Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A certificate issued by a governmental body to an individual or organization proposing to construct or modify a health facility, or to offer a new or different service. The process of issuing the certificate is also included.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Compilations of data on hospital activities and programs; excludes patient medical records.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Age of the biological father.
A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.
Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.
The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.
A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which is primarily concerned with the collection, analysis, and dissemination of health statistics on vital events and health activities to reflect the health status of people, health needs, and health resources.
Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Female parents, human or animal.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)
The sequence in which children are born into the family.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Postmortem examination of the body.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
The killing of one person by another.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.

Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes. (1/295)

BACKGROUND: A short interval between pregnancies has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Whether that association is due to confounding by other risk factors, such as maternal age, socioeconomic status, and reproductive history, is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the interpregnancy interval in relation to low birth weight, preterm birth, and small size for gestational age by analyzing data from the birth certificates of 173,205 singleton infants born alive to multiparous mothers in Utah from 1989 to 1996. RESULTS: Infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a previous live birth had the lowest risks of adverse perinatal outcomes; shorter and longer interpregnancy intervals were associated with higher risks. These associations persisted when the data were stratified according to and controlled for 16 biologic, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors. As compared with infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a live birth, infants conceived less than 6 months after a live birth had odds ratios of 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.6) for low birth weight, 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.5) for preterm birth, and 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 1.4) for small size for gestational age; infants conceived 120 months or more after a live birth had odds ratios of 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 2.4);1.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.7), and 1.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.0) for these three adverse outcomes, respectively, when we controlled for all 16 risk factors with logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal interpregnancy interval for preventing adverse perinatal outcomes is 18 to 23 months.  (+info)

Maternal smoking and Down syndrome: the confounding effect of maternal age. (2/295)

Inconsistent results have been reported from studies evaluating the association of maternal smoking with birth of a Down syndrome child. Control of known risk factors, particularly maternal age, has also varied across studies. By using a population-based case-control design (775 Down syndrome cases and 7,750 normal controls) and Washington State birth record data for 1984-1994, the authors examined this hypothesized association and found a crude odds ratio of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.65-0.98). Controlling for broad categories of maternal age (<35 years, > or =35 years), as described in prior studies, resulted in a negative association (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.71-1.07). However, controlling for exact year of maternal age in conjunction with race and parity resulted in no association (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.82-1.24). In this study, the prevalence of Down syndrome births increased with increasing maternal age, whereas among controls the reported prevalence of smoking during pregnancy decreased with increasing maternal age. There is a substantial potential for residual confounding by maternal age in studies of maternal smoking and Down syndrome. After adequately controlling for maternal age in this study, the authors found no clear relation between maternal smoking and the risk of Down syndrome.  (+info)

Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic. (3/295)

Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival.  (+info)

The impact of a simulated immunization registry on perceived childhood immunization status. (4/295)

We developed a simulated immunization registry to assess the impact on the perceived immunization status in a population-based sample of 2-year-olds living in Olmsted County, MN, in 1995. We compiled records of all immunizations by abstracting immunization data from all medical care facilities in the county. The data collected from each facility were analyzed separately to provide the immunization rate as perceived by each facility. This perceived rate was compared to the rate obtained by combining all recorded immunizations from all facilities (simulated registry). Information on children not receiving any carefrom facilities in Olmsted County was compiled from birth certificate data and community school lists. Data from the simulated registry indicated that 69.1% of all children in Olmsted County with medical records were up-to-date on their immunizations by 20 months of age. By 24 months, this increased to 74.2%. The immunization rate of 24-month-old children recorded at individual healthcare facilities in Olmsted County ranged from 24.3% to 79.5%. The addition of data from the simulated registry increased the immunization rate at each site: a 27.7% relative increase in the site with the lowest recorded immunization rate, a 14.0% increase in the site with the intermediate immunization rate, and a 6.9% increase in the site with the highest internally perceived immunization rate. The registry also identified excess immunizations in 5% of the county's 2-year-olds. Each healthcare facility in this community gained an immediate benefit from the development of a simulated immunization registry. This immediate improvement in one quality-of-care measure (up-to-date immunization rate) should be factored into the cost/benefit assessment of immunization registries.  (+info)

Consanguinity and recurrence risk of stillbirth and infant death. (5/295)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate the recurrence risk for stillbirth and infant death and compare results for offspring of first-cousin parents with results for offspring of unrelated parents. METHODS: The study population consisted of all single births with a previous sibling born in Norway between 1967 and 1994. Altogether, 629,888 births were to unrelated parents, and 3466 births were to parents who were first cousins. The risk of stillbirth and infant death was estimated for subsequent siblings contingent on parental consanguinity and survival of the previous sibling. RESULTS: For unrelated parents, the risk of early death (stillbirth plus infant death) for the subsequent sibling was 17 of 1000 if the previous child survived and 67 of 1000 if the previous child died before 1 year of age. For parents who were first cousins, the risk of early death for the subsequent sibling was 29 of 1000 if the previous child survived and 116 of 1000 if the previous child died. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of recurrence of stillbirth and infant death is higher for offspring of first-cousin parents compared with offspring of unrelated parents.  (+info)

Method of linking Medicaid records to birth certificates may affect infant outcome statistics. (6/295)

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed how different methods of matching Medicaid records to birth certificates affect Medicaid infant outcome statistics. METHODS: Claims paid by Medicaid for hospitalization of the newborn and for the mother's delivery were matched separately to 1995 North Carolina live birth certificates. RESULTS: Infant mortality and low-birthweight rates were consistently lower when Medicaid was defined by a matching newborn hospitalization record than when results were based on a matching Medicaid delivery record. CONCLUSIONS: Studies of birth outcomes in the Medicaid population may have variable results depending on the method of matching that is used to identify Medicaid births.  (+info)

Maternal placental abnormality and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. (7/295)

To determine whether placental abnormality (placental abruption or placental previa) during pregnancy predisposes an infant to a high risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the authors conducted a population-based case-control study using 1989-1991 California linked birth and death certificate data. They identified 2,107 SIDS cases, 96% of whom were diagnosed through autopsy. Ten controls were randomly selected for each case from the same linked birth-death certificate data, matched to the case on year of birth. About 1.4% of mothers of cases and 0.7% of mothers of controls had either placental abruption or placenta previa during the index pregnancy. After adjustment for potential confounders, placental abnormality during pregnancy was associated with a twofold increase in the risk of SIDS in offspring (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.1). The individual effects of placental abruption and placenta previa on the risk of SIDS did not differ significantly. An impaired fetal development due to placental abnormality may predispose an infant to a high risk of SIDS.  (+info)

Maternal cigarette smoking and invasive meningococcal disease: a cohort study among young children in metropolitan Atlanta, 1989-1996. (8/295)

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the association between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and the risk of invasive meningococcal disease during early childhood. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort study design, cases from an active surveillance project monitoring all invasive meningococcal disease in the metropolitan Atlanta area from 1989 to 1995 were merged with linked birth and death certificate data files. Children who had not died or acquired meningococcal disease were assumed to be alive and free of the illness. The Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the independent association between maternal smoking and meningococcal disease. RESULTS: The crude rate of meningococcal disease was 5 times higher for children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy than for children whose mothers did not smoke (0.05% vs 0.01%). Multivariate analysis revealed that maternal smoking (risk ratio [RR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 5.7) and a mother's having fewer than 12 years of education (RR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.0, 4.2) were independently associated with invasive meningococcal disease. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking, a likely surrogate for tobacco smoke exposure following delivery, appears to be a modifiable risk factor for sporadic meningococcal disease in young children.  (+info)

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces) and is associated with a higher risk of health problems, including respiratory distress, infection, and developmental delays. Premature birth is also a risk factor for low birth weight, as premature infants may not have had enough time to grow to a healthy weight before delivery.

On the other hand, high birth weight is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia, a condition in which the baby is significantly larger than average and may require a cesarean section (C-section) or assisted delivery. Macrosomia can also increase the risk of injury to the mother during delivery.

Birth weight can be influenced by various factors during pregnancy, including maternal nutrition, prenatal care, and fetal growth patterns. However, it is important to note that birth weight alone is not a definitive indicator of a baby's health or future development. Other factors, such as the baby's overall physical condition, Apgar score (a measure of the baby's well-being at birth), and postnatal care, are also important indicators of long-term health outcomes.

Congenital Abnormalities are relatively common, and they affect approximately 1 in every 30 children born worldwide. Some of the most common types of Congenital Abnormalities include:

Heart Defects: These are abnormalities that affect the structure or function of the heart. They can range from mild to severe and can be caused by genetics, viral infections, or other factors. Examples include holes in the heart, narrowed valves, and enlarged heart chambers.

Neural Tube Defects: These are abnormalities that affect the brain and spine. They occur when the neural tube, which forms the brain and spine, does not close properly during fetal development. Examples include anencephaly (absence of a major portion of the brain), spina bifida (incomplete closure of the spine), and encephalocele (protrusion of the brain or meninges through a skull defect).

Chromosomal Abnormalities: These are changes in the number or structure of chromosomes that can affect physical and mental development. Examples include Down syndrome (an extra copy of chromosome 21), Turner syndrome (a missing or partially deleted X chromosome), and Klinefelter syndrome (an extra X chromosome).

Other types of Congenital Abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, clubfoot, and polydactyly (extra fingers or toes).

Congenital Abnormalities can be diagnosed before birth through prenatal testing such as ultrasound, blood tests, and amniocentesis. After birth, they can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging studies, and genetic testing. Treatment for Congenital Abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the condition, and may include surgery, medication, and other forms of therapy. In some cases, the abnormality may be minor and may not require any treatment, while in other cases, it may be more severe and may require ongoing medical care throughout the person's life.

Premature birth can be classified into several categories based on gestational age at birth:

1. Extreme prematurity: Born before 24 weeks of gestation.
2. Very preterm: Born between 24-27 weeks of gestation.
3. Moderate to severe preterm: Born between 28-32 weeks of gestation.
4. Late preterm: Born between 34-36 weeks of gestation.

The causes of premature birth are not fully understood, but several factors have been identified as increasing the risk of premature birth. These include:

1. Previous premature birth
2. Multiple gestations (twins, triplets etc.)
3. History of cervical surgery or cervical incompetence
4. Chronic medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes
5. Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections
6. Pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia and placenta previa
7. Stress and poor social support
8. Smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy
9. Poor nutrition and lack of prenatal care.

Premature birth can have significant short-term and long-term health consequences for the baby, including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis. Children who are born prematurely may also have developmental delays, learning disabilities and behavioral problems later in life.

There is no single test that can predict premature birth with certainty, but several screening tests are available to identify women at risk. These include ultrasound examination, maternal serum screening for estriol and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and cervical length measurement.

While there is no proven way to prevent premature birth entirely, several strategies have been shown to reduce the risk, including:

1. Progesterone supplementation: Progesterone appears to help prevent preterm labor in some women with a history of previous preterm birth or other risk factors.
2. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids given to mothers at risk of preterm birth can help mature the baby's lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
3. Calcium supplementation: Calcium may help improve fetal bone development and reduce the risk of premature birth.
4. Good prenatal care: Regular prenatal check-ups, proper nutrition and avoiding smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy can help reduce the risk of premature birth.
5. Avoiding stress: Stress can increase the risk of premature birth, so finding ways to manage stress during pregnancy is important.
6. Preventing infections: Infections such as group B strep and urinary tract infections can increase the risk of premature birth, so it's important to take steps to prevent them.
7. Maintaining a healthy weight gain during pregnancy: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can increase the risk of premature birth.
8. Avoiding preterm contractions: Preterm contractions can be a sign of impending preterm labor, so it's important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if they occur.
9. Prolonged gestation: Prolonging pregnancy beyond 37 weeks may reduce the risk of premature birth.
10. Cervical cerclage: A cervical cerclage is a stitch used to close the cervix and prevent preterm birth in women with a short cervix or other risk factors.

It's important to note that not all of these strategies will be appropriate or effective for every woman, so it's important to discuss your individual risk factors and any concerns you may have with your healthcare provider.

1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.

It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

Premature labor can be classified into several types based on the duration of labor:

1. Preterm contractions: These are contractions that occur before 37 weeks of gestation but do not lead to delivery.
2. Preterm labor with cervical dilation: This is when the cervix begins to dilate before 37 weeks of gestation.
3. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM): This is when the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus ruptures before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to infection and preterm labor.

Signs and symptoms of premature obstetric labor may include:

1. Contractions that occur more frequently than every 10 minutes
2. Strong, regular contractions that last for at least 60 seconds
3. Cervical dilation or effacement (thinning)
4. Rupture of membranes (water breaking)
5. Decrease in fetal movement
6. Pelvic pressure or discomfort
7. Abdominal cramping or back pain

Premature obstetric labor can lead to several complications for both the mother and the baby, including:

1. Preterm birth: This is the most common complication of premature labor, which can increase the risk of health problems in the baby such as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and necrotizing enterocolitis.
2. Increased risk of cesarean delivery
3. Maternal infection: Premature labor can increase the risk of infection, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
4. Maternal complications: Premature labor can lead to complications such as placental abruption (separation of the placenta from the uterus), preeclampsia (high blood pressure), and HELLP syndrome (hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count).
5. Fetal distress: Premature labor can lead to fetal distress, which can result in long-term health problems for the baby.
6. Intensive care unit admission: Preterm babies may require intensive care unit admission, which can be stressful and expensive.

To manage premature labor, healthcare providers may recommend the following:

1. Bed rest or hospitalization: Rest and monitoring in a hospital setting may be recommended to prevent further premature contractions.
2. Tocolytic medications: These medications can help slow down or stop contractions.
3. Corticosteroids: These medications can help mature the fetal lungs, reducing the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
4. Planned delivery: If premature labor cannot be halted, a planned delivery may be necessary to ensure the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.
5. Close monitoring: Regular monitoring of the mother and baby is crucial to detect any complications early on and provide appropriate treatment.
6. Supportive care: Premature babies may require oxygen therapy, incubators, and other supportive care to help them survive and thrive.

In summary, premature labor can be a serious condition that requires close monitoring and prompt medical intervention to prevent complications for both the mother and the baby. Understanding the signs of premature labor and seeking immediate medical attention if they occur can help improve outcomes.

Down syndrome can be diagnosed before birth through prenatal testing, such as chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis, or after birth through a blood test. The symptoms of Down syndrome can vary from person to person, but common physical features include:

* A flat face with a short neck and small ears
* A short stature
* A wide, short hands with short fingers
* A small head
* Almond-shaped eyes that are slanted upward
* A single crease in the palm of the hand

People with Down syndrome may also have cognitive delays and intellectual disability, as well as increased risk of certain medical conditions such as heart defects, gastrointestinal problems, and hearing and vision loss.

There is no cure for Down syndrome, but early intervention and proper medical care can greatly improve the quality of life for individuals with the condition. Treatment may include speech and language therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and special education programs. With appropriate support and resources, people with Down syndrome can lead fulfilling and productive lives.

There are different types of fetal death, including:

1. Stillbirth: This refers to the death of a fetus after the 20th week of gestation. It can be caused by various factors, such as infections, placental problems, or umbilical cord compression.
2. Miscarriage: This occurs before the 20th week of gestation and is usually due to chromosomal abnormalities or hormonal imbalances.
3. Ectopic pregnancy: This is a rare condition where the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. It can cause fetal death and is often diagnosed in the early stages of pregnancy.
4. Intrafamilial stillbirth: This refers to the death of two or more fetuses in a multiple pregnancy, usually due to genetic abnormalities or placental problems.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound examination or other imaging tests, such as MRI or CT scans. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may be unknown, and further testing and investigation may be required to determine the underlying cause.

There are various ways to manage fetal death, depending on the stage of pregnancy and the cause of the death. In some cases, a vaginal delivery may be necessary, while in others, a cesarean section may be performed. In cases where the fetus has died due to a genetic abnormality, couples may choose to undergo genetic counseling and testing to assess their risk of having another affected pregnancy.

Overall, fetal death is a tragic event that can have significant emotional and psychological impact on parents and families. It is essential to provide compassionate support and care to those affected by this loss, while also ensuring appropriate medical management and follow-up.

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... access to any birth certificate may be an issue, including a birth certificate with a sex marker, and in the absence of ... Access to a birth certificate with a correct sex marker may be an issue for intersex people who do not identify with their sex ... "First Ever Intersex Birth Certificate Issued In America , Very Real". 2016-12-30. Archived from the original on ... Firstly, it is about intersex people who have been issued a male or a female birth certificate being able to enjoy the same ...
... birth certificates; and, drivers' licences. However, among the countries which accept these forms of identification, limits are ...
"Birth Certificate Correction Form" and a "Sex Designation Form") if the change concerns a birth certificate. Minors are also ... Birth certificates have four sex descriptor; "M" (male), "F" (female), "Intersex" and "X". State IDs and driver's licenses have ... "Birth certificates". Department of Public Health and Environment. June 6, 2014. "The legislature denied them four times, so ... "People who live in Colorado can now change their gender identity on their birth certificates". WSYM. December 20, 2018. ...
Depending on the jurisdiction, access to any birth certificate may be an issue, including a birth certificate with a sex marker ... or a female birth certificate being able to enjoy the same legal rights as other men and women Access to a birth certificate ... "Birth Certificates". Colorado Department of Public Health & Environment. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. ... "General information regarding Declarations of Family Court as to sex to be shown on birth certificates" (PDF). Archived from ...
Depending on the jurisdiction, access to any birth certificate may be an issue, including a birth certificate with a sex marker ... In Kenya a birth certificate is necessary for attending school, getting a national identity document, and voting. Many intersex ... Firstly, it is about intersex people who have been issued a male or a female birth certificate being able to enjoy the same ... "Birth Certificates". Colorado Department of Public Health & Environment. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. ...
"Birth certificates" (PDF). County of Los Angeles. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 10, 2011. Retrieved September 20, ... The next year she gave birth to a daughter, Paris Jackson (born April 3, 1998, at Spaulding Pain Medical Clinic in Beverly ... 1950s births, Living people, 20th-century American Jews, Converts to Judaism, People from Spokane, Washington, People from ...
Birth certificates are sealed for those adopted, so that the adoptive parents feel autonomy from the biological parents and ... "Mom won't fill out form; kids denied birth certificates". Milwaukee Journal. 16 January 1995. p. 1A. ProQuest 333665338. "EBSCO ... To be able to receive a birth certificate, the mother must fill out the questionnaire, and her answers are stored by the ... operated a birth control clinic in New Haven. Griswold felt that medically prescribed methods of birth control should be ...
Birth of Elsa Irene Sinnhuber, Pennsylvania (State). Birth certificates, 1906-1908. Series 11.89 (50 cartons). Records of the ... Find A Grave, updated October 10, 2011, accessed December 2017; Death certificate of Albert Sinnhuber, Pennsylvania (State). ... Death certificates, 1906-1963. Series 11.90 (1,905 cartons). Records of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Record Group 11 ...
Illinois Birth Certificates 1924. U.S. Passport Applications 1924, pp. 651-652. New York State Census 1905, p. 48. U. S. Census ... "Cook County, Illinois Birth Certificates, 1871-1940: Emily Stewart Lansingh". FamilySearch. Chicago, Illinois: Cook County ... certificate 15091. Retrieved 13 March 2018. "Emily and William Muir papers, [ca. 1930]-1996". Archives of American Art. ... NARA Microfilm series M1490, Roll #2582, certificate #448798. Retrieved 13 March 2018. "U. S. Social Security Death Index: ...
Indiana, U.S., Birth Certificates, 1907-1940 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2016. Original ... Birth Certificates, 1907-1940. Microfilm. Indiana Archives and Records Administration, Indianapolis, Indiana. "Local School ... 1914 births, 1990 deaths, American film actresses, American television actresses, Actresses from Indiana, People from Greentown ...
"Vital Records - Birth Certificates". Retrieved 2013-11-21. SGM Keith Craig by Hector Rivera: Biographies & Memoirs , ... 1969 births, Living people, United States Army personnel of the Iraq War, United States Army personnel of the War in ...
Birth Certificates, 1907-1940. Microfilm. Indiana Archives and Records Administration, Indianapolis, Indiana. Accessed via ... 1929 births, 2015 deaths, 20th-century American psychologists, American cognitive scientists, Complex systems scientists, ...
"Worcester, Massachusetts Birth Certificates". "Responsibility of Rank". "National Guard Bureau Biography". "American Legion ... "Worcester, Massachusetts Birth Certificates". Worcester Public Records. Worcester, MA: City of Worcester, Massachusetts. ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, 1958 births, Living people, People from ...
In the United States, vital records such as birth certificates, death certificates, and frequently marriage certificates are ... Among the legal documents that are derived from civil registration are birth certificates, death certificates, and marriage ... Until the 1960s, birth certificates were written by hand, in a styled, cursive calligraphy (almost unreadable for the new ... In 1875, the Births & Deaths Act 1874 came into force, whereby those present at a birth or death were required to report the ...
JaParker Deoni Jones Birth Certificate Equality Amendment Act of 2013. , D.C. Law Library". Retrieved 2022- ... "Request to Change Sex Designation on a Birth Certificate for a Minor" (PDF). Washington State Department of Health. July 2022. ... "Department of Health , Vital Statistics , Amend Sex Designation to Reflect Gender Identity on a Birth Certificate". ... "Changes to Sex Field on Birth Certificate: Department of Health". Retrieved 2022-10-07. "Utah among growing ...
ISBN 978-1-63157-422-1. "Search Birth Certificates Index". Minnesota Historical Society. CERTID# CERTID# 1930-03148. Retrieved ... In a 2004 A&E Biography, however, she acknowledged that she was actually born in 1930 (which is consistent with the birth ... her year of birth was misreported as 1935. ...
As proof of age, the following documents are acceptable: Canadian citizenship certificates; Birth or baptismal certificates; ... As proof, the applicants shall submit a certificate or letter, issued by the ATO, attesting to the successful completion of the ... Where the applicant is seeking experience credit for the training, the certificate shall be issued by an Approved Training ... As proof of training, the applicant shall provide a certificate of successful completion of an acceptable aircraft maintenance ...
"Birth, death and marriage certificates". Queensland Government. Retrieved 23 July 2019. "Births, deaths and marriages". ... "Apply for a birth, death or marriage certificate: Overview". Access Canberra. Retrieved 23 July 2019. "History of the Registry ... "Birth, Death, and Marriage Certificates". High Commission of Canada in Australia. Retrieved 22 July 2019. Tsang, Steve (2007). ... The Births and Deaths General Register Office is now responsible for recording births and deaths, as part of the Immigration ...
Lapan, Tovin (11 April 2015). "California birth certificates and accents". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 January 2020. "Black Names ... allow accents and some non-English letters in birth certificates and other documents. There can be problems for persons with ... Liberals "favor birth names with 'softer, feminine' sounds while conservatives favor names with 'harder, masculine' phonemes." ... The decision was overturned in chancery court a month later and the child retained his birth name. Ballew was fired and a ...
... the birth certificate dated February 21, 1910 indicates that, at the time of his birth, Johnson's parents had temporarily ... Texas Birth Certificates, 1903-1935. FamilySearch. Retrieved April 14, 2021. Search results for "Cee Pee Johnson" at Internet ... Birth of the Blues (1941) - N/A (uncredited) Hellzapoppin' (1941) - With his orchestra (uncredited) Swing for Your Supper ( ... 1910 births, Year of death missing, 20th-century American drummers, African-American jazz composers, American jazz composers, ...
... and birth and death certificates. A "previous consistent statement" is a statement, written or oral, made by a witness prior to ... The Minister's certificate was conclusive. In 1972 the legislation was relaxed somewhat, so that the ouster of the court's ... The Minister issued a certificate invoking Crown privilege. This was challenged. The court a quo said it was bound by Duncan, ...
"Non-birth parents can now be named on birth certificates". 12 January 2010. Archived from the original on 14 ... Birth certificates are issued by the state Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages. For many years, Victorian law required a ... birth certificates released to celebrate Mardi Gras". Thomas, Shibu (28 July 2020). "Victoria Introduces Rainbow Birth ... Birth certificates could use the word parent instead of mother and father. Victoria adopted most of the 202 recommendations of ...
... provide birth and death certificates; inform the public about health and environmental issues; immunize children for entry into ... analyze data on births and deaths to assess the state's health status; promote rabies clinics in cooperation with local ... evaluate and issue Certificates of Need for new or expanding health care facilities; identify infants and toddlers with ...
Scottish Birth/Marriage/Death certificates. Scottish Wills. Pay per view site. Society of Antiquarians of Scotland. Jedburgh ...
Lesueur (1903). "Texas Birth Certificates, 1903-1935". FamilySearch.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Don Blanding ( ... Joan Fuller's dates of birth and death, U.S., Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007 [database ... 1900s births, 1963 deaths, People from Lawton, Oklahoma, American male film actors, American male television actors, Male ...
In 1926, he graduated from Yale College with a Bachelor of Arts in French literature and received a certificate from the Yale ... 1904 births, 1975 deaths, Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences alumni, 20th-century classical musicians, 20th-century ...
Hall has a Master of Arts in Process Work (MAPW) from the Process Work Institute in Portland, Oregon (2011) and a certificate ... 1966 births, Living people, American talk radio hosts, Writers from Portland, Oregon, Wieden+Kennedy people, People with ...
He studied at Roscommon CBS, and earned a Leaving Certificate in 1980. The following year he attended Athlone Regional ... 1962 births, Living people, Irish male film actors, Irish male soap opera actors, Irish male stage actors, Irish male ... television actors, Actors from County Roscommon, Date of birth missing (living people), 20th-century Irish male actors, 21st- ...
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She had lied about her age and obtained a fake birth certificate when she was about 14 years old, which stated that she was 18 ...
Parsons, Lynn Hudson (2009). The Birth of Modern Politics: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and the Election of 1828. Oxford ... open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; The person having the greatest number of votes for President, ...
He completed his apprenticeship and his National Certificate Examination exam in October 1984. He worked as journalist for the ... 1958 births, The Spectator people, English emigrants to Italy, All stub articles, British journalist stubs, British historian ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, AC with 0 elements, 1760s births, Year of birth uncertain ... She received her certificate of freedom from General Samuel Birch. On April 27, 1783, Deborah and Henry boarded a ship named ... Deborah stated in 1783 that she was 20 years old, which would have made her year of birth 1763. Of the 16 others who ran away, ... He was with the Royal Artillery, and was given his certificate of freedom by General Thomas Musgrave. He traveled with other ...
Stephenson, Kristen (August 2, 2018). "Country music star and actor honored with the official certificate on TODAY show". ... 1965 births, Male actors from Pittsburgh, American male comedians, 21st-century American comedians, American male film actors, ... He was presented with the certificate following a performance of his single, Halfway Home, on NBC's TODAY show. His # ...
After his death, she was mistakenly declared dead because she was listed as an informant on his death certificate, which placed ... Year of birth missing (living people), African-American activists, American women activists, Activists from Chicago, Scientists ...
He also attended American University in Washington, D.C., earning a graduate certificate in Applied Politics. Bewkes is gay and ... Year of birth missing (living people)). ...
Her stories touch upon themes of interest to middle-class women, and cover such controversial topics as birth control and ... she was also awarded certificates by numerous other groups.[citation needed]She belonged to the Tunisian Writers' Union and the ... 1926 births, 2015 deaths, Tunisian short story writers, Tunisian essayists, Tunisian women short story writers, Tunisian women ...
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... meritorious service Certificate, Catholic War Veterans, Cross of Peace Crusade Citizens Award, Jewish War Veterans Certificate ... Year of birth missing). ...
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Leo, Geoff (November 21, 2022). "Birth certificate contradicts Mary Ellen Turpel-Lafond's account of her father's parentage and ... The founder of a Ku Klux Klan paramilitary group and a white supremacist politician under his birth name, he used his pseudonym ...
Daniels attended local schools, and finished his schooling with a standard six certificate (grade eight). He had various small ... 1928 births, 2017 deaths, Anti-apartheid activists, South African activists, Members of the Order of Luthuli). ...
58.5% of the city's 12th graders earned a matriculation certificate in 2001. In August 1975, Yeshivat Ma'alot, a Hesder yeshiva ... ISBN 0-521-33028-9. Morris, B. (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN ... ISBN 0-19-827850-0. Morris, B. (1987). The Birth of the Palestinian refugee problem, 1947-1949. Cambridge University Press. ...
In 1912, he qualified as an engineer, being awarded Certificate No 11 which, in 1967, was the oldest valid professional ... 1884 births, 1977 deaths, People from Rondebosch). ... engineering certificate in South Africa. With the outbreak of ...
Jacobs' date of birth is usually given as May 1, 1930, in Marksville, Louisiana. He was born without a birth certificate and ... After reaching the age of majority based on a birth year of 1930, he consistently gave his birth year as 1930. In the 1940 U.S ... In some other documents he filled out before reaching the age of majority he indicated birth years of 1925 and 1928, probably ... The official cause of death stated on his death certificate was coronary thrombosis (a blood clot in the heart); evidence of ...
However, his marriage certificate with his first wife, Camille Bellowe, gave his date of birth as October 22, 1912. Twitchell ... His date of birth has been given variously between 1908 and 1922, with the Library of Congress' Name Authority File giving 1908 ... the same date presented in their marriage certificate. ... provided varying accounts of the circumstances of his birth. In ...
... at Find a Grave 1937 Philadelphia death certificate Robinson 2012, p. 76. Powell 2000, p. 307. Wells-Barnett ... 1848 births, 1937 deaths, People from Boston, 19th-century American educators, Educators from Massachusetts, African-American ...
Post-war labor certificates contained markings distinguishing Jews from non-Jews. The Jewish community in Szczecin reported a ... all Polish nationals including Jews were declared by Moscow to have become Soviet nationals regardless of birth. Also, all ...
The film was given the U certificate by the Regional Censor Board, without censoring any part of it. It was released ... To mark the occasion of late actor Vishnuvardhan's birth anniversary, the first teaser of the film was released on 17 September ...
After the birth of the IDX, a trading suspension was enforced in 2008 and the Indonesian Stock Price Appraiser (PHEI) was ... operating in Indonesia where the bonds issued by the provincial and municipal governments have company share certificates ...
"Voter ID and Free Milwaukee Birth Certificates" Blogging Blue October 6, 2012 Chuck Quirmbach. "Community Groups, Milwaukee ... On October 12, 2014, she gave birth to Anthony Thomas Dodd, Jr. Harris Dodd is a member of the Democratic Party of Wisconsin, ... to the polls by pushing forth an initiative that allowed thousands of Milwaukee residents to receive a free birth certificate. ... 1975 births, Living people, Politicians from Milwaukee, County supervisors in Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee ...
New York City Births, 1846-1909, Heinrich Woest, 09 April 1872; citing Manhattan, New York, New York, United States, reference ... Certificate number 165908 The Newhall Signal and Saugus Enterprise, 16 March 1973, page 10 History of the Los Padres Mine, ... Inscription on historical marker at the site at Roads End Marriage certificate dated 28 November 1948, Clark County, Nevada, ...
Earhart took her first flying lesson on June 2, 2004, and obtained her private pilot certificate in a Cessna 172. In December ... 1983 births, American reporters and correspondents, American television journalists, American women television journalists, ...
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Definitions for the MSA/CMSA used in the natality files have changed over time. Care should be used when making comparisons across data years or when merging natality data with other data based on the MSA/CMSA codes. MSA/CMSA codes used in the 1989 natality file are based on 1980 OMB definitions, codes in the 1990-1993 files are based on 1990 OMB definitions, and codes in the 1994-2006 files are based on 1993 OMB definitions (with updates effective as of 7/1/1994 ...
The childs birth certificate;. *Evidence of the U.S. citizenship of the parent(s) such as a certified copy of a birth ... Birth records of persons born in foreign countries who are U.S. citizens. The birth of a child abroad to U.S. citizen parent(s ... Records of birth and death occurring on vessels or aircraft on the high seas. When a birth or death occurs on the high seas, ... This document, known as the Consular Report of Birth, has the same value as proof of citizenship as the Certificate of ...
Birth Certificates Updates. News. Legislation Events In The News. Adoptee Rights Bill, Adoption, Adoption Reform, Birth ...
Search our birth record database to uncover long-lost ancestors. ✓ Get started! ... Metropolitan birth records are crucial to genealogy research. ... To get physical copies of birth certificates, you will need to ... Open up the history of your family with birth records. You can also use birth certificates to double-check whether someone in ... Heres how to get real copies of birth certificates found based on Metropolitan birth records:. *Visit the Office of Vital ...
If I show you a birth certificate for anyone of the proper sex and born within 5 years one way or the other of my actual birth ... If I show you a birth certificate for anyone of the proper sex and born within 5 years one way or the other of my actual birth ... permission to contact your birth state so that your birth state can verify that the copy of your birth certificate that you ... A picture from birth would be useless and there is no DNA sample connected to the birth certificate , so I can give you any ...
California lawyer-dentist Orly Taitz has released the Real Birth Certificate of Barack Hussein Nobama II, from Kenya, given to ... birth certificatebirthersdave weigelkenyaorly taitzpt orly taintz. Birthers Unveil Hilarious New Forged Kenyan Birth ... SMOKING GUN! California lawyer-dentist Orly Taitz has released the Real Birth Certificate of Barack Hussein Nobama II, from ...
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... birth certificate - Featured Topics from the National Center for Health Statistics ... Tags birth certificate Ask the Expert: Dr. Brady Hamilton. Data Brief 89, "Birth Rates for U.S. Teenagers Reach Historic Lows ... The Birth Certificate (Finally) Goes National. According to Joyce Martin, M.P.H., lead of the birth team in the Reproductive ... and a new era in national birth certificate data will begin. By the time we ring in 2015, all of Americas 50 states and Read ...
Ghania, 4 years old, received her birth certificate during the launch of the field campaign aiming to issue birth certificates ... they asked for my birth certificate, and I did not have one," he explains. Now that he has a new birth certificate, Zabn will ... Zabn, 11 years old, has received his birth certificate. His last certificate was burned in his previous house before he and his ... not having a birth certificate will also create a lot of administrative issues. This is why UNICEF has organized two birth ...
Birth Certificate Request. Death Certificate Request. Online. Order birth and death certificates online. Please note that ... Birth & Death Certificates Local. Montrose County issues both birth and death certificates. Below you'll find links to the ...
If you are requesting a birth or death certificate for a birth or death that occurred in El Dorado County during the current ... If the birth or death occurred in El Dorado County prior to that time, you will need to request a certificate from the County ... Home , Government , Public Health , Vital Statistics , How to Order Birth and Death Certificates ... How to Order Birth and Death Certificates in El Dorado County. Please read all instructions thoroughly. ...
Transgender people who have undergone a clinical process to change their sex would be able to get a birth certificate that ... TRENTON - Transgender people who have undergone a clinical process to change their sex would be able to get a birth certificate ... Since 1984, state law has required the Department of Health to issue new birth certificates to people who have undergone sex ... N.J. bill to allow transgender people to get new birth certificates heads to Chris Christies desk. ...
Birth certificate amendments. This service is provided by the National Records of Scotland. Please see the link at the bottom ...
I want to see the long form of his birth certificate. In addition to his birth certificate, I want to see a certificate of LIVE ... Jindal Releases Birth Certificate. Hmmmm…. Pro-life conservative Governor Bobby Jindal just released his birth certificate ... Thats why we only want to see the birth certificates of people who do not agree with our political views. Too bad were not ... The birth certificate does not concern me as much as how the american economy still needing VAST improvements! ...
Learn how to obtain copies of birth and death certificates and fees associated. ... Birth Certificates & Death Certificates Birth Certificates & Death Certificates. $10 fee for a Certified Copy, Certification or ... 11 fee for a Birth Certificate on file at least 75 years and not sealed. Death Certificate on file at least 50 years. ...
Birth Certificates in order to obtain a passport in Bedford Ma, . ... A birth certificate will be required in order to obtain a new ... Bedford Ma Birth Certificates, Marriage Certificates and Divorce Records. Passports and is a private passport ... Vital Chek for your birth certificate as they are the only certified online source for direct processing of birth certificates ... Once you have your birth certificate, come to us and well process your passport in as little as 24 hours. ...
... this looks like it may be an original of Obamas short-form birth certificate, not a long-form certificate. ... Did he not change his name from "Barry Sotero" to "Barrack H. Obama"? So why is his name on the birth cert "Barrack"? ... that the media pundits and so-called news organizations that claimed Obama couldnt get his long-form birth certificate are ...
... judge is threatening to block the state from issuing new birth certificates if attorneys dont quickly fix a birth certificate ... Arkansas judge threatens to halt birth… Share this:. *Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) ...
Learn how to obtain birth, marriage and death certificates. ... Death Certificate Documents. *Request for Birth Certificate * ...
Mothers Marital Status on the Birth Certificate. When completing the "Mothers Worksheet for Childs Birth Certificate," the ... Name of father on birth certificate.. (a) If the mother was married either at the time of conception or birth of child, or ... If the mother WAS NOT married at the time birth and wishes to name the father on the childs birth certificate, this must be ... If you change your babys last name in this box, it will be the new official name on your babys birth certificate. ...
online apply for birth certificate newborn baby New Birth Certificate Online: घर बैठे बनाये नया जन्म प्रमाण पत्र,जाने पूरी ... New Birth Certificate Online: जन्म प्रमाण पत्र एक सरकारी दस्तावेज है जिसे बनवाने के लिए कई पापड़ बेलने और भाग - दौड़ करनी पड़ती ...
Hi Bob,. Youd previously uploaded a copy of this at Is it ok to delete this one as a duplicate?. Regards, David. ...
Application for Certified Copy of Birth Certificate PDF English. *Application for Certified Copy of Birth Certificate PDF ... Only births recorded after November 1, 1912, are on file.. Photo ID Required. If you are applying for a birth certificate for ... The certified copy of the birth certificate is available for $17 for the first copy and $6 for each additional copy ordered at ... To apply for a copy of your birth certificate, please print the following application form:. * ...
Birth Certificate of President Barack Obama dated August 4 1961. This was the same day Clarence Earl Gideon was found guilty in ... Click on the birth certificate to enlarge it. Birth Certificate of President Barack Obama dated August 4 1961. This was the ... Birth Certificate of Barack Obama Dated August 4, 1961. ...
Donald Trump will look at Barack Obamas long-form birth certificate later. ... The release of Obamas long-form birth certificate proves thrice and for all that the president was, in fact, born. ... Donald Trump doesnt need to see a copy of Barack Obamas long-form birth certificate now. ... Donald Trump will look at Barack Obamas long-form birth certificate later.. .css-p3z3fp-StyledToggle{bottom:2px;cursor:pointer ...
... and marriage certificates. This Vital Records office may be reached through the telephone number or email address given below. ... The Saginaw County Registrar of Vital Statistics provides you with birth, death, ... The Saginaw County Registrar of Vital Statistics provides you with birth, death, and marriage certificates. This Vital Records ...
Certificate of Baptism. *Copies of Birth certificates of children of the applicant, (if the date of birth of the applicant ... Citizenship certificate of Sri Lanka (if the date of birth indicated). *Estate leaving certificate (if the date of birth ... Applicants over 50 years of age and do not possess the birth certificate or the probable age certificate, could submit two or ... Applicants under 50 years of age should compulsorily submit the Birth Certificate (BC) or the Probable Age Certificate issued ...
How can a person get a Birth Certificate?. *In Person, at the City Clerks Office, 401 Whitney Blvd., Belvidere, IL 61008. ... A parent, if the parents name appears on the Birth Certificate as mother or father. ... Birth Certificates Birth Certificates are available from the City Clerks Office if: ...
  • Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific infant mortality rates. (
  • In addition, it is also worth noting the rise in the preterm birth rate which was up again in 2016 (by 2%), after falling 8% from 2007 to 2014. (
  • The percentage of births beginning prenatal care in the first trimester and the cesarean delivery rate were also down in 2016, whereas preterm birth and low birthweight rates rose. (
  • Residence in each of the exposed housing areas was associated with preterm birth. (
  • For each of the three categories of exposed births defined later, MBW, the prevalence of SGA and preterm births, and the ratio of fetal deaths per singleton live births were compared with these outcomes in unexposed births. (
  • When completing the "Mother's Worksheet for Child's Birth Certificate," the mother is asked to provide information about her marital status and the child's natural father. (
  • If the mother WAS NOT married at the time birth and wishes to name the father on the child's birth certificate, this must be answered YES. (
  • The U.S. infant mortality rate plateaued during 2000-2005, then declined from 6.86 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2005 to 6.14 in 2010. (
  • The general fertility rate was down too from 2015, 1%, to 62.0 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44, a record low for the county. (
  • The birth rate for teenagers aged 15-19 declined 9% in 2016 to 20.3 births per 1,000 women, with rates declining 11% for both younger (aged 15-17) and 8% for older (aged 18-19) teenagers. (
  • Apart from the continued, unprecedented decline in teen birth, it is worth noting that women aged 30-34 have the highest birth rate (102.6 births per 1,000 women) in 2016 than any other age group. (
  • Alaska's fertility rate of 69.3 births per 1,000 women ages 15-44 ranks 3rd among states in the U.S. and is higher than the national fertility rate of 60.1. (
  • The primary sources of data were birth and fetal death certificates at the North Carolina Vital Statistics Office. (
  • In addition, the effects of timing and duration of exposure were examined by linking data from family base housing with birth and fetal death certificate data. (
  • During 1968-1985, the state used two versions each of the birth and fetal death certificates and three versions of the database file format. (
  • Eligible births and fetal deaths, therefore, were identified by searching all records for Onslow County residents. (
  • The Brazil Ministry of Health developed a case definition for Zika virus-related microcephaly (head circumference ≥2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth). (
  • The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ≥2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. (
  • For instance, records about births and deaths are usually found at local or state agencies. (
  • This study evaluated the percentage of unfilled fields in the variables related to newborn, mother and delivery on Live Birth Certificates in 38 municipalities of Minas Gerais. (
  • Live Birth Information System decentralization led to an improvement in the percentage of unfilled fields of certificates in the studied municipalities, regardless of population size and healthcare management. (
  • I adjusted the title because as William Jacobson points out , this looks like it may be an original of Obama's short-form birth certificate, not a long-form certificate. (
  • Donald Trump will look at Barack Obama's long-form birth certificate later. (
  • The release of Obama's long-form birth certificate proves thrice and for all that the president was, in fact, born. (
  • Donald Trump doesn't need to see a copy of Barack Obama's long-form birth certificate now. (
  • California Health and Safety Code, Section 103526, permits only authorized persons to receive certificated copies of birth and death records. (
  • For informational copies of birth or death certificates, the same ordering process applies, except you do not have to complete a Notarized Sworn Statement. (
  • Fees are the same for both certified and informational copies of certificates. (
  • You will still be charged a fee for this certificate, but fees paid for any additional copies will be refunded. (
  • There has been no research ers who had decided to continue exclusive in the Islamic Republic of Iran to investi- breastfeeding until the end of 6 months af- gate the effect of this approach on infant ter the birth, and 100 mothers who had de- growth and health. (
  • In addition to his birth certificate, I want to see a certificate of LIVE birth to make sure he was alive when he was born. (
  • Live Birth Information System (SINASC) was decentralized in order to improve the use and the quality of the information, being the basis for service evaluation and epidemiological studies. (
  • It was observed an improvement in the filling of Live Birth Certificates in the analyzed period in the studied municipalities. (
  • live births. (
  • For live births during 1975-1985, computerized records were searched for eligible street addresses. (
  • We surveyed women with a recent live birth who resided in 16 US states and 1 city during the 2016 Zika outbreak. (
  • The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is a state-specific, population-based surveillance system implemented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local health departments to collect information about experiences and behaviors before, during, and after pregnancy among women with a live birth. (
  • Women are surveyed by mail or telephone 2-6 months after a live birth. (
  • If the birth or death occurred in El Dorado County prior to that time, you will need to request a certificate from the County Recorder/Clerk's Office . (
  • Many states maintain data on birth defects and on cancer. (
  • mosquitoes, is a serious threat to pregnant women because of the risk of microcephaly and other birth defects in infants ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • How does provisional 2016 data on U.S. births overall compare to previous years? (
  • The provisional number of births for the United States was down 1% in 2016 from the final number of birth in 2015. (
  • Birth rates declined for women in all age groups under 30 years between 2015 and 2016, to record lows for all groups, whereas the rates for women in their 30s and 40s rose. (
  • The nonmarital birth rate declined 3% in 2016. (
  • How has the birth rate changed for U.S. teenagers in provisional 2016 data? (
  • Was there anything in the 2016 provisional birth data that surprised you? (
  • The number of births and general fertility rate were down in 2016, as were the rates for women under 30 years of age. (
  • The Saginaw County Registrar of Vital Statistics provides you with birth, death, and marriage certificates. (
  • If you are requesting a birth or death certificate for a birth or death that occurred in El Dorado County during the current year or the immediate past year, you can apply in person or by mail to the El Dorado County Office of Vital Statistics located at 931 Spring Street, Placerville, CA 95667. (
  • To order a certified birth or death certificate by mail, you must complete a request form, have the accompanying "Notarized Sworn Statement" notarized, and send them along with the appropriate fee to the Office of Vital Statistics. (
  • If you have questions about ordering certificates, please contact the Office of Vital Statistics at (530) 621-6121. (
  • According to Joyce Martin, M.P.H., lead of the birth team in the Reproductive Statistics Branch, Division of Vital Statistics, a transition that began more than a decade-and-a-half ago will soon be completed, and a new era in national birth certificate data will begin. (
  • Vital Statistics Services provides access to Wyoming vital records such as birth, death, marriage and divorce records. (
  • If the mother provides incorrect or false information concerning her marital status at the time of her child's birth, it may take a court order to correct the birth certificate once it has been filed with Vital Statistics Services. (
  • If the mother and natural father have not signed an Affidavit Acknowledging Paternity, the father can't be listed on the certificate until the affidavit is completed and filed with Vital Statistics Services. (
  • Enter your ancestor's name below and we'll search birth records to help you learn more. (
  • To obtain a Consular Report of Birth in a new name, send a written request and fees as noted above, the original (or replacement) Consular Report of Birth, or if not available, a notarized affidavit about its whereabouts. (
  • The name of the person signing the affidavit of paternity shall be entered as the father on the certificate of birth. (
  • Data Brief 89, "Birth Rates for U.S. Teenagers Reach Historic Lows for All Age and Ethnic Groups," published in April 2012, is available for download from the NCHS website. (
  • Birth rates for U.S. teenagers have reached historic lows for all age and ethnic groups, according to a recent NCHS Data Brief. (
  • An individual-level database was created by linking Medicaid data to birth certificate files. (
  • 1. We should demand that candidates for Senator and Representative in the upcoming 2010 elections publicly provide a long form birth certificate so that we, the voters, can be absolutely sure that they are who they say they are and that they are eligible to run for federal office. (
  • 3. Remember, in the 2010 elections, there is a very good chance that Senator and Representative candidates will visit your city and even your neighborhood, so it is a good time to publicly, but politely, demand that a candidate provide his long form birth certificate so that the public can examine it. (
  • The certified copy of the birth certificate is available for $17 for the first copy and $6 for each additional copy ordered at the same time. (
  • Passports and is a private passport expediting service that provides the following information on how to obtain birth certificates and other vital records in as a service to the public. (
  • A birth certificate will be required in order to obtain a new passport. (
  • Once you have your birth certificate, come to us and we'll process your passport in as little as 24 hours. (
  • 2. If for some reason, candidates refuse to provide their long form birth certificate so that the public can examine it, then I say we tell them face-to-face that we simply won't vote for them, and we will look for and vote for someone who is not scared to show his long form birth certificate to the public. (
  • 4. Again, if the candidate refuses to provide his long form birth certificate for legal or personal reasons, then we can simply tell the candidate that we will look for and vote for someone who is not scared to show the public his long form birth certificate. (
  • 5 . And that includes asking the powerful House Speaker, Pelosi, to show the public her long form birth certificate. (
  • What I do find amusing is Jacobson's observation that the media pundits and so-called news organizations that claimed Obama couldn't get his long-form birth certificate are full of crap, if this does indeed happen to be the long-form document. (
  • California lawyer-dentist Orly Taitz has released the Real Birth Certificate of Barack Hussein Nobama II, from Kenya, given to her by a secret source who is now Target #1 of the CIA & the Hawaiian Hospitals Director (same thing). (
  • Whether you're starting to construct your family tree for the first time or whether you're an experienced family historian, GenealogyBank can enable you to access historical Metropolitan birth records in seconds. (
  • Was the mother married to anyone at the time of conception, birth or anytime in between? (
  • If the mother was MARRIED at the time of birth, the mother needs to mark YES. (
  • Metropolitan birth records are a valuable source of information. (
  • We suggest that you contact Vital Chek for your birth certificate as they are the only certified online source for direct processing of birth certificates and other vital documents. (
  • Births were often announced in newspapers, and with GenealogyBank, you can access 330 years of U.S. history at the click of a button within our newspaper database . (
  • If I show you a birth certificate for anyone of the proper sex and born within 5 years one way or the other of my actual birth how will you know it is really mine? (
  • Zabn, 11 years old, has received his birth certificate. (
  • Ghania, 4 years old, received her birth certificate during the launch of the field campaign aiming to issue birth certificates for the governorates of Aden, Lahj, Abyan, Al Dhale'e, Al Mukalla, Sayun. (
  • A Consular Report of Birth can be prepared only at a U.S. Embassy or Consulate overseas, and only if the person who is the subject of the report is under 18 years of age when the application is made. (
  • 11 fee for a Birth Certificate on file at least 75 years and not sealed. (
  • For the years 1968-1974, the mother's street address and city of residence were not included in computerized birth certificate files. (
  • Open up the history of your family with birth records . (
  • You can also use birth certificates to double-check whether someone in Georgetown, District of Columbia truly belongs to your family. (
  • His last certificate was burned in his previous house before he and his family had to leave. (
  • The Department began issuing a new consular Report of Birth on January 3, 2011. (
  • Since 1984, state law has required the Department of Health to issue new birth certificates to people who have undergone sex change surgery. (
  • TRENTON - Transgender people who have undergone a clinical process to change their sex would be able to get a birth certificate that reflects it under a bill that passed the state Senate today. (
  • But state Sen. Michael Doherty (R-Warren), one of the most conservative lawmakers in the state, took issue with the fact that the bill allows minors to get the new birth certificates with a parent or guardian's consent. (
  • AP) An Arkansas judge is threatening to block the state from issuing new birth certificates if attorneys don't quickly fix a birth certificate law that the U.S. Supreme Court says illegally favors heterosexual parents. (
  • Implementing partners on the ground work closely with UNICEF and the local authorities to issue certificates for displaced communities. (
  • Munir Ali Qasim is signing the form to obtain a birth certificate for his son, Mohammed, at the local council office in Al-Buraiqeh, in Aden governorate. (
  • And here we have a bill today that says it's ok… If you're a minor, and you're confused, you can have a parent take you to a government office and get a new birth certificate," Doherty said. (
  • Birth certifications for alien children adopted by U.S. citizens and lawfully admitted to the United States may be obtained from the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) if the birth information is on file. (
  • Only births recorded after November 1, 1912, are on file. (
  • In addition, other important information (e.g., exact birth weight in pounds and ounces) was included on the hard-copy certificate but not in the computerized file. (
  • When the application is approved, a Consular Report of Birth Abroad of a Citizen of the United States of America (Form FS-240) is given to the applicant. (
  • I want to see the long form of his birth certificate. (
  • This form is used to legally establish who the father of a child is when the birth mother and biological father are not married to each other. (
  • In Yemen, a child who does not have a birth certificate cannot enroll in school and access their right to an education. (
  • Alaska's teen birth rate is over 10% higher than the national rate, but its cesarean and low birthweight rates are the lowest of all 50 states. (
  • The birth of a child abroad to U.S. citizen parent(s) should be reported to the nearest U.S. Consulate or Embassy as soon after the birth as possible. (
  • If the mother was married, the husband is NOT the natural father of the child, and the natural father wishes to be named on the certificate as the father. (
  • This document, known as the Consular Report of Birth, has the same value as proof of citizenship as the Certificate of Citizenship issued by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. (
  • As of December 31, 2010 the Certificate of Report of Birth Abroad (DS-1350) is no longer issued. (
  • The Consular Report of Birth documents are issued only to the subject of the Consular Report of Birth, the subject's parents (if subject is under age 18) or legal guardian. (
  • US Census Records also provide birth year information. (
  • If you are applying for a birth certificate for yourself, a relative, or someone you legally represent, you must provide a copy of a valid photo identification with your application. (
  • This is why UNICEF has organized two birth registration campaigns, in particular in areas where communities have been displaced and may have lost their original certificates. (
  • Only in the modern age did birth certificates include first and middle names. (
  • GenealogyBank makes searching for Metropolitan birth records simple. (