Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Religion and SexCatholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.UtopiasParanoid Behavior: Behavior exhibited by individuals who are overly suspicious, but without the constellation of symptoms characteristic of paranoid personality disorder or paranoid type of schizophrenia.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Contraception, Barrier: Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.Nuclear Receptor Coactivators: Proteins that enhance gene expression when associated with ligand bound activated NUCLEAR RECEPTORS. The coactivators may act through an enzymatic process that affects the rate of transcription or the structure of chromatin. Alternatively nuclear receptor coactivators can function as adaptor proteins that bring nuclear receptors into close proximity with transcriptional complexes.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Intrauterine Devices, Copper: Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.United StatesAttitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Vaginal Birth after Cesarean: Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence-Binding Protein: A ubiquitously expressed sequence-specific transcriptional repressor that is normally the target of signaling by NOTCH PROTEINS.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Infant, Premature, DiseasesRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Paternal Age: Age of the biological father.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Poly(A)-Binding Protein II: A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2: A nuclear co-repressor protein that shows specificity for RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. The dissociation of this co-repressor from nuclear receptors is generally ligand-dependent, but can also occur by way of its phosphorylation by members of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. The protein contains two nuclear receptor interaction domains and four repressor domains and is closely-related in structure to NUCLEAR RECEPTOR CO-REPRESSOR 1.Birthing Centers: Free-standing facilities that provide prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care and usually incorporate family-centered maternity care concepts and practices.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Illegitimacy: The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Peptidylprolyl Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of proline residues within proteins. EC 5.2.1.8.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Ankyrin Repeat: Protein motif that contains a 33-amino acid long sequence that often occurs in tandem arrays. This repeating sequence of 33-amino acids was discovered in ANKYRIN where it is involved in interaction with the anion exchanger (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE). Ankyrin repeats cooperatively fold into domains that mediate molecular recognition via protein-protein interactions.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Delivery Rooms: Hospital units equipped for childbirth.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.DenmarkFetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesBreeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.NorwayNurse Midwives: Professional nurses who have received postgraduate training in midwifery.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)SwedenMyoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.BrazilCOS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.EnglandAnimals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Cohort Effect: Variation in health status arising from different causal factors to which each birth cohort in a population is exposed as environment and society change.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Anencephaly: A malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close. Infants are born with intact spinal cords, cerebellums, and brainstems, but lack formation of neural structures above this level. The skull is only partially formed but the eyes are usually normal. This condition may be associated with folate deficiency. Affected infants are only capable of primitive (brain stem) reflexes and usually do not survive for more than two weeks. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p247)Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Perinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Great BritainFinlandHeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
The peak period of development for motor skills occurs from birth to age five. As such, children entering kindergarten can walk ... The cognitive ability that is implicated in these situations is known as inhibitory control (IC). Inhibitory control is known ... Developmental milestones for gross motor development include learning to skip, catching a ball, jumping over small objects, and ... This term is used somewhat interchangeably with related terms such as, self-regulation, effortful control, attentional control ...
... birth control users do not have true menstrual periods. Instead, it is the lack of hormones for a week that causes a withdrawal ... www.m.webmd.com/women/tc/what-to-do-about-missed-or-skipped-birth-control-pills-overview ... "Birth Control Pills - Birth Control Pill - The Pill".. *^ Mosher WD, Martinez GM, Chandra A, Abma JC, Willson SJ (2004). "Use ... often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be ...
It is often called birth control pill or simply "The Pill." The pills contain hormones that make the women who take them ... She might also decide to stop taking the Pill, or skip doses, if she decides she wants to get pregnant.)[14] ... These medicines can also cause breakthrough bleeding (where a woman bleeds between her periods). Some of these medicines are: * ... While there are just two major kinds of birth control pills (COCPs and POPs), there are many different brands or versions of ...
Only Yale presented any form of challenge, claiming four national championships in the same time period. The birth of football ... The squad received encouragement from some of the faculty, who allowed them to eat a late dinner and skip final drill for ... Even though the number of teams participating in the sport increased, the game was still effectively controlled by the College ... Clary, Jack (1965). "Birth of a Tradition". Army vs. Navy: Seventy Years of Football Rivalry. New York City: The Ronald Press ...
In psychology the term early childhood is usually defined as the time period birth until the age of nine to twelve years, ... and skipping, climbing evolves from creeping. There are several developmental expectations for children to reach by the time ... by strengthening their fingers and developing their finger control. Infants and toddlers experience life more holistically than ... The period of the most rapid development of motor behaviors is between 2 and 6 years (also known as the preschool years). ...
Females give birth to five to 18 young in late summer to early fall. The young are born six to eight inches long. The birth ... Some females skip reproductive opportunities. Some might even skip two years if the food supply is scarce. Sidewinders mate in ... Implementing this control scheme in a Snakebot capable of sidewinding allowed the robot to replicate the success of the snakes ... The species is nocturnal during hot months and diurnal during the cooler months of its activity period, which is roughly from ...
From birth, sapphire dragons are beautiful, with scale ranging from light to dark blue in color, which sparkle in the light. ... Collins, Andy; Williams, Skip; Wyatt, James (November 2003). Draconomicon The Book of Dragons. Lisa Trutkoff Trumbauer, Nina ... Sapphire dragons take a single mate for long periods of time, however sapphires seek to possess a mate to enhance their ... Of all the other type of dragonkind, emerald dragons get along best with the sapphire dragons, often controlling parallel ...
The role of Sam68 was further highlighted in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), as Sam68 promotes the skipping of exon 7 leading to ... Despite the lack of visible deformity, many of the Sam68-/- pups died at birth of unknown causes. Sam68+/- mice were ... motor coordination defects and fell from the rotating drum at lower speeds and prematurely compared to the wild-type controls. ... phenotypically normal and Sam68-/- pups that survived the peri-natal period invariably lived to old age. Sam68-/- mice weighed ...
Women should not become pregnant and should use effective birth control while taking mefloquine. A retrospective analysis of ... Most notably, phase III safety and tolerability trials were skipped. The drug was first approved and sold on a commercial basis ... 2012). "Pregnancy and fetal outcomes after exposure to mefloquine in the pre- and periconception period and during pregnancy". ... The first randomized, controlled trial on a mixed population was performed in 2001. Prophylaxis with mefloquine was compared to ...
... and birth control. Support for these initiatives sprang from the influential prison reform organizations in the United States ... During the period in which slavery existed, few black Southerners in the lower South were imprisoned, and virtually none of ... that officials had poured alcohol on epileptics and set them on fire to see if they were faking convulsions in order to skip ... When control of the Virginia Company passed to Sir Edwin Sandys in 1618, efforts to bring large numbers of settlers to the New ...
... ship and camera movements are fully controlled by mouse, while skills can be controlled using keyboard, through skill shortcut ... If none of the teams manage to reach 2000 points during that period, the team with the most points will be declared victorious ... Every character in the game was from a mysterious birth. Some of them are descendants of the courageous cavalry in Yuan Empire ... Should the defenders sink all players from the attacking team, the land fighting part is skipped and defenders are ...
For about two years after menstruation starts, the time between periods is not always the same.[53] Some girls may skip a month ... The queen mother of the town or village where they live and other older women teach the young women about sex and birth control ... How the body controls puberty[change , change source]. The location of the pituitary gland is shown in orange. The gland makes ... in the abdomen during periods.[52] When many girls start having periods, they begin using sanitary napkins (also called ...
... at least for the duration of the investigated period. For the human MYBPC3 gene, skipping of 6 single exons or 5 double exons ... Patel BG, Wilder T, Solaro RJ (2013). "Novel control of cardiac myofilament response to calcium by S-glutathionylation at ... which genetically mimic the situation of severe neonatal cardiomyopathy are born without phenotype and soon after birth develop ... Exon skipping can be achieved using antisense oligonucleotide (AON) masking exonic splicing enhancer sequences and therefore ...
In Sweden, she took control over her dower lands, which she strictly controlled during her life. After the Dano-Swedish War ( ... When her mourning period officially ended in 1663, the court was overwhelmed with parties hosted by the queen dowager. As part ... Although she herself was interested in culture and the sciences, she put no demands on him and allowed him to skip his studies ... but the plan was abandoned when Juliana gave birth to a child outside of marriage (1672). Hedwig Eleonora had Juliana sent to ...
She would be the first sitting U.S. Senator to give birth. United States Army portal List of Asian Americans and Pacific ... In a 2016 interview with GQ magazine, Duckworth stated that gaining control of the Senate and "closing the gap" in the House ... The routine audit covered a two-year period, June 2006 to June 2008, and the findings were described by the auditor's ... She graduated with honors from McKinley High School in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 1985, having skipped the ninth grade. She graduated ...
Skipping breakfast could lead to extended periods of lower than normal nutrients in the woman's blood, leading to a higher risk ... Control of movement is limited at birth, and purposeful voluntary movements develop all the way until puberty. There is much ... SGA can result in low birth weight, although premature birth can also result in low birth weight. Low birth weight increases ... Smoking during pregnancy may also lead to reduced birth weight. Low birth weight is defined as 2500 grams (5.5 lb). Low birth ...
... although it does not provide reliable birth control. Breastfeeding may delay the return to fertility for some women by ... Mothers may not ovulate, or have regular periods, during the entire lactation period. The non-ovulating period varies by ... "How do I breastfeed? Skip sharing on social media links". 14 April 2014. Archived from the original on 27 July 2015. Retrieved ... Pre-birth hormone levels become altered after the birth and stimulate the production of milk. From around halfway through ...
... commonly called skips or skip a payment) Refinancing of the vehicle loan after the policy was purchased Late fees or other ... Due to the sharp decline in value immediately following purchase, there is generally a period in which the amount owed on the ... The escalating price of cars, longer-term auto loans, and the increasing popularity of leasing gave birth to GAP protection. ... By definition, it includes any events or occurrences that are beyond human control. For example, a tornado, flood, hurricane, ...
Such decree-laws shall be submitted to Al-Shoura Council at its first meeting; and the Council may within a maximum period of ... Should a president be of one side of the political spectrum and the opposition be in control of the legislature, the president ... that is inheritance according to seniority of birth among the sons of a monarch or head of family, with sons and their male ... all Roman Catholics and all persons who have married Roman Catholics are ineligible to be the British monarch and are skipped ...
A 12th skipped Julian leap day in 1800 changed its start to 6 April. It was not changed when a 13th Julian leap day was skipped ... This system had potential for confusion when working out the dates of Swedish events in this 40-year period. To add to the ... The North Korean calendar uses Gregorian months and days, but with Kim Il-Sung's year of birth (1912) used as year 1. The ... this system is still in use in Taiwan where the ROC government retains control. Upon its foundation in 1949, the People's ...
Opobox does not control the content posted via the Opobox Web Sites, and as such, does not guarantee the accuracy, integrity, ... For a period of two years the business was registered but inactive. The Names Database was formed in 2003 after Gabriel ... thus skipping that step. Also, all outgoing emails appear to follow the rules stipulated in the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 including ... zip code and birth date as found on other sites. Classmates.com itself (the parent company) has been criticized for ...
The Afterfeast of Pentecost-the period from Pentecost Sunday until the Sunday of All Saints, inclusive. The period from the ... A woman till forty days after giving birth to child or miscarriage. But she must count the day she missed in Ramadan or they ... If health does not permit fasting for a whole day, for example with Diabetes, careful planning is done to reduce or skip one ... Therefore, fasting strengthens control of impulses and helps develop good behavior. During the sacred month of Ramadan, ...
Then, by skipping the leap day, the Swedish calendar was introduced, letting February 28 be followed by March 1, giving the ... Sweden has control of the Baltic Sea and holds territory that includes Finland, Estonia, Latvia and parts of northern Germany. ... January 1 (Julian) - The Tsardom of Russia begins numbering its calendar from the birth of Christ (Anno Domini), instead of ... Japanese daimyō of the Edo period (b. 1616) July 7 - Silvestro Valiero, Doge of Venice (b. 1630) July 22 - Alderano Cybo, ...
She did not have a great deal of knowledge regarding birth control and did not know what a diaphragm was upon her first ... Due to academic process, she skipped both fourth and seventh grades but was graduated from high school in five years instead of ... After many arguments and much resentment throughout this time period, Griswold made the decision to resign as Executive ... Shortly after Griswold became Executive Director, she became involved in the movement to abolish the birth control laws within ...
... s, as well as many other activities, require postural control. Infants need to control the heads to stabilize ... Between the ages of 7 and 12 there is an increase in running speed and are able to skip. Jumping is also acquired better and ... Early childhood is a critical period for the development of fundamental motor skills. As a preschooler, the child develops ... possibly even at birth or before.[1] This is shown because 1- to 2-month-olds are given support with their feet in contact with ...
Prevention includes comprehensive sexual education, availability of family planning services, abstinence and increased access to a range of effective birth control methods. Most unintended pregnancies result from not using contraception, and many result from using contraceptives inconsistently or incorrectly. Though, increased rates of sexual activity are also a factor.[41]. Increasing use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (such as IUD and contraceptive implants) decreases the chance of unintended pregnancy by decreasing the chance of incorrect use. Method failure is relatively rare with modern, highly effective contraceptives, and is much more of an issue when such methods are unavailable or not used. (See comparison of contraceptive methods).. In the United States, women who have an unintended pregnancy are more likely to have subsequent unplanned pregnancies.[16] Providing family planning and contraceptive services as part of prenatal, postpartum ...
Prevention includes comprehensive sexual education, availability of family planning services, abstinence and increased access to a range of effective birth control methods. Most unintended pregnancies result from not using contraception, and many result from using contraceptives inconsistently or incorrectly. Though, increased rates of sexual activity are also a factor.[41]. Increasing use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) (such as IUD and contraceptive implants) decreases the chance of unintended pregnancy by decreasing the chance of incorrect use. Method failure is relatively rare with modern, highly effective contraceptives, and is much more of an issue when such methods are unavailable or not used. (See comparison of contraceptive methods). Introduction of effective LARCs for men could have a positive effect on unintended pregnancies.[42]. In the United States, women who have an unintended pregnancy are more likely to have subsequent ...
... is a form of male contraception that blocks sperm transport in the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts. Various vas-occlusive contraceptive methods have been researched for human-use, with interest in both reversible and irreversible methods, with the purpose of finding a suitable alternative to vasectomy and possible hormonal contraceptive treatments that are currently being researched. Potential methods include clips, plugs, valves, and other devices. There are numerous vas-occlusive contraceptive methods and devices that have been researched. Outlined here are a few main categories and descriptions. An intravasal control valve is a reversible valve implanted in the vas deferens with the ability to either inhibit or permit sperm passage depending on the position of the device. Bionyx has developed a T-shaped intravasal control valve composed of gold and stainless steel for use in humans. Through rotation, a ...
Dioscorides, ca. 40 A.D., described the contraceptive property of hemp seeds (Cannabis sativa) and rue (Ruta graveolens) in De Materia Medica, a text widely used into medieval times.[18] One test in rats (20 milligrams of the 80% ethanol extract) found that these reduced sperm count by more than half.[19] In medieval Persia (and in other traditions as cited) these herbs were used for male contraception, as well as Gossypium herbaceum (Malvaceae),[20] Cyperus longus (Cyperaceae), Vitex pseudonegundo (Verbenaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae),[21][22] Aristolochia indica (Aristolochiaceae),[23] Punica granatum (Punicaceae),[24] and Sarcostemma acidum (Asclepiadaceae).[25] However, the compound isolated from Gossypium, as well as other cotton seeds and okra (gossypol) has been abandoned for contraceptive use because it was found to cause permanent infertility in ten to twenty percent of users.[26] In Indian traditional medicine, uses of the neem tree were described in Ayurvedic ...
Teenage pregnancy is girl between the ages of 13 and 19, becoming pregnant. The term used in every day speech usually refers to girls who have not yet reached legal adulthood, which in Australia is anyone under the age of 18. At the national level, the teenage birth rate has declined in the last decade. The rate was about 16 babies per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years between 2011 and 2012 but this had fallen to 11.9 births per 1,000 women aged 15-19 in 2015, the lowest figure on record. Terminations can be performed up until the 12-week mark. About half of all teenage pregnancies are terminated in Australia. In 2015, the birth rate among teenage women in Australia was 11.9 births per 1,000 women. The rate has fallen from 55.5 births per 1,000 women in 1971, probably due to ease of access to effective contraception, rather than any decrease in ...
Return of menstruation following childbirth varies widely among individuals. This return does not necessarily mean a woman has begun to ovulate again. The first postpartum ovulatory cycle might occur before the first menses following childbirth or during subsequent cycles.[4] A strong relationship has been observed between the amount of suckling and the contraceptive effect, such that the combination of feeding on demand rather than on a schedule and feeding only breast milk rather than supplementing the diet with other foods will greatly extend the period of effective contraception.[8] In fact, it was found that among the Hutterites, more frequent bouts of nursing, in addition to maintenance of feeding in the night hours, led to longer lactational amenorrhea.[9] An additional study that references this phenomenon cross-culturally was completed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and has similar findings. Mothers who breastfed ...
The history of African American women and their participation in the birth control movement reflects a very conflicted set of ideals regarding African American women, the use of contraceptive practices and abortion. Prominent historical figures debated whether African American communities would benefit from birth control or if birth control was another methodical scheme put in place to suppress the African American community. During slavery times in the United States, black slave women were viewed as "breeding slaves" and "child bearing women"-simply vessels to meet the demands for labor in Southern agricultural areas. Through arranged marriages and forced mating with other slaves along with direct rape from slave owners, slave women were subject to frequent sexual exploitation. The women were even blamed for these phenomena as white male masters developed ...
The birth control movement developed during the 19th and early 20th centuries.[137] The Malthusian League, based on the ideas of Thomas Malthus, was established in 1877 in the United Kingdom to educate the public about the importance of family planning and to advocate for getting rid of penalties for promoting birth control.[138] It was founded during the "Knowlton trial" of Annie Besant and Charles Bradlaugh, who were prosecuted for publishing on various methods of birth control.[139] In the United States, Margaret Sanger and Otto Bobsein popularized the phrase "birth control" in 1914.[140][141] Sanger primarily advocated for birth control on the idea that it would prevent women from seeking unsafe abortions, but during her lifetime, she began to campaign ...
The birth control movement developed during the 19th and early 20th centuries.[137] The Malthusian League, based on the ideas of Thomas Malthus, was established in 1877 in the United Kingdom to educate the public about the importance of family planning and to advocate for getting rid of penalties for promoting birth control.[138] It was founded during the "Knowlton trial" of Annie Besant and Charles Bradlaugh, who were prosecuted for publishing on various methods of birth control.[139] In the United States, Margaret Sanger and Otto Bobsein popularized the phrase "birth control" in 1914.[140][141] Sanger primarily advocated for birth control on the idea that it would prevent women from seeking unsafe abortions, but during her lifetime, she began to campaign ...
There are many different methods of birth control, which vary in what is required of the user, side effects, and effectiveness. It is also important to note that not each type of birth control is ideal for each user. Outlined here are the different types of barrier methods, spermicides, or coitus interruptus that must be used at before every act of intercourse. Immediate contraception, like physical barriers, include diaphragms, caps, the contraceptive sponge, and female condoms may be placed several hours before intercourse begins (note that when using the female condom, the penis must be guided into place when initiating intercourse). The female condom should be removed immediately after intercourse, and before arising.[1] Some other female barrier methods must be left in place for several hours after sex. Depending on the form of spermicide used, they may be applied several minutes to an hour before ...
Birth control lets a man and woman have sexual intercourse but makes pregnancy less likely.. During intercourse, a man places his penis within a woman's vagina and moves it in and out while the woman moves her hips. The vagina is warm and soft, and it places pressure on the man's penis. These sensations, combined with the in-and-out movements, stimulate the penis, which causes the man to have an orgasm and to ejaculate (to release semen into the vagina). The semen can make the woman pregnant. Because intercourse is usually very enjoyable, men and women often want to have intercourse a lot more often than they want to have a baby. Birth control lets them have intercourse while greatly reducing the chances of the woman getting pregnant.. People may use birth control for several reasons. Perhaps a man and woman wish to have only a few children so they will have ...
An experimental male contraceptive method involves heating the testicles so that they cannot produce sperm. Sperm are best produced at a temperature slightly below body temperature. The muscles around a male's scrotum involuntarily tighten if the man's body temperature drops, and they loosen, allowing the testes to hang, if the body temperature rises. This is the body's way of keeping the sperm at an ideal temperature.[citation needed] Although research has not addressed methods of applying heat, sperm production can be disrupted with increased temperature. Some suggest exposure to high temperatures (116 °F) can affect fertility for months. Methods used include hot water applied to the scrotum, heat generated by ultrasound, and artificial cryptorchidism (holding the testicles inside the abdomen) using specialized briefs. One of the initial experiments resulted in partial infertility lasting more than four years. Initial experiments suggest it is effective and safe, though there have not been ...
... (Latin: Of Human Life) is an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI and dated 25 July 1968. The text was issued at a Vatican press conference on 29 July. Subtitled On the Regulation of Birth, it re-affirmed the orthodox teaching of the Catholic Church regarding married love, responsible parenthood, and the rejection of most forms of artificial contraception. In formulating his teaching he explained why he did not accept the conclusions of the Pontifical Commission on Birth Control established by his predecessor, Pope John XXIII, a commission he himself had expanded. Mainly because of its prohibition of most forms (some licit therapeutic procedures with sole intent to cure bodily diseases are excepted) of artificial contraception, the encyclical was politically controversial. It affirmed traditional Church moral teaching on the sanctity of life and the procreative and unitive nature of conjugal relations. While Paul VI ...
I would like to do the whole four-periods-a-year thing by skipping the sugar pills and going straight ... Birth Control. 10. 07-25-2006 12:17 PM. Getting period while purposely skipping period with BC pills? hollandlop. Birth Control ... Birth Control Message Board HealthBoards , Family , Birth Control > Skipping periods on trivora/trilevlen? ... Birth Control. 0. 10-05-2006 12:33 PM. I Really Really Regret Skipping My Period!!! hollandlop. ...
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Continuous birth control pills are the best option if youre interested in skipping your period. There are several choices that ... If you simply want to delay your period for a few days and have a shorter period, you can choose birth control with more than ... Continuous birth control pills put you on a 91-day cycle. You will have 12 weeks of consecutive birth control pills before you ... This leads to a lighter, shorter period as well.. What are the benefits of skipping periods?. The obvious perk of skipping your ...
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... it is not necessary for women using birth control pills to have a monthly period. The pills keep the lining of the uterus from ... A woman can simply skip the week of placebo pills at the end of her usual pack of pills and begin the next months active pills ... Types of Birth Control Pills. The only types of birth control pills that would allow for a scheduled, predictable period every ... Some birth control pill manufacturers package their birth control pills in such a way that a woman will take 84 active, hormone ...
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Using Birth Control to Regulate or Skip Your Period. Many women may want to skip their periods for a number of reasons, such as ... What is the birth control implant and how is it different from an IUD?. Birth control implant is a small, thin rod the size of ... Do Birth Control Pills Cause Blood Clots. Birth control pills are a great option for women looking to prevent pregnancy. There ... Hormonal Birth Control & Blood Clot Risks. Access to safe, effective contraception is essential to womens lives. The NHWN ...
Birth Control * Q: Can the Plan B pill make you skip your period a few months after taking it?. A: According to WebMD, a woman ... heavier periods... Full Answer , Filed Under: * Birth Control ... What birth control does not need a prescription?. * What are ... Can the Plan B pill make you skip your period a few months after taking it?. ... can experience menstrual changes after taking Plan B. Most commonly, a Plan B user experiences lighter periods, ...
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Heres what to consider when thinking about birth control. ... There are a lot of different birth control options out there, ... skip your period on the Pill. when you want to. If someone says, Im getting married and dont want to have my period on my ... irregular periods. and spotting. . This can happen when you start taking a new birth control, but it can and usually does ... birth control. , from the Pill. to NuvaRing. to the ParaGard IUD. and more. They vary immensely-but they all aim to give you as ...
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Every womans period is different. You should stay alert in case you experience any changes. Here are seven symptoms that you ... Causes of bleeding between periods include:. *skipping or changing birth control pills ... 1. Skipped periods. Some women have more regular periods than others, but most get a period about once every 28 days. If your ... Continuous birth control pills. Certain birth control pills that provide a continuous dose of hormones means youll get fewer ...
Using the Pill to skip your period. -whether because you have a big event coming up or just because youre tired of bleeding ... take extra birth control pills as emergency contraception. , but regularly taking the Pill every day isnt the same thing as ... per year taking birth control pills developing a blood clot.) Being over 35 and smoking raises that risk, as does having ... "For the most part, patients I see tend to do really well with their birth control," Pizarro says. But the most common issue he ...
If hormonal birth control isnt for you, you still have options to help regulate your flow and prevent pregnancy. Heres what ... Safe Ways to Use Birth Control to Skip Your Period. There are many reasons for wanting to skip your monthly period, including ... Are Low-Dose Birth Control Pills Right for You?. Low-dose birth control pills can have lower risks than other birth control ... How to choose the right birth control for you. The type of nonhormonal birth control you choose to use has a lot to do with ...
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... i was wondering if i could skip the suger pills and go straight into ... Monophasic pills work best for skipping periods.. Also, despite type of pill, many women are unable to skip a period completely ... Birth Control Message Board HealthBoards , Family , Birth Control > anyone have the answer ... i was wondering if i could skip the suger pills and go straight into another pack and skip my period all together for the month ...
Male Birth Control Brief review article of some of the male birth control methods currently in the pipeline, including an ... How to Skip a Period. Regimens. • Triphasic Pills. • Skip Period Regimens. (Yasmin, Ortho Tri-Cyclen,. Ortho Evra, NuvaRing). ... Birth Control Methods. Hormonal. Seasonale. Know Your Period (Barr). Yasmin. Yaz. Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo. Plan B One-Step (EC). ...
They forget Kegels, and they jury-rig their birth control so they never get their periods. That is to say, when it comes to sex ... WHAT YOUR GYNO SAYS: Follow directions on your birth control pills.. WHAT STREICHER SAYS: Skip the off week; its actually ... They said women are uncomfortable with not getting their periods, that its not natural. "But birth control pills arent ... "The difficulty in treating low libido is that its multifactorial-are you having pain? Are you on birth control pills or ...
I am on birth control and I know antibiotics can interfere with it, but I was just wondering if maybe they caused my period to ... activism birth control bodies choices communication condoms gender health help identity love men partner pleasure politics ... It might cause your birth control to be less effective, so youll want to make sure to use a backup method during any sexual ... Youre right, some antibiotics can interfere with hormonal birth control. Amoxicillin is noted as one of those antibiotics. ...
  • I think you need the full 7 days to start and finish out your period. (metafilter.com)
  • If you simply want to delay your period for a few days and have a shorter period, you can choose birth control with more than 21 days in the cycle. (nurx.com)
  • Anyway, I started spotting after which I understood would be a side effect, however, a few days after, I started having my period. (drugs.com)
  • Normal periods can last anywhere from two to seven days. (healthline.com)
  • If I skip my period will it effect the days it falls on next time? (healthtap.com)
  • I finished my prescription a few days ago and now my period is 2 weeks early. (scarleteen.com)
  • If you go more than 60 days between periods, you may be near the end of perimenopause. (webmd.com)
  • My last period was for 2 days in September. (scarleteen.com)
  • For a while my period ran 21 days instead of the usual 28. (cafemom.com)
  • A normal period usually lasts about 3-5 days: anything longer than 7 days is considered prolonged bleeding. (doctoroz.com)
  • The safest course of action is to use a backup method of birth control for seven days if you're more than a day late replacing your patch or ring," says Vanessa Cullins, MD, Vice President for External Medical Affairs at Planned Parenthood. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • First 2 weeks spotting and 5 days look like a regular period. (justanswer.com)
  • It's now been about 35 days since my last period in July. (empowher.com)
  • TELL YOUR DOCTOR IF you've had periods that last more than seven days - or several days longer than is normal for you. (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • If you usually have two-day periods and now you're bleeding for six or seven days, that may signal there is something different going on," says Julia Schlam Edelman, M.D., a clinical instructor at Harvard Medical School. (goodhousekeeping.com)
  • If you start the patch method in the first five days of your period, you're protected immediately . (bustle.com)
  • In doing so, you will decrease the number of bleeding days that you have and prevent pain associated with your period. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • For example, let's say your period is typically five days and you have sex on day five, and then you happen to ovulate early, like on day nine of your cycle," said Dr. Mary Jane Minkin, an OB-GYN and clinical professor of obstetrics at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. (today.com)
  • All of that blood loss will make you exhausted: Truth (kind of) It might feel like you're losing gallons of blood on your heaviest days (or, more likely when you sneeze on day two or three), but Ross says the normal amount of blood loss for a period cycle is 4-12 teaspoons. (more.com)
  • Ross says periods lasting longer than seven days (YIKES) are considered abnormal periods, and having to change your pad or tampon every 30 to 60 minutes for 3 or 4 hours is definitely considered heavy bleeding. (more.com)
  • If conditions like this persist, your periods are coming less than 21 days apart or are lasting longer than 7 days, Ross recommends contacting your doctor to figure out what's going on. (more.com)
  • About 3 days before my period my motivation goes through the floor. (rockclimbing.com)
  • Recall that sperm may survive in the female reproductive tract for up to five days, and the mature egg may be fertilized over a 24-hour period. (blogspot.com)