collaboration with the Centre for Early Brain Development, which is conducting a long-term study of individuals with low birth weight. (eurekalert.org)
  • Thirty-two individuals between 22 and 24 years of age from this group participated in Olsen's study and were matched with same-aged controls that had normal birth weights. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study adds weight to calls for a review of the current guidelines for management of threatened preterm birth and for who should receive steroid treatment. (medindia.net)
  • Professor Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, co-lead of the study from Imperial's School of Public Health said: "At present, steroid therapy is the only tool we have for maturing the lungs before premature birth. (medindia.net)
  • A recent study reported by Medical News Today suggests that children born preterm and of a low birth weight may be at higher risk of needing a hip replacement in adulthood . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The study also found women in non-smoking households, who infrequently opened their windows, had 49 percent higher chances of low-birth weight and 25 percent higher chances of preterm birth than non-smoking households with frequent ventilation. (upi.com)
  • Explain to interested patients that this study could not establish a causal relationship between phthalate exposure and low birth weight. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The study team focused on specific fracking sites, comparing birth weights in nearby families before and after the operations started. (hon.ch)
  • This study essentially shows a dose response between proximity to fracking sites and low birth weight. (hon.ch)
  • Parents may naturally be concerned if their baby is underweight, but this study would suggest low birthweight (at least in the developed world) has little effect in later life. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Intrafamily Resource Allocations: A Dynamic Model of Birth Weight ," IZA Discussion Papers 3704, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
  • In the present study, we tested the association between birth weight and HLA-DQ genotypes known to confer risk for type 1 diabetes among 969 nondiabetic children randomly selected from the Norwegian population. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we applied the twin approach to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental causes that may underlie the birth weight-adult blood pressure association. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we examined the association between birth weight and adult resting and ambulatory BP in young adult twins. (ahajournals.org)
  • This was the largest study in the world to look at that question as to whether the effects that we are seeing on low birth weight, are they really from the air pollution or could they be from the noise, or from both? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • We actually found in our study that although traffic related noise could potentially have that impact, we did not see an independent effect of traffic related noise on low birthweight throughout London. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • At the study start, half of the macaque's were obese and the the other half, normal weight. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The new study seems to support the notion that oral contraceptives can promote weight loss. (emaxhealth.com)
  • A. The All Birth Cohort (ABC) Study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Consequently, the correlation as well as the clinical relevance is still unclear and recent reviews have emphasized the need of long-term studies and the necessity to study a variety of birth weights and gestational ages ( 6 ). (nature.com)
  • After last week's news that ethnicity plays a role in birth weight, a new study answers that the most influential factor for baby's size is a healthy mom . (thebump.com)
  • Consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day is associated with a clinically trivial, and statistically insignificant (less than 1 ounce), reduction in birth weight, compared with consuming no caffeine (strength of recommendation: B, randomized controlled trial [RCT] and large prospective cohort study). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. (mdpi.com)
  • I demonstrate that although socioeconomic differences in birth weight have always been' fairly small in the United States, they have narrowed since the beginning of this century. (repec.org)
  • Low birth weight is a known risk factor for infant mortality as well as heart, breathing and behavior problems later in life. (foxnews.com)
  • Furthermore, for every 10mg increase in iron taken per day up to a total of 66mg, newborns' weight at birth rose by 15g and their risk of low birth weight fell by three per cent. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Higher birth weight predicted increased risk of overweight in adolescence. (aappublications.org)
  • Observations that higher birth weight is associated with higher attained BMI have led to the hypothesis that in utero determinants of birth weight may also program the fetus for elevated risk of later obesity. (aappublications.org)
  • The injected steroid treatment helps to prepare their unborn baby's lungs, which mature late in development, and can reduce the risk of respiratory illnesses linked with preterm birth. (medindia.net)
  • Although the team says the association between RA, preterm birth and low birth weight warrants further investigation, Rom believes obstetricians "should be aware of the increased risk of preterm birth in women with RA and among those with preclinical signs of the disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Our finding is consistent with reports of increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes for the fathers of children with low birth weight in native Americans and Swedish populations. (bmj.com)
  • Certain medications (e.g. for high blood pressure or epilepsy) can put a mother at a higher risk for delivering a low birth weight baby. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women younger than 15 or older than 35 are at a higher risk to have a low-birth weight baby. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a causal link could not be established, "the results showed that phthalate exposure was ubiquitous in these newborns, and that prenatal phthalate exposure might be an environmental risk factor for low birth weight in infants," Dr. Ge said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Being a low weight at birth increases the risk of a baby being stillborn. (boots.com)
  • citation needed] In general, risk factors in the mother that may contribute to low birth weight include young ages, multiple pregnancies, previous LBW infants, poor nutrition, heart disease or hypertension, untreated celiac disease, substance use disorder, excessive alcohol use, and insufficient prenatal care. (wikipedia.org)
  • A prominent risk factor for preterm birth is prior history of preterm delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particulate matter, a component of ambient air pollution, is associated with increased risk of low birth weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particulate matter exposure can cause inflammation, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and impaired oxygen transport access to the placenta, all of which are mechanisms for heightening the risk of low birth weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Who is at risk for very low birth weight? (rochester.edu)
  • An association has recently been described between increased birth weight and increased risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Whether this relationship is explained by genes associated with both increased birth weight and increased risk of type 1 diabetes is unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We found that HLA genotypes previously shown to confer risk for type 1 diabetes were associated with reduced birth weight (the mean difference in birth weight between the DQB1*0602/DQB1*0602 and DQ8/DQ2 genotypes was 354 g [95% CI 105-604]), which was opposite of that expected if HLA genes explained the birth weight-type 1 diabetes association. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the above-mentioned association ( 1 , 2 ) is explained by genes associated with both increased birth weight and increased risk of type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The association was the opposite of that expected under the hypothesis that variation in the HLA-DQ genotype explains the previously observed positive association between birth weight and risk of type 1 diabetes ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The extent to which low birth weight confers a risk for poor school function remains an important question. (nih.gov)
  • We then looked at the link between the air pollutants and the birth weight of every baby, and we then saw that for every five microgramme per cubic metre increase in small particulate air pollution there was a 15% increased risk in a mother having a low birthweight baby at term. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Could you not also be subject to much worse housing conditions in general, a poorer diet, and therefore a higher risk profile for many of the problems that include low birthweight? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • It is very important to consider the other factors that do play an important role in a mother's risk for low birthweight baby, and socioeconomic status is one of those. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Infants exposed to the components of cigarette smoke in utero are at an increased risk for perinatal death, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, and premature delivery. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Each category of diagnosis was associated with about a tripling of the risk of very low birth weight: Odds ratios were 2.8-3.0. (guttmacher.org)
  • Psychiatric and substance use disorders as risk factors for low birth weight and preterm delivery, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2002, 100(2):297-304. (guttmacher.org)
  • Our results suggest that induced abortions before the first birth, particularly three or more abortions, are associated with a marginally increased risk during the first birth," she said. (wkar.org)
  • high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • Low birth weight (LBW) and high birth weight (HBW) are both important indicators of suboptimal intrauterine development and have been linked to risk of several chronic diseases later in life. (hindawi.com)
  • Boo et al21 have concluded nulliparity as risk factor for low birth weight but Yadav et al have suggested multiparity as a risk factor for LBW22. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is nearly twenty years since Professor David Barker at the University of Southampton established the theory that people with low birth weight are at greater risk of developing coronary heart disease. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • However, there are other factors that can also contribute to the risk of very low birthweight. (chop.edu)
  • A baby with very low birthweight is often at increased risk for complications. (chop.edu)
  • conversely, those smaller than expected are considered small for gestational age (SGA), and are they also usually found to be intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) prior to birth. (medscape.com)
  • A baby is more likely to be very low birth weight if he or she is premature or has intrauterine growth restriction. (rochester.edu)
  • Low birth weight would thus mirror a retardation of the intrauterine programming process that leads to reduced organ maturation ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Another cause of very low birthweight is intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). (chop.edu)
  • Nobody knows for sure exactly how a mother's air pollution exposure may influence her infant's birth weight. (foxnews.com)
  • Lower birth weight has been associated with lower intelligence in childhood and young adulthood. (aappublications.org)
  • Birth weight has a lot of different influencers, from underlying medical disorders to simply because the baby might have a lower birth weight because that's the family history," Grossman said. (healthline.com)
  • Clinical guidelines for antenatal corticosteroid therapy (ACT) given women should be reviewed, as there is an association between steroid treatment and lower birth weight. (medindia.net)
  • 1 If this is true, we expect non-insulin dependent diabetes in parents to be associated with lower birth weight among their offspring. (bmj.com)
  • furthermore higher IGF-I levels are associated with higher BW, but not with lower birth weight [ 16 , 17 , 26 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members of the cohort. (aappublications.org)
  • Diabetes in fathers and the birth weight of their offspring are strongly associated, according to data from the 1958 birth cohort. (bmj.com)
  • However, the effect of GDM on offspring obesity seemed only partially explained by its influence on birth weight, and adjustment for mother's own BMI attenuated the GDM associations. (aappublications.org)
  • Doctors may decide a low birth weight baby needs extra nutrition in addition to mother's breast milk or special preterm formula. (boots.com)
  • A premature baby has less time in the mother's uterus to grow and gain weight. (rochester.edu)
  • It may happen because of problems with the placenta, the mother's health, or birth defects. (rochester.edu)
  • Does Mother's Abortion History Affect Baby's Birth Weight? (wkar.org)
  • As far as low birth weights prevalence rates changing over time, there has been a slight decrease from 7.9% (1970) to 6.8% (1980), then a slight increase to 8.3% (2006), to current levels of 8.2% (2016). (wikipedia.org)
  • Infants whose weight is appropriate for their gestational ages are termed appropriate for gestational age (AGA). (medscape.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS Weight and growth parameters in utero and early infancy may influence the age at onset of IDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The labels of most oral contraceptives list "weight gain" among their common side effects. (slate.com)
  • They're the aches and pains of daily life," Grimes says, things like headaches and moodiness and, yes, weight gain. (slate.com)
  • Medications proven to cause weight gain, like antidepressants, antipsychotics, allergy medications, and steroids generally lead to much greater increases in body weight. (slate.com)
  • When Enovid was approved as a contraceptive in 1960, it came with a booklet noting that " weight gain or loss occurs occasionally . (slate.com)
  • Traditionally in the past, it's never been clear if the timing of the weight gain matters. (reuters.com)
  • birth control causes weight gain. (healthline.com)
  • water retention , not actual weight gain. (healthline.com)
  • Can Birth Control Cause Weight Gain? (healthline.com)
  • Any weight gain that may occur in the first weeks or months after beginning birth control is typically due to water retention. (healthline.com)
  • What Causes the Weight Gain? (healthline.com)
  • If you're noticing weight gain and can't pinpoint a reason, there are a few common causes. (healthline.com)
  • If you've recently changed jobs and find yourself sedentary for most of your day, you may begin noticing a gradual weight gain. (healthline.com)
  • Doing so can lead to weight gain, among other side effects. (healthline.com)
  • Are Some People More Likely to Gain Weight? (healthline.com)
  • Studies don't show that any particular groups of women are more inclined to experience weight gain than another. (healthline.com)
  • 13 - 30 Many are limited, however, by incomplete data on gestational age, parental adiposity, or socioeconomic factors, which may have independent influences on both birth weight and later weight gain. (aappublications.org)
  • Does It Make You Gain Weight? (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Considering your age, the weight gain is probably due to maturation/puberty. (healthboards.com)
  • Birth control, especially the shot is linked to weight gain. (healthboards.com)
  • does iron supplements leads to weight gain? (healthboards.com)
  • weight gain fro Azor? (healthboards.com)
  • Skinny female LF Weight Gain Help! (healthboards.com)
  • Weight gain after Phentermine? (healthboards.com)
  • Weight Gain or Weight Loss? (healthboards.com)
  • Weight Gain from Depression Meds--HELP! (healthboards.com)
  • The side effects cannot be generalized to everyone, including weight gain. (rxlist.com)
  • Your prenatal weight gain helps forecast your baby's size: If you gain too much , there's a good chance he will, too, and vice versa. (parents.com)
  • The analysis looked at children with poor weight gain during infancy (failure to thrive) and whether this led to long-term problems as a child grew older. (www.nhs.uk)
  • They then compared these in children who had poor weight gain (early or late) in the first nine months of life and those who had normal growth. (www.nhs.uk)
  • To determine weight gain in the first nine months of life, weight measurements were taken at birth, six to eight weeks (which ranged from one to three months) and at nine months (which ranged from six to 12 months). (www.nhs.uk)
  • Definitely she has some suggestions on how to deal with your weight gain like changing your lifestyle or switching to another method of birth control. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • It is the estrogen that causes a woman to gain weight due to its fluid retention. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • yes it may cause you to gain weight that is why you should be aware with it already. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • overall, it does gain weight! (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Your steady weight gain is one way of checking on the baby's growth. (rochester.edu)
  • The best way to deliver a healthy weight baby is to eat well, exercise and avoid excess weight gain. (parents.com)
  • Stopping weight gain or loss of weight indicates a problem. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Judy Cameron, Ph.D., senior author of the paper and a researcher at the primate center says, "We realize that research in nonhuman primates cannot entirely dismiss the connection between contraceptives and weight gain in humans, but it strongly suggests that women should not be as worried as they previously were. (emaxhealth.com)
  • According to Dr. Edelman, studies have been insufficient to prove or disprove birth controls are the culprit for weight gain reported by women from oral contraceptive use. (emaxhealth.com)
  • which ones lead to weight gain? (drugs.com)
  • TriNessa - can anyone suggest a birth control that won't cause weight gain or make my hair fall out? (drugs.com)
  • Zovia - Does this birth control make you gain weight? (drugs.com)
  • Will I Gain Weight On Birth Control? (hollywoodlife.com)
  • Will Birth Control Make Me Gain Weight? (hollywoodlife.com)
  • If you've been hesitating to start using birth control because of the fear of weight gain, we've got you covered. (hollywoodlife.com)
  • if they're in college for the first time, they may gain weight due to a change in their environment, stress level, diet and exercise schedule. (hollywoodlife.com)
  • One birth control we know many people gain weight on, is the shot. (hollywoodlife.com)
  • Concern about weight gain can keep women from using these methods. (cochrane.org)
  • Depo users had a greater weight gain in two studies. (cochrane.org)
  • We found little evidence of weight gain when using POCs. (cochrane.org)
  • Mean weight gain at 6 or 12 months was less than 2 kg (4.4 lb) for most studies. (cochrane.org)
  • Appropriate counseling about typical weight gain may help reduce discontinuation of contraceptives due to perceptions of weight gain. (cochrane.org)
  • However, concern about weight gain can deter the initiation of contraceptives and cause early discontinuation among users. (cochrane.org)
  • We also considered the dichotomous outcome of loss or gain of a specified amount of weight. (cochrane.org)
  • Weight gain is often considered a side effect of combination hormonal contraceptives, and many women and clinicians believe that an association exists. (cochrane.org)
  • Concern about weight gain can limit the use of this highly effective method of contraception by deterring the initiation of its use and causing early discontinuation among users. (cochrane.org)
  • However, a causal relationship between combination contraceptives and weight gain has not been established. (cochrane.org)
  • That means a weight less than the 10th percentile for age. (healthline.com)
  • Most developed countries have therefore implemented health policies related to the improvement of birth weight of newborns. (jhu.edu)
  • Low birth weight is considered one of the leading causes of infant mortality and adverse health conditions during childhood and throughout life. (jhu.edu)
  • In contrast to the paternal effect, diabetes in the mother increases the birth weight of offspring. (bmj.com)
  • Can be used in combination with other birth control methods. (rxlist.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from infant records of 232 patients with IDDM, including birth weight, birth length, gestational age, weight at 6 months of age, and feeding history during the first 6 months of life, were analyzed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Methods and Results Birth weights of 418 twin pairs were obtained prospectively, and resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressures were obtained at the age of 18 to 34 years. (ahajournals.org)
  • The evidence was not strong enough to be sure that these methods did not cause some weight change. (cochrane.org)
  • This is good news for the infants and their parents, as more than a quarter of low birth weight children have development difficulties such as cerebral palsy, blindness and delayed development, compared to two per cent of normal birth-weight infants. (news-medical.net)
  • The low birth-weight infants have been followed from birth, the normal birth-weight children were recruited at age eight years. (news-medical.net)
  • Both the low birth-weight and normal birth-weight children were assessed at ages eight, as teens and at young adulthood of 22 to 25 years old. (news-medical.net)
  • The proportion of participants who graduated from high school was similar (82 percent of low birth weight infants compared to 87 percent of those with normal birth weight). (news-medical.net)
  • No significant differences were observed in employment or school status, as 48 percent of low birth-weight and 57 percent of normal birth-weight young adults were permanently employed. (news-medical.net)
  • Olsen and his colleagues wanted to see how the brains of very low birth weight individuals differed from their normal birth weight cohorts when it came to cognitive control, and the ability to think proactively or reactively about different tasks. (eurekalert.org)
  • Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident across the normal birth weight range and so were not accounted for by low birth weight only. (aappublications.org)
  • These long-term cognitive consequences may imply that even small shifts in the distribution of birth size, in normal-sized infants as well, may have a large impact at the population level. (aappublications.org)
  • These associations were observed in the full range of birth weights and within the normal birth weight range. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 Most studies, however, focus on clinically low birth weight groups, although evidence of the association across the full birth weight range in the general population is of particular interest, because this would imply potential benefits of birth weight interventions targeting women with normal pregnancies. (aappublications.org)
  • Population-based studies have suggested that there is a positive association, although probably of small magnitude, between birth weight and intelligence in childhood 1 , 2 and young adulthood, 3 , 4 even in the normal range of birth weights. (aappublications.org)
  • i came off 2 years ago for the thought off losing weight and get my body back to normal. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • The normal weight group remained stable. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Did your doctor tell you what a "normal birth weight" is? (thebump.com)
  • Young women who used injectable hormonal contraceptives like Depo-Provera did pack on extra weight-they gained twice as much, on average, as everyone else. (slate.com)
  • Stories from friends on birth control who've gained weight may be enough to deter some women from trying birth control, but it shouldn't. (healthline.com)
  • Still, some women may experience increased breakouts when they begin using birth control. (healthline.com)
  • Professor Rodriguez continued: "The problem is that it is difficult to know which women will give birth prematurely and those that will go to full term when there are signs of preterm birth, so this treatment is used as a precaution. (medindia.net)
  • Women aged 40-54 had a rate of low birth weight at 11.8 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way to decrease rates of low birth weight and premature delivery is to focus on the health of women prior to conception through reproductive education, screening and counseling regarding mental health issues and stress, and access to primary care. (wikipedia.org)
  • These calculations revealed that compared with women who had no diagnosis, those with a psychiatric disorder had twice the odds of bearing a low-birth-weight infant (odds ratio, 2.0), those with a substance-related disorder had almost four times the odds (3.7) and those with both types of diagnoses had three times the odds (3.0). (guttmacher.org)
  • Additional analyses--one including a larger number of potentially confounding variables and one that was restricted to women who had not given birth before, to control for the possible confounding effect of a history of preterm delivery--produced essentially similar results. (guttmacher.org)
  • Women who had multiple abortions before giving birth to a first child were more likely to have that child very prematurely or to deliver a child with a low birth weight, according to one of the first large-scale studies to look at the issue. (wkar.org)
  • Women who'd had three or more abortions were a third more likely to deliver a first baby earlier than 37 weeks, 43 percent more likely to have a baby with a low birth weight and twice as likely to have a baby with a very low birth weight. (wkar.org)
  • We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. (hindawi.com)
  • Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000-November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. (mdpi.com)
  • So if we can support women in those worries, we might actually help reduce the effect that financial stress has on birth weight. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • For these women, weight loss may pick up when a doctor gives them permission to resume exercise routines, usually at the 6-week postpartum checkup. (livestrong.com)
  • Potential causes of low birth weight can also be cause by health issues in the person giving birth, genetic factors, or problems in the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • The association between birth weight and intelligence is stable from young adulthood into midlife. (aappublications.org)
  • Several studies have addressed the association between birth weight and body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early adulthood. (aappublications.org)
  • There is, however, an open discussion on whether birth weight is important in determining health status profiles and labor productivity later in adulthood or if this indicator of early nutritional status (arguably, in utero nutritional condition) captures other unobservable factors. (jhu.edu)
  • Against our expectations and many odds, a significant majority of young adults who were low birth weight infants have overcome earlier difficulties to become functional members of society," said Dr. Saigal, a neonatologist with the McMaster Children's Hospital in Hamilton. (news-medical.net)
  • First, consistent with previous empirical studies, cross-sectional estimates indeed overstate the effect of birth weight on children's physical growth relative to twin-based estimates. (jhu.edu)
  • Birth weight is the first weight of your baby, taken just after he or she is born. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early ( premature ), or both. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, just because a baby is born at a certain weight does not mean they will have health problems or need medical treatment. (healthline.com)
  • I'm not saying I lost all my baby weight, which I have not. (upi.com)
  • Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • death of close family member, infertility issues, separation from partner) prior to conception had 38% more of a chance to have a very low birth weight baby compared to those who had not experienced a stressful life event. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that the more stress a woman reported, the greater the likelihood that she would have a baby of low birth weight," said lead author Amanda Mitchell. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • If you put on the recommended amount, there's no guarantee your baby will be born at a 'proper' weight, but it's much more likely that he will. (parents.com)
  • A baby may be a low birth weight at full term, or if born prematurely. (boots.com)
  • The weight of a baby may not be a cause for concern. (boots.com)
  • Factors which may cause a baby to have a low birth weight include the mother being a smoker and the baby being a twin or other multiple birth sibling. (boots.com)
  • but instead of losing weight , i gained baby! (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Get the inside scoop on what baby birth weight really means from a labor nurse. (parents.com)
  • In recent reports, it's been claimed that following the birth of her supposed baby girl, Kylie has already thought about the idea of getting liposuction in order to lose the weight tremendously fast. (inquisitr.com)
  • Doctors have allegedly told her that she would need to give it several weeks after birth before she can follow through with the procedure, which Kylie argued, saying that she will fly wherever she needs to in order to make it happen as soon as the baby has been delivered. (inquisitr.com)
  • It's evidently clear that Kylie Jenner's main goal following the baby birth is to lose the weight she has gained quickly, because she would've hidden herself from the world for too long. (inquisitr.com)
  • When the weight of a new born baby is below average. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Panettiere's new baby Kaya Evdokia Klitschko weighed 7 lbs., 14 oz. at birth, and was 20 inches. (webpronews.com)
  • Panettiere and Klitschko are engaged, but Panettiere said she is not in a hurry to run down the aisle until she sheds the baby weight. (webpronews.com)
  • A low birth weight can be caused either by a preterm birth (low gestational age at birth) or of the infant being small for gestational age (slow prenatal growth rate), or a combination of both. (wikipedia.org)
  • New insights into why children with very low birth weights can have cognitive problems. (eurekalert.org)
  • That's because cognitive control dysfunction is one of the biggest problems facing very low birth weight individuals, Olsen said. (eurekalert.org)
  • There is considerable evidence that small size at birth is associated with poorer cognitive development. (aappublications.org)
  • Several early intervention programs have been shown to improve cognitive skills of low birth weight children. (nih.gov)
  • Birth weight and the dynamics of early cognitive and behavioural development ," ISER Working Paper Series 2009-16, Institute for Social and Economic Research. (repec.org)
  • But even the most promising programs can narrow the readiness gap only a little because their benefits are greatest for heavier low birth weight children and because low birth weight explains only a small share of the gap. (nih.gov)
  • Intracranial hemorrhage in hypothermic low-birth-weight neonates. (nih.gov)
  • But when socioeconomic factors and demographics are not equal, higher birth weights don't always translate to better performance in school", he said. (psychcentral.com)
  • Higher birth weights have been attributed in part to women's increasing age and weight and decreased smoking. (redorbit.com)
  • In multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and Tanner stage, the odds ratio for adolescent overweight for each 1-kg increment in birth weight was 1.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.2-1.6). (aappublications.org)
  • For example, celiac disease confers an odds ratio of low birth weight of approximately 1.8. (wikipedia.org)
  • second, the odds of low birthweight are an estimated 11% lower in countries with lower transmission of soil-transmitted helminths. (news-medical.net)
  • We also found that in countries with low transmission of soil-transmitted helminths, deworming treatment decreased the odds of low birthweight by 11%, although these somewhat varied in relation to transmission rates across different countries. (news-medical.net)
  • Most of these studies have found direct associations, ie, that higher birth weight is associated with higher attained BMI. (aappublications.org)
  • In men, no associations were found between birth weight and adult blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • It found a statistically significant, but clinically trivial, association between caffeine intake and birth weight. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, we found no major effect on weight. (cochrane.org)
  • The prevalence of low birth weight has trended slightly upward from 2012 to present day. (wikipedia.org)
  • P = 0.023]), and the prevalence of low birth weight was about threefold higher in the first ISI OGTT decile. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The low prevalence of male infants born to fathers of flour mill workers suggests that fumigants that they are exposed to are causing testicular dysfunction, while the very low birth weight seen in these infants may be due to yet unknown genotoxic factors. (ilo.org)