The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
The sequence in which children are born into the family.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Size and composition of the family.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (EC 2.1.2.13) activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
A narcotic analgesic structurally related to METHADONE. Only the dextro-isomer has an analgesic effect; the levo-isomer appears to exert an antitussive effect.

Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes. (1/115)

BACKGROUND: A short interval between pregnancies has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Whether that association is due to confounding by other risk factors, such as maternal age, socioeconomic status, and reproductive history, is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the interpregnancy interval in relation to low birth weight, preterm birth, and small size for gestational age by analyzing data from the birth certificates of 173,205 singleton infants born alive to multiparous mothers in Utah from 1989 to 1996. RESULTS: Infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a previous live birth had the lowest risks of adverse perinatal outcomes; shorter and longer interpregnancy intervals were associated with higher risks. These associations persisted when the data were stratified according to and controlled for 16 biologic, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors. As compared with infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a live birth, infants conceived less than 6 months after a live birth had odds ratios of 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.6) for low birth weight, 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.5) for preterm birth, and 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 1.4) for small size for gestational age; infants conceived 120 months or more after a live birth had odds ratios of 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 2.4);1.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.7), and 1.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.0) for these three adverse outcomes, respectively, when we controlled for all 16 risk factors with logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal interpregnancy interval for preventing adverse perinatal outcomes is 18 to 23 months.  (+info)

The determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania. (2/115)

This paper investigates the determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania using the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. A hazards model is used to assess the relative effect of the variables hypothesized to influence under-five mortality. Short birth intervals, teenage pregnancies and previous child deaths are associated with increased risk of death. The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania should therefore maintain its commitment to encouraging women to space their births at least two years apart and delay childbearing beyond the teenage years. Further, this study shows that there is a remarkable lack of infant and child mortality differentials by socioeconomic subgroups of the population, which may reflect post-independence health policy and development strategies. Whilst lack of socioeconomic differentials can be considered an achievement of government policies, mortality remains high so there is still a long way to go before Tanzania achieves its stated goal of 'Health for All'.  (+info)

Patterns of infection and day care utilization and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. (3/115)

To investigate if decreased exposure to common childhood infections is associated with risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) we conducted a case-control study of 1842 newly diagnosed and immunophenotypically defined cases of ALL under age 15, and 1986 matched controls in the US. Data regarding day care, sibship size and common childhood infections were obtained through parental interviews. Data were analysed stratified by leukaemia lineage and separately for 'common' childhood ALL (age 2-5 years, CD19, CD10-positive). Neither attendance at day care nor time at day care was associated with risk of ALL overall or 'common' ALL. Ear infections during infancy were less common among cases, with odds ratios of 0.86, 0.83, 0.71 and 0.69 for 1, 2-4, 5+ episodes, and continuous infections respectively (trend P = 0.026). No effect of sibship size or birth interval was seen. With one exception (ear infections), these data do not support the hypothesis that a decrease in the occurrence of common childhood infection increases risk of ALL.  (+info)

Postneonatal and child mortality among twins in Southern and Eastern Africa. (4/115)

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the difference in mortality between twins and singleton children during the postneonatal and childhood period in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to quantify the excess mortality of twins during the postneonatal and childhood period and to identify factors that contribute to the excess mortality among twins. The different use made of health care services was hypothesized to contribute to the increased mortality. METHODS: The Demographic and Health Survey data on Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia were pooled. Logistic regression was used to estimate twin/singleton differences for the combined postneonatal and child mortality and to study the role of intermediate factors and effect modifiers. RESULTS: The study was based on 18 214 singleton children and 706 twins. The twin/ singleton odds ratio (OR) of the combined postneonatal and child mortality was 2.33 (95% CI : 1.85-2.93). This excess mortality was largest during the first year of life. Control for intermediate factors (preventive health care and breastfeeding) did not sizeably diminish the mortality difference. Effect modifiers that were associated with increased twin/singleton OR were male sex, unwanted child, short birth interval and low socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: The excess mortality of twins compared to singletons is considerable. A difference in use of preventive health care or in breastfeeding cannot explain the increased mortality. Males, unwanted children, those born after a short birth interval and the socioeconomically disadvantaged are at special risk. The generally good attendance at under-5 clinics gives health care providers the opportunity for increased surveillance of these high-risk groups.  (+info)

Effect of an older sibling and birth interval on the risk of childhood injury. (5/115)

OBJECTIVE: Certain family structures have been identified as putting children at high risk for injury. To further define children at highest risk, we set out to explore the effect of an older sibling and birth interval on the risk of injury related hospital admission or death. METHODS: Data were analyzed using a case-control design. Cases and controls were identified by linking longitudinal birth data from Washington state (1989-96) to death certificate records and hospital discharge data obtained from the Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System and frequency matched in a 1:2 ratio on year of birth. Cases consisted of singleton children 6 years of age or younger who were hospitalized or died as a result of injury during the years 1989-96. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify and adjust for confounding variables. RESULTS: There were 3145 cases and 8371 controls. The adjusted odds ratio for injury in children with an older sibling was 1.50 (95% confidence interval 1.37 to 1.65). The effect was greatest in children under 2 years of age, and in those with a birth interval of less than two years. As the number of older siblings increased, so did the risk of injury, with the highest risk in children with three or more older siblings. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the presence of an older sibling is associated with an increased risk of injury. The risk is highest in those with very short birth intervals. Potential mechanisms for this increased risk may relate to inadequate parental supervision. Pediatricians and other care providers need to be alert to these identifiable risk factors and then direct preventive strategies, such as home visits and educational programs, toward these families.  (+info)

Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with interpregnancy interval: cross sectional study. (6/115)

OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of interpregnancy interval on maternal morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cross sectional study with data from the Perinatal Information System database of the Latin American Centre for Perinatology and Human Development, Montevideo, Uruguay. SETTING: Latin America and the Caribbean, 1985-97. PARTICIPANTS: 456 889 parous women delivering singleton infants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crude and adjusted odds ratios of the effects of short and long interpregnancy intervals on maternal death, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, third trimester bleeding, premature rupture of membranes, postpartum haemorrhage, puerperal endometritis, and anaemia. RESULTS: Short (<6 months) and long (>59 months) interpregnancy intervals were observed for 2.8% and 19.5% of women, respectively. After adjustment for major confounding factors, compared with those conceiving at 18 to 23 months after a previous birth, women with interpregnancy intervals of 5 months or less had higher risks for maternal death (odds ratio 2.54; 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 5.38), third trimester bleeding (1.73; 1.42 to 2.24), premature rupture of membranes (1.72; 1.53 to 1.93), puerperal endometritis (1.33; 1.22 to 1.45), and anaemia (1.30; 1.18 to 1.43). Compared with women with interpregnancy intervals of 18 to 23 months, women with interpregnancy intervals longer than 59 months had significantly increased risks of pre-eclampsia (1.83; 1.72 to 1.94) and eclampsia (1.80; 1.38 to 2.32). CONCLUSIONS: Interpregnancy intervals less than 6 months and longer than 59 months are associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes.  (+info)

Reproductive investment in pre-industrial humans: the consequences of offspring number, gender and survival. (7/115)

The number and gender of offspring produced in a current reproductive event can affect a mother's future reproductive investment and success. I studied the subsequent reproductive outcome of pre-industrial (1752-1850) Finnish mothers producing twins versus singletons of differing gender. I predicted that giving birth to and raising twins instead of singletons, and males instead of females, would incur a greater reproductive effort and, hence, lead to larger future reproductive costs for mothers. I compared the mothers' likelihood of reproducing again in the future, their time to next reproduction and the gender and survival of their next offspring. I found that mothers who produced twins were more likely to stop breeding or breed unsuccessfully in the future as compared with women of a similar age and reproductive history who produced a same-gender singleton child. As predicted, the survival and gender of the offspring produced modified the costs of reproduction for the mothers. Giving birth to and raising males generally appeared to be the most expensive strategy, but this effect was only detected in mothers who produced twins and, thus, suffering from higher overall costs of reproduction.  (+info)

Effect of interpregnancy interval on risk of spontaneous preterm birth in Emirati women, United Arab Emirates. (8/115)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a short interpregnancy interval is a risk factor for preterm birth in Emirati women, where there is a wide range of interpregnancy intervals and uniformity in potentially confounding factors. METHODS: A case-control design based on medical records was used. A case was defined as a healthy multiparous Emirati woman delivering a healthy singleton spontaneously before 37 weeks of gestation between 1997 and 2000, and a control was defined as the next eligible similar woman delivering after 37 weeks of gestation. Women were excluded if there was no information available about their most recent previous pregnancy or if it had resulted in a multiple or preterm birth. Data collected from charts and delivery room records were analysed using the STATA statistical package. All variables found to be valid, stable and significant by univariate analysis were included in multivariate logistic regression analysis. FINDINGS: There were 128 cases who met the eligibility criteria; 128 controls were selected. Short interpregnancy intervals were significantly associated with case status (P<0.05). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for the 1st, 2nd, and 4th quartiles of interpregnancy interval compared with the lowest-risk 3rd quartile were 8.2, 5.4, and 2.0 (95% confidence intervals: 3.5-19.2, 2.4-12.6, and 0.9- 4.5 respectively). CONCLUSION: A short interpregnancy interval is a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Emirati women. The magnitude of the risk and the risk gradient between exposure quartiles suggest that the risk factor is causal and that its modification would reduce the risk of preterm birth.  (+info)

BACKGROUND Women in high resource nations are increasingly delaying childbearing until their thirties. Delayed childbearing poses challenges for the spacing of a womans pregnancies. Inter-pregnancy intervals |12 months are associated with risk for adverse pregnancy outcome, yet increased maternal age at delivery is linked with increased risk. The optimal inter-pregnancy interval for older mothers is uncertain. This systematic review will aim to assess the relation between inter-pregnancy interval and perinatal and maternal health outcomes in women who delay childbearing to age 30 and older. METHODS We will search MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases for peer-reviewed articles on the effects of inter-pregnancy interval on perinatal and maternal health outcomes among women over 29 years at the time of first birth, in high-income countries. To assess the quality of studies, the Cochranes Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias will be used for randomized controlled trials, and the Newcastle
Short interbirth interval has been associated with maternal complications and childhood autism and leukemia, possibly due to deficiencies in maternal micronutrients at conception or increased exposure to sibling infections. A possible association between interbirth interval and subsequent risk of childhood type 1 diabetes has not been investigated. A secondary analysis of 14 published observational studies of perinatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes was conducted. Risk estimates of diabetes by category of interbirth interval were calculated for each study. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Overall, 2,787 children with type 1 diabetes were included. There was a reduction in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals andlt;3 years compared with longer interbirth intervals (OR 0.82 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). Adjustments for various potential confounders little altered ...
Background. Studies examining the associations between short birth spacing and child mortality have often concentrated on the strength of the associations whilst the public health importance of short spacing in specific communities has received less attention. This study re-examines the association between short birth intervals and child...
Some inconsistencies in confidence intervals appeared in this paper by Gordon C S Smith and colleagues (9 August, pp 313-6). In the third to last sentence of the results section of the abstract, the confidence interval for the adjusted odds ratio of 2.2 (for a short interpregnancy interval being a risk factor for extremely preterm birth) is 1.4 to 3.6 [not 1.3 to 4.6]. In the final sentence of the third paragraph of the Results section of the main article, the confidence intervals for the adjusted odds ratios given should be 1.4 to 3.6 [not 1.3 to 4.6] and 1.3 to 2.0 [1.2 to 2.2]. However, all these data were correct in table 2 in the abridged version and in table 3 in the full version (bmj.com).. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Population-Based Matched-Sibling Analysis Estimating the Associations Between First Interpregnancy Interval and Birth Outcomes. AU - Regan, Annette K.. AU - Ball, Stephen J.. AU - Warren, Joshua L.. AU - Malacova, Eva. AU - Padula, Amy. AU - Marston, Cicely. AU - Nassar, Natasha. AU - Stanley, Fiona. AU - Leonard, Helen. AU - de Klerk, Nicholas. AU - Pereira, Gavin. PY - 2019/1. Y1 - 2019/1. N2 - The association between a single interpregnancy interval (IPI) and birth outcomes has not yet been explored using matched methods. We modeled the odds of preterm birth, being small for gestational age, and having low birth weight in a second, live-born infant in a cohort of 192,041 sibling pairs born in Western Australia between 1980 and 2010. The association between IPI and birth outcomes was estimated from the interaction between birth order and IPI (with 18-23 months as the reference category), using conditional logistic regression. Matched analysis showed the odds of preterm birth ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Childhood mortality in Malawi is analyzed by employing proportional hazards models. The analysis uses highly reliable data collected from the 1992 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Malawi. The results show that the substantial birth interval and maternal age effects are largely limited to the infant period. The influence of social and economic variables on the mortality risk and on the relationship between biodemographic variables and mortality risk is much enhanced with increasing age of the child. It has also been found that consideration of breastfeeding status of the child does not significantly alter interpretation of effects of preceding birth interval length on mortality risk, but does partially diminish the succeeding birth interval effect. The results are discussed and then summarized in the context of policy implications for Malawi. The paper addresses a very important issue in Malawi and it adds valuable insights to the base of knowledge in childhood
From 2005-2008 to 2011-2014, the nonfatal allopurinol kidney failure injury rate increased for females but remained unchanged for males. During 1999-2013, state-specific NAS incidence rates ranging from 0. Vermont) per 1,000 hospital births. This report includes overall and stratified estimates for nine of these preconception health indicators. In-depth analyses of population-based data indicated that breast cancer incidence is allopurinol kidney failure equal for black and white women in part because of incidence increasing among black women, particularly among those aged 60-79 years. Short interpregnancy intervals are associated with adverse birth outcomes has been shown to increase as the duration of short intervals decrease (i.. Since 1998, however, this trend has edged downward (3). Prevalence of allopurinol kidney failure healthy sleep duration; states in the southeastern United States were at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy. In-depth analyses of population-based data indicated that ...
Dr Conde-Agudelo conceived and designed the study, acquired and analyzed the data, performed statistical analysis, drafted the manuscript, and participated in the interpretation of findings; Ms Rosas-Bermudez and Dr Norton helped in conceiving and designing the study, acquired and analyzed the data, critically reviewed the manuscript, and participated in the interpretation of findings; and all authors approved the final manuscript as submitted. ...
By Elaine Hill and David Slusky; Abstract: Abstract Virtually all parents want their children to succeed academically. How to achieve this goal, though, is far
Uganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the worlds highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds womens desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Ugandas high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Ugandas large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.. Unchecked, population increase will further strain the ...
A growing body of research has examined whether birth intervals influence perinatal outcomes and child health as well as long-term educational and socioeconomic outcomes. To date, however, very...
Reasons behind the birth spacing-autism link arent clear. It could be that parents are more likely to notice developmental problems when siblings are very close in age, Bearman said. When 2-year-old Billy isnt developing like 3-year-old Bobby, parents might be more likely to seek help. Or biological factors could be at play, he said. Pregnancy depletes a mothers nutrients like folate, a B vitamin found in leafy green vegetables, citrus fruit and dried beans. Prior research has tied close birth spacing to low birth weights and prematurity, possibly because of lack of folate. And it could be a combination of effects, not a single explanation but a combination of dynamics, Bearman said. The researchers looked at births from 1992 through 2002 in California. They analyzed data on second-born children born to the same parents whose older siblings didnt have autism. The information on autism diagnoses came from the states Department of Developmental Services. The overall prevalence of autism was ...
Medi-Cal eligible women who receive CPSP services are provided care that goes beyond routine obstetric services and includes case coordination. A womans CPSP care involves: Client Orientation: Orient the client to comprehensive obstetric services. Initial Assessments: Determine the clients strengths, risks and needs with four initial assessments-obstetric, nutrition, health education and psychosocial. Individualized Care Plan (ICP): Develop an ICP in consultation with the client that builds on strengths to determine client-driven goals and interventions. Trimester Reassessment: Reassess client needs in each trimester to identify changes or new developments since the last assessment. Postpartum Assessment: Assess the mother and infant, addressing various issues that may arise, such as breastfeeding difficulties, postpartum depression, bonding challenges, and birth control and birth spacing. .. ...
The WHO recommends that comprehensive contraceptive information and services be provided during antenatal and postpartum care. The WHO recommends that all women be counselled on birth spacing and family planning. Contraceptive options should be discussed, and contraceptive methods should be provided if requested.. To achieve this goal, the WHO Postpartum Family Planning Compendium integrates core WHO guidance for healthcare providers, healthcare program managers, and policy-makers to guide women though their family planning decision-making in the first year postpartum. All postpartum family planning guidance from the following documents is incorporated into the Compendium:. ...
Young women sign in at family planning lesson taught by peer educators at a youth advice center in Matam, Senegal.. The training portfolio is growing to help peer educators do even more good in their communities: Action Against Hunger will soon be working with peer educators to develop an educational program on nutrition so young people can learn more about the benefits of birth spacing and delaying pregnancies, as well as the importance of healthy habits and good nutrition during pregnancy.. I was a scout before becoming a peer educator, says Abdoulaye. My friends used to ask me lots of questions about contraception and sexual health but I did not know how to answer their questions. Many of my peers have kids when they themselves are still very young. We do not learn about these topics at school. I was curious to find out more and came to the Youth Advice Center and this is how I became a peer educator. I want to share my knowledge with my friends.. Education on issues like safe sexual ...
Hrdys discussion of birth spacing made me think about the common advice given to ambitious women: have one child if you must, but dont have more. The advice comes from looking at the statistics- on average, the more children a woman has, the less likely she is to stay in the workplace. This advice may be practical and accurate from a strictly statistical standpoint, but it ignores the individual variations that can make all the difference, and Hrdys analysis of the biological research points us to what I think is the most important point of variation: the amount of support a mother has. The studies she cites show that when a group of animals, whether it be a species or just a breeding population within a species, makes more use of allomothers, the breeding interval drops. In other words, mothers who have more support and help from other adults can successfully rear more children with less time in between them. It shouldnt be surprising, but somehow a lot of people seem to be missing this ...
The pregnancy rate for adalat film women aged 18-44 years nationwide salman khan in aap ki adalat part 4. Induction rates were down for all age groups and overall from 10. From 2005-2008 to 2011-2014, the nonfatal injury rate increased for females but remained unchanged for males salman khan in aap ki adalat part 4. The contribution of fewer births to teens and to women aged 45-64 and for non-Hispanic white females.. Since 1998, however, this trend has edged downward (3). Mean maternal age increased from salman khan in aap ki adalat part 4 27. From 2005-2008 to 2011-2014, the nonfatal injury rate increased significantly in 25 of 27 states with at least 3 years of data, with annual changes in incidence rates increased significantly. Short interpregnancy salman khan in aap ki adalat part 4 intervals are associated with adverse birth outcomes.. In-depth analyses of population-based data indicated that breast cancer incidence is equal for black and white women in part because of incidence increasing ...
A new Cochrane review group for fertility regulation is being established at OHSU. The Fertility Regulation Group is charged with assessing the best available evidence on fertility regulation, family size and birth spacing in order to support evidence-based health care decision-making. This is only the second Cochrane Library review group to be based in the U.S. Jeanne-Marie Guise, M.D., M.P.H., will lead the group as coordinating editor. Guise, a clinician-scientist, is director of the Oregon … Read More. ...
Faith leaders and communities often lack necessary mindsets, skills and information to engage in a helpful way on health issues. Rather, they often can be the drivers of wrong information, creating barriers that prohibit people from visiting clinics, receiving vaccinations, or using birth spacing methods. Their influence is essential to address early marriage, harmful traditional practices, treating women and girls equitably, encouraging the involvement of men in maternal newborn child health (MNCH) or addressing stigma.
We use a large, high-quality longitudinal dataset on around 65,000 pregnancy outcomes gathered over a period of more than twenty years from the MCH-FP Area of Matlab, Bangladesh, to estimate the effects of the lengths of interpregnancy intervals (IPIs) on pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy duration. We find that, compared with IPIs of 27-50 months in duration, shorter preceding intervals increase the risk that the index pregnancy will result in a non-live birth (particularly an induced abortion) and to some extent they also increase the likelihood of a premature live birth. IPIs less than 6 months in duration are associated with a 10-fold risk of an induced abortion, a 5.8-fold risk of miscarriage, and a 2.3-fold risk of a stillbirth compared to IPIs of 27-50 months. A similarly short IPI is associated with a 0.3-week reduction in gestation duration compared to IPIs of 27-50 months in duration for live births and stillbirths.. ...
There is so much more to discuss, there are so many remaining questions, but Ill end here and leave you with this: Without increasing ability to make nonhuman primate comparisons, there is little hope for knowing how bipedalism, adiposity, taillessness, encephalization, culture, etc. contribute to the evolution of pregnancy, childbirth, infancy, and how we parent and alloparent. Live primate studies (and those of all placental mammals that pertain to these questions) are crucial if we are to explain how humans have such costly infants yet have much shorter inter-birth intervals than the rest of the hominoids. Without more detailed comparison we cannot know how costly our pregnancies and the resulting infants truly are. Primates that birth twins and practice cooperative breeding, like marmosets, hold great potential for answering many questions about reproductive physiology, metabolic limits and behavioral correlates. But for now, as far as the obstetric dilemma hypothesis goes, intense ...
There is so much more to discuss, there are so many remaining questions, but Ill end here and leave you with this: Without increasing ability to make nonhuman primate comparisons, there is little hope for knowing how bipedalism, adiposity, taillessness, encephalization, culture, etc. contribute to the evolution of pregnancy, childbirth, infancy, and how we parent and alloparent. Live primate studies (and those of all placental mammals that pertain to these questions) are crucial if we are to explain how humans have such costly infants yet have much shorter inter-birth intervals than the rest of the hominoids. Without more detailed comparison we cannot know how costly our pregnancies and the resulting infants truly are. Primates that birth twins and practice cooperative breeding, like marmosets, hold great potential for answering many questions about reproductive physiology, metabolic limits and behavioral correlates. But for now, as far as the obstetric dilemma hypothesis goes, intense ...
About half of women will miscarry at least once during their lives. Yet it is unknown how best to care for women and their families in such an event. Research has focused on the causes of recurrent miscarriage and possible ways to prevent it, but with limited success.1 2 Increasing evidence supports the use of medical evacuation of the uterus and expectant care as alternatives to the more invasive and expensive surgical evacuation of the uterus that was the mainstay of care for decades.3 4. For women actively seeking to become pregnant, how soon can we try again? is a central question. To date, there is a remarkable lack of evidence on this question, especially from Western countries. In the linked retrospective cohort study (doi:10.1136/bmj.c3967), Love and colleagues assessed the optimum interpregnancy interval after miscarriage in a first pregnancy.5 They found that women who conceived again within six months were significantly less likely to have another miscarriage, … ...
For various reasons, mostly having to do with being extra cautious, the Engineer and I both agree that the hospital is the best place for me to give birth. We do not have a Baby-Friendly-certified hospital in San Antonio, unfortunately, but we are lucky enough to have a good hospital near where we live. It was built several years ago and isnt used to full capacity yet, so health care there is more one-on-one than in many places. All the rooms are private, which is a definite plus (along with the fact that the patient controls the lighting and thermostat in her room). Obviously, its not perfect: the rate of C-sections for first-time mothers is close to 40% (and is much higher for subsequent births, despite the latest studies on VBACs), although our OBs rates are lower. Patients cant eat or drink during labor, there are no birthing pools or hot tubs in which to labor, they dont supply birthing balls, and as in most hospitals, medical intervention is encouraged even when not necessary. That ...
FALAH improved knowledge about the benefits of birth spacing; raised awareness of risks associated with closely-spaced pregnancies and pregnancies too early or late in a womans life; expanded knowledge of contraceptive options; and improved access to quality care in the public and private sectors. FALAH achieved these goals by building capacity among healthcare providers, encouraging the adoption of new methods (e.g., Emergency Contraceptive Pills, the Standard Days Method), and supporting the commercial sector in marketing and distribution of contraceptives.. FALAH increased contraceptive use by 8% in just four years. Unmet need for birth spacing fell from 14.2% to 10.8% over the same period. Through group meetings with trained educators and free consultations at mobile clinics, more than half a million people received family planning services. Messages raised awareness of birth spacing benefits and brought about attitudinal and behavior change. FALAH sensitized over 1,500 district-level ...
Objectives: We examined abruption risk in relation to change in paternity, and evaluated if birth interval confounds this association.. Setting: Population-based study of singleton births in Norway between 1967 and 2009.. Participants: Women who had their first two (n=747 566) singleton births in the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. The associations between partner change between pregnancies and birth interval were examined in relation to abruption in a series of logistic regression models.. Primary outcome measures: Risk, as well as unadjusted and adjusted OR of placental abruption in relation to change in paternity and interval between births.. Results: Among women without abruption in their first pregnancy, the risks of abruption in the second pregnancy were 4.7 and 6.5 per 1000 in women who had the same and different partners, respectively (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.53). After adjustments for confounders including birth interval and smoking, partner change was not associated with abruption ...
Macrosomia (birthweight | or = 4,500 gm) is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. Although past studies have evaluated risk factors for macrosomia, little is known about the effect of a prior macrosomic birth on the risk for a macrosomic infant in a subsequent birth. To assess the risk for delivery of a macrosomic infant subsequent to a previous
Were just saying space the children, because we have very high maternal mortality and we have very high infant mortality, Overton said. A lot of times thats due to...the pregnancies are spaced too closely together. [The mother] isnt able to take the two years thats recommended to breastfeed, to care for that newborn the first thousand days of life, and make sure the child has good nutrition and good health care.. Theres a lot of good justification for birth spacing for the health of the mother and the health of baby, she said.. One of the primary Fertility Awareness Methods being taught in the area by CRS and its partners is the TwoDay method, through which a woman notes her fertility by evaluating her cervical mucus twice a day, sometimes in conjunction with the Standard Day method, by which women track their fertile and infertile days on a string of beads. The Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM), which is based on the fertility suppression brought about by breastfeeding exclusively ...
Reported are the results of a community-based prospective study in four urban squatter settlements in Karachi that was carried out to assess the incidence of and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation. The incidence of term intrauterine growth retardation was 24.4% among 738 singleton births. The socioeconomic and biological risk factors that were found to be statistically significant in a bivariate analysis were included in a logistic regression model to assess their independent effects. The major risk factors were low level of maternal education, paternal unemployment, consanguinity, short birth-to-conception intervals, short maternal stature, and low maternal weight. The population risk estimates suggest the desirability of public health interventions to improve maternal weight and birth spacing and of improvements in socioeconomic conditions, especially maternal education. Public education programmes to discourage consanguineous marriages should also be considered.
decisions about if and when they become pregnant, and their health-affirming behaviors both prior to conception and between pregnancies.. Fatherhood or Partnership Initiatives that promote the importance of having partners engaged in the process, bolstering mental, emotional and physical health both during pregnancy and post-delivery. Home Visitation Programs that assess and empower women by connecting them to programs for prenatal care, monitoring, life planning, birth spacing, infant development, doula services and more. Innovative Strategies not listed above that demonstrate evidence-based success in reducing adverse birth outcomes, like personalized case management, integration of mental health services in perinatal health care and other wrap-around services. ...
The family planning counseling sessions led by community health workers will present advantages of birth spacing, available methods of postpartum contraception, contraindications (if any) for the method, when each method can be safely started postpartum, where each method can be obtained, and importance of 6 week postpartum clinic follow-up. There will also be a take-home contraceptive method brochure given at conclusion of information session -primarily pictorial and in Arabic, to facilitate discussion at home with husbands and family members ...
Many people are not aware of the natural birth spacing of ecological breastfeeding. What most people believe is that breastfeeding does not space babies. These blogs during World Breastfeeding Week were posted to show that breastfeeding does space babies. Research also supports this fact which is available at the NFP International website.. What exactly is ecological breastfeeding? It is that form of nursing in which the mother fulfills her babys needs for frequent and unrestricted suckling and her full-time presence and in which the childs frequent and unrestricted suckling postpones the return of the mothers fertility. The Seven Standards of ecological breastfeeding are maternal behaviors which are associated with an extended length of amenorrhea or natural infertility.. Those interested in this subject are encouraged to read The Seven Standards of Ecological Breastfeeding: The Frequency Factor. ..available in print or as an e-book.. Sheila Kippley. ...
Fatherhood decreases testosterone levels in men, suggesting that the emotions and behavior tied to decreased testosterone promote paternal care. In humans and other species that utilize allomaternal care, paternal investment in offspring is beneficial to said offsprings survival because it allows the parental dyad to raise multiple children simultaneously. This increases the reproductive fitness of the parents, because their offspring are more likely to survive and reproduce. Paternal care increases offspring survival due to increased access to higher quality food and reduced physical and immunological threats.[60] This is particularly beneficial for humans since offspring are dependent on parents for extended periods of time and mothers have relatively short inter-birth intervals.[61] While extent of paternal care varies between cultures, higher investment in direct child care has been seen to be correlated with lower average testosterone levels as well as temporary fluctuations.[62] For ...
Fatherhood decreases testosterone levels in men, suggesting that the emotions and behavior tied to decreased testosterone promote paternal care. In humans and other species that utilize allomaternal care, paternal investment in offspring is beneficial to said offsprings survival because it allows the parental dyad to raise multiple children simultaneously. This increases the reproductive fitness of the parents, because their offspring are more likely to survive and reproduce. Paternal care increases offspring survival due to increased access to higher quality food and reduced physical and immunological threats.[60] This is particularly beneficial for humans since offspring are dependent on parents for extended periods of time and mothers have relatively short inter-birth intervals.[61] While extent of paternal care varies between cultures, higher investment in direct child care has been seen to be correlated with lower average testosterone levels as well as temporary fluctuations.[62] For ...
The association of placental weight with breast cancer incidence was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Placental weight was categorized as ,500, 500-599, 600-699, 700-799, and ≥800 grams, and the lowest category (,500 g) was used as the reference in the statistical analyses.. We studied the association of placental weight in the most recent pregnancy with breast cancer risk, treating placental weight as a time-dependent variable. Thus, women contributed person-time to one or more categories of placental weight, depending on the placental weight in the most recent pregnancy. To investigate whether the association could be modified by the number of previous pregnancies, we conducted analyses stratified by parity (uniparous, biparous, and triparous). In these analyses, follow-up of women with a given parity (1, 2, or 3) were censored whenever a subsequent birth occurred.. To account for the possibility of ...
Unlike obstetricians, midwives are traditionally more involved in pregnancy and the subsequent birth, spending more time with the mother-to-be.. Allaying apprehensions and fears that a first time mother may have, a midwife is able to call upon a fund of personal stories from her own experience that can be both calming and educative for a pregnant woman.. Solutions for pregnancy discomforts, feedback about suggested baby names, appropriate pregnancy reading, and more - a midwife can be more a friend and sister than a medical professional making a woman feel at ease and safe as well!. ...
Because Ive read it can be much quicker with subsequent births, to all you first time moms how soon did you go into labor after losing your plug?
The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of recent trends in childbearing in neighboring Norway and Sweden. We use indexes pro-duced by applying indirect standardization to register data of these two countries in order to describe and contrast their fertility developments over the last four decades. Our indexes enable us to decompose overall fertility trends into birth-order specific components, and by combining the same kind of data from two countries we get a very accurate picture of various cross-country differences in fertility levels. We demonstrate how Swedish fertility has fluctuated relatively strongly during the whole period while Norwegian fertility has evolved more gradually, at least during the last two decades. A turnaround from decreasing to increasing levels of childbearing is evident in 1977 in both countries while a sudden shift to shorter birth intervals is specific to Sweden in the 1980s and contributed to its more spectacular increase in fertility during that decade ...
Anemia is a widespread health problem among pregnant women causing maternal/infant morbidity and mortality mainly in low-income countries. Understanding of the magnitude of anemia and related socio-demographic variables in a specific setting would help scale-up preventive and therapeutic measures in a locality. So that this study focuses on the magnitude of anemia and its associated factor among pregnant women attending antenatal care in public hospitals of shire town and using institution based cross-sectional study design on 480 randomly selected study subjects. The overall prevalence of anemia was 16.3%. Majority of the participants (52%) have mild anemia (10-10.9 gm/dl). Pregnant mothers with human immunodeficiency virus, intestinal parasitic infection and having lower inter-pregnancy gap were significant predictors of anemia. Preventing infection of the mother during pregnancy and making the gap between pregnancies are necessary.
BACKGROUND: Although population-based studies indicate that on average, women gain 1-2kg between pregnancies, women with obesity often attribute its development to childbearing. There is little contemporary data available regarding how commonly this occurs, particularly in women of different body mass index (BMI) categories. The aim of this study was to examine inter-pregnancy weight changes among women at a tertiary obstetric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of data from the Birthing Outcomes System electronic record of 19,617 women aged 20 years or older, who delivered at least two consecutive singleton infants at ≥37 weeks gestation at Mercy Hospital for Women between December 1994 and December 2015 ...
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Dr. Klebanoff is from the Departments of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Epidemiology at The Ohio State University, and the Center for Perinatal Research at the Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; email: [email protected] Financial Disclosure The author did not report any potential conflicts of interest.. ...
Stillbirth measures provide means to assess adequacy of maternal and perinatal care in a given population. The aim of this study was to describe the determinants of stillbirth in Douala general hospital, Cameroon. Determinants of stillbirth in this hospital are: maternal age ≥35 years (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.26-2.54, p = 0.001), pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (OR 2.97, 95% CI 0.87-8.89, p value of 0.03), diabetes in pregnancy (OR 9.97, 95% CI 1.15-86.86, p = 0.03), stillbirth in previous pregnancies (OR 3.94, CI 2.02-7.7, p | 0.0001), inter-pregnancy interval |2 years (OR 2, 06 CI 1.22-3.49; p = 0,006), referral from another hospital (OR 14.16, 95% CI 7.08-28.3, p | 0.0001), gestational age |37 (OR 19.9, 95% CI 12.3-32.2, p | 0.0001) and |42 (OR 6.27, 95% CI = 0.86-45.2, p = 0.096), congenital malformation (OR 11.09, 95% CI 3.2-38,5, p | 0.0001) and birth weight |2500 g (p | 0.0001).
Ever since the traumatic birth of her firstborn, the subsequent birth of his brothers, 6 infertiliy treatments, 3 miscarriages and 1 adoption, it has always been Niccis dream to make a difference in the lives of bereaved parents. She is Birth and Perinatal Bereavement Doula, and a certified SBD Doula®. Passionate about ensuring families of all kinds have the unique support they need, she is a director at Voice of the Unborn Baby, and also Doulas of South Africa. Nicci is an avid writer and has written many short stories on her experiences as bereavement doula. Nicci also wrote a book about her infertility struggles. Besides being a doula, she is also a professional stillbirth photographer. Nicci believes in the power of encouragement, and in building confident and empowered doulas to make a difference in South Africa. She also believes in dreaming big and working hard. She is passionate about people in general and more specifically about the doula profession ...
The anomaly of fertility decline in Orissa, one of the extremely backward states of India, with high infant mortality, extreme poverty, low female literacy and very low level of industrialization and urbanization, calls for an in-depth understanding of fertility transition, in particular of the dynamics of family building process in the state. An analysis of Period Parity Progression Ratios computed from fertility histories obtained in the NFHS III gives strong evidence of rapid transition toward two child families in Orissa. The Life Table analysis of spacing between births clearly suggests that median birth intervals have got longer after second birth. It is also found from proportional hazards model that, socio-economic differences show a large effect only at higher order births. Thus, this transition at low levels of socio-economic development questions the classical demand theories, which thought fertility reduction is possible only with considerable improvements either in economic or ...
You may have heard of Maria del Carmen Bousada, the woman who holds the world record for being oldest woman to be pregnant and give birth. She was 66 years old when she underwent in vitro fertilization. The subsequent birth of her two twins created news worldwide, and stirred afresh the ongoing debate as to the implications and responsibilities related to fertility efforts (particularly given the fact that she lied to the fertility clinic and said she was 55-years old, the maximum threshold for females who want to undergo artificial insemination).. That debate has taken on a new twist with the announcement last week that Ms. Bousada has died at age 69, leaving behind her now-two-year old twins babies. (So much for her assurances to the fertility doctors that because her own mother lived to be 101 years old, she too would be old enough to properly care for the children.). As with any of the bioethical issues that are addressed on this blog, the proverbial slippery slope is a constant theme. And ...
Farrowing duration is rather long in sows most likely due to selection for large litters, and we hypothesized that prolonged farrowings would compromise sow energy status during farrowing and in turn the farrowing process. Two studies were performed as follows: 1) to evaluate whether sow energy status during farrowing compromise the farrowing kinetics (FK, i.e., farrowing duration and birth intervals) and 2) to study the underlying mechanisms potentially affecting stillbirth rate and farrowing assistance. In study-1, parameters affecting FK were characterized based on data from a total of 166 farrowings from 7 feeding trials focused on sow colostrum production. The data were screened for associations with FK using the CORR procedure of SAS. Traits that were correlated with the FK at P , 0.05 were included in a multivariate regression model. Time since last meal until the onset of farrowing greatly affected the farrowing duration (r = 0.76; n = 166; P , 0.001) and a broken-line model was fitted ...
Weight: Males 150-230, females 70- 180 kgs. Size: 1.2m-1.8m. Number of offspring: usually 1 but occasionally 2 with birth intervals of 4 years. Gorillas nurse offspring for 3-4 years, independence will then occur.. Maturity: females; 7-8 years Males; 15 years due to the need to assert dominance in the hierarchy. Offspring will stay with its mother for 3-4 years. Lifespan: wild; 35-40 years, captivity; up to 50 years. Predators: Predation is uncommon due to their large size however young may fall prey to raptors or large carnivores.. ...
How long should women be advised to wait between pregnancies, according to a consensus statement developed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM)? At least: ...
Hello, Is there any way to modify the spacing within cells in Excel (2010)? I have never found any settings to affect this within the normal Excel controls. However, I am wondering if it can be...
... young age at first birth and short inter-birth. interval". Primates. 53 (2): 181-92. doi:10.1007/s10329-011-0285-z. PMID ... The birth rate for orangutans has been decreasing largely due to a lack of sufficient nutrients as a result of habitat loss. A ... Females tend to give birth at about 14-15 years of age. Newborn orangutans nurse every three to four hours, and begin to take ... There is little sexual dimorphism at birth. The Bornean orangutan lives in tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest in ...
see heading "1989" Meyer, Chris (1991). "The Birth of the Prophet VS". VS WaveWrangler User Guide. Interval Music Systems. Nick ...
... has shown that the withdrawal bleeding intervals can be decreased. ... Birth control pills come in a variety of formulations. The main division is between combined oral contraceptive pills, ... "Birth control pill formulations" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2009) (Learn how and when to remove ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Birth_control_pill_formulations&oldid=932118632" ...
See the source for 95% confidence intervals. "2011 Census: Country of birth (expanded), regions in England and Wales". Office ... "Country of birth (detailed)" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 20 July 2015. "Country of Birth - Full Detail: ... "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009 ... "Births by parents' country of birth, England and Wales - Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk. https://www.ons.gov. ...
See the source for 95% confidence intervals. "CT0265 - Country of birth by year of arrival by religion". Office for National ... "Country of birth (detailed)" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 3 April 2018. "Country of Birth - Full Detail: ... "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 2008-12-30. Sims, Jessica Mai ( ... ISBN 978-1-906732-09-7. "2011 Census: Country of birth (expanded), regions in England and Wales". Office for National ...
See the source for 95% confidence intervals. Smouter, Karel. "Dit is het Nederland van 44.000 Afghanen". "2016 QuickStats ... by country of birth, January 2019 to December 2019". Office for National Statistics. 21 May 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2020. ... "Immigrant population by place of birth and period of immigration (2006 Census)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved November 7, 2013 ... Country of Birth". quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2019-09-01. "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und ...
The newborn calves nurse under water and initiate lactation a few hours after birth; thereafter, they feed at intervals around ... Births usually take place in bays or estuaries where the water is warm with a temperature of 10 to 15 °C. Newborns are about ... After giving birth, dominant females will return the calf back to their mother. Additionally, male calves will temporarily ... The average age at which females first give birth is 8.5 years and fertility begins to decrease when they are 25, eventually ...
... (birth). *Induction chemotherapy, in medicine. *Induction period, the time interval between cause and measurable ...
See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals. "Table QS213EW: 2011 Census: Country of birth (expanded), regions in ... "Country of birth (detailed)" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 18 July 2015. "Country of Birth - Full Detail: ... "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 13 November ... "Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth (Table 1.3)". Office for National Statistics. ...
See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals. "2011 Census: Country of birth (expanded), regions in England and Wales". ... In addition, much of the subsequent growth in the British Indian community has come from the births of second- and third- ... According to a study published by Oxford University 1500 girls are missing from birth records in England and Wales over a 15- ... "Estimated overseas-born population resident in the United Kingdom by sex, by country of birth (Table 1.4)". Office for National ...
... the age of first birth, birth intervals, the age at last birth, and total fertility rate as they are natural fertility ... The inter-birth interval, the amount of time between a woman's births, impacts a woman's total fertility. This amount of time ... The decrease in birth interval rate can also endanger the life of the child. In the Hungarian population, a shorter birth ... The 4-year birth interval is the optimum for the !kung women to have a maximized reproductive success. The total fertility of ...
See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals. "Table QS213EW: 2011 Census: Country of birth (expanded), regions in ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth ( ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Country of birth (detailed)" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 18 July ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ...
See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals. "Table QS213EW: 2011 Census: Country of birth (expanded), regions in ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Country of birth (detailed)" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 20 July ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Country of Birth - Full Detail: QS206NI". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research ... by country of birth, January 2013 to December 2013". Office for National Statistics. 2 July 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015. CS1 ...
Calves measured around 80-90 centimetres (31-35 in) at birth, and nursed for 8-20 months. Males reached sexual maturity at age ... Gestation would last 10-11 months, delivering one calf at a time; the interbirth interval was 2 years. ...
Preterm birth. Low birth weight and preterm birth are strongly associated with many health problems, such as visual impairment ... confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.67). ART carries with it a risk for heterotopic pregnancy (simultaneous intrauterine and ... resulting in 55,000 births. In Australia, 3.1% of births are a result of ART. The most common reasons for discontinuation of ... It can be accomplished in several ways, both pre- and post-implantation of an embryo, as well as at birth. Pre-implantation ...
"The birth and the journey through centuries". BBC. Retrieved 26 December 2010. Stephen Brenkley (27 July 2010). "Pakistan has ... See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals. Cheema, Umar (12 July 2012). "Where expatriates who reach the top come ... "Birth of Birmingham's balti". BBC Legacies. Retrieved 26 December 2010. Nick Britten (1 July 2009). "Birmingham bids to prevent ... Prior to playing for England, Amjad Khan represented Denmark, the country of his birth. Imad Wasim became the first Welsh-born ...
"Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 23 April 2015. "Estimated ... See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.. ... by country of birth (Table 1.4)". Office for National ... Sweden was the only Scandinavian country to feature in the top 60 foreign countries of birth of UK residents in 2013, with an ...
"Country of birth (detailed)" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 21 June 2015. "Country of Birth - Full Detail: ... See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals. Goethe Institute London German Historical Institute London. ... "Estimated overseas-born population resident in the United Kingdom by sex, by country of birth (Table 1.4)". Office for National ... ISBN 1-86030-284-X. Ellis, Amy (2009). "UK resident population by country of birth" (PDF). Population Trends. 135 (135): 20-28 ...
See the source for 95% confidence intervals. "2011 Census: QS203EW Country of birth (detailed), local authorities in England ... "Country of birth (detailed)" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 9 April 2015. "Country of Birth - Full Detail: ... Portuguese in the United Kingdom are citizens or residents of the UK who are connected to the country of Portugal by birth, ... by country of birth, January 2019 to December 2019". Office for National Statistics. 21 May 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020. ...
Ewes lamb at eight-month intervals in February and October; the length of gestation is typically 147 days. About 65% of ewes ... produce multiple births. Ewes lamb without difficulty. Lambs grow at rapid rates and produce excellent carcass meat. Rams are ...
However, single births occur 16% of the time and triplet births 8% of the time. The pygmy marmoset is usually monogamous though ... Interbirth interval ranges from 149-746 days. In contrast to other callitrichines, there is no relationship between the number ... The female gives birth to twins twice a year and the parental care is shared between the group. The pygmy marmoset has been ... Young marmosets typically remain in the group for two consecutive birth cycles. The pygmy marmoset uses special types of ...
Multiple births are very common, with twins being normal and triplets frequent. The kidding interval averages about 220 days. ...
Wellner, Alison Stein (13 July 2004). "A New Bead on Birth Control". The Washington Post. p. 3. Retrieved 27 February 2016. " ... Monmaney, Terence (7 December 1995). "Study Finds Shorter Interval for Female Fertility". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 ... Wilcox's research falls into three categories: fertility and pregnancy, the use of birth weight and preterm delivery in ... "Researchers Link Environment to Birth Defects". New York Times. 7 July 1994. Retrieved 27 February 2016. ...
... or inter-birth intervals. The species was named by the French naturalist Fernando Lihille in 1912 for its two distinctive black ...
Reproductive females give birth to a single young at biennial intervals. They maintain home ranges of 1.2 to 1.5 km2 (0.46 to ...
The average interval between births is 34 months. A woman who gives birth too soon after the previous child may lose the ... Birth position is greatly influenced by place of birth in Benin. A Bariba woman is expected to labor and birth alone at home, ... Primary methods of birth control are abstinence from sex and lactation after the birth of a child. In the region of West Africa ... Infant mortality is estimated at 61.56 deaths per 1,000 live births. Life expectancy at birth is 59.84 years; for women it is ...
Interval between births is at least eight months. About two weeks before parturition, both female and male engage in building a ...
The birth interval varies between 1-3 years. Females reach sexual maturity around the age of 6-12 years. Males reach sexual ... It is just over a meter in length at birth, growing to about 2.8 m (9.2 ft) (males) and 2.5 m (8.2 ft) (females) at maturity. ...
They are able to control their body temperature from birth, and are weaned after only four weeks. The interval between litters ...
The median birth interval in Nepal is 36 months, which reduces the risk of infant death. However, 21% of infants are born less ... and the birth rate is 20.64 births per 1,000 people. The mother's mean age at first birth is 20.1 years old. 49.7% of the ... 36% of births are assisted by a skilled provider (doctor, nurse, or midwife). Another 11% are assisted by a traditional birth ... The under-5 mortality rate has dropped from 142 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 42 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2012 ...
Composite interval mapping (CIM)[edit]. In this method, one performs interval mapping using a subset of marker loci as ... Birth Defects Genetics Centre, University of South Dakota School of Medicine. "Multifactorial Inheritance". Clinical Genetics: ... Interval mapping[edit]. Lander and Botstein developed interval mapping, which overcomes the three disadvantages of analysis of ... In interval mapping, each locus is considered one at a time and the logarithm of the odds ratio (LOD score) is calculated for ...
Twin births have not been reported.[2]. The calf has a tawny, shaggy coat and weighs about 11 kg (24 lb). By the end of the ... They were observed at regular intervals over a period of one year, and with an increase in temperature, the number of ... Births normally take place in areas with short grass when the cow is in the lying position. She stands up immediately ... The calf is able to stand and run shortly after birth, a period of great danger for animals in the wild. It is fed by its ...
Ophthalmia neonatorum due to gonococci (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) typically manifests in the first five days post birth and is ... confidence interval: 245 to 269) per 100,000 in 2011. ... Chlamydia trachomatis: 5 days post-birth to 2 weeks (Late onset ... The two most common causes are N. gonorrheae and Chlamydia acquired from the birth canal during delivery. ... The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal from a mother infected with either Neisseria ...
With an IUPC, this is determined by assessing actual pressures as graphed on the paper Interval- the amount of time between the ... Continuous CTG was associated with the higher rates of caesarean sections and instrumental vaginal births. The authors see the ...
Pulses in a click train are emitted at intervals of ~35-50 milliseconds, and in general these inter-click intervals are ... Whales are creatures of the open ocean; they feed, mate, give birth, suckle and raise their young at sea. So extreme is their ... Whales are fully aquatic creatures, which means that birth and courtship behaviours are very different from terrestrial and ... and migrate to the equator to give birth. Species such as humpbacks and blue whales are capable of travelling thousands of ...
Delaporte, Francois (1991). The History of Yellow Fever: An Essay on the Birth of Tropical Medicine. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. ... confidence interval 1701 to 1911).[49] The historical record shows an outbreak of yellow fever occurred in Recife, Brazil, ... The WHO recommends routine vaccinations for people living in affected areas between the 9th and 12th month after birth.[4] ...
With the birth of modern biological classification in the 18th century, Linnaeus used the same division, with the tetrapods ... "Assessing confidence intervals for stratigraphic ranges of higher taxa: the case of Lissamphibia" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica ...
... first US Senator to give birth while in office[94] and bring an infant on to the Senate floor; considered as running mate for ... and counseling lessons at longer intervals.[21] ... "Tammy Duckworth Becomes First U.S. Senator to Give Birth While ...
In 1973, Oberon met then 36-year-old Dutch actor Robert Wolders while they filmed Interval. Oberon divorced Pagliai and married ... Charlotte had herself given birth to Constance at the age of 14, the result of rape by Henry Alfred Selby, the Anglo-Irish ... Oberon retired after Interval and moved with Wolders to Malibu, California, where she died in 1979, aged 68, after suffering a ... When Harry tracked down Merle's birth certificate in Indian government records in Bombay, he was surprised to discover that he ...
The interval between Epiphany and Mardi Gras is sometimes known as "king cake season", and many may be consumed during this ... And there are those who have determined not only the year of our Lord's birth, but also the day… And the followers of Basilides ... The scope to Epiphany expanded to include the commemoration of his birth; the visit of the magi, all of Jesus' childhood events ... If this is a reference to a celebration of Christ's birth, as well as of his baptism, on January 6, it corresponds to what ...
Their gestation period is around 15.7 months, and birth interval ranges from 34-51 months.[15] ... She gave birth to a male calf in October 2010.[36] In June 2014, the first "successful" live-birth from an artificially ... The first recorded captive birth of a rhinoceros was in Kathmandu in 1826, but another successful birth did not occur for ... Mothers will stay close to their calves for up to four years after their birth, sometimes allowing an older calf to continue to ...
Chlamydia trachomatis: 5 days after birth to 2 weeks (late onset - C. trachomatis has a longer incubation period)[1] ... confidence interval: 245 to 269) per 100,000 in 2011. ... gonorrheae and Chlamydia acquired from the birth canal during ... Ophthalmia neonatorum due to gonococci (N. gonorrhoeae) typically manifests in the first 5 days after birth and is associated ... Antibiotic ointment is typically applied to the newborn's eyes within 1 hour of birth as prevention gonococcal ophthalmia.[2] ...
In the species, a 2 to 3 day interval between the first and 2nd egg being laid (as well as hatching) is recorded.[4][33] The ... at birth.[164] In one instance, a white-tailed eagle reportedly tried to attack an adult harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) but was ... Like other large raptors, feathers are molted at slow intervals in order to not inhibit food capture. Only relatively small ... thence at rare intervals until spring when such behavior, of course, peaks.[33] Courtship often begins with a bird, often the ...
When individuals are preparing to tap out a rhythm of regular intervals (1:2 or 1:3) the left frontal cortex, left parietal ... or brain damage after birth.[89] Amusic brains have been found in fMRI studies to have less white matter and thicker cortex ... Buhusi, C. V.; Meck, W. H. (2005). "What makes us tick? Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing". Nature Reviews ... Tonality describes the relationships between the elements of melody and harmony - tones, intervals, chords, and scales. These ...
Females are capable of becoming pregnant immediately after giving birth, and can nurse one litter while pregnant with another.[ ... Males also copulate at shorter intervals than females.[37] In group mating, females often switch partners.[38] ... and give birth to litters of normal number and weight.[35] ...
This can be helpful in determining a post mortem interval (PMI) and location of a death in question. Since many insects exhibit ... Flesh-flies, being viviparous, frequently give birth to live young on corpses of human and other animals, at any stage of ... The post-decay time interval, beginning at day six after death and ending around day 15 after death, is greatly reduced from ... Contemporary precision, bias and accuracy of minimum post-mortem intervals estimated using development of carrion-feeding ...
Shortly after his birth, Copenhagen Zoo informed the coordinator of the European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) for ... "after a necessary interval and from a number of perspectives."[46] ... which instead choose to use bachelor herds and birth control.[47] ...
From 1855 to 1872, Maxwell published at intervals a series of investigations concerning the perception of colour, colour- ... 1831 births. *1879 deaths. *19th-century British mathematicians. *19th-century physicists. *19th-century Scottish people ...
Stankevich N. V.; Kuznetsov N. V.; Leonov G. A.; Chua L. (2017). "Scenario of the birth of hidden attractors in the Chua ... and since then various scenarios of the birth of hidden attractors have been described.[8] ... Interval exchange map. *Irrational rotation. *Kaplan-Yorke map. *Logistic map. *Standard map ...
She once had an affair with a Scottish laird, which may have resulted in Edmund's birth. Even Gertrude doesn't seem entirely ... which would be delivered at random intervals for no apparent reason. In a BBC Four interview broadcast on 17 August 2007 and ...
Their gestation period and interbirth intervals are usually long, and the young develop slowly, just like in haplorhine ... at birth, but not as coordinated as ungulates (hoofed mammals).[47] Infant care by the mother is relatively prolonged compared ...
During the retention interval of the VPT, the subject viewed irrelevant pictures (e.g., avant-garde paintings). The spatial ... Schizophrenia is thought to stem from neurodevelopmental problems shortly after birth. Rats are commonly used as models of ... Experimenters create lesions in the ventral hippocampal area shortly after birth, a procedure known as neonatal ventral ... the retention interval, as well as any odour cues that could skew results of memory research. In particular, studies have ...
People with KS/HH lack the surge of GnRH, LH, and FSH that normally occurs between birth and six months of age. This surge is ... given at set intervals to trigger the maturation and release of the egg for natural conception.[37] ... KS/HH is most often present from birth but adult onset versions are found in both males and females. The hypothalamic-pituitary ... axis (HPG axis) functions normally at birth and well into adult life, giving normal puberty and normal reproductive function. ...
A liability threshold model for ALS proposes that cellular damage accumulates over time due to genetic factors present at birth ... Physicians obtain the person's full medical history and usually conduct a neurologic examination at regular intervals to assess ...
A heliacal year is the interval atween the heliacal risins o a staurn. It differs frae the sidereal year fur stars awa frae the ... In mony coontries, the maist common era is frae the tradeetional (thoogh noo believed incorrect) yeir o the birth o Jesus. ... The Sothic year is the interval atween heliacal risins o the staurn sirius. It is presently less nor the sidereal year an its ... In contraest, the duration o ane remote interval o geologic time, as a nummer o years, shoods nae be expressed bi the sam ...
The Planck Collaboration in 2015 published the estimate of 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years ago (68% confidence interval). See ... "NASA Technology Views Birth of the Universe". NASA. Retrieved 17 March 2014 ...
Interval tubal ligation[edit]. Bilateral salpingectomy[edit]. This method removes both tubes entirely, from the uterine cornuae ... "Essure Permanent Birth Control". US Food and Drug Administration. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.. ... See also: Comparison of birth control methods) Avoidance of hormonal medications[edit]. Many forms of female-controlled ... If the patient chooses an interval tubal ligation, the procedure will typically be performed under general anesthesia in a ...
They can be administered all at once as a bolus, at frequent intervals or continuously. Frequencies are often abbreviated from ... Physicians began to think of the Pill as an excellent means of birth control for young women.[27] ...
Edward Albee's stage play The Man Who Had Three Arms tells the story of a fictional individual who was normal at birth but ... rather than his normal life before and after that interval. Monty Python's Flying Circus performed a skit about a man with ... Polymelia (from Greek πολυ- = "many" plus μέλος (plural μέλεα) = "limb") also known as hydra syndrome is a birth defect ...
After mating, the female constructs a deeper, more elaborate burrow up to 20 m (66 ft) long and blocked at intervals with plugs ... the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. Like other monotremes it senses prey through ...
The results show that the substantial birth interval and maternal age effects are largely limited to the infant period. The ... but does partially diminish the succeeding birth interval effect. The results are discussed and then summarized in the context ... of breastfeeding status of the child does not significantly alter interpretation of effects of preceding birth interval length ... The results show that the substantial birth interval and maternal age effects are largely limited to the infant period. The ...
Interpregnancy interval and risk of preterm birth and neonatal death: retrospective cohort study BMJ 2003; 327 :851 ... Interpregnancy interval and risk of preterm birth and neonatal death: retrospective cohort study ... Interpregnancy interval and risk of preterm birth and neonatal death: retrospective cohort study ... for a short interpregnancy interval being a risk factor for extremely preterm birth) is 1.4 to 3.6 [not 1.3 to 4.6]. In the ...
Low birth weight and preterm birth after short interpregnancy intervals. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 178: 259-63. ... All analyses of the outcome of the second birth were confined to the subgroup of women whose first birth was a term live birth ... confidence interval 1.1 to 1.5), extremely preterm birth (4.1, 3.2 to 5.3), moderately preterm birth (1.5, 1.3 to 1.7), or ... preterm birth, and perinatal deaths in their first births. Indeed, approximately 10% of women with an interval of less than six ...
A Probability Distribution for Last Closed Birth Interval. Citation. Mukherjee, Santanu; Singh, Kaushalendra Kumar; M., ... A Probability Distribution for Last Closed Birth Interval. Demography India, 20(2), 257-72. ...
A growing body of research has examined whether birth intervals influence perinatal outcomes and child health as well as long- ... Factors such as birth order, parental age at the time of birth, and birth year may be associated with birth interval length, ... The measure for the birth interval that we use in this study is the length of the birth-to-birth interval, meaning the months ... Sibling groups of size N contribute N - 1 birth intervals to the total population of birth intervals. Therefore, in a sibling ...
We defined small-for-gestational age birth as being below the 10th percentile on a race-, sex-, and parity-specific growth ... We examined the effects of short interpregnancy intervals on small-for-gestational age and preterm births in a biracial ... population using North Carolina birth certificate data from 1988 to 1994. ... We defined preterm birth as a gestation of less than 37 weeks. We analyzed birth records from all eligible singleton births to ...
We examine the relationship between birth-to-birth intervals and a variety of mid- and long-term cognitive and socioeconomic ... The measure for the birth interval that we use in this study is the birth-to-birth interval-that is the time, in months, from ... The birth-to-birth interval is not necessarily the perfect measure of birth intervals: it does not take into account a period ... a birth-to-birth interval of 24 or 30 months is clearly shorter than the WHO recommendation of a birth-to-pregnancy interval of ...
birth interval, birth spacing, contraceptive use, family planning, fertility, fertility intentions, postponement, urban areas. ... Urban populations now have median intervals that exceed 35 months in all four countries. The lengthening of birth intervals is ... Objective: The aim of this paper is to explore trends in birth interval length by residence in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and ... Conclusions: The increase in the length of birth intervals in Eastern Africa has been concentrated in urban areas. The trend is ...
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Supply of Women With Gemini or Short Birth Intervals: A Pilot Study Christiane Schulz 1 , Ulrike ... Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Supply of Women With Gemini or Short Birth Intervals: A Pilot Study Christiane Schulz et al. Eur J ... of nutrition to the vitamin A and beta-carotene supply in mother-infant pairs of gemini or births within short birth intervals ... Impact of increasing inter-pregnancy interval on maternal and infant health. Wendt A, Gibbs CM, Peters S, Hogue CJ. Wendt A, et ...
Interpregnancy interval. Association with birth weight, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Message subject: (Your Name) has ...
Most Pill brands have a 7 day placebo interval--an interval when no pills, or no hormone-containing pills are taken. Contrary ... Birth Control Methods. Hormonal. Seasonale. Know Your Period (Barr). Yasmin. Yaz. Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo. Plan B One-Step (EC). ... Its amazing that the 7-day hormone-free interval [HFI] has lasted this long," said Dr. Patricia Sulak, a researcher, ... "The loss of endocrine suppression during this interval provides the rationale for a reduction in the traditional 7-day hormone- ...
Vitamin A and β-carotene supply of women with gemini or short birth intervals. A pilot study. Zeitschrift:. European Journal of ... Vitamin A and β-carotene supply of women with gemini or short birth intervals. A pilot study ... of nutrition to the vitamin A and β-carotene supply in mother-infant pairs of gemini or births within short birth intervals. ... Birth Gaz 10:17-18 Huffman S, Rasmusson E, Newman V, OGara C (1993) Breastfeeding and the environment. A policy brief from ...
Prolonged PR Interval at Birth Predicting the High Occurrence of Fatal Atrioventricular Block in Hypoplastic Left Heart ... The mortality rate of patients with prolonged PR (≥ 0.15 s) but not wide QRS (, 0.08 s) or prolonged QTc (, 0.43 s) at birth ... Congenital heart disease Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Fatal arrhythmia Prolonged PR interval ... Prolonged PR at birth in HLHS infants predicts the development of fatal HAVB. ...
Crofton, P.M., Evans, A.E.M., Taylor, M.R.H. and Holland, C., Serum crosslaps: pediatric reference intervals from birth to 19 ... Serum CrossLaps - pediatric reference intervals from birth to 19 years of age.pdf (Published (publishers copy) - Peer Reviewed ... Serum crosslaps: pediatric reference intervals from birth to 19 years of age. ... Here we report age- and sex-related reference data for serum CrossLaps in children from birth to 19 years of age. ...
... ... Short Interpregnancy Interval and Gastroschisis Risk in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study ... ADHD Medication Use During Pregnancy and Risk for Selected Birth Defects: National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1998-2011 ... Short interpregnancy intervals (IPI) have been associated with an increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, but an ...
The aim of our study was to establish reference intervals for serum TSH, fT3, and fT4 from birth to 18 years and to assess sex ... and that adult reference intervals are not universally applicable to children. Moreover, differences of our reference intervals ... Reference intervals are known to be method- and population-dependent. ... and sex-specific reference intervals are an important prerequisite for interpreting thyroid hormone measurements in children. ...
Recent questions in Giving Birth. Should I go to the hospital or is this normal ... Recent questions in Giving Birth. Should I go to the hospital or is this normal ...
This study showed that, total incidence of premature birth was 10.4%. Among mothers with short inter pregnancy interval the ... Short inter-pregnancy interval [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 6.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.07-15.31], antenatal care ( ... incidence of preterm birth was 39 (25.9%).Whereas, among mothers who had recommended inter pregnancy interval was 9 (2.9%). ... ANC) visit 1-3 times (AHR: 2.24, 95% CI 1.04-4.85), complication during pregnancy (AHR: 3.16, 95% CI 1.58-6.33) and birth ...
Interpregnancy interval. The timing between pregnancies has recently become an interesting predictor for a number of obstetric ... Birth weight. Birth weight greater than 4000 g is associated with an almost 4-fold higher risk of cesarean birth among ... encoded search term (Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery) and Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery What to Read Next on ... Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery. Updated: May 11, 2018 * Author: Aaron B Caughey, MD, MPH, PhD; Chief Editor: Carl V ...
Find the Confidence interval and Error bound. *Calculate the confidence interval and the error bound. *Confidence interval ... Construct a confidence interval for each confidence level given. Confidence Level. EBP/Error Bound. Confidence Interval. ... Texas Gateway: 8.5 Confidence Interval (Place of Birth). Copy and paste the link code above. ... Describe the Confidence Interval. *In two to three complete sentences, explain what a confidence interval means (in general), ...
Parity and Birth Intervals in Determining Child Health Outcomes ... Short birth intervals have a negative effect on infant survival ... But controlling for short birth intervals does not completely offset the effect of young age at birth on child survival ... by short birth intervals. Policies aimed at delaying first birth are warranted, but should not overshadow the need to support ... adolescent mothers at risk of multiple births that are tightly spaced.. Keywords: Maternal age, parity, birth intervals, child ...
Roberts CL, Taylor L, Henderson-Smart D. Trends in births at and beyond term: evidence of a change?. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 ... encoded search term (What is the average interval of the first and second stages of labor?) and What is the average interval of ... Births: final data for 2004. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2006 Sep 29. 55(1):1-101. [Medline]. ... Apgar score of 0 at 5 minutes and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in relation to birth setting. Am J Obstet ...
What is the difference between nationality and country of birth? * How do the Population of the UK by country of birth and ... confidence interval. The uppermost and lowermost values of the confidence interval are termed "upper and lower confidence ... Country of birth. The country in which a person was born.. Country of usual residence. Based on the UN definition, the country ... Country of birth is the country in which they were born. It is possible that an individuals nationality may change, but the ...
View and Print CDC immunization schedules for those ages birth through 18 years. ... For calculating intervals between doses, 4 weeks = 28 days. Intervals of ≥4 months are determined by calendar months. ... Birth to 15 Months. child vaccine schedule table 1. Vaccine. Birth. 1 mo. 2 mos. 4 mos. 6 mos. 9 mos. 12 mos. 15 mos. ... Birth dose (monovalent HepB vaccine only). *Mother is HBsAg-negative: 1 dose within 24 hours of birth for all medically stable ...
Optimum interval between births Your child is already quite grown up, and you want to babysit the baby again, or vice versa - ... However, not only the short interval between births has its own nuances. So, a large gap between pregnancies is also fraught ... All would be nothing, but only women with a large interval - ladies, as a rule, are no longer young, and these organisms are ... Heart disease and pregnancy: types of heart defects, how to give birth with heart disease?. Heart disease and pregnancy There ...
Fertility estimation from open birth-interval data* Carl P. Schmertmann Carl P. Schmertmann ... The standard approach to estimating fertility with open-interval data uses the proportion of women giving birth in the year ... Carl P. Schmertmann; Fertility estimation from open birth-interval data*. Demography 1 November 1999; 36 (4): 505-519. doi: ... Findings and Implications of a Correlation Analysis of the Closed and the Open Birth Intervals ...
Calving Interval and Birth Weight of Achai Cattle at Livestock Research and Development Station Dir Lower, Pakistan ...
Results of search for su:{Birth intervals.} and su-to:Contraception. Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently ...
... confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.98]) adjusted for age, socioeconomic position, mothers place of birth, birth order, secondhand ... Birth order, secondhand smoke exposure, paternal age at birth, birth weight z score, and parental marital status had no ... 49 birth order of the participants,50 secondhand smoke exposure at home,51 parental age at birth,52 gender-specific birth ... Hong Kongs Children of 1997 birth cohort is a population-representative Chinese birth cohort (N = 8327) that covered 88% of ...
Calculation of confidence intervals relies on:. being a proportion or period prevalence. Confidence intervals for a proportion ... Births were defined as live births. A distinction was made between live births and still births or miscarriages. Live born ... Did you have a birth before this child? If NO, then MOVE ON TO NEXT MOTHER If YES, then REPEAT for previous birth ... en-net: Confidence Intervals for Complex Sampling. Can you calculate confidence intervals for cluster sampling in Open Epi? As ...
  • In the third to last sentence of the results section of the abstract, the confidence interval for the adjusted odds ratio of 2.2 (for a short interpregnancy interval being a risk factor for extremely preterm birth) is 1.4 to 3.6 [not 1.3 to 4.6]. (bmj.com)
  • Results Women whose subsequent interpregnancy interval was less than six months were more likely than other women to have had a first birth complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (odds ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.5), extremely preterm birth (4.1, 3.2 to 5.3), moderately preterm birth (1.5, 1.3 to 1.7), or perinatal death (24.4, 18.9 to 31.5). (bmj.com)
  • When the outcome of the second birth was analysed in relation to the preceding interpregnancy interval and the analysis confined to women whose first birth was a term live birth (n = 69 055), no significant association occurred (adjusted for age, marital status, height, socioeconomic deprivation, smoking, previous birth weight vigesimal, and previous caesarean delivery) between interpregnancy interval and intrauterine growth restriction or stillbirth. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions A short interpregnancy interval is an independent risk factor for preterm delivery and neonatal death in the second birth. (bmj.com)
  • 11 A short interpregnancy interval is also associated with known demographic risk factors for complications of pregnancy. (bmj.com)
  • 12 13 Many previous studies of the association between interpregnancy interval and the risk of adverse outcome have lacked information on maternal demographic factors and have had either no information on the outcome of previous pregnancies or minimal information. (bmj.com)
  • 6 7 9 10 We report the relation between interpregnancy interval and the outcome of first and second births in a cohort of 89 143 women. (bmj.com)
  • We analyzed birth records from all eligible singleton births to black or white women ages 15-45 years after an interpregnancy interval of 0-3 months (N = 11,451) and a random sample of singleton births after an interval of 4-24 months (N = 23,118). (rti.org)
  • We defined interpregnancy interval exposure categories as 0-3, 4-12, and 13-24 months. (rti.org)
  • Interpregnancy interval. (bmj.com)
  • Creinin, MD & Trussell, J 2017, ' Interpregnancy interval after termination of pregnancy and the risks of adverse outcomes in subsequent birth ', Obstetrics and Gynecology , vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 944. (elsevier.com)
  • Beyond birth outcomes: Interpregnancy interval and injury-related infa" by Marie E. Thoma, Lauren M. Rosen et al. (maine.edu)
  • Background: Several studies have examined the association between IPI and birth outcomes, but few have explored the association between interpregnancy interval (IPI) and postnatal outcomes. (maine.edu)
  • Objective To understand the effect of interpregnancy interval (IPI) of childbearing aged women on the birth weight of single live birth neonates in Shaanxi province. (bvsalud.org)
  • The association between a single interpregnancy interval (IPI) and birth outcomes has not yet been explored using matched methods. (edu.au)
  • In general, the methods used lacked standardised procedures for defining households, enumerating household members, selecting the principal informant, ascertaining whether identified household members were living at home during the survey period, failing to define live-births, and not having a standardised question set. (ennonline.net)
  • To assess the percentage of women who were vaccinated during pregnancy among women with recent live births, CDC analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) from Georgia and Rhode Island, the two states that collected this information on the PRAMS survey. (cdc.gov)
  • Each month, participating states or entities use birth certificate data to select a stratified random sample of 100--300 women with recent live births. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 3 ] These data, from Massachusetts (2013), North Carolina (2013), and Atlanta, Georgia (2013-2014), included 747 infants and fetuses with one or more of the birth defects meeting the case definition (pre-Zika prevalence = 2.86 per 1,000 live births). (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, neonatal mortality for different African countries ranges from 68 per 1000 live births in Liberia to 11 per 1000 live births in South Africa [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • According to the current united nation estimate, the neonatal death reduced by 48% from the 1990 estimate to 28 per 1000 live births in 2013 while the reduction rate of under-five mortality rate was about 67% [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The16 EDHS reported that neonatal mortality rate is 29/1000 live birth, which has a reduction from the 2005 EDHS report of 39/1000 live births and 2011EDHS report of 37/1000 live birth. (hindawi.com)
  • The best group rate for this objective, 1.3 postneonatal deaths per 1,000 live births, was attained by women who had fetuses and/or children born weighing 2,500g or more. (healthypeople.gov)
  • The absolute difference (or range) between the best and worst group rates was 22.0 postneonatal deaths per 1,000 live births. (healthypeople.gov)
  • The average rate for all other fetal and/or live birth weight groups (excluding the best), 14.3 postneonatal deaths per 1,000 live births, was 11.048 times the best group rate. (healthypeople.gov)
  • The average infant mortality rate among women giving birth in their 40s-94 per 1,000 live births-is much higher than the rate among women in their 20s and 30s and almost as high as the rate among teenage mothers. (guttmacher.org)
  • None of the studies that were powered to detect differences in rare but important outcomes, such as perinatal death and extremely preterm birth, had data on key obstetric and demographic confounders. (bmj.com)
  • A growing body of research has examined whether birth intervals influence perinatal outcomes and child health as well as long-term educational and socioeconomic outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Overall, we conclude that birth intervals have little independent effect on long-term health outcomes. (springer.com)
  • McLanahan 2004 ), the importance of birth spacing for long-term outcomes has received far less attention. (springer.com)
  • Our study extends the literature on this topic by examining a range of medium- and long-term health outcomes that have not been previously examined in relation to birth spacing, and we do so using a within-family sibling comparison design that allows us to minimize residual confounding and to isolate the net effect of birth interval length on long-term health. (springer.com)
  • We examine the relationship between birth-to-birth intervals and a variety of mid- and long-term cognitive and socioeconomic outcomes, including high school GPA, cognitive ability, educational attainment, earnings, unemployment status, and receiving government welfare support. (springer.com)
  • Using contemporary Swedish population register data and a within-family sibling comparison design, we find that neither the birth interval preceding the index person nor the birth interval following the index person are associated with any substantively meaningful changes in mid- or long-term outcomes. (springer.com)
  • We conclude that in a contemporary high-income welfare state, there appears to be no relationship between unusually short or long birth intervals and adverse long-term outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, demographers have shown that short birth intervals and high sibling density are associated with a large number of negative outcomes in both childhood and adulthood (Conde-Agudelo et al. (springer.com)
  • The mechanisms proposed to explain the relationship between birth intervals and long-term cognitive development and socioeconomic outcomes concern physiological mechanisms (such as maternal depletion) as well as the taxing impact of raising multiple, closely spaced children on the emotional, social, and financial resources of parents. (springer.com)
  • To evaluate the importance of birth intervals on long-term outcomes, we use Swedish population register data and within-family sibling comparisons that adjust for all time-invariant factors that remain constant within the family. (springer.com)
  • Our study therefore extends the previous literature on this topic by using high-quality data to examine several new outcomes in relation to birth intervals, and contributes in its application of a new research design that we argue more accurately assesses the net effect of birth interval length on long-term outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Not only are short birth-to-pregnancy (BTP) intervals associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, but so are long BTP intervals of 59 months or more (WHO 2005a ). (springer.com)
  • Short interpregnancy intervals (IPI) have been associated with an increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, but an association with gastroschisis risk has not been previously explored. (cdc.gov)
  • Short birth intervals have a negative effect on infant survival and stunting outcomes. (lifescienceglobal.com)
  • But controlling for short birth intervals does not completely offset the effect of young age at birth on child survival outcomes. (lifescienceglobal.com)
  • Short birth interval, defined as a birth-to-birth interval less than 33 months, is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Short birth intervals are independently associated with increased risk of adverse maternal, perinatal, infant and child outcomes. (ru.nl)
  • increased the risk for unfavorable birth outcomes in both nulliparous and parous women. (arctichealth.org)
  • To our knowledge, this study is the first that has analyzed the associations between prenatal incense burning and birth outcomes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Because incense smoke contains harmful components similar to those in cigarette smoke, we also estimated the associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth outcomes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • By allowing the associations between prenatal inputs and birth outcomes to differ by sex, we explored potential differences in associations between males and females. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Finally, we analyzed how the associations varied across the birth outcomes' distributions. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We used data from the first-wave interview, which contained information on pregnancy inputs, infant birth outcomes, parental health conditions before and during pregnancy, parental education, religion, and other demographics. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The association between IPI and birth outcomes was estimated from the interaction between birth order and IPI (with 18-23 months as the reference category), using conditional logistic regression. (edu.au)
  • Women with very short interpregnancy intervals are more likely to have had complications such as perinatal death, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restriction in their first pregnancy. (bmj.com)
  • 2006 ). Although this decrease is in line with Swedish policy goals, a birth-to-birth interval of 24 or 30 months is clearly shorter than the WHO recommendation of a birth-to-pregnancy interval of 24 months (WHO 2005a ). (springer.com)
  • Does short inter-pregnancy interval predicts the risk of preterm birth in Northern Ethiopia? (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study aimed to assess the effect of inter pregnancy interval on preterm birth in Northern Ethiopia: prospective cohort study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Short inter-pregnancy interval [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 6.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.07-15.31], antenatal care (ANC) visit 1-3 times (AHR: 2.24, 95% CI 1.04-4.85), complication during pregnancy (AHR: 3.16, 95% CI 1.58-6.33) and birth defect (AHR: 8.01, 95% CI 2.56-25.07) were predictors of premature birth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inter-pregnancy interval: was documented as the time interval between delivery of the first pregnancy and the conception of the subsequent pregnancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This applies to those who have experienced disruption of pregnancy or unsuccessful births. (us.org)
  • PST, at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's annual meeting, The Pregnancy Meeting™, in San Diego, researchers will report that the variation of interval from delivery time to conception of the next pregnancy has a strong impact on the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study looked at women with preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation in their first pregnancy and analyzed the association between the intervals of the following pregnancies and the risk for recurrence. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study concluded that an interval of less than 12 months causes an increased risk for severe preterm birth in women who already suffered preterm birth in their first pregnancy. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the study, assessed 11,535 women with preterm birth in the first pregnancy and variations of intervals to the next conception and the impact on the subsequent birth. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study, titled Can Variation of the Interval Between the First and Second Pregnancy be used as a Therapeutic Strategy to Reduce Recurrent Spontaneous Preterm Birth? (eurekalert.org)
  • Women with preterm birth are advised to postpone their next pregnancy for at least 12 months to prevent another preterm birth," stated Bouchra Koullali, M.D. who is with the Academic Medical Center obstetrics department in Amsterdam. (eurekalert.org)
  • Conclusion: In women with a previous PTB, variation of interval from delivery to time to conception of the next pregnancy has a strong impact on the risk of PTB and birth weight in the next pregnancy. (eurekalert.org)
  • [ 4 ] Trained staff members in these surveillance programs routinely reviewed the medical records of infants and fetuses with birth defects and abstracted information about those defects, related diagnostic procedures, and demographic and pregnancy information. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Additional data collected included the pregnancy outcome (live birth or pregnancy loss), maternal age, gestational age at delivery, and verbatim clinical descriptions of all birth defects, including genetic abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • The authors report the case of a delayed interval delivery in trichorionic, triamniotic triplet pregnancy. (hindawi.com)
  • IPI was defined as the number of months between a live birth and the start of the pregnancy leading to the next live birth. (maine.edu)
  • Adjusted differences in mean childhood body mass index according to birth weight from birth records (A) and self-reported birth weight (B), from linear regression models adjusting for maternal age at pregnancy, participant's age at birth weight recall, participant's ethnicity, maternal education, and childhood family income, New York Women's Birth Cohort Adult Follow-up, 2001-2006. (nih.gov)
  • Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. (plos.org)
  • Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. (plos.org)
  • Preconceptional folate supplementation was specifically related to early spontaneous preterm birth and not associated with other complications of pregnancy. (plos.org)
  • Nutrition counselling during pregnancy reduced low birth weight and preterm births, which was determined by women of short stature, early stoppage of antenatal visit, and cesarean delivery. (cambridge.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate if a GWG outside the IOM recommendation in a Norwegian population is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications like hypertension, low and high birth weight, preeclampsia, emergency caesarean delivery, and maternal post-partum weight retention (PPWR) at 6 and 18 months. (arctichealth.org)
  • significantly increased the risk of pregnancy hypertension, a high birth weight baby, preeclampsia and emergency cesarean delivery in both nulliparous and parous normal weight women. (arctichealth.org)
  • Caffeine exposure during pregnancy, small for gestational age birth and neonatal outcome - results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. (arctichealth.org)
  • Incense burning during pregnancy and birth weight and head circumference among term births: the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 1 year was associated with increased abruption risk in the second pregnancy among women with the same as well as different partners, but interval over 4 years was only associated with increased risk among women with the same partner. (uib.no)
  • Premature babies are born within 37 weeks of pregnancy, leading to lower birth weight. (scirp.org)
  • Smoking, consumption of alcohol, use of recreational drugs and abuse of prescription drugs during pregnancy can affect the growth of the baby in the womb and increase the chances of premature birth and birth defects. (scirp.org)
  • Women with shorter time intervals from loop electrosurgical excision procedure to pregnancy are at increased risk for spontaneous abortion but not preterm delivery. (lww.com)
  • Methods: We used 2011-2015 US period-linked birth-infant death vital statistics data to generate a multiyear birth cohort of non-first-born singleton births (N = 9 782 029). (maine.edu)
  • Setting: Population-based study of singleton births in Norway between 1967 and 2009. (uib.no)
  • Participants: Women who had their first two (n=747 566) singleton births in the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. (uib.no)
  • Moreover, differences of our reference intervals compared to previous studies were observed, likely caused by different antibody characteristics of various analytical methods, different populations or undefined geographic covariates, e.g. iodine and selenium status. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the early 1980s, a bewildering array of methods for constructing bootstrap confidence intervals have been proposed. (nih.gov)
  • In order to do this, we review the common algorithms for resampling and methods for constructing bootstrap confidence intervals, together with some less well known ones, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. (nih.gov)
  • [ 2 ] Although the ascertainment methods differed, this finding was approximately 20 times higher than the proportion of one or more of the same birth defects among pregnancies during the pre-Zika years. (medscape.com)
  • Unlike term infants, who are able to breastfeed from birth, most preterm infants need to be fed either by alternative methods (cup, spoon, etc.) or by intragastric tube during the first few weeks of life (1). (who.int)
  • These factors, in turn, are strongly affected by women's use of modern contraceptive methods to control the timing of their births. (guttmacher.org)
  • Demographers analyzing fertility have always examined the timing and spacing of subsequent births, given that it is one of the central determinants of fertility. (springer.com)
  • This study extends on our previous work [ 30 ], which identified the individual- and community-level determinants of short birth interval. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we examine this issue further, providing the first systematic analysis of genetic determinants of the cell size at birth. (g3journal.org)
  • Inadequate knowledge in maternal nutrition is one of the determinants of low birth weight. (cambridge.org)
  • It has also been found that consideration of breastfeeding status of the child does not significantly alter interpretation of effects of preceding birth interval length on mortality risk, but does partially diminish the succeeding birth interval effect. (repec.org)
  • In models that do not adjust carefully for family background, we find that short and long birth intervals are clearly associated with height, physical fitness, being overweight or obese, and mortality. (springer.com)
  • To our knowledge, this question has not been examined in a contemporary setting, which is surprising given that previous research has shown that birth interval length is associated with the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and child mortality (Conde-Agudelo et al. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we use Swedish population register data to examine the relationship between birth interval length and height, physical fitness, and the probability of falling into different body mass index (BMI) categories measured at ages 17-20 for men, and mortality over ages 30-74 for both men and women. (springer.com)
  • We use Demographic and Health Survey data from 33 sub-Saharan African countries, and apply multivariate Poisson and logistic models to first examine the effect of maternal age (15-17, 18-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-39) on infant mortality and stunting, then modify this relationship by parity and account for the confounding effects of short birth intervals. (lifescienceglobal.com)
  • High parity children of young mothers are at a high risk of infant mortality, driven in part - but not completely - by short birth intervals. (lifescienceglobal.com)
  • 4) Although the reported incidence in high-income countries is relatively low (between 0.1 and 0.6 per 1000 births), it is nonetheless an important direct cause of maternal mortality. (who.int)
  • Perinatal mortality rates in developed countries range from 47 to 120 per 1,000 births for twins and from 93 to 203 per 1,000 births for triplets [ 2 ] and are strictly associated with the gestational age. (hindawi.com)
  • The common causes of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia are infection, asphyxia, and preterm birth [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • High infant mortality is, therefore, clearly a function of poverty, which creates conditions-for example, the lack of clean water, poor sanitation, malnutrition, endemic infections, poor or nonexistent primary health care services and low levels of spending on health care-in which babies who are not robust at birth do not receive the health care they need to overcome their vulnerability. (guttmacher.org)
  • This Issues in Brief presents the most recent survey data on the relationships between high-risk births and infant mortality, and examines whether earlier conclusions about the potentially beneficial links between family planning and the survival of infants are still valid. (guttmacher.org)
  • The infant mortality rate averages 100 deaths per 1,000 births among mothers younger than 20, compared with 72-74 deaths per 1,000 births among mothers 20-29 and 30-39. (guttmacher.org)
  • This is true even for individuals born before or after birth-to-birth intervals of less than 12 months. (springer.com)
  • ELBW survivors who were 501 to 1000 g birth weight and born between 1977 and 1982 to residents of a geographically defined region in central-west Ontario were followed longitudinally from birth. (aappublications.org)
  • The study cohort was followed from birth through to 31 December 2006, with the primary outcome of interest being interim death from natural causes or continued survival. (mja.com.au)
  • Data from a prospective US birth cohort of 262 women, born between 1959 and 1963 (average age at adult follow-up, 41.8 years), were used to assess the validity of self-reported birth weight category by sociodemographic characteristics. (nih.gov)
  • Using data from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study, we estimated the associations between prenatal incense burning and birth weight and head circumference at birth. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is a longitudinal survey that follows 21,248 representatively sampled infants born in 2005 in Taiwan. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We modeled the odds of preterm birth, being small for gestational age, and having low birth weight in a second, live-born infant in a cohort of 192,041 sibling pairs born in Western Australia between 1980 and 2010. (edu.au)
  • Objective To determine whether a short interval between pregnancies is an independent risk factor for adverse obstetric outcome. (bmj.com)
  • Main outcome measures Intrauterine growth restriction (birth weight less than the 5th centile for gestational age), extremely preterm birth (24-32 weeks), moderately preterm birth (33-36 weeks), and perinatal death. (bmj.com)
  • Perinatal risk and psychiatric outcome in adolescents born preterm with very low birth weight or term small for gestational age. (nih.gov)
  • Socioeconomic inequality in short birth interval was the outcome variable. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first visible outcome of the fertility process is the birth of the first child. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Primary outcome measures: Risk, as well as unadjusted and adjusted OR of placental abruption in relation to change in paternity and interval between births. (uib.no)
  • Some inconsistencies in confidence intervals appeared in this paper by Gordon C S Smith and colleagues (9 August, pp 313-6). (bmj.com)
  • In the final sentence of the third paragraph of the Results section of the main article, the confidence intervals for the adjusted odds ratios given should be 1.4 to 3.6 [not 1.3 to 4.6] and 1.3 to 2.0 [1.2 to 2.2]. (bmj.com)
  • The multivariate adjusted odds ratio for small-for-gestational age births after interpregnancy intervals of 0-3 months compared with 13-24-month intervals was 1.6 (95% confidence interval = 1.4-1.8). (rti.org)
  • The odds ratio for preterm birth after interpregnancy intervals of 0-3 months was 1.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.1-1.3). (rti.org)
  • The student will calculate the 90 percent confidence interval of the proportion of students in this school who were born in this state. (texasgateway.org)
  • The student will interpret confidence intervals. (texasgateway.org)
  • The student will determine the effects of changing conditions on the confidence interval. (texasgateway.org)
  • Then, fill in the number line with the upper and lower limits of the confidence interval and the sample proportion. (texasgateway.org)
  • In two to three complete sentences, explain what a confidence interval means (in general), as though you were talking to someone who has not taken statistics. (texasgateway.org)
  • In one to two complete sentences, explain what this confidence interval means for this particular study. (texasgateway.org)
  • Construct a confidence interval for each confidence level given. (texasgateway.org)
  • Does the width of the confidence interval increase or decrease? (texasgateway.org)
  • Bootstrap confidence intervals: when, which, what? (nih.gov)
  • First, when should bootstrap confidence intervals be used. (nih.gov)
  • Data were analyzed to estimate influenza vaccination prevalence and 95% confidence intervals. (cdc.gov)
  • 95% confidence intervals: 1.2-46.8). (nih.gov)
  • Continuous data were analysed by calculating weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). (who.int)
  • error bars, 95% confidence interval. (nih.gov)
  • The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). (mdpi.com)
  • Error Bar ( I ) represents the 95% confidence interval. (healthypeople.gov)
  • Relative to individuals born weighing 2500-3249 g, the adjusted hazard ratio for people born with neonatal macrosomia was 2.57 (95% confidence interval = 1.15-5.74). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 6 months) was an independent risk factor for extremely preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio 2.2, 1.3 to 3.6), moderately preterm birth (1.6, 1.3 to 2.0), and neonatal death unrelated to congenital abnormality (3.6, 1.2 to 10.7). (bmj.com)
  • e) preterm birth odds. (nature.com)
  • Results show a study-region wide 44g drop (CI: −34 to −55) in mean birth-weight from 2006 to 2016, and 55% increase (1.55, from CI: 1.37 to 1.77) in LBW odds, unexplained by other predictors. (nature.com)
  • In this study, we revisit the issue of adverse consequences of birth intervals using statistical models based on within-family variation in order to minimize residual confounding. (springer.com)
  • The increase in the length of birth intervals in Eastern Africa has been concentrated in urban areas. (demographic-research.org)
  • The results show that the substantial birth interval and maternal age effects are largely limited to the infant period. (repec.org)
  • Contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals, Global Goals, Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health 2016-2030, we clarify the interaction between maternal age, parity and birth intervals to examine the effects on child health. (lifescienceglobal.com)
  • Several studies have shown that women with a very short interval between pregnancies are at increased risk of complications such as preterm birth, neonatal death, and intrauterine growth restriction. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, women with short interval between pregnancies are at increased risk of preterm birth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, both a short and long interval between pregnancies also seems to be of influence on the risk for preterm birth. (eurekalert.org)
  • The associations between partner change between pregnancies and birth interval were examined in relation to abruption in a series of logistic regression models. (uib.no)
  • We defined small-for-gestational age birth as being below the 10th percentile on a race-, sex-, and parity-specific growth curve after a gestation of 37-42 weeks. (rti.org)
  • We examined the effects of short interpregnancy intervals on small-for-gestational age and preterm births in a biracial population using North Carolina birth certificate data from 1988 to 1994. (rti.org)
  • This advice is based on the findings of previous studies suggesting that both the mother and subsequent child are more likely to suffer negative consequences in the short- and long-term if the birth interval is less than 24 months. (springer.com)
  • Aim of this pilot study was to analyze vitamin A and beta-carotene status and to investigate the contribution of nutrition to the vitamin A and beta-carotene supply in mother-infant pairs of gemini or births within short birth intervals. (nih.gov)
  • However, not only the short interval between births has its own nuances. (us.org)
  • Evidence regarding the association of maternal socioeconomic status and short birth interval is inconclusive. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Factors contributing to the socioeconomic inequality of short birth interval have also not been investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The current study assessed socioeconomic inequality in short birth interval and its contributing factors in Ethiopia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Erreygers normalized concentration index (ECI) and concentration curves were used to measure and illustrate socioeconomic-related inequality in short birth interval, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Decomposition analysis was performed to identify factors explaining the socioeconomic-related inequality in short birth interval. (biomedcentral.com)
  • indicating that short birth interval was more concentrated among the poor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Decomposition analysis indicated that wealth quintiles (74.2%), administrative regions (26.4%), and not listening to the radio (5.6%) were the major contributors to the pro-poor socioeconomic inequalities in short birth interval. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There was a pro-poor inequality of short birth interval in Ethiopia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Strengthening the implementation of poverty alleviation programs may improve the population's socioeconomic status and reduce the associated inequality in short birth interval. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is, however, limited knowledge regarding the socioeconomic inequalities related to short birth interval in Ethiopia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quantifying and characterising socioeconomic inequalities in short birth interval can help policy makers and public health planners target specific groups of women at risk to reduce the burden of short birth interval on maternal and child wellbeing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our previous study [ 30 ] found that women from the poorest, poorer, middle, and richer households were at increased risk of short birth interval compared to women from the richest household. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) children are reported to have a significantly higher prevalence of poor physical growth, 1-3 ill health, and rehospitalizations during midchildhood compared with their peers. (aappublications.org)
  • The most risk factors of neonatal sepsis were identified as age of neonates, birth asphyxia, and use of oxygen via mask strongly associated with prevalence of NS. (hindawi.com)
  • Although attempts at a trial of labor after a cesarean birth (TOLAC) have become accepted practice, the rate of successful vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC), as well as the rate of attempted VBACs, has decreased during the past 10 years (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Digital vaginal examination at intervals of four hours is recommended for routine assessment of active first stage of labour in low-risk women. (who.int)
  • The recommended time intervals are consistent with timing of vaginal examination on the partograph and further reinforce the importance of using partograph as an essential tool to implement this practic. (who.int)
  • The group agreed that vaginal examinations at intervals more frequent than specified in this recommendation may be warranted by the condition of the mother or the baby. (who.int)
  • Between 1985 and 1996, rates of vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery (VBAC) increased steadily. (aafp.org)
  • Association with birth weight, stillbirth, and neonatal death. (bmj.com)
  • Birth-weight is modelled without controlling for gestational age (red lines) and controlling for it (turquoise lines). (nature.com)
  • These trends could relate to changes in access to quality healthcare (e.g. leading to fewer miscarriages), methodological changes in GA and birth-weight assessment in provincial hospitals, or broader societal transitions. (nature.com)
  • The average birth weight of an African lion is 3.6 pounds with a standard deviation of 0.4 pound. (brainmass.com)
  • The average birth weight was 7.2 pounds and the standard deviation was 0.9 pound. (brainmass.com)
  • To study perinatal risk factors for psychiatric symptoms in adolescents born preterm with very low birth weight or at term, but small for gestational age (GA). (nih.gov)
  • Lower birth weight, shorter gestation, and intraventricular hemorrhage were risk factors for psychiatric problems in the very low birth weight group. (nih.gov)
  • To compare the physical growth, current health status, and utilization of health care resources by extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and control (C) adolescents and to look at changes over time. (aappublications.org)
  • The key demographic variables collected were gender, family status (single parent/2-parent family), birth weight and gestational age, SES, and maternal education. (aappublications.org)
  • A delay of 2 or more days in the premature delivery in newborns born before 30 weeks of gestation is associated with improved infant survival and higher infant birth weight [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Validity of self-reported birth weight by adult women: sociodemographic influences and implications for life-course studies. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of reporting error on the associations of birth weight with childhood and adult body mass index was evaluated by comparing the estimates of associations from linear regression analyses. (nih.gov)
  • The level of agreement between the birth weight category reported by 85% of the participants and the birth weight recorded at the time of birth was moderate to good (sensitivity = 73%, weighted kappa = 0.67). (nih.gov)
  • The validity varied by birth weight category (sensitivity range = 58%-81% for the lowest and highest birth weight category, respectively) and was highest for participants who were white, of lower childhood family income, and born to older mothers. (nih.gov)
  • Despite this moderate to good validity, the associations of birth weight with childhood and adult body mass index were attenuated and no longer statistically significant when self-reported birth weight was used. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, birth weight reported in middle adult life is measured with error, limiting its utility for detecting modest associations with health in later life periods. (nih.gov)
  • However, little evidence is available on whether maternal nutrition counselling alone can influence birth weight among women from low socioeconomic households. (cambridge.org)
  • This study assessed the effect of prenatal maternal nutritional counselling on birth weight and examined the related risk factors. (cambridge.org)
  • Logistic regression was applied to determine associations between low birth weight and maternal characteristics. (cambridge.org)
  • Low Birth Weight: Country, regional and global estimates. (cambridge.org)
  • Three different characteristics i.e. gestation period, calving interval and birth weight were studied. (iiste.org)
  • 25 animals were observed for gestation period, 24 for calving interval and 40 new born were recorded for birth weight. (iiste.org)
  • Mean birth weight was recorded 16.25+2.44 kg. (iiste.org)
  • Teenage mothers also have an increased risk of giving birth to an infant who is premature or low-birth-weight-conditions that reduce the resilience and stamina babies need to overcome infection or trauma early in life. (guttmacher.org)
  • Background: The aim of the study is to investigate the role of socio-demographic, life-style and clinical risk factors of low birth weight (LBW) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. (scirp.org)
  • It is a hospital-based, case-control study of mothers of 135 LBW and 65 normal birth weight neonates at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the Maternity and Children Hospital, KSA. (scirp.org)
  • Low birth weight (LBW) is a condition when a baby is born weighing less than 2500 grams. (scirp.org)
  • About 13 percent of African-American babies are born with low birth weight each year. (scirp.org)
  • Case series data suggest that high birth weight and neonatal macrosomia in offspring are associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in parents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We therefore conducted a prospective analysis investigating the association among self-reported birth weight, neonatal macrosomia, and incident colorectal cancer in a population-based study of men and women. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A total of 4532 men and 7325 women who reported their birth weight were followed up between 1993 and 1999. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The relation between birth weight and incident colorectal cancer was assessed using Cox's proportional hazards model. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The association between self-reported birth weight and risk of incident colorectal cancer was nonlinear. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There was also some evidence that low birth weight babies were at increased risk of colorectal cancer relative to the referent category. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There is a J-shape relation between self-reported birth weight and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hence, together with case series data for neonatal macrosomia, these modest, positive correlations among birth weight, adult height, and body size suggest that birth weight could also be associated with risk of this cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To our knowledge, no prospective study has assessed the relation among birth weight, neonatal macrosomia, and incident colorectal cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We categorized birth weight into broad groups with intervals of 750 g. (aacrjournals.org)
  • After excluding 1998 participants with prevalent cancer at the baseline survey, 41% (4532 men and 7325 women) of the remaining 28,448 participants had data for self-reported birth weight. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Multivariate analyses were done to examine the relationship between length of preceding birth interval and child hemoglobin levels, adjusted for factors at the individual, household, community, district, and country level. (ru.nl)
  • Bivariate and multivariate techniques will be used to analyze the association between the age, education, employment, wealth, empowerment and union status of women and their preferred birth intervals. (princeton.edu)
  • Age- and sex-specific reference intervals are an important prerequisite for interpreting thyroid hormone measurements in children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reference intervals are known to be method- and population-dependent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of our study was to establish reference intervals for serum TSH, fT3, and fT4 from birth to 18 years and to assess sex differences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results corroborate those of previous studies showing that thyroid hormone levels change markedly during childhood, and that adult reference intervals are not universally applicable to children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aims of our study were 1) to establish age-specific reference intervals for serum concentrations of TSH, fT3, and fT4 in healthy children, 2) to assess sex differences in thyroid function, and 3) to compare our results to previously published reference data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 11 Term control participants were recruited at 8 years of age from a random list obtained through the directors of 2 Hamilton school boards and matched for gender, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) to each individual child (1977-1981 births). (aappublications.org)
  • Although several studies have examined how birth order, family size, and parental age at the time of birth are related to long-term cognitive development, educational and socioeconomic attainment, and health (Baranowska-Rataj et al. (springer.com)
  • in this study, we also examine whether the length of the subsequent interval-the time until the birth of a younger sibling-is associated with long-term health. (springer.com)
  • Systemic review done in 2007 showed that, 9.6% of all births were preterm, which translates to about 12.9 million births definable as preterm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gestational age: was estimated as the interval in completed weeks from the last normal menstrual period (LNMP) to the child's date of birth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found rapid changes in cortical activity over the 3 days distinct from slower changes associated with gestational age: for many features, evolution over 1 day after birth is equivalent to approximately 1 to 2.5 weeks of maturation. (nature.com)
  • Postnatal age, in addition to gestational age, should be considered when analysing preterm EEG within the first few days after birth. (nature.com)
  • What once was hailed as a key component of lowering the overall cesarean birth rate (ie, TOLAC) is losing the support it had in the 1980s. (medscape.com)
  • CONCLUSION: A longer skin incision-to-delivery interval in cesarean birth does not compromise neonatal acid-base balance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although preterm EEG is well defined in relation to GA, little is known about how it evolves in the immediate period after birth. (nature.com)
  • Objectives: We examined abruption risk in relation to change in paternity, and evaluated if birth interval confounds this association. (uib.no)
  • The folio number (births and deaths only) also relates to the district in which the event was recorded. (angelfire.com)
  • Adjusted for birth interval, hazard ratios for deaths among infants, children and adults born at weights below their group birthweight medians were 2.30 (95% CI, 1.13-4.70), 1.78 (95% CI, 1.03-3.07) and 3.49 (95% CI, 1.50-8.09), respectively. (mja.com.au)
  • While injury-related deaths are rare, these patterns suggest that the timing between births may be a marker of risk for fatal infant injuries. (maine.edu)
  • Policies aimed at delaying first birth are warranted, but should not overshadow the need to support adolescent mothers at risk of multiple births that are tightly spaced. (lifescienceglobal.com)
  • The main risk factor for preterm birth is a previous preterm birth. (eurekalert.org)
  • Objective: Women who have suffered spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) are at increased risk for repeat PTB. (eurekalert.org)
  • Vol. 71, #3, Sept, 1983, p473 of the birth groups of Americans old enough to be in the smoking related disease risk group between 1973 and 1998.Current smoker at age 60, birth year 1925, data were extrapolated by me because these are 1985 data and Harris published during 1983. (forces.org)
  • b ) risk ratio for incidences of birth defects, neonates from donor sperm offspring v . spontaneous conceptions. (cambridge.org)
  • However, the available evidence suggests that magnesium sulfate given before anticipated early preterm birth reduces the risk of cerebral palsy in surviving infants. (acog.org)
  • Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. (plos.org)
  • The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. (plos.org)
  • Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth beyond 32 wk. (plos.org)
  • 1 y) of preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was not significant after adjustment for maternal characteristics. (plos.org)
  • However, the risk of spontaneous preterm birth decreased with the duration of preconceptional folate supplementation (test for trend of survivor functions, p = 0.01) and was the lowest in women who used folate supplementation for 1 y or longer. (plos.org)
  • The risk of early spontaneous preterm birth is inversely proportional to the duration of preconceptional folate supplementation. (plos.org)
  • Although mothers with low titer anti-Ro will not be continued in Step 2 and therefore not followed by FHRM, birth ECGs will be collected to confirm that low titer antibodies do not confer risk. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the 2009 pan- there are reports of increased risk for either hospitalization demic, the Mori rate was higher than the European rate or death for indigenous persons from Canada, the United (rate ratio 2.6, 95% confi dence interval 1.3-5.3). (cdc.gov)
  • Babies who have an increased risk of dying before their first birthday fall into three broad categories: those born to very young mothers, those born to women past their prime childbearing years and those born too soon after a previous birth. (guttmacher.org)
  • At the other end of the reproductive spectrum, many poor women in their 40s suffer from anemia, malnutrition, damage to their reproductive systems from earlier births and the sheer physical depletion associated with frequent childbearing-all conditions known to increase the likelihood of having a baby at increased risk of dying. (guttmacher.org)
  • They were also shorter, less likely to be married, and more likely to be aged less than 20 years at the time of the second birth, to smoke, and to live in an area of high socioeconomic deprivation. (bmj.com)
  • If a woman gave birth for the first time herself, without surgery and complications, then you can become pregnant within 9 months, but preferably not earlier. (us.org)
  • 5. At battery right or left, an interval ordered in seconds is the time between one gun firing and the next gun firing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 6. At rounds of fire for effect the interval is the time in seconds between successive rounds from each gun. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When I finally got her birth entry (after following numerous false leads) I discovered that she was actually named Mary Ann MORGAN, and that she was 17 at the time of her marriage! (angelfire.com)
  • Time-to-first birth after marriage has a significant role in the future life of each individual woman and has a direct relationship with fertility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Age, residence area, employment status, contraceptive use and education of women were associated significantly to time-to-first birth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Women having younger age at first marriage, urban women, contraceptive users had prolonged time to first birth interval. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main objective of this review was to assess the effect on growth rates and time to hospital discharge of a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at scheduled intervals (4). (who.int)
  • The length of time between successive births of a female. (eol.org)
  • Fetal heart rate and rhythm monitoring (FHRM) suggests a time interval of ~12 hours for the transition from NR to 3° AVB, albeit the culprit biologic processes (inflammation leading to fibrosis) likely initiate prior to clinical detection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Subjects 89 143 women having second births in 1992-8 who conceived within five years of their first birth. (bmj.com)
  • Some women survive the interval of several years is extremely difficult. (us.org)
  • All would be nothing, but only women with a large interval - ladies, as a rule, are no longer young, and these organisms are more difficult to transfer than those that were in their youth. (us.org)
  • The standard approach to estimating fertility with open-interval data uses the proportion of women giving birth in the year before the interview. (dukeupress.edu)
  • This information should be considered in counseling women with preterm birth in their medical history. (eurekalert.org)
  • There is a need of teaching family for contraceptive use and improving women education to increase the length of first birth interval in Ethiopia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, two other factors that also affect the likelihood of babies' dying during their first year are more immediately amenable to change: the age at which women have their children and the length of the interval between births. (guttmacher.org)
  • For example, malnourished young women may not have developed sufficiently for the baby's head to be able to pass safely through the birth canal. (guttmacher.org)
  • Births to older women. (guttmacher.org)
  • The DHS collects information on the preference for the timing of their next birth for women who want a (another) child. (princeton.edu)
  • And yet the dynamics of fertility are changing: national estimates have documented significant lengthening of birth intervals across the region. (demographic-research.org)
  • We conducted a birth interval analysis of fertility using up to six Demographic and Health Surveys from each country. (demographic-research.org)
  • We modelled age-order duration-specific period fertility using Poisson regression and calculated median birth interval lengths from the fitted rates using life-table techniques. (demographic-research.org)
  • Censuses and surveys frequently collect information on period fertility through questions on the timing of last births. (dukeupress.edu)
  • I propose a more efficient, maximum likelihood method for estimating fertility from open-interval data. (dukeupress.edu)
  • The timing of the first birth influences the number of children a woman bears throughout her reproductive period in the absence of any active fertility control, and woman who starts giving the first birth very early in life tends to have a large number of children than those who starts late [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Preferred birth intervals are a good indicator of women's current fertility intentions. (princeton.edu)
  • Prolonged PR at birth in HLHS infants predicts the development of fatal HAVB. (springer.com)
  • Considerable changes in the EEG immediately after birth implies that postnatal adaption significantly influences cerebral activity for early preterm infants. (nature.com)
  • Included were all infants and fetuses who were identified through surveillance with a birth defect characterized by CDC subject matter experts as being consistent with those observed in cases of congenital Zika virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • 37 years), compared by birth intervals (1956-1965, 1966-1975 and 1976-1985 for infants and children, and 1956-1962 and 1963-1969 for adults) and by birthweight. (mja.com.au)
  • Hence, for such settings, presently there is insufficient evidence to determine whether feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger cues is better than feeding them at pre-specified intervals. (who.int)
  • Randomized/quasi-randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized trials that enrolled orally-fed preterm infants and randomized them to receive either ad libitum/demand/semi-demand feeding or scheduled interval feeding were eligible for inclusion in the review. (who.int)
  • Infants with inherited methemoglobin reductase enzyme deficiencies may present with cyanosis and elevated levels of MetHb shortly after birth [DeBaun et al. (cdc.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: A longer birth interval has a modest positive effect on early childhood hemoglobin levels of girls, and this effect is strongest when their mothers are in their early twenties and have a high hemoglobin level. (ru.nl)
  • factor for increased disease severity, with the multivari- able model accounting for age, sex, medical comorbidity, Evidence suggests that indigenous populations have been interval from onset of symptoms to initiation of antiviral disproportionately affected more by infl uenza pandem- therapy, rurality, and income ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • If you're planning a home birth, follow the procedure you have agreed with your midwife during your discussions about the onset of labour. (www.nhs.uk)
  • We defined preterm birth as a gestation of less than 37 weeks. (rti.org)
  • Preterm birth (PTB) is defined as a delivery which occurs at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After the labor of the first fetus in the 22nd week of gestation, a 75-day interval was achieved before the delayed delivery. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this paper is to explore trends in birth interval length by residence in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe, and the role of contraception in these changes. (demographic-research.org)
  • All preschool children aged 6-59 months with a valid hemoglobin measurement and a preceding birth interval of 7-72 months as well as their corresponding multigravida mothers aged 21-49 years were included in the study. (ru.nl)
  • Hemoglobin levels of children and mothers were measured in g/l, while birth intervals were calculated as months difference between consecutive births. (ru.nl)
  • In addition, for girls, the effect of length of preceding birth interval was highest in young mothers and mothers with higher hemoglobin levels, while for boys, the highest effect was noticed for those living in more highly educated regions. (ru.nl)
  • Studies have shown the importance of birth spacing for the health of mothers and for that of their children. (princeton.edu)