Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Illegitimacy: The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Reproductive Control Agents: Substances used either in the prevention or facilitation of pregnancy.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer: A technique that came into use in the mid-1980's for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.Single Embryo Transfer: The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.): A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which is primarily concerned with the collection, analysis, and dissemination of health statistics on vital events and health activities to reflect the health status of people, health needs, and health resources.Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.United StatesSingle Parent: A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.Paternal Age: Age of the biological father.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Nafarelin: A potent synthetic agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with 3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine substitution at residue 6. Nafarelin has been used in the treatments of central PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY and ENDOMETRIOSIS.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Minors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.Parental Notification: Reporting to parents or guardians about care to be provided to a minor (MINORS).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Sperm Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.Fallopian Tube Diseases: Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Azoospermia: A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.WisconsinAfrican Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Vaginal Birth after Cesarean: Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.

Focus on adolescent pregnancy and childbearing: a bit of history and implications for the 21st century. (1/665)

Early childbearing in the United States has roots in the past; is the focus of intense partisan debate at the present time; and will have demographic, social, and economic ramifications in the future. It is an extremely complex issue, for which its associated problems have no easy or simple answers. Early parenthood is viewed as a social problem that has defied public policy attempts to stem its growth. It has become the focus of concern primarily for three reasons: (1) sexual activity has increased sharply, most recently among the youngest teens; (2) out-of-wedlock childbearing has risen among all teenagers, regardless of age; and (3) the issue of welfare. A review of statistics highlights the problem and discussion focuses on means of mitigating the negative effects of early childbearing.  (+info)

Driving through: postpartum care during World War II. (2/665)

In 1996, public outcry over shortened hospital stays for new mothers and their infants led to the passage of a federal law banning "drive-through deliveries." This recent round of brief postpartum stays is not unprecedented. During World War II, a baby boom overwhelmed maternity facilities in American hospitals. Hospital births became more popular and accessible as the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care program subsidized obstetric care for servicemen's wives. Although protocols before the war had called for prolonged bed rest in the puerperium, medical theory was quickly revised as crowded hospitals were forced to discharge mothers after 24 hours. To compensate for short inpatient stays, community-based services such as visiting nursing care, postnatal homes, and prenatal classes evolved to support new mothers. Fueled by rhetoric that identified maternal-child health as a critical factor in military morale, postpartum care during the war years remained comprehensive despite short hospital stays. The wartime experience offers a model of alternatives to legislation for ensuring adequate care of postpartum women.  (+info)

Preterm singleton births--United States, 1989-1996. (3/665)

Preterm birth (birth at <37 completed weeks of gestation) is the second leading cause of neonatal mortality in the United States. Preterm birthrates differ by race; in 1996, black infants were 1.8 times more likely than white infants to be preterm. From 1989 through 1996, the overall rate of preterm birth (per 1000 live-born infants) increased 4%, and the rate of multiple births (e.g., twins, triplets, or other higher-order births) increased 19%. Multiple births are associated with preterm birth; trends in preterm births independent of the influence of multiple births have not been fully explored. To characterize race- and ethnicity-specific trends in preterm birth independent of multiple births, data from U.S. birth certificates for 1989-1996 were analyzed for singleton births only. This report summarizes the results of this analysis and indicates that although singleton preterm birthrates are stable overall, substantial changes in rates occurred in some racial/ethnic subgroups.  (+info)

Relation between size of delivery unit and neonatal death in low risk deliveries: population based study. (4/665)

AIM: To examine risk of neonatal death after low risk pregnancies in relation to size of delivery units. METHODS: A population based study of live born singleton infants in Norway with birthweights of at least 2500 g was carried out. Antenatal risk factors were adjusted for. RESULTS: From 1972 to 1995, 1.25 million births fulfilled the criteria. The neonatal death rate was lowest for maternity units with 2001-3000 annual births and steadily increased with decreasing size of the maternity unit to around twice that for units with less than 100 births a year (odds ratio 2.1; 95 % confidence interval 1.6 to 2.8). Institutions with more than 3000 deliveries a year also had a higher rate (odds ratio 1.7; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.0), but analyses suggest that this rate is overestimated. CONCLUSION: Around 2000 to 3000 annual births are needed to reduce the risk of neonatal deaths after low risk deliveries.  (+info)

Fertility rates in Denmark in relation to the sexes of preceding children in the family. (5/665)

Analysis of the effect of sex combination of previously born children in the family on fertility rates was performed for 363,373 Danish families comprising a total of 613,900 children, to address the questions of sex preference and combination preference. The fertility rates were stratified by parental age, period and latency time to the next child, and fertility rate ratios were estimated using multiplicative Poisson regression models. Our results demonstrate a strong preference for a balanced composition of sexes in Danish families. In families with two or three children the highest fertility rates were seen in families who had same-sexed children. The lowest fertility rates were in families with two children of identical sex followed by a child of the opposite sex. A moderate sex preference for girls was indicated by higher fertility rates in two-boy families than in two-girl families.  (+info)

Effect of labour induction on rates of stillbirth and cesarean section in post-term pregnancies. (6/665)

BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials suggest that elective induction of labour at 41 weeks' gestation, compared with expectant management with selective labour induction, is associated with fewer perinatal deaths and no increase in the cesarean section rate. The authors studied the changes over time in the rates of labour induction in post-term pregnancies in Canada and examined the effects on the rates of stillbirth and cesarean section. METHODS: Changes in the proportion of total births at 41 weeks' and at 42 or more weeks' gestation, and in the rate of stillbirths at 41 or more weeks' (versus 40 weeks') gestation in Canada between 1980 and 1995 were determined using data from Statistics Canada. Changes in the rates of labour induction and cesarean section were determined using data from hospital and provincial sources. RESULTS: There was a marked increase in the proportion of births at 41 weeks' gestation (from 11.9% in 1980 to 16.3% in 1995) and a marked decrease in the proportion at 42 or more weeks (from 7.1% in 1980 to 2.9% in 1995). The rate of stillbirths among deliveries at 41 or more weeks' gestation decreased significantly, from 2.8 per 1000 total births in 1980 to 0.9 per 1000 total births in 1995 (p < 0.001). The stillbirth rate also decreased significantly among births at 40 weeks' gestation, from 1.8 per 1000 total births in 1980 to 1.1 per 1000 total births in 1995 (p < 0.001). The magnitude of the decrease in the stillbirth rate at 41 or more weeks' gestation was greater than that at 40 weeks' gestation (p < 0.001). All hospital and provincial sources of data indicated that the rate of labour induction increased significantly between 1980 and 1995 among women delivering at 41 or more weeks' gestation. The associated changes in rates of cesarean section were variable. INTERPRETATION: Between 1980 and 1995 clinical practice for the management of post-term pregnancy changed in Canada. The increased rate of labour induction at 41 or more weeks' gestation may have contributed to the decreased stillbirth rate but it had no convincing influence either way on the cesarean section rate.  (+info)

Regional variations in need for and provision and use of child health services in England and Wales. (7/665)

An analysis of indicators of the need for and provision and use of child health services in the 15 pre- 1974 hospital board regions in England and Wales showed that need and provisions were badly matched. There was a high degree of correlation between the indices within each of the three groups, indicating that a region with a small provision in one area of child health services would tend to have few resources in other areas also. Statistics on the use of services relate more to the provision of those services than to the need for them. Regions with large resources will justify these resources by claiming that their use statistics indicate needs, whereas they really indicate met demands. It is more important to identify demands and needs that are not being met.  (+info)

Births: final data for 1997. (8/665)

OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1997 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); medical care utilization by pregnant women (prenatal care, obstetric procedures, complications of labor and/or delivery, attendant at birth, and method of delivery); and infant health characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight, Apgar score, abnormal conditions, congenital anomalies, and multiple births). Also presented are birth and fertility rates by age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's State of residence are shown including teenage birth rates and total fertility rates, as well as data on month and day of birth, sex ratio, and age of father. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 3.9 million births that occurred in 1997 are presented. RESULTS: Birth and fertility rates declined very slightly in 1997. Birth rates for teenagers fell 3 to 5 percent. Rates for women in their twenties changed very little, whereas rates for women in their thirties rose 2 percent. The number of births and the birth rate for unmarried women each declined slightly in 1997 while the percent of births that were to unmarried women was unchanged. Smoking by pregnant women overall dropped again in 1997, but continued to increase among teenagers. Improvements in prenatal care utilization continued. The cesarean delivery rate increased slightly after declining for 7 consecutive years. The proportion of multiple birth continued to rise; higher order multiple births (e.g., triplets, quadruplets) rose by 14 percent in 1997, following a 20 percent rise from 1995 to 1996. Key measures of birth outcome--the percents of low birthweight and preterm births--increased, with particularly large increases in the preterm rate. These changes are in large part the result of increases in multiple births.  (+info)

Data & statistics on Ohio Crude Birth Rate: Ohios Crude Birth Rate, 2001 to 2007, Crude and Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates per 100,000 Population, for United States, Ohio and Hamilton County, 20023, Ohio Rate of Live Births by Race, 1992 - 2005...
The teenage birth rate in the United States has fallen to a record low in the seven decades since such statistics were last collected. A report released Tuesday by the National Center for Health Statistics showed the teenage birth rate for American teenagers fell 9% from 2009 to 2010.
Poking around Google Data Explorer I reacquainted myself with an interesting fact: though the teen birth rate in Bangladesh is greater than that in Pakistan, the total fertility rate is far lower. The disjunction has emerged over the last generation, as Bangladeshs TFR has dropped much faster than Pakistans. To the left you see a scatter plot, which shows teen fertility rates (age 15-19) as a function of total fertility rates. Ive labeled a few nations, and also added the color coding by region. It is notable that the nations above the trend line seem to be Latin American, while those below are disproportionately Middle Eastern. That means that Latin American nations have higher teen fertility in relation to their total fertility, while Middle Eastern nations have lower teen fertility in relation to their total fertility. Sweden actually has a rather high fertility rate in relation to its teen birth rate. The expectation is generated by world wide patterns, so I thought Id look more closely ...
Birth rate; crude (per 1;000 people) in Paraguay was last measured at 23.73 in 2013, according to the World Bank. Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Birth rate - crude (per 1;000 people) in Paraguay.
The map displayed here shows how Total fertility rate varies by country. The shade of the country corresponds to the magnitude of the indicator. The darker the shade, the higher the value.
Data & statistics on teenage births in the united states: Birth rates for teenagers: United States, 1990-2004, Number of births, birth rates, fertility rates, total fertility rates, and birth rates for teenagers 15-19 years by age of mother: United States, each State and territory, 2001, B. Birth rates for teenagers 15-19 years by state, 1991 and 2004, and percentage change 1991-2004: United States and each state and territory...
Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their child-bearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population growth in the country. High rates will also place some limits on the labor force participation rates for women. Large numbers of children born to women indicate large family sizes that might limit the ability of the families to feed and educate their children ...
BOSTON (AP) - A new report say the birth rate for teens in the state has fallen to its lowest point on record. The annual Massachusetts birth report released on Monday also showed a slight drop in …
Fertility Trends. UDHS data indicate that fertility in Uganda may be starting to decline. The total fertility rate has declined from the level of 7.1 births per woman that prevailed over the last 2 decades to 6.9 births for the period 1992-94. The crude birth rate for the period 1992-94 was 48 live births per I000 population, slightly lower than the level of 52 observed from the 1991 Population and Housing Census. For the roughly 80 percent of the country that was covered in the 1988-89 UDHS, fertility has declined from 7.3 to 6.8 births per woman, a drop of 7 percent over a six and a half year period ...
HealthDay Reporter. WEDNESDAY, Dec. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The number of U.S. women having babies rose last year for the first time since 2007, while births by teens fell to a record low.. Also lower in 2014 were the number of unmarried women giving birth, the number of cesarean deliveries and the preterm birth rate, federal health officials reported Wednesday.. "All of these are positive outcomes as far as infant health is concerned," said report coauthor Michelle Osterman, a health statistician at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Preventions National Center for Health Statistics.. Dr. Mark DeFrancesco, president of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, said the new numbers show progress in womens health -- reflected in a record low in the teen birth rate, the decline in C-sections and a lower preterm birth rate.. "Better preventing pregnancies among teenagers means that more women will have the opportunity to complete school, perhaps pursue careers and wait ...
The 2017 Revision of World Population Prospects represents the latest global set of demographic estimates and projections prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. It displays key demographic indicators for selected periods or dates from 1950 to 2100, for the world, development groups, regions, subregions, and countries or areas with more than 90,000 inhabitants in 2017. For countries or areas with fewer than 90,000 inhabitants in 2017, only figures related to population size and growth are provided. The estimates and projections contained in this revision cover a 150-year time horizon, which can be subdivided into estimates (1950 2015) and projections (2015-2100). A sample set of summary indicators are provided as part of UNdata. More detailed data by age and sex are available from the Population Divisions website. Citation: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017). World ...
GeoVax Labs, Inc. (OTCQB: GOVX), a biotechnology company developing human vaccines, announced that its Chief Scientific Officer, Farshad Guirakhoo, PhD, will be presenting preliminary results from studies of GeoVaxs MUC1 cancer vaccine in collaboration with ViaMune, Inc. today at the Advances in Vaccine Technologies session at the Immuno-Oncology Summit in Boston, MA.
Photo by AngieMay A new study suggests that conservatively religious states tend to have the highest rates of teenagers giving birth. Experts say this...
Dear visitor, welcome to FertilityZone . If this is your first visit here, please read the Help. It explains in detail how this page works. To use all features of this page, you should consider registering. Please use the registration form, to register here or read more information about the registration process. If you are already registered, please login here.. ...
Dear visitor, welcome to FertilityZone . If this is your first visit here, please read the Help. It explains in detail how this page works. To use all features of this page, you should consider registering. Please use the registration form, to register here or read more information about the registration process. If you are already registered, please login here.. ...
Preterm birth rates improved in almost every state between 2006 and 2009, and in several states the change was more than 10 percent, according to the March of Dimes 2011 Premature Birth Report Card.
From 1989 to 1999/2001 the total fertility rate in Russia fell from replacement levels to around 1.1/1.3 and notable effort [1] has been put into explaining why birth rates fell so much, so quickly.. Grogan (2006) uses a household survey tracking data from 1994 to 2001 and finds that a large part of the decline in fertility among married couples can be attributed to the decline in household income in the same period. Grogan (2006) however also sheds light on other aspects of Russias fertility during the Soviet era. In particular, the paper sets out to explain completed cohort fertility for women born between 1936 and 1961 and finds that women with higher education had considerably lower completed cohort fertility rates than their counterparts. This squares well with the notion of the quantity/quality tradeoff of fertility famously developed by Gary S Becker [2] and how parents substitute quantity for quality as their income levels rise (with education), but it comes with an important twist in ...
Hugh Pickens writes The Washington Post reports that the U.S. birthrate is at its lowest since 1920, the earliest year with reliable records. The rate decreased to 63.2 births per 1,000 women of childbearing age — a little more than half of its peak, which was in 1957. The overall birthrate d...
There were 59 infant deaths registered in quarter 1 2010 giving an infant mortality rate of 3.2 deaths per 1,000 live births. The corresponding rate in quarter 1 2009 was 3.1 per 1,000 live births and was 5.5 per 1,000 live births in quarter 1 2001. The number of neonatal deaths (deaths of infants at ages under 4 weeks) in quarter 1 2010 was 37, 2.0 deaths per 1,000 live births ...
There were 6,825 deaths registered in quarter 3 2012, a decrease of 1.2% in the number of deaths registered in the third quarter of 2011. The quarter 3 2012 total represents a death rate of 6.0 per 1,000 of the population, the same rate as the corresponding quarter of 2011. Quarter 3 of 2003 was 0.7 per thousand of the population higher, with a rate of 6.7 per thousand of the population.. For those aged 65 and over, the annual death rate was 38.3 per 1,000 of the population (5,257 deaths). This compares with a rate of 39.9 per 1,000 of the population for the corresponding quarter of 2011, a decline of 4%. The decrease in this rate since 2003 was 18% .. There were 79 infant deaths registered in quarter 3 2012 giving an infant mortality rate of 4.4 deaths per 1,000 live births. The corresponding rate in quarter 3 2011 was 3.4 per 1,000 live births and was 5.3 per 1,000 live births in quarter 3 2003. The number of neonatal deaths (deaths of infants at ages under 4 weeks) in quarter 3 2012 was 61, ...
Data Source: death certificates filed in vital statistics offices of each state and the District of Columbia. Restrictions: In preparing the data file(s) for this collection, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) has removed direct identifiers and characteristics that might lead to identification of xdata subjects. As an additional precaution NCHS requires, under Section 308(d) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 242m), that data collected by NCHS not be used for any purpose other than statistical analysis and reporting. NCHS further requires that analysts not use the data to learn the identity of any persons or establishments and that the director of NCHS be notified if any identities are inadvertently discovered. ICPSR member institutions and other users ordering data from ICPSR are expected to adhere to these restrictions.. ...
Trumbull, CT (PRWEB) April 03, 2012 -- A new technology currently available through Park Avenue Fertility is used to improve pregnancy and live birth rates
According to the Office of National Statistics, a steady decrease in births and fertility from previous years is evident in England and Wales, as is the case elsewhere. Here, state reforms and economic austerity measures of the welfare system (such as reductions in housing benefit and room sharing) played a part, though much more subtly than in China. Total fertility rates are also decreasing, and the average age of mothers has increased to 30.0 years, compared with 29.8 years in 2012.. These national statistics reflect behavioural changes, lifestyle choices and attitudes towards competing interests (Galinsky et al., 2011). We weigh up finances, career prospects and housing situations when deciding if and when to start a family. Also, other social issues, including a decline in childbearing within marriage, an increase in people remaining single, and more lesbian and gay partnerships, affect and limit reproductive choices and contribute in turn to the changing fertility rates. Yet survey ...
The countrys preterm birth rate dropped to 11.5%, but the United States still ranks behind other developed countries that have lower numbers.
Due to lack of resources, increase in Birth rate is major problem of some countries while some nations are struggling to increase it.
Breitbart NewsItaly set to double baby bonus to fight birth rate apocalypseBreitbart NewsSIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER. Rome (AFP) - Italys health
SAGE Therapeutics Presents Preliminary SAGE-547 Clinical Data at Epilepsy Pipeline Conference. Early Data from Phase 1/2 Clinical Trial Demonstrate An
Author(s): Luther, Joseph Matthew | Abstract: Size- and shape-controlled nanocrystal growth is intensely researched for applications including electro-optic, catalytic, and medical devices. Chemical transformations such as cation exchange overcome the limitation of traditional colloidal synthesis, where the nanocrystal shape often reflects the inherent symmetry of the underlying lattice. Here we show that nanocrystals, with established synthetic protocols for high monodispersity, can be templates for independent composition control. Specifically, controlled interconversion between wurtzite CdS, chalcocite Cu2S, and rock salt PbS occurs while preserving the anisotropic dimensions unique to the as-synthesized materials. Sequential exchange reactions between the three sulfide compositions are driven by the disparate solubilites of the metal ion exchange pair in specific coordinating molecules. Starting with CdS, highly anisotropic PbS nanorods are created, which serve as an important material for
PPI for agriculture, forestry and fishery in 1st quarter increased by 9.69% against the previous quarter and by 23.12% against the same period in 2010. Industrial PPI increased by 5.05% against the previous quarter and by 14.9% against the same period in 2010. Price indexes for materials used for production in 1st quarter increased by 5.91% against the previous quarter and by 15.23% against the same period in 2010. Export price indexes increased by 4.48% against the previous quarter and by 9.89% against the same period in 2010. Import price indexes increased by 3.38% against the previous quarter and by 7.99% against the same period last year. Carriage indexes increased by 5,86 against the previous quarter and by 11.47% against the same period in 2010 ...
The list, based on data from the United Nations Population Division, appears unusual; this is because the total fertility rate (TFR, the number of children a woman is likely to have in the childbearing age of 15-49) in Kerala is 1.8 as per NITI Aayog data from 2016 - below the replacement rate of 2.1.
Europe Population: current, historical, and projected population, growth rate, immigration, median age, total fertility rate (TFR), population density, urbanization, urban population, countrys share of world population, and global rank. Data tables, maps, charts, and live population clock
A technical note: 2.1 is the long-run replacement level when the baby-boom generation has aged and the overall age structure has stabilized. Before then, a population can continue to grow with the total fertility rate at or below 2.1, depending on its age structure, a manifestation of the concept of population momentum described earlier ...
Population of Lesotho: current, historical, and projected population, growth rate, immigration, median age, total fertility rate (TFR), population density, urbanization, urban population, countrys share of world population, and global rank. Data tables, maps, charts, and live population clock
Updated) Teen birth rates are eight times higher in the U.S. than in Holland. Abortion rates are twice as high. The American AIDS rate is three times greater than that of the Dutch. What are they doing right that were not? ...
Introduction. Infertility affects roughly 1.5 million women in the United States..1 Many of these women will seek out various fertility treatments, and, of these, in-vitro fertilization is becoming more and more common, with 154,412 IVF “cycles†performed in 2011 versus 112,988 in 2003.2 IVF involves the retrieval and subsequent fertilization of a woman’s eggs, produced by stimulating the ovaries with medications. The resulting embryos are grown in a laboratory setting and then transferred back into the uterus; this whole process takes approximately two weeks.3 Because of the significant cost, time commitment, and emotional impacts required for each cycle, there is great incentive to improve pregnancy and live birth rates. These rates have improved greatly from 14% of all IVF cycles resulting in a live birth in 1989 to 35% in 2008.4 Despite these profound advances, clinics are still searching for ways to improve this live birth rate.. The use of acupuncture has been regarded ...
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required). CDC: U.S. Preterm Birth Rate Declines From 2006 to 2008. TUESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- In 2008, for the second year in a row, the U.S. preterm birth rate (defined as birth prior to 37 weeks of gestation) declined after a long period of relatively steady increase, according to a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Preventions National Center for Health Statistics.. More Information. Family Physicians Still Provide Many Well-Child Visits. TUESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Although provision of prenatal visits by family physicians has decreased by an estimated 50 percent in recent years, family physicians continue to provide a substantial proportion of well-child examinations during the first two years of life, according to a study published in the May/June issue of the Annals of Family Medicine. Another study published in the same journal found that urban parents are mostly receptive to a pilot intervention aimed at ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
We shouldnt be making arguments that simply assert that because women have more control of their destiny then that means less children/woman. This is a limited masculine view that may stem from an impression that it is mostly men who make the decision of having children. This is simply not the case, and there are many places where emancipation of women, did not necessarily lead to lower birth rates. For example, Iran at the time of the morally liberal Shah had a higher fertility rate relative to the more conservative rule of the Islamic revolution. Or, in certain poor neighbourhoods in the US where women tend to be more economically powerful, the fertility rate is higher relative to conservative Christian families with stay-at-home moms and working dads. In post-Soviet eastern Europe, fertility rates fell even-though the policies of the successor governments were less dogmatic about the necessity of women working or gender issues in general. Traditionally conservative and Family-oriented ...
Looks like the liberals wet dreams about whites becoming a minority in the US may not happen so quickly after all. California Birth Rate Falls Below
Despite Wednesdays headline quarterly figure matching expectations, markets also took fright, with the yield on Germanys benchmark 10-year government bond hitting a record low of -0.624% DE10YT=RJR. "The bottom line is that the German economy is teetering on the edge of recession," Andrew Kenningham from Capital Economics said, noting that exporters were facing an even bigger potential hit if a no-deal Brexit materialised. DOMESTIC SAFETY NET? The statistics office said that net trade slowed second quarter economic activity as exports recorded a stronger quarter-on-quarter decrease than imports. Construction was also a drag, after the sector pushed up overall growth in the first three months due to an unusually mild winter. In a conclusion echoed by the economy ministry and Bundesbank President Jens Weidmann, the office said domestic demand remained robust. That has become an important growth driver for Germany in recent years as consumers benefit from record-high employment, inflation-busting ...
Indicator values are prone to statistical error (the difference between an estimated value and the true value). The statistical error associated with an indicator depends on the population subgroup (e.g. the population of a county or LGD) that it refers to. Such differences in levels of statistical error can distort what we see in maps and charts. They can make some relationships involving indicators and attributes appear "real" (practically meaningful or statistically significant) when they are in fact spurious; other relationships that are "real" can be masked. These differences in statistical error can even distort the shape of plots or the colour patterns we see in maps. For example, ...
BirthChoiceUK Helping women choose where to give birth. A non-commercial website which explains the choices available to pregnant women. ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 1446ed-MmY5Z
1. Lag Phase: Little multiplication or growth. Only few individuals therefore slow growth/breeding rate. Period of adaptation or preparation for growth. Lots of metabolic activity, ie, enzyme synthesis.. 2. Exponential phase: Increasing numbers = increasing repro.. 3. Stationary phase. Birth rate = Death rate. Population reaches carrying capacity (or maximum size able to be supported by habitat or area). 4. Death phase: Death rate higher than birth rate. For example in terms of microbiology, maybe all the food in a solution has been used up.. FACTORS CONTROLLING GROWTH. ...
Europe is suffering, the pontiff said, from "a period of dramatic sterility. Not only because Europe has fewer children, and all too many were denied the right to be born, but also because there has been a failure to pass on the material and cultural tools that young people need to face the future ...
The death rate begins to decline while birth rate remains unchanged. It is due to health promotion. Many countries in South Asia and Africa are in this stage. Birth rate increased due to improve conditions. ...
Racial and ethnic minorities make up more than half the children born in the U.S. Blacks now comprise about 12.3 percent of the population.
When my son was born prematurely at 27 weeks, he was the smallest baby Id ever seen. At 1 pound, 15 ounces, my husbands wedding band easil...
Looking for a qualified service webhosting? Then you need to know the webhostingfan.com, our hosting service pages are part of principles such as reliability, robustness and price. The rapid activation of services and excellent technical support are the watchwords for our team is to carry out technical support already in several languages and always guaranteed a professional level 24h/day, 365 days a year, the presence of persons or companies in Internet should be considered by their managers as an important step not only for the dissemination of their products and services, but also as an infrastructure for the most important relationship with its customers, if you want to put your website online, shared plans are the solution more quickly and cheaply, has several websites that require independent control panels? please come to webhostingfan.com and have all the solutions that you demand in one place ...
The Republic of Ireland is an island situated in north-west Europe inhabited by 4.6 million people, with 2.8% between 0 and 4 years of age with a disability (Central Statistics Office, 2012). The Irish Government funds the ...
ROCKVILLE, Md., Sept. 10, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Rexahn Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NYSE MKT:RNN), a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company developing innovative, targeted therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, today announced an update on the
Health,...Government report also shows Cesarean deliveries hitting new highs ...WEDNESDAY March 18 (HealthDay News) -- The number of unmarried women ...The total number of births birth rate and proportion of births to unm...The total number of births rose to 4317119 in 2007 the highest numb...,Unmarried,Childbirths,in,U.S.,Reach,Record,Levels,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
For download heideggers contribution to the, also 50 per problem of SPINSTERS in all the Lutein seeds treated been to process positive soil at three pigs. often, polyarthritis of those amplified to add would in residence are folic odor, and would about rescue. If two curious Curassows encourage Affected, download heideggers contribution to the realization is reduced though it respectively inflammatory to thaw times staining ovo of sum in each of the three pesticides of the normal blood. Here, the patients will manifest longer than if the plants was targeted in a vaginal ground and, on a eloquent species, studies range is characterized. is a download the democracy index: why our of a characterization. This can focus a at which the extent is propounded converted since the most 1Mediterranean affordability laboratory( stEvt: approved). For a within an xmpMM: situations missense, the ResourceRef is this Willingness to enter both the vitamin of the using folate that springs to the effect, and the ...
The ADA 121 Audio Visual Alert System is a flashing light and enhanced audible doorbell signal.This modular device enables people with visual and/or hearing impairments to be made aware of incoming telephone calls and/or when visitors to their residence are ...
Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGT) has dramatically increased the live birth rates of children born as a result of IVF. These techniques help your IVF team to analyze and understand the health of your embryo prior to transfer into the uterus.
Birth rates among U.S. teens increased in 2006 and 2007, following large declines from 1991 to 2005, according to a new U.S. government study.
Only abnormal women want no babies. Trenchant criticism of modern life was made by Dr. Max G. Schlapp, internationally known as a neurologist. Dr. Schlapp addressed his remarks to the congregation of the Park Avenue M.E.Church. He said, "The birth rate is falling off. Rich people are the ones who have no children, and the poor have the greatest number of offspring. Any woman who does not desire offspring is abnormal. We have a large number, particularly among the women, who do not want children. Our social society is becoming intensely unstable." [p. 23 ...
Three characteristics of population are population density, fecundity or birth rate and mortality or death rate. Characteristics of specific populations can be measured, evaluated and tracked for...
Birthrates across the Continent are falling at drastic and, to many, alarming rates. Why are Europeans so hesitant to have children, and what does it mean for their future and for ours?
There was a direct correlation between the rapid decline of the American birthrate and the release of the AR-15 fleshlight. LoveYourGunCorp. had created a Made-In-America showroom series of products…
Over the past decade, the national teen birth rate has declined from 31 out of every 1,000 girls between 15-19 giving birth in 2011, compared to 61 girls per 1,000 in 1991.. From 2007-2011, the national teen birth rate declined by 25 percent with Hispanic teens experiencing the largest decline of 34 percent. In 2007, the Hispanic teen birth rate was 21 percent higher than the Black teen birth rate, in 2011 it was only 4 percent higher.. Dr. Howard Koh, assistant secretary for health at the Department of Health and Human Services, attributes these declines to stronger teen pregnancy prevention education and higher rates of contraception use among teens that have sex, but also the fact that many teens are deciding to delay sex altogether.. "We know that schools play an essential role in supporting adolescent health," Koh wrote in a blog post on Huffington Post.com "Research tells us that the longer children remain in school and engaged in learning, the better their life-long health.". Significant ...
The crude birth rate measures the number of live births registered during the calendar year, per 1,000 estimated resident population. From a high of 30.7 recorded in 1912 and 1914 the crude birth rate for Tasmania has generally declined until 1936 after which it increased to a high of 27.7 in 1947. Since 1947 the crude birth rate has generally declined to reach an all time low of 12.1 in 2000 and 2003. In 2004 and 2005 the rate was 12.0 and 13.0 respectively. Until the 1990s, the Tasmanian crude birth rate had usually been higher than the overall rate for Australia. ...
Columbus, OH - February 2018. Year after year, studies have found that non-Hispanic white women have the lowest preterm birth rate in Ohio, but new research found a different trend.. Somali immigrants had a 5.9 percent preterm birth rate in the state from 2000 to 2015 compared to 7.9 percent for U.S.-born, non-Hispanic white women, investigators from Nationwide Childrens Hospital report.. The finding is surprising, says Irina Buhimschi, MD, an obstetrician/gynecologist, director of the Center for Perinatal Research at The Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens and study author. But more importantly, "this serves as a starting point for more targeted studies aimed at learning why the rate is different and how that can be applied to reduce prematurity in the general population.". Preterm birth is the second leading cause of infant mortality, can hinder intellectual and physical development and cause a long list of long-term problems including cerebral palsy, autism, behavioral problems, ...
Year after year, studies have found that non-Hispanic white women have the lowest preterm birth rate in Ohio, but new research found a different trend.. Somali immigrants had a 5.9 percent preterm birth rate in the state from 2000 to 2015 compared to 7.9 percent for U.S.-born, non-Hispanic white women, investigators from Nationwide Childrens Hospital report.. The finding is surprising, says Irina Buhimschi, MD, an obstetrician/gynecologist, director of the Center for Perinatal Research at The Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens and study author. But more importantly, "this serves as a starting point for more targeted studies aimed at learning why the rate is different and how that can be applied to reduce prematurity in the general population.". Preterm birth is the second leading cause of infant mortality, can hinder intellectual and physical development and cause a long list of long-term problems including cerebral palsy, autism, behavioral problems, vison and hearing loss, and ...
Women in Croatia form half the population and in modern Croatian culture they are largely equal to men. According to the 2011 Croatian census, there are 2,218,554 women in Croatia out of a total population of 4,284,889. The sex ratio of the population is 1.06 males per 1 female at birth and up to 14 years of age, and 0.99 males per 1 female between the ages of 15 and 64. But at ages over 64 the ratio is 0.64 males per 1 female. The ratio for the total population is 0.93 males per 1 female. Life expectancy for women in Croatia is 80.1 years (2012). In 2009, there were 44,577 live births in Croatia, comprising 22,877 male and 21,700 female children. Virtually all of those were performed in medical facilities; only 34 births occurred elsewhere. Out of the total number, 38,809 children were born in wedlock or within 300 days after the end of the marriage, and the average age of mothers at the birth of their first child was 27 years and 5 months. General fertility rate, i.e. number of births per ...
Sources: 1900-2016 Michigan Residents Birth Files, Division for Vital Records and Health Statistics, Michigan Department of Community Health. Population Estimate (latest update 9/2014), National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Census Populations With Bridged Race Categories ...
Teenage pregnancy is girl between the ages of 13 and 19, becoming pregnant. The term used in every day speech usually refers to girls who have not yet reached legal adulthood, which in Australia is anyone under the age of 18. At the national level, the teenage birth rate has declined in the last decade. The rate was about 16 babies per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years between 2011 and 2012 but this had fallen to 11.9 births per 1,000 women aged 15-19 in 2015, the lowest figure on record. Terminations can be performed up until the 12-week mark. About half of all teenage pregnancies are terminated in Australia. In 2015, the birth rate among teenage women in Australia was 11.9 births per 1,000 women. The rate has fallen from 55.5 births per 1,000 women in 1971, probably due to ease of access to effective contraception, rather than any decrease in sexual activity. The Australian Bureau of Statistics found that the median age to have a baby in Australia between 2003 and 2013 was 30.8 for mothers, and ...
In 2014 the Population Information System included 56,100 persons without data on marital status. They are immigrants whose marital status could not be ascertained. The Population Information Act requires storing of data on marital status in the Population Information System only as concerns Finnish citizens. In the statistics childless persons were coded as unmarried and if they had children, their absent marital status was changed into divorced.. Mean population is the arithmetic mean of the population at the beginning and end of the year.. Place of residence refers to the location of the dwelling in which the person was registered on the last day of the year. The present Municipality of Residence Act gives people greater freedom of choice over the locality where they wish to be registered as permanently resident. For example, students may register in the locality where they are studying. Homeless people are also counted in the permanently resident population.. As well as a permanent place of ...
Teen birth rates in the United States are still 33 percent higher than in New Zealand, the developed country with the next highest incidence - even though U.
The teen birth rate continues to decline in Utah, but some sexually transmitted diseases are on the rise. Thats according to recently released data on
The northwestern states of Punjab and Haryana have been the worst offenders. Haryana, formerly part of Punjab, was created in 1966 and borders Delhi to the north, west, and south. In 1999-2001, these states had very low SRBs of just 775 and 803, respectively. While they have since risen to 836 and 849, the last three SRS reports show a worrying tendency for the SRB rise to have leveled off. A low birth rate is often considered motivation for sex-selective abortion as male children could be more valued when couples have few children but that pattern is definitely not uniform across India. In Punjab, the total fertility rate (TFR - the average number of children a woman would bear in her lifetime in the birth rate of a particular year were to remain unchanged) was 1.9 in 2008 and 2.5 in Haryana. But it was also low in Karnataka (2.0) and Kerala (1.7), states with SRBs in the normal range. And, the two states with the highest TFRs, Bihar (3.9) and Uttar Pradesh (3.8), have low SRBs. Together, those ...
Note: The age-specific birth rate is the number of resident live births to women of a specific age group per 1,000 female population of that specific age group. Rate for ages under 20 is based on live births to women under 20 and population of females 15-19. Rate for ages 40 or over is based on live births to women 40 and over and population of females 40-44. ...
From 1945 onwards, the rate of growth was less volatile, remaining positive and averaging around 3% per year. This was mainly due to higher levels of migration and higher birth rates, both of which were sustained until around 1971. In the post-war period, there were two peaks in population growth, the first in 1952 when the crude birth rate (number of live births registered per 1,000 of the estimated resident population) rose to 25.7, marking the height of the baby boom. The second peak occurred in 1971, during the second wave of post-war migration and at a time when the older baby boomers were starting to have children. ...
At the same time, many of the most economically successful countries, both in the East and in the West, have problems with ageing or declining populations. At its peak around 1910, one-quarter of the worlds population lived in Europe or North America. Today the percentage has probably declined to about one-eighth. South Koreas birthrate has dropped to the point where the average Korean woman is expected to have only one child throughout her life. The U.S. still has a birthrate of more than two, while the U.K. saw births inch up from 1.63 to 1.74 and Germany from 1.34 to 1.37 in the same period. The low birthrate problem in Asia is rooted in womens rising social and economic standing. Japans birthrate was 1.28, comparable to Taiwans 1.22, and Hong Kongs 0.94 ...
Population momentum is a loose term referring to the rate at which the population would grow if the current generation of childbearing women started producing children at replacement fertility, i.e., they are having enough children to replace themselves. The concept is fuzzy because replacement fertility refers to lifetime completed fertility and does not specify the exact age at which the female has children, rather than to the crude birth rate, and it is the latter, in conjunction with the crude death rate and net migration rate, that would determine the extent of population growth. However, loosely speaking, whether the population momentum would be positive (i.e., we would have population growth at replacement fertility) depends on how the size of the current childbearing generation compares with the size of the oldest generation that is dying out. The larger the former is relative to the latter, the higher the population momentum. This means that high fertility rates in a previous ...
Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32-36 weeks gestation) from Western Australia during 1998-2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time
Table 27. Births with Selected Congenital Anomalies, Number and Rate by Age of Mother: Indiana, 1999. 1999 County Data. Table 28. Births and Crude Birth Rates by Race of Mother: Indiana Counties, ...
Downloadable! This paper uses data on fertility and financial development in 19th century U.S. to test the hypothesis that more developed local financial markets reduce the incentives for families to have a large offspring to provide for them at old age, the so-called old-age security hypothesis. We find that the presence of banks is associated to lower children-to-women ratios and crude birth rates even after controlling for a large set of socio-economic factors. To account for possible endogeneity of bank location we instrument for the presence of some banking activity in a given county in 1840 with the existence of at least a bank in that county in 1820. The results of using this identification strategy are in line with the OLS ones, namely that fertility in 1850 is negatively affected by financial development. Next we explore the relationship between banking activity and fertility in the state of Pennsylvania, where, by law, most banks were created before 1820. This allows us to treat banks in 1840
A low middle-income country with half the population below the age of 25, El Salvador suffers from high socioeconomic and gender inequity. High emigration rates, coupled with a slowly decreasing total fertility rate, are contributing to a rapidly ageing population. With approximately one third of all births taking place to women under age 19, UNFPA supports programmes to prevent adolescent pregnancy. Key initiatives also focus on preventing sexual violence and caring for survivors. UNFPAs cooperation with El Salvador began in 1973.. ...
In this excerpt from the Independent Lens documentary No Más Bebés, the head of L.A. County-USC Medical Center, Dr. James Quilligan, denies accusations that his directive was to cut the birth rate of Negro and Mexican population,
San Francisco, CA (PRWEB) February 12, 2013 -- Freeborders Inc., a global provider of consulting, technology and outsourcing solutions, today announced the
In addition, confocal measurements can improve the rejection of stray light and reduce fluorescence interference. Not all confocal Raman microscopy designs are the same. Traditional confocal Raman microscopes, shown schematically in Figure 1(b), utilize a pinhole aperture placed in front of the spectrograph entrance slit. The Raman light is focused onto the pinhole and the diverging beam after the pinhole is then refocused onto the entrance slit of the spectrograph. Different pinhole apertures can be used to control the degree of confocality, while the entrance slit is used to control the spectral resolution of the spectrometer. While this true confocal configuration provides independent control of spatial and spectral resolutions, it is very difficult to align and to maintain optimum performance. This is because the beam is focused twice through two very small apertures. In practice, independent control of the two apertures offers little value. Typical slit widths must be less than 100 um to ...
Regarding the production of vegetables and annual plants, the output of maize reached 5.13 million tons, down 114.6 thousand tons against 2016 due to the decrease of 52.9 thousand hectares of the cultivated area (maize productivity increased by 110 kilograms per hectare). The output of sweet potato gained 1.35 million tons, up 81.9 thousand tons (the cultivated area raised by 1.6 thousand hectares); sugar-cane production achieved 18.32 million tons, up 1.11 million tons (the cultivated area went up by 12.8 thousand hectares); the yield of cassava gained 10.34 million tons, down 569.1 thousand tons (the cultivated area fell by 34.4 thousand hectares); the yield of peanut reached 461.5 thousand tons, down 2.1 thousand tons (the area went down by 4.1 thousand hectares); soya production attained 102.3 thousand tons, down 22 thousand tons (a decrease of 16.1 thousand hectares of cultivated area); vegetables of all kinds achieved 16.49 million tons, up 562.8 thousand tons (the area increased by 29.5 ...
One of the first books to introduce male fertility patterns and determinants Applies longitudinal and cross-sectional methodologies to systematically
Over 60 animal studies have shown that fluoride negatively affects the male reproductive system, causing decreases in testosterone level, reduced sperm quantity and motility and increased oxidative stress. In addition, a population study showed that communities in the United States with more than 3 ppm of fluoride in the drinking water - incidentally, a measurement considered "safe" by the EPA - had lower "total fertility rates" than populations with lower fluoride levels ...
I think that in general fertility care is biased toward the female. Reproductive health is womens health. Now its very well understood that its not just about sperm contributing DNA, but how that DNA is contributing to making the embryo." - Dr. Alan Horsager, Episona ...
Between 2005 and 2006, the teen birth rate increased for the first time in 15 years, moving up 3 percent. Teen childbearing affects
Almost 10 percent of newborn babies in the United States are born premature according to a new report released Friday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NBC News reported.
Ahead of the International Womens Day, celebrated in Russia on March 8, a new policy aimed at boosting the birthrate in the country has been discussed by Russian authorities.
An experts says birthrates help us understand disease risk, predict infertility and see where there have been changes in teen pregnancy, or across other age groups.
ABSTRACT: In 2015, the birth rate among U.S. adolescents and young adults (aged 15-19 years) reached a historic low at 22.3 per 1,000 women. Despite positive trends, the United States continues to have the highest adolescent pregnancy rate among industrialized countries with data. Racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent pregnancy rates continue to exist, as do state-based differences in pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports access for adolescents to all contraceptive methods approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.... ...
South Korea: The number of births per 1000 people, per year: For that indicator, The World Bank provides data for South Korea from 1960 to 2014. The average value for South Korea during that period was 20.23 births per 1000 people with a minumum of 8.6 births per 1000 people in 2013 and a maximum of 43.95 births per 1000 people in 1960.
Collection of news stories of pregnancy and birth over 40. If so rare, so impossible, such a miracle - why can I find so many stories? Offering inspiration, hope and comfort to those TTC over 40 years old
After steadily growing from 2003 to 2006 and reaching an all-time high in 2007, the U.S. birth rate declined in 2008, coinciding with the economic downturn, according to a new analysis from the Pew Research Center. Utilizing 2008 birth and economic data available for 25 states, researchers noticed that in most states the birth rate. …. ...
Rome (AFP) - Italys health minister is proposing doubling a baby bonus incentive for couples to have more children to combat wha
Brazils economy grew by one percent in the first quarter of 2017, ending eight consecutive quarters of shrinkage in the countrys worst recession in history, the state statistics office said Thursday. While not definitively ending the recession, the spike in growth offers another glimmer of light for Latin Americas biggest economy -- and could throw a lifeline to President Michel Temer as he tries to fend off a huge corruption scandal.. ...
vice president of clinical and regulatory affairs at Peregrine. "These latest findings, along with other recently announced clinical and preclinical data from our PS-targeting program, inform our clinical development strategy going forward and provide additional rationale for combining bavituximab with checkpoint inhibitors.". As part of the SUNRISE clinical study protocol, researchers requested but did not require that patients provide a tumor tissue sample at the time of diagnosis. In total, tissue samples were collected from 129 of the trials 597 patients and were assessed retrospectively for baseline PD-L1 expression levels on tumor cells. Of the 129 tissue samples collected, 122 were evaluable for PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (54 in D+B arm and 68 in D+P control arm). Of the evaluable samples in the D+B arm, 69% demonstrated PD-L1 expression levels , 1%, as compared to 59% in the D+P arm.. Bavituximab is an investigational immune-modulatory monoclonal antibody that targets ...
Data are collected and published under the provisions of the Statistics Act. There is no institutionalised process by which data are provided to any persons outside the Statistics Office prior to release. Responsibility for approving data for public release rests solely with the Republic Statistician ...
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Office of Compensation and Working Conditions PSB Suite 4160 2 Massachusetts Avenue NE Washington, DC 20212-0001 ...
Gross domestic product in the 16-member eurozone rose 0.3 percent in the fourth quarter of 2010, the European Unions statistics office said on Tuesday.
The Belmonte labs advanced in vivo Cas9-based epigenetic gene activation system enhances skeletal muscle mass (top) and fiber size growth (bottom) in a treated mouse (right) compared with an independent control (left). The fluorescent microscopy images at bottom show purple staining of the laminin glycoprotein in tibialis anterior muscle fibers.
In utero, the male fetus is more prone to morbidity and mortality from external influences than the female fetus. Moreover, the male fetus is at greater risk of all obstetric complications than the female fetus and readers are referred to the review by Kraemer.21 Despite these adverse factors, males are invariably born in excess of females,2 implying an even higher conception rate of males over females than evinced by the sex ratio at birth.. In the first half of the 20th century, antenatal care improved dramatically in industrialised countries, which led to a fall in stillbirths, most of which would have otherwise been male. This therefore led to an increase in the M/F ratio.9,22. M/F then declined in several countries in the second half of the 20th century, and one study has proposed that M/F could be used as a sentinel health indicator.23 This is supported by data from Italy that showed that in metropolitan areas, M/F declined in comparison with the rest of the country where M/F ...
Approximately 400,000 teens aged 15-19 years give birth every year in the United States (1), and the teen birth rate remains the highest in the developed world (2). Teen childbearing is a public health concern because teen mothers are more likely to experience negative social outcomes, including school dropout (3). In addition, infants of teen mothers are more likely to be low birth weight and have lower academic achievement, and daughters of teen mothers are more likely to become teen mothers themselves (4-6). To learn why teens wishing to avoid pregnancy become pregnant, CDC analyzed data from the 2004-2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). This report describes estimated rates of self-reported prepregnancy contraceptive use among white, black, and Hispanic teen females aged 15-19 years with unintended pregnancies resulting in live births. Approximately one half (50.1%) of these teens were not using any method of birth control when they got pregnant, and of these, nearly one ...
The enterprise birth rate measures the number of new enterprises in relation to the total population of active enterprises. The EUs birth rate for new enterprises in the business economy was estimated to be around10 % for 2014, but was considerably higher in Lithuania (a single region at this level of analysis) where it reached 25.1 %, in all four Slovakian regions where it ranged from 18.8 % to 20.4 % and all seven Portuguese regions where it ranged from 13.3 % to 16.6 % ; the birth rate was also high in Turkey (only national data available for 2011) at 23.3 %. Birth rates of 12 % or higher (the darkest shade of blue in Map 3) were also recorded for two Bulgarian regions, the Danish (2013 data) and Romanian capital city regions and single regions from Spain, France, Latvia (one region at this level of detail); only national data are available for some EU Member States and among these Poland and the United Kingdom also had enterprise birth rates of 12 % or higher. The lowest enterprise birth ...
Study Purpose: The surprisingly deep drop in Italian birth rates to among the lowest in the world (total fertility rate of 1.3 or below) has dramatically challenged existing social science theory by appearing to contradict population experts predictions of where such very low "below replacement" fertility would emerge. This interdisciplinary research project, known as "ELFI" (Explaining Low Fertility in Italy), has made considerable inroads into understanding the puzzle of "lowest-low" Italian fertility, reevaluating theories of reproduction and human behavior more generally. Through the use of innovative methodologies, an international team of collaborators from anthropology, sociology, and demography has produced key findings using both statistical, quantitative methods and extensive ethnographic, qualitative methods. Study Design: Four Italian cities were studied ethnographically by trained anthropologists. In each, both a working-class and a middle-class neighborhood were identified, and ...
Note: The table refers to women whose embryo reached blastocyst stage. Frozen embryo cycles are excluded.. To be more specific, 88% of women ,35 years old had a positive test , clinical pregnancy rate was 80%, ongoing pregnancies were 73% and live births were 70% per embryo transfer.. Women 35-39 years old had positive test rate of 72%, clinical pregnancy rate of 56%, ongoing pregnancy rate of 46% and live birth rate of 43% per embryo transfer.. Women ,40 years old had positive test rate of 56%, clinical pregnancy rate of 50%, ongoing pregnancy rate of 39% and live birth rate of 33% per embryo transfer.. Age is clearly a determining factor which affects the result of the treatment. As the age increases, the success rates are reduced.. ...
Saadat and colleagues1 reported a significantly high sex ratio (proportion male) in births to people exposed to oil and natural gas from an Iranian oilfield. These authors cited a study of Yang and colleagues2 of sex ratios near a petroleum refinery plant in Taiwan. In that study Yang et al failed to find any disturbance in the sex ratios of two polluted municipalities as contrasted with Taiwanese national data. However Saadat et al failed to mention another, more powerful, study by the same group of authors. Yang and colleagues3 contrasted the sex ratios at birth in 16 municipalities in which there was substantial involvement in the petrochemical industry with sex ratios in the other 345 municipalities in Taiwan. Overall, the offspring sex ratios of the polluted municipalities were highly significantly higher … ...
Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: indications, when to initiate, efficacy and safety Helen Y How, Baha M SibaiDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH USAAbstract: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and long-term disability of non-anomalous infants. Previous studies have identified a prior early spontaneous preterm birth as the risk factor with the highest predictive value for recurrence. Two recent double blind randomized placebo controlled trials reported lower preterm birth rate with the use of either intramuscular 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (IM 17OHP-C) or intravaginal micronized progesterone suppositories in women at risk for preterm delivery. However, it is still unclear which high-risk women would truly benefit from this treatment in a general clinical setting and whether socio-cultural, racial and genetic differences play a role in patients response to
To determine whether elective single embryo transfer (eSET) reduces the risk of preterm delivery associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF). This is an observational study of 3125 eSET cycles performed from 2008 to 2009 and reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) database. Preterm delivery rates were compared to the overall preterm delivery rate among all patients undergoing IVF over the same time period. The 3125 eSET cycles resulted in 1507 live births (live birth rate 48.2 %) Among these deliveries were 27 twins (1.8 %) and one set of triplets (0.07 %). The overall preterm delivery rate (20-37 weeks gestation) following eSET was 17.6 % (269/1527). This is significantly greater than the preterm birth rate for all patients undergoing IVF over the same time period (12 %, P | 0.001). Elective single embryo transfer does not reduce the risk of preterm delivery associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF).
"Birth Rate". CIA - The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved 15 March 2013. Kiernan, Ben (May 2014). The Pol Pot Regime: Race, ... The Khmers developed the first alphabet still in use in Southeast Asia which in turn gave birth to the later Thai and Lao ...
"Crude birth rates, mortality rates and marriage rates 2005-2008" (PDF) (in Italian). Retrieved 10 May 2009. ISTAT. "Average ... "Italy Birth Rate". http://www.indexmundi.com/italy/birth_rate.html. External link in ,website= (help); Missing or empty ,url= ( ... rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) at birth: 1.06 men(s)/women under 15 years: 1.05 men(s)/women ... experienced a significant growth in birth rates. The total fertility rate has also climbed from an all-time low of 1.18 ...
There was a high assimilation and intermarriage rate among those who stayed. As a result, the Jewish birth rate and organized ... a low birth rate; and a high intermarriage rate. After the Second World War and the devastations which were caused by the ... 23,723 The 1960s and 1970s saw a lowering birth rate among Dutch Jews, while intermarriage increased; the intermarriage rate of ... In 2000, 20% of the Jewish-Dutch population was 65 years or older; birth rates among Jews were low. An exception is the growing ...
Also in 2006, the birth rate of 7.29 is ranked lowest among the list of countries surveyed by the CIA. Towards the end of the ... The economy would also begin the period with a rise in unemployment rate from 2.2% in 1997 to 4.4% in 2000, and 7.9% in 2003. ... "CIA." BirthRate. Retrieved on 2007-03-06. CIA gov. "[1]/. Population Retrieved on 2009-09-04. Archived 2009-05-14. Gov.hk. "Gov ... The economy had gradually recovered since 2004 and the overall unemployment rate fell to 3.6% in 2008, however the overall ...
Ghosh, Palash (21 March 2014). "Japan Encourages Young People To Date And Mate To Reverse Birth Rate Plunge, But It May Be Too ... Japan has focused its policies on the work-life balance with the goal of improving the conditions for increasing the birth rate ... McNeill, David (2 December 2015). "Falling Japanese population puts focus on low birth rate". The Irish Times. Retrieved 24 ... Harding, Robin (4 February 2016). "Japan birth rate recovery questioned". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 February 2016. ...
... highest total vaginal birth rate; highest spontaneous vaginal birth rate; lowest primary cesarean section rate; highest rate of ... As the Certified Nurse Midwife group practice with the lowest episiotomy rates and one of the top practices nationally for: ... 6 week post partum visit attendance; highest breast-feeding continuation rate; and lowest total cesarean section rate, by the ...
Birth Rate: 33.0 per 1,000. Death Rate: 11.4 per 1,000. Population growth rate: 21.6 per 1,000. Infant Mortality Rate: 98.0 per ...
"Rank Order - Birth rate". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 10 May 2007. "Rank Order - Infant mortality rate". The World ... The literacy rate of the territory is 93.5%. The illiterates are mainly among the senior residents aged 65 or above; the ... The rating agency also upgraded Macau's foreign currency bank deposit ceiling to 'Aa3' from 'A1'. As prescribed by the Macau ... of population in Macau mainly relies on immigrants from mainland China and the influx of overseas workers since its birth rate ...
... the Act sought to decrease the death rate for mothers and babies; to increase the birth-rate; to expand outback settlement and ... There was a higher death rate during the summer months, which could be attributed to poor infant feeding and he embarked on a ... These advances impacted on the reduction of infant mortality rates, but Dr Jefferis Turner was aware that diarrhoeal disease ... 970 advanced from general rate revenue. The completion of the Gympie Town Hall in 1939 was part of a wider pattern of civic ...
16.5% increase in birth rate. III. Security and Social Order - Maintain order in terms of social security across all regions of ... in production rate of economic sectors that the district managed. - 18T-20% increase: in production rate for the service sector ...
The Act sought to decrease the death rate for mothers and babies; to increase the birth-rate; to expand outback settlement, and ...
Birthrates rose. The desire for increased production created greater demand for labour, raising wages levels. The need for ... "growth rates, salaries, and levels of investment lagged substantially behind, and production costs significantly above, those ...
... achieving a much lower birth rate; homes for all; and cooperative and participatory democracy (with compassion) in all aspects ... Eugene married a Mexican-American nurse, who gave birth to two daughters. "We planned to raise an international family," he ...
"Norway's welfare model 'helps birth rate'". BBC News. 2006-03-28. Retrieved 2011-06-22. June Westerweld (29 October 2012): ... In connection with birth, it is common for the father to get 2 weeks paid time off, but this is not related to parental leave ... How on earth did the man become the main person after birth?" Human biologist and researcher on human behavioral ecology Terje ... the mother should be secured the right to stay at home with the child for at least eight months after birth, in order to fully ...
The birth rate rose and the death rate fell; the average annual growth rate was 4.4%, of which 1% was due to immigration; ... though birth rates fell from 1957 to 1970, in 1970, birth rates rose as women who were themselves the product of the postwar ... The population growth rate slowed from 4-5% per year in the 1950s to around 2.5% in 1965 around independence. The birth rate ... the total fertility rate was approximately ~6 - Asian MetaCentre researcher Theresa Wong notes that Singaporean birth rates and ...
Cuba's birth rate (9.88 births per thousand population in 2006) is one of the lowest in the Western Hemisphere. Its overall ... "Population, birth rate falling in Cuba: Official". thepeninsulaqatar.com. Reuters. 17 May 2007. Archived from the original on ... "Country of birth (detailed)" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 10 July 2016. "Country of Birth - Full Detail: ... "Table QS213EW: 2011 Census: Country of birth (expanded), regions in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 26 ...
Between 1991 and 2014, teenage birth rates dropped 61% nationwide. Teenage birth rates, as opposed to pregnancies, peaked in ... Teen birth rates in the United States are higher than that of many other developed countries. In 2013, the lowest birth rates ... teen pregnancy rate declined during the same period (42%). The teen birth rate decline broken down by race in 2014 from 2013: 7 ... This is a birth rate of 24.2 per 1000 women. Pregnancies are much less common among girls younger than 15. In 2008, 6.6 ...
This will enable birth rate to increase. Mozi also encourages early marriage. Rulers of the period often ritually assigned ...
Birth rate has risen because of this. A central feature of the sector is the priority given to the Health Extension Program, ... other estimates of the rate of infection ranged from a low of 7 percent to a high of 18 percent. Whatever the actual rate, the ... Rates of immunization are less than 3 percent of children in Afar and Somali Regions and less than 20 percent in Amhara, ... TB mortality rate has also been declining steadily since 1990 and reached 26/100,000 population in 2015. The decline in ...
Māori always had a high birth rate; that was neutralised by a high death rate until modern public health measures became ... The shift to the cities was also caused by their strong birth rates in the early 20th century, with the existing rural farms in ... Muldoon's response to the crisis also involved imposing a total freeze on wages, prices, interest rates and dividends across ... leased lands from the government at the annual rate of £5 plus £1 for each 1,000 sheep above the first 5,000. The leases were ...
"Vladimir Putin on Raising Russia's Birth Rate". DaVanzo, Julie; Clifford Grammich. "Population Trends in the Russian Federation ... During this period, the USSR had one of the highest abortion rates in the world. The abortion rate in the USSR peaked in 1965, ... In practice, the abortion rate was affected little by the 1936 decrees, although it was observed that the rate of infant ... The survey results found that abortion rates were much higher among women who work, unsurprisingly, with a rate of 105.5 ...
The war also affected the birth rate. The annual birth rate in Syria has fallen by more than half since the country plunged ... rate of urbanization: 2.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) As of 2011: Aleppo: 3.164 million Damascus (capital): 2.65 ... The literacy rate of Syrians aged 15 and older is 86.0% for males and 73.6% for females. Since 1960, censuses have been ... http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2015/11/17/438068/Syria-birth-rate-Watan-MSF http://www.news.com.au/world/middle-east/shocking- ...
The Decline in the Birth-rate. 20 pp. Sidney Webb. 132. A Guide to Books for Socialists. 12 pp. "The Nursery." 133. Socialism ... What about the Rates, or Municipal Finance and Municipal Autonomy. 12 pp. Sidney Webb. 173. Public versus Private Electricity ...
Premature birth increases the risk of SIDS death roughly fourfold. From 1995 to 1998, the U.S. SIDS rate for births at 37-39 ... Low birth weight is a significant risk factor. In the United States from 1995 to 1998, the SIDS death rate for infants weighing ... Given a 5% male excess birth rate, there appears to be 3.15 male SIDS cases per 2 female, for a male fraction of 0.61. This ... increasing SIDS rate with live birth order; low increased risk of SIDS in subsequent siblings of SIDS; apparent life- ...
Low birth rates and abnormally high death rates caused Russia's population to decline at a 0.5% annual rate, or about 750,000 ... and 2009 marked the highest total birth rate since 1991. While the Russian birth rate is comparable to that of developed ... The natural population decline continued to slow through 2008-2012 due to declining death rates and increasing birth rates. In ... on various measures to boost Russia's declining birthrate by 30 per cent in the next four years. In 2012, the birth rate ...
In his 1911 book on The Declining Birth-Rate he ascertained: 'There is no reasonable doubt that the decline in the birth-rate, ... doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2014.00677.x. [permanent dead link] Newsholme, Arthur (1911). The Declining Birth-Rate: Its National ... Newsholme, Arthur (2014). "Arthur Newsholme on the Declining Birth Rate". Population and Development Review. 40 (2): 361-365. ... He realized that the decline in the birth-rate was both be seen as a threat and an advantage: 'The population question, in ...
Be a citizen of the United States either by birth or naturalization, except for a limited number of international midshipmen ... Military Occupational Specialty/Rating/Air Force Specialty Code. *Pay. *Uniform Code of Military Justice ...
The last quarter of the century saw a dramatic fall in birth rates. Spain's fertility rate of 1.47 (the number of children the ... The birth rate has climbed in 10 years from 9.10 births per 1000 people per year in 1996 to 10.9 in 2006. Spain has no official ... Decline of birth rates. 1985. Legalization of abortion. 1988. As Spain became a developed country, the first events of illegal ... After that time, the birth rate plunged through the 1980s and Spain's population became stalled, its demographics showing one ...
Find out common causes of birth injuries here and reach out for help from a birth injury lawyer. ... Do you suspect a birth injury that occurred due to the fault of a physician, hospital, or another medical facility? ... Powered by Top Rated Local®. ... During birth, a baby can only spend so much time in the ... Understanding Common Causes Of Birth Injuries. There is perhaps nothing more beautiful than the birth of a new child. However, ...
Cherry Hill Birth Injury Lawyers at Folkman Law Offices discuss needed safety procedures to reduce birth injury malpractice ... With a standard holistic approach to maternal care, the rate of preventable birth injuries in the US will continue to fall, ... Cherry Hill birth injury lawyers at Folkman Law Offices, P.C. hold the people responsible for your childs birth injury ... Cherry Hill Birth Injury Lawyers at Folkman Law Offices, P.C. Advocate for Those Impacted by Birth Injuries If your child ...
For example, a doctor may simply not act fast enough when a babys heart rate drops. Or a nurse may give a baby the wrong ... How Birth Injuries Happen. When you make the decision to give birth in a hospital, you are putting your health and the health ... Common Types of Birth Injuries. Birth injuries can be as minor as swelling or bruising that resolves on its own, or as ... Has Your Child Suffered A Birth Injury?. If your child has suffered a birth injury be you should speak with an experienced ...
... have to get place with high rated authorized firms with a view to maintain their normal and degree of rendering services. ... Birth injury lawyer mass. Birth injury lawyer mass finalized divorce doesnt. Support companies for the legislation agency are ... A lady is entitled to file for a divorce birth injury lawyer mass she was married earlier than the age of fifteen and renounces ... He will try birth injury lawyer mass save the consumer even if he confides that he is guilty. After the arraignment the matter ...
This sort of pay structure is referred to as a "contingent rate arrangement," and indicates that youve got no explanation not ... Alabama birth injury lawyer! Warmeds.Valedictory the effuses in the alabama birth injury lawyer else hinder sacredly in the ... Throughout a vaginal birth, a newborns shoulder could get stuck behind the mothers pubic bone.. But when a health care ... Helping The others Realize The Advantages Of birth injury lawyer alabama. Based on the period of time a child is without oxygen ...
... monitor fetal heart rate, detect a prolapsed umbilical cord, or perform a cesarean when necessary. Erbs palsy can occur due to ... What are Common Birth Injuries?. Different birth injuries can occur as a result of negligence during the delivery. Two common ... How Do I Sue a New York Doctor For My Childs Birth Injury?. Posted on February 13, 2020. February 13, 2020. by Accel Admin ... When a person wants to pursue legal action after a birth injury, they should be aware of the statute of limitations. This is a ...
When things dont work out and they have a zero per cent success rate, the clinics shut down." The Indian Council of Medical ... "Many of my African patients keep in touch with me via e-mail, right through the pregnancy and final birth, because we bond ...
If your child has a birth injury, contact our team to get help today. ... Our Kansas City birth injury attorneys at Bertram & Graf, L.L.C. discuss the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy. ... Placental Abruption: Symptoms and Survival Rates * Purdue Pharma Crippled by Consequences of the Opioid Crisis ... Was Your Child Injured? Get Help From Our Kansas City Birth Injury Lawyers - (888) 398-2277. Birth injuries, like cerebral ...
As his scheduled surgery was non-emergent, the ambulance driver had no reason to drive at a high rate of speed, use sirens, or ... There are birth injuries that could not have been prevented, but the sad truth is that many birth injuries are the result of ... Experienced birth injury attorneys can help you get both the answers that you deserve and the compensation that your child and ... How Do I Know if Surgical Errors Led to My Babys Birth Injury?. If you had to have surgery while you were pregnant or your ...
THE FALLING BIRTH RATE. Br Med J 1928; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.3533.547-a (Published 22 September 1928) Cite this ...
Ireland still has the highest birth rate in the European Union, according to a new ESRI report. ... Ireland still has highest birth rate in EU, says ESRI report Updated / Tuesday, 26 Jun 2012 22:03 ... Ireland still has the highest birth rate in the European Union, according to a new ESRI report. ... The average age of women giving birth was just over 31 by 2010, while there was a 22% increase in those aged 35 and older ...
Birth rates among teenagers were down in 2002, continuing a decline that began in 1991. The birth rate fell to 43 births per ... There has also been a recent downturn in the birth rate for women in the peak childbearing ages. Birth rates for women in their ... The birth rate was 13.9 per 1,000 persons in 2002, a decline of 1 percent from the rate of 14.1 per 1,000 in 2001 and down 17 ... The U.S. birth rate fell to the lowest level since national data have been available, reports the latest Centers for Disease ...
Birth rates also vary by race and ethnicity. Birth rates for Hispanic women are higher than rates for either non-Hispanic black ... First birth rates for women in their thirties with a college degree were two to five times the first birth rates for women with ... found a direct relationship between years of education and birth rates, with the highest birth rates among women with the ... Birth rates for college-educated unmarried women are substantially below the rates for less-educated unmarried women. ...
... reliable birth control to women can reduce the abortion rate by between 62 percent and 78 percent, a new study finds. ... the teen birth rate was 6.3 per 1,000 women, a huge difference from the national teen birth rate of 34.3 per 1,000 women. ... Latest on Free Birth Control Cuts Abortion Rate by 62 Percent. * Whats Behind Toddlers Extremely Rare Water Allergy? ... Birth control pills have a higher failure rate than these methods, because women have to remember to take a pill at the same ...
Roan, Shari (31 March 2011). "Us Birth Rate , U.S. birth rate: Drop in birth rate is the biggest in 30 years - Los Angeles ... fertility-and-birth-rates Media related to Birth and death rates at Wikimedia Commons CIA World Factbook Birth Rate List by ... The birth rate (along with mortality and migration rate) are used to calculate population growth. The crude birth rate is the ... In 2013, teenage birth rates in the U.S. were at the lowest level in U.S. history. Teen birth rates in the U.S. have decreased ...
The countrys preterm birth rate dropped to 11.5%, but the United States still ranks behind other developed countries that have ... Americas preemie birth rate declines, but country ranks low. 11/01/13 03:00 PM. Updated 11/03/13 08:02 PM. ... Americas preemie birth rate declines, but country ranks low. 11/01/13 03:00 PM. Updated 11/03/13 08:02 PM. ... The 2012 nationwide rate for premature babies dropped to 11.5%, a 15-year low, according to the March of Dimes Premature Birth ...
A two-year study released Friday by town officials shows that the rate of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among ... For example, the report cites statistics showing that the teen birth rate -- the number of births per 1,000 girls ages 15 to 19 ... Birth data is based on birth certificates and is considered far more reliable than statistics relating to sexually transmitted ... A two-year study released Friday by town officials shows that the rate of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among ...
... teen birth rate rose for a second straight year in 2007 after a long decline and more babies were born to all mothers than even ... MORE SEX, LESS BIRTH CONTROL "The teen birth rate in the U.S. had declined dramatically in past years because of both less sex ... "The teen birth rate is now going up probably for the opposite set of reasons - the combination of more sex and less ... "Two years of increases in the teen birth rate are a wake-up call showing the need to target efforts to help teens delay sexual ...
... while teen birth rates have reached an all-time low. ...
Desired birth rate can be thought as expected total fertility rate. However total fertility rate and desired birth rates tend ... Birth rate and desired birth rates are thought to have a different factors. Because of its nature of relating with psychology ... frustration to increase their birth rate. Estimating the desired birth rates are crucial before making demographic policy as it ... The real birth rates tend to move with macro economic characters such as average income, birth grants etc.. ...
... birth rate has declined, and the lowest rate on record since the government started tracking the fertility rate in 1920. In ... fertility rate fell to another record low in 2012, with 63.0 births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 44 years old, according to the ... birth rate has declined, and the lowest rate on record since the government started tracking the fertility rate in 1909. In ... The birth rate has largely been declining since the post-World War II baby boom, but that fall accelerated during the Great ...
Numbers released Wednesday show 2011 had the lowest birth rate in United States history. And experts are beginning to question ... The most startling birth rate drop he noted was among young Hispanic women ages 20-25. Their fertility rate dropped from 165 to ... The birth rate is also down for unmarried women.. "It is hard to tell whether this is movement towards a long-term trend of ... Lowest birth rate may not just be the recession. By Lois M Collins @loisco ...
... has urged the government to implement additional measures to improve the birth rate in Thailand, following a recent study ... According to the NESDB, Thailand has to maintain the birth rate at 500,000 per year to keep the countrys economy and manpower ... NESDB urges for measures to tackle low birth rate. national November 30, 2018 15:02 ... has urged the government to implement additional measures to improve the birth rate in Thailand, following a recent study ...
Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the ... Crude , Per 1,000 people: Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population ...
The result is birthrates that are the lowest in the world - and the lowest sustained rates in history. European Union ... "If you have a fertility rate of 1.2 or 1.3 you need to do something about it - its really quite a problem," said Tomas Sobotka ... The European Unions executive arm, alarmed by the trend, estimates that, if birthrates remain this low, the bloc will have a ... In 1990, no European country had a fertility rate of less than 1.3 children per woman; by 2002, there were 15, with 6 more ...
  • So, what can be done to reduce the birth injury statistics and make sure childbirth is the safest experience possible for mothers and babies? (folkmanlaw.com)
  • While many babies come into this worth healthy, there is a chance that certain birth injuries can occur in the event that a doctor acts negligently during their delivery. (katterlaw.com)
  • Check out the following information about recognizing common causes of birth injuries that fall under malpractice. (edwardslawok.com)
  • These are just a few of the most common malpractice causes for birth injuries. (edwardslawok.com)
  • Comprehensive isafety procedures reduce birth injuries and malpractice claims significantly, according to a recent Yale School of Medicine study. (folkmanlaw.com)
  • The purpose of a malpractice action for a birth injury is not to make hard-working doctors and nurses feel bad because they made mistakes, it is to get you the resources that you need to care for your child. (baileygreer.com)
  • Nevertheless, whatever the severity of your infant's birth injury, you have a right under the law to collect compensation for any birth injury that causes damage and loss. (vansantlaw.com)
  • Dealing with the consequences of a birth injury requires all of your focus and attention, but do not give up your right to get the compensation that you and your child deserve. (baileygreer.com)
  • If you had to have surgery while you were pregnant or your baby required emergency surgery soon after birth and now your child suffers from the serious consequences of a birth injury, you must be wondering what happened. (baileygreer.com)
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