Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.UruguayPregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.SwedenSiblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Fructose Intolerance: An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC 2.1.2.13) activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Thyroid Function Tests: Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.WalesEnglandInternational Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Dextropropoxyphene: A narcotic analgesic structurally related to METHADONE. Only the dextro-isomer has an analgesic effect; the levo-isomer appears to exert an antitussive effect.Great BritainCesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cesarean Section, Repeat: Extraction of the fetus by abdominal hysterotomy anytime following a previous cesarean.

Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes. (1/115)

BACKGROUND: A short interval between pregnancies has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Whether that association is due to confounding by other risk factors, such as maternal age, socioeconomic status, and reproductive history, is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the interpregnancy interval in relation to low birth weight, preterm birth, and small size for gestational age by analyzing data from the birth certificates of 173,205 singleton infants born alive to multiparous mothers in Utah from 1989 to 1996. RESULTS: Infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a previous live birth had the lowest risks of adverse perinatal outcomes; shorter and longer interpregnancy intervals were associated with higher risks. These associations persisted when the data were stratified according to and controlled for 16 biologic, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors. As compared with infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a live birth, infants conceived less than 6 months after a live birth had odds ratios of 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.6) for low birth weight, 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.5) for preterm birth, and 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 1.4) for small size for gestational age; infants conceived 120 months or more after a live birth had odds ratios of 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 2.4);1.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.7), and 1.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.0) for these three adverse outcomes, respectively, when we controlled for all 16 risk factors with logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal interpregnancy interval for preventing adverse perinatal outcomes is 18 to 23 months.  (+info)

The determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania. (2/115)

This paper investigates the determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania using the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. A hazards model is used to assess the relative effect of the variables hypothesized to influence under-five mortality. Short birth intervals, teenage pregnancies and previous child deaths are associated with increased risk of death. The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania should therefore maintain its commitment to encouraging women to space their births at least two years apart and delay childbearing beyond the teenage years. Further, this study shows that there is a remarkable lack of infant and child mortality differentials by socioeconomic subgroups of the population, which may reflect post-independence health policy and development strategies. Whilst lack of socioeconomic differentials can be considered an achievement of government policies, mortality remains high so there is still a long way to go before Tanzania achieves its stated goal of 'Health for All'.  (+info)

Patterns of infection and day care utilization and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. (3/115)

To investigate if decreased exposure to common childhood infections is associated with risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) we conducted a case-control study of 1842 newly diagnosed and immunophenotypically defined cases of ALL under age 15, and 1986 matched controls in the US. Data regarding day care, sibship size and common childhood infections were obtained through parental interviews. Data were analysed stratified by leukaemia lineage and separately for 'common' childhood ALL (age 2-5 years, CD19, CD10-positive). Neither attendance at day care nor time at day care was associated with risk of ALL overall or 'common' ALL. Ear infections during infancy were less common among cases, with odds ratios of 0.86, 0.83, 0.71 and 0.69 for 1, 2-4, 5+ episodes, and continuous infections respectively (trend P = 0.026). No effect of sibship size or birth interval was seen. With one exception (ear infections), these data do not support the hypothesis that a decrease in the occurrence of common childhood infection increases risk of ALL.  (+info)

Postneonatal and child mortality among twins in Southern and Eastern Africa. (4/115)

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the difference in mortality between twins and singleton children during the postneonatal and childhood period in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to quantify the excess mortality of twins during the postneonatal and childhood period and to identify factors that contribute to the excess mortality among twins. The different use made of health care services was hypothesized to contribute to the increased mortality. METHODS: The Demographic and Health Survey data on Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia were pooled. Logistic regression was used to estimate twin/singleton differences for the combined postneonatal and child mortality and to study the role of intermediate factors and effect modifiers. RESULTS: The study was based on 18 214 singleton children and 706 twins. The twin/ singleton odds ratio (OR) of the combined postneonatal and child mortality was 2.33 (95% CI : 1.85-2.93). This excess mortality was largest during the first year of life. Control for intermediate factors (preventive health care and breastfeeding) did not sizeably diminish the mortality difference. Effect modifiers that were associated with increased twin/singleton OR were male sex, unwanted child, short birth interval and low socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: The excess mortality of twins compared to singletons is considerable. A difference in use of preventive health care or in breastfeeding cannot explain the increased mortality. Males, unwanted children, those born after a short birth interval and the socioeconomically disadvantaged are at special risk. The generally good attendance at under-5 clinics gives health care providers the opportunity for increased surveillance of these high-risk groups.  (+info)

Effect of an older sibling and birth interval on the risk of childhood injury. (5/115)

OBJECTIVE: Certain family structures have been identified as putting children at high risk for injury. To further define children at highest risk, we set out to explore the effect of an older sibling and birth interval on the risk of injury related hospital admission or death. METHODS: Data were analyzed using a case-control design. Cases and controls were identified by linking longitudinal birth data from Washington state (1989-96) to death certificate records and hospital discharge data obtained from the Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System and frequency matched in a 1:2 ratio on year of birth. Cases consisted of singleton children 6 years of age or younger who were hospitalized or died as a result of injury during the years 1989-96. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify and adjust for confounding variables. RESULTS: There were 3145 cases and 8371 controls. The adjusted odds ratio for injury in children with an older sibling was 1.50 (95% confidence interval 1.37 to 1.65). The effect was greatest in children under 2 years of age, and in those with a birth interval of less than two years. As the number of older siblings increased, so did the risk of injury, with the highest risk in children with three or more older siblings. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the presence of an older sibling is associated with an increased risk of injury. The risk is highest in those with very short birth intervals. Potential mechanisms for this increased risk may relate to inadequate parental supervision. Pediatricians and other care providers need to be alert to these identifiable risk factors and then direct preventive strategies, such as home visits and educational programs, toward these families.  (+info)

Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with interpregnancy interval: cross sectional study. (6/115)

OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of interpregnancy interval on maternal morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cross sectional study with data from the Perinatal Information System database of the Latin American Centre for Perinatology and Human Development, Montevideo, Uruguay. SETTING: Latin America and the Caribbean, 1985-97. PARTICIPANTS: 456 889 parous women delivering singleton infants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crude and adjusted odds ratios of the effects of short and long interpregnancy intervals on maternal death, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, third trimester bleeding, premature rupture of membranes, postpartum haemorrhage, puerperal endometritis, and anaemia. RESULTS: Short (<6 months) and long (>59 months) interpregnancy intervals were observed for 2.8% and 19.5% of women, respectively. After adjustment for major confounding factors, compared with those conceiving at 18 to 23 months after a previous birth, women with interpregnancy intervals of 5 months or less had higher risks for maternal death (odds ratio 2.54; 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 5.38), third trimester bleeding (1.73; 1.42 to 2.24), premature rupture of membranes (1.72; 1.53 to 1.93), puerperal endometritis (1.33; 1.22 to 1.45), and anaemia (1.30; 1.18 to 1.43). Compared with women with interpregnancy intervals of 18 to 23 months, women with interpregnancy intervals longer than 59 months had significantly increased risks of pre-eclampsia (1.83; 1.72 to 1.94) and eclampsia (1.80; 1.38 to 2.32). CONCLUSIONS: Interpregnancy intervals less than 6 months and longer than 59 months are associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes.  (+info)

Reproductive investment in pre-industrial humans: the consequences of offspring number, gender and survival. (7/115)

The number and gender of offspring produced in a current reproductive event can affect a mother's future reproductive investment and success. I studied the subsequent reproductive outcome of pre-industrial (1752-1850) Finnish mothers producing twins versus singletons of differing gender. I predicted that giving birth to and raising twins instead of singletons, and males instead of females, would incur a greater reproductive effort and, hence, lead to larger future reproductive costs for mothers. I compared the mothers' likelihood of reproducing again in the future, their time to next reproduction and the gender and survival of their next offspring. I found that mothers who produced twins were more likely to stop breeding or breed unsuccessfully in the future as compared with women of a similar age and reproductive history who produced a same-gender singleton child. As predicted, the survival and gender of the offspring produced modified the costs of reproduction for the mothers. Giving birth to and raising males generally appeared to be the most expensive strategy, but this effect was only detected in mothers who produced twins and, thus, suffering from higher overall costs of reproduction.  (+info)

Effect of interpregnancy interval on risk of spontaneous preterm birth in Emirati women, United Arab Emirates. (8/115)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a short interpregnancy interval is a risk factor for preterm birth in Emirati women, where there is a wide range of interpregnancy intervals and uniformity in potentially confounding factors. METHODS: A case-control design based on medical records was used. A case was defined as a healthy multiparous Emirati woman delivering a healthy singleton spontaneously before 37 weeks of gestation between 1997 and 2000, and a control was defined as the next eligible similar woman delivering after 37 weeks of gestation. Women were excluded if there was no information available about their most recent previous pregnancy or if it had resulted in a multiple or preterm birth. Data collected from charts and delivery room records were analysed using the STATA statistical package. All variables found to be valid, stable and significant by univariate analysis were included in multivariate logistic regression analysis. FINDINGS: There were 128 cases who met the eligibility criteria; 128 controls were selected. Short interpregnancy intervals were significantly associated with case status (P<0.05). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for the 1st, 2nd, and 4th quartiles of interpregnancy interval compared with the lowest-risk 3rd quartile were 8.2, 5.4, and 2.0 (95% confidence intervals: 3.5-19.2, 2.4-12.6, and 0.9- 4.5 respectively). CONCLUSION: A short interpregnancy interval is a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Emirati women. The magnitude of the risk and the risk gradient between exposure quartiles suggest that the risk factor is causal and that its modification would reduce the risk of preterm birth.  (+info)

  • It has also been found that consideration of breastfeeding status of the child does not significantly alter interpretation of effects of preceding birth interval length on mortality risk, but does partially diminish the succeeding birth interval effect. (repec.org)
  • In models that do not adjust carefully for family background, we find that short and long birth intervals are clearly associated with height, physical fitness, being overweight or obese, and mortality. (springer.com)
  • To our knowledge, this question has not been examined in a contemporary setting, which is surprising given that previous research has shown that birth interval length is associated with the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and child mortality (Conde-Agudelo et al. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we use Swedish population register data to examine the relationship between birth interval length and height, physical fitness, and the probability of falling into different body mass index (BMI) categories measured at ages 17-20 for men, and mortality over ages 30-74 for both men and women. (springer.com)
  • The studies she cites show that when a group of animals, whether it be a species or just a breeding population within a species, makes more use of allomothers, the breeding interval drops. (wandering-scientist.com)
  • Our study extends the literature on this topic by examining a range of medium- and long-term health outcomes that have not been previously examined in relation to birth spacing, and we do so using a within-family sibling comparison design that allows us to minimize residual confounding and to isolate the net effect of birth interval length on long-term health. (springer.com)
  • In general, the methods used lacked standardised procedures for defining households, enumerating household members, selecting the principal informant, ascertaining whether identified household members were living at home during the survey period, failing to define live-births, and not having a standardised question set. (ennonline.net)
  • To assess the percentage of women who were vaccinated during pregnancy among women with recent live births, CDC analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) from Georgia and Rhode Island, the two states that collected this information on the PRAMS survey. (cdc.gov)
  • Each month, participating states or entities use birth certificate data to select a stratified random sample of 100--300 women with recent live births. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 3 ] These data, from Massachusetts (2013), North Carolina (2013), and Atlanta, Georgia (2013-2014), included 747 infants and fetuses with one or more of the birth defects meeting the case definition (pre-Zika prevalence = 2.86 per 1,000 live births). (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, neonatal mortality for different African countries ranges from 68 per 1000 live births in Liberia to 11 per 1000 live births in South Africa [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • According to the current united nation estimate, the neonatal death reduced by 48% from the 1990 estimate to 28 per 1000 live births in 2013 while the reduction rate of under-five mortality rate was about 67% [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The16 EDHS reported that neonatal mortality rate is 29/1000 live birth, which has a reduction from the 2005 EDHS report of 39/1000 live births and 2011EDHS report of 37/1000 live birth. (hindawi.com)
  • Population Change equals Number of Live Births minus Number of Deaths (the births and deaths occurring in the stated time period). (enotes.com)
  • The average infant mortality rate among women giving birth in their 40s-94 per 1,000 live births-is much higher than the rate among women in their 20s and 30s and almost as high as the rate among teenage mothers. (guttmacher.org)
  • The number of live births within these regions during the particular time each region was involved in the study was 473 000. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The rates of postpartum maternal death are relatively low in France as in other developed countries -- one in 10,000 live births for France compared with a one in 3,500 chance of pregnancy-related death in the United States -- but have shown little improvement over the past 20 years. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The crude birth rate for the period 1992-94 was 48 live births per I000 population, slightly lower than the level of 52 observed from the 1991 Population and Housing Census. (ubos.org)
  • In this study, we revisit the issue of adverse consequences of birth intervals using statistical models based on within-family variation in order to minimize residual confounding. (springer.com)
  • The resulting patterns from these simulations will give rise to a mathematical results that is the underpinning of all statistical interval estimation and inference: the central limit theorem. (coursera.org)
  • Contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals, Global Goals, Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health 2016-2030, we clarify the interaction between maternal age, parity and birth intervals to examine the effects on child health. (lifescienceglobal.com)
  • 6 7 9 10 We report the relation between interpregnancy interval and the outcome of first and second births in a cohort of 89 143 women. (bmj.com)
  • The study cohort was followed from birth through to 31 December 2006, with the primary outcome of interest being interim death from natural causes or continued survival. (mja.com.au)
  • Data from a prospective US birth cohort of 262 women, born between 1959 and 1963 (average age at adult follow-up, 41.8 years), were used to assess the validity of self-reported birth weight category by sociodemographic characteristics. (nih.gov)
  • Using data from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study, we estimated the associations between prenatal incense burning and birth weight and head circumference at birth. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is a longitudinal survey that follows 21,248 representatively sampled infants born in 2005 in Taiwan. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The increase in the length of birth intervals in Eastern Africa has been concentrated in urban areas. (demographic-research.org)
  • Although attempts at a trial of labor after a cesarean birth (TOLAC) have become accepted practice, the rate of successful vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC), as well as the rate of attempted VBACs, has decreased during the past 10 years (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Digital vaginal examination at intervals of four hours is recommended for routine assessment of active first stage of labour in low-risk women. (who.int)
  • The recommended time intervals are consistent with timing of vaginal examination on the partograph and further reinforce the importance of using partograph as an essential tool to implement this practic. (who.int)
  • The group agreed that vaginal examinations at intervals more frequent than specified in this recommendation may be warranted by the condition of the mother or the baby. (who.int)
  • Between 1985 and 1996, rates of vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery (VBAC) increased steadily. (aafp.org)
  • None of these complications was among the most frequent causes of death after vaginal births (7.9%, 2.6% and 2.6% respectively). (medpagetoday.com)
  • When the outcome of the second birth was analysed in relation to the preceding interpregnancy interval and the analysis confined to women whose first birth was a term live birth (n = 69 055), no significant association occurred (adjusted for age, marital status, height, socioeconomic deprivation, smoking, previous birth weight vigesimal, and previous caesarean delivery) between interpregnancy interval and intrauterine growth restriction or stillbirth. (bmj.com)
  • Primary outcome measures: Risk, as well as unadjusted and adjusted OR of placental abruption in relation to change in paternity and interval between births. (uib.no)
  • All preschool children aged 6-59 months with a valid hemoglobin measurement and a preceding birth interval of 7-72 months as well as their corresponding multigravida mothers aged 21-49 years were included in the study. (ru.nl)
  • Hemoglobin levels of children and mothers were measured in g/l, while birth intervals were calculated as months difference between consecutive births. (ru.nl)
  • In addition, for girls, the effect of length of preceding birth interval was highest in young mothers and mothers with higher hemoglobin levels, while for boys, the highest effect was noticed for those living in more highly educated regions. (ru.nl)
  • CONCLUSIONS: A longer birth interval has a modest positive effect on early childhood hemoglobin levels of girls, and this effect is strongest when their mothers are in their early twenties and have a high hemoglobin level. (ru.nl)
  • The validity varied by birth weight category (sensitivity range = 58%-81% for the lowest and highest birth weight category, respectively) and was highest for participants who were white, of lower childhood family income, and born to older mothers. (nih.gov)
  • A 1996 study in Zambia again cites the importance of educating both men and women and states that single mothers and teenagers should be the primary focus of birth control education. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dramatic increase in women having their first birth at the age of 35 years and over has played the largest role in the increased average age of first-time mothers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Babies who have an increased risk of dying before their first birthday fall into three broad categories: those born to very young mothers, those born to women past their prime childbearing years and those born too soon after a previous birth. (guttmacher.org)
  • Teenage mothers also have an increased risk of giving birth to an infant who is premature or low-birth-weight-conditions that reduce the resilience and stamina babies need to overcome infection or trauma early in life. (guttmacher.org)
  • Studies have shown the importance of birth spacing for the health of mothers and for that of their children. (princeton.edu)
  • Multivariate analyses were done to examine the relationship between length of preceding birth interval and child hemoglobin levels, adjusted for factors at the individual, household, community, district, and country level. (ru.nl)
  • Bivariate and multivariate techniques will be used to analyze the association between the age, education, employment, wealth, empowerment and union status of women and their preferred birth intervals. (princeton.edu)
  • Age- and sex-specific reference intervals are an important prerequisite for interpreting thyroid hormone measurements in children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reference intervals are known to be method- and population-dependent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of our study was to establish reference intervals for serum TSH, fT3, and fT4 from birth to 18 years and to assess sex differences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results corroborate those of previous studies showing that thyroid hormone levels change markedly during childhood, and that adult reference intervals are not universally applicable to children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aims of our study were 1) to establish age-specific reference intervals for serum concentrations of TSH, fT3, and fT4 in healthy children, 2) to assess sex differences in thyroid function, and 3) to compare our results to previously published reference data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hazard ratios (HR) for IPI categories were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for birth order, county poverty level, and maternal characteristics (marital status, race/ethnicity, education, age at previous birth). (maine.edu)
  • What once was hailed as a key component of lowering the overall cesarean birth rate (ie, TOLAC) is losing the support it had in the 1980s. (medscape.com)
  • CONCLUSION: A longer skin incision-to-delivery interval in cesarean birth does not compromise neonatal acid-base balance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 12 months or ≥72 months had a 2- to 3-fold increased ASD risk compared with children born after an interval of 36 to 47 months. (aappublications.org)
  • A registry-based study from Sweden reported a 3-fold increased risk of schizophrenia in individuals who were conceived 6 months after the birth of a sibling compared with 12 to 24 months. (aappublications.org)
  • Vol. 71, #3, Sept, 1983, p473 of the birth groups of Americans old enough to be in the smoking related disease risk group between 1973 and 1998.Current smoker at age 60, birth year 1925, data were extrapolated by me because these are 1985 data and Harris published during 1983. (forces.org)
  • b ) risk ratio for incidences of birth defects, neonates from donor sperm offspring v . spontaneous conceptions. (cambridge.org)
  • Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. (plos.org)
  • The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. (plos.org)
  • Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth beyond 32 wk. (plos.org)
  • 1 y) of preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was not significant after adjustment for maternal characteristics. (plos.org)
  • However, the risk of spontaneous preterm birth decreased with the duration of preconceptional folate supplementation (test for trend of survivor functions, p = 0.01) and was the lowest in women who used folate supplementation for 1 y or longer. (plos.org)
  • The risk of early spontaneous preterm birth is inversely proportional to the duration of preconceptional folate supplementation. (plos.org)
  • In the 2009 pan- there are reports of increased risk for either hospitalization demic, the Mori rate was higher than the European rate or death for indigenous persons from Canada, the United (rate ratio 2.6, 95% confi dence interval 1.3-5.3). (cdc.gov)
  • At the other end of the reproductive spectrum, many poor women in their 40s suffer from anemia, malnutrition, damage to their reproductive systems from earlier births and the sheer physical depletion associated with frequent childbearing-all conditions known to increase the likelihood of having a baby at increased risk of dying. (guttmacher.org)
  • They were also shorter, less likely to be married, and more likely to be aged less than 20 years at the time of the second birth, to smoke, and to live in an area of high socioeconomic deprivation. (bmj.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a 6-week lengthening interval compared to a 16-week lengthening interval on spinal growth in Early Onset Scoliosis patients between 5 and 9 years of age with a major coronal curve over 50 degrees undergoing MCGR treatment within 3 years. (bioportfolio.com)
  • factor for increased disease severity, with the multivari- able model accounting for age, sex, medical comorbidity, Evidence suggests that indigenous populations have been interval from onset of symptoms to initiation of antiviral disproportionately affected more by infl uenza pandem- therapy, rurality, and income ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • If you're planning a home birth, follow the procedure you have agreed with your midwife during your discussions about the onset of labour. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This study is based on population data from Sweden, where birth intervals have been influenced by government policy interventions to an unusually large extent. (springer.com)
  • These data demonstrate the importance of population-based surveillance for interpreting data about birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • Statewide data from birth defects surveillance programs in Massachusetts and North Carolina for 2013 and from a surveillance program in three counties in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, for 2013-2014 were chosen for analysis because these programs conducted population-based surveillance for all types of birth defects, used active multisource case-finding, and were rapidly able to provide individual-level data with sufficient detail to apply all inclusion and exclusion criteria. (medscape.com)
  • Overall, our data suggest that birth size may be a more informative parameter for cell-cycle progression than the mean size of a proliferating cell population. (g3journal.org)
  • Subjects 89 143 women having second births in 1992-8 who conceived within five years of their first birth. (bmj.com)
  • Here we report age- and sex-related reference data for serum CrossLaps in children from birth to 19 years of age. (tcd.ie)
  • an interval of 50 years. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some women survive the interval of several years is extremely difficult. (us.org)
  • A woman who gave birth 10 years ago, doctors equate to primiparous, because the body simply forgot how it's done. (us.org)
  • This article examines the smoking behavior of various American birth groups, identifies the years when smoking related disease should occur based on the age of these birth groups, and concludes no significant health profile changes have occurred that can be credited to the War on Tobacco. (forces.org)
  • Birth group refers to birth year plus or minus five years. (forces.org)
  • We will be studying 6-week lengthening intervals compared to 16-week lengthening intervals on spinal growth within 3 years. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Of the 8,836 children 2 months through 6 years of age from whom interview data were obtained in NHANES III, 7779 have linked birth certificates from the NCHS Division of Vital Statistics. (cdc.gov)