A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.
A genus of RNA viruses in the family BIRNAVIRIDAE infecting fish, mollusks, and crustaceans. It is transmitted both vertically and horizontally with no known vectors. The natural hosts are salmonids and the type species is INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS VIRUS.
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
The type species of AQUABIRNAVIRUS, causing infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish and other freshwater and marine animals including mollusks.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).
A quantitative form of intradermal testing for the relative allergenicity of a substance. It is used to determine the amount of an allergen that will be tolerated in ALLERGEN IMMUNOTHERAPY.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
A hereditary condition characterized by multiple symptoms including those of DIABETES INSIPIDUS; DIABETES MELLITUS; OPTIC ATROPHY; and DEAFNESS. This syndrome is also known as DIDMOAD (first letter of each word) and is usually associated with VASOPRESSIN deficiency. It is caused by mutations in gene WFS1 encoding wolframin, a 100-kDa transmembrane protein.
A plant family of the order Eucommiales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida (some botanists have classified this in the order Hamamelidales or Urticales). Eucomia is an elmlike tree of central and eastern China. Leaves are alternate; deciduous flowers are solitary and unisexual and lack petals and sepals. The male flowers have 6 to 10 stamens and female flowers have one ovary of two carpels, one of which aborts during development so the fruit (a dry, winged structure) contains only one seed. The latex is a source of RUBBER. Tochu tea is an aqueous extract of Eucommia ulmoides leaves and a popular beverage in Japan. (Mutat Res 1997 Jan 15;388(1):7-20).
The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A group of telomere associated proteins that interact with TRF1 PROTEIN, contain ANKYRIN REPEATS and have poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity.
A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).

Adaptation of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus to chicken embryonic fibroblasts by site-directed mutagenesis of residues 279 and 284 of viral coat protein VP2. (1/120)

The full-length RNA genomes of a chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF)-nonpermissive, very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) (strain HK46) were amplified into cDNAs by reverse transcription-PCR. The full-length cDNAs were sequenced and subcloned into a eukaryotic expression vector, from which point mutations were introduced into the VP2 region by site-directed mutagenesis. The wild-type and mutated plasmids were transfected directly into CEFs to examine their ability to generate CEF-permissive recombinant viruses. Substitution of amino acid residues 279 (Asp-->Asn) and 284 (Ala-->Thr) of the VP2 protein yielded a recombinant virus which was able to be passaged in CEFs, whereas the wild-type cDNAs and an amino acid substitution at residue 330 (Ser-->Arg) of the VP2 protein alone did not yield viable virus. The results indicated that mutation of other viral proteins, including VP1, VP3, VP4, and VP5, was not required for CEF adaptation of the virus. The same approach may be used to produce CEF-adapted strains from newly evolved IBDVs or to manipulate the antigenicity of the virus.  (+info)

Lysis of myelocytes in chickens infected with infectious bursal disease virus. (2/120)

In specific-pathogen-free chickens infected with the highly virulent HPS-2 strain or virulent reference GBF-1 strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), pathologic changes of the bone marrow were investigated. On histologic examination, bone marrow lesions were prominent in the HPS-2 group but only mild in the GBF-1 group. The bone marrow of the HPS-2 group showed severe lysis and depletion of heterophil myelocytes with pyknotic nuclear alteration 2-3 days after inoculation. On examination with an electron microscope, heterophil myelocytes were characterized by shrinkage of the cytoplasm and peripheral condensation of nuclear chromatin. IBDV particles were not detected in altered myelocytes. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling method demonstrated a positive reaction in only heterophil myelocytes. In contrast, nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HPS-2-infected bone marrow cells was indiscernible by agarose gel electrophoresis. These findings indicate that lysis of bone marrow cells is selectively induced in heterophil myelocytes at an early stage after IBDV infection and independent of virus replication.  (+info)

Protection of chickens against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) with a recombinant MDV expressing IBDV VP2. (3/120)

To develop a herpes virus vaccine that can induce immunity for an extended period, a recombinant Marek's disease (MD) virus (MDV) CVI-988 strain expressing infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) host-protective antigen VP2 at the US2 site (rMDV) was developed under the control of an SV40 early promoter. Chickens vaccinated with the rMDV showed no clinical signs and no mortality and 55% of the chickens were considered protected histopathologically after challenge with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV), whereas all of the chickens vaccinated with the conventional IBDV vaccine showed no clinical signs and were protected. Chickens vaccinated with the CVI-988 or chickens in the challenge control showed severe clinical signs and high mortality (70-75%) and none of them were protected. Also, the rMDV conferred full protection to chickens against vvMDV just as the CVI-988 strain did, whereas 90% of the challenge control chickens died of MD. Antibody levels against IBDV and MDV following the vaccination increased continuously for at least 10 weeks. No histopathological lesions in the rMDV-vaccinated chickens and no contact transmission of the rMDV to their penmates were confirmed. These results demonstrate that an effective and safe recombinant herpesvirus-based IBD vaccine could be constructed by expressing the VP2 antigen at the US2 site of the CVI-988 vaccine strain.  (+info)

Sequence comparison of the VP2 variable region of infectious bursal disease virus isolates from Vietnam. (4/120)

The variable region in the VP2 gene of twenty-three infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates, collected in Vietnam in 1997 and 1998, was amplified as cDNA by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Analysis of amino acid substitutions and phylogenetic relationships of the deduced amino acid sequences (residues 206-350) showed that the nineteen Vietnamese vv IBDVs clustered with the European vv IBDVs, Japanese vv IBDVs and Chinese vv strains, and that the four vietnamese virulent strains were closely related to European virulent strain 52/70. These results suggest that Vietnamese vv IBDVs, European vv IBDVs, Japanese vv IBDVs and Chinese vv strains have the same origin.  (+info)

Gill lamellar pillar cell necrosis, a new birnavirus disease in Japanese eels. (5/120)

Since the late 1980s, a birnaviral gill disease has been occurring in Japanese eels Anguilla japonica reared in warmwater ponds in western regions in Japan. Diseased eels mostly displayed marked formations of aneurysmal hematomas within gill lamellae and high mortalities. Histological examination revealed necrosis of pillar cells and subsequent aggregation of erythrocytes inside the lamellar capillaries, and proliferation of interlamellar epithelia onto the lamellae. Gastric gland cells were also necrotized. Electron microscopy revealed birnavirus infection in lamellar pillar cells. The causative birnavirus was isolated and cultured in fish cell lines and was found to be related to an infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) Sp serotype by neutralization tests. The viral pathogenicity was confirmed by the results of histopathological examinations and infectivity experiments.  (+info)

Effect of thymus extract on immunologic reactivity of chicken vaccinated with infectious bursal disease virus. (6/120)

The effects of crude thymus extract on the immune response and protection against challenge with virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were studied in one-day-old chick. Oral administration of thymus extract (1 ml/kg) markedly and significantly increased the total protein, albumin, globulin, Tri-iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) and the body weight gain in one-day-old chick. In addition, it increased the total lymphocytic count over four weeks after administration. Although vaccination also increased total protein, globulin, T4 and the total lymphocytic count but it significantly decreased the body weight gain of the chick and administration of thymus extract, before, during or after vaccination markedly improved the vaccination effectiveness with significant elevation of the globulin level and body weight gain of the chick. It also prevented the decrease in the relative weights of bursa, spleen and thyroid gland which commonly prevailed during vaccination. Chicken administered thymus extract and vaccinated with infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine showed 100% protection against challenge with IBDV. Meanwhile the vaccinated non-thymus treated group exhibited 80% protection against IBDV challenge. These results indicate a potentiating effect of thymus extract on the immune system in baby chick. These findings are supported by ELISA results that showed a marked increase in antibody titers in thymus treated groups. Additionally, microscopical examination of the bursa and the existent lymphoid hyperplasia in thymus treated groups but not vaccinated group support our findings.  (+info)

Inter-laboratory comparison of cell lines for susceptibility to three viruses: VHSV, IHNV and IPNV. (7/120)

Eleven European National Reference Laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory comparison of the susceptibility of 5 selected cell lines to 3 fish pathogenic viruses. The test included viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV); infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), and the cell lines derived from bluegill fry (BF-2), chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214), epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), fathead minnow (FHM) and rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2). The results showed that for isolation of VHSV, BF-2 and RTG-2 cells performed equally well and had higher sensitivity compared to the other cell lines. For IHNV, EPC and FHM cells gave the best results, and for IPNV it was BF-2 and CHSE-214 cells. FHM cells showed the largest variability among laboratories, whereas EPC was the cell line showing the smallest variability.  (+info)

Multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three fish viruses. (8/120)

A multiplex reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of three different fish viruses: infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). The sensitivity levels of the multiplex RT-PCR assay were 100, 1, and 32 50% tissue culture infective doses/ml for IPNV, IHNV, and VHSV, respectively.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of macrophages by infectious bursal disease virus. AU - Khatri, M.. AU - Sharma, J. M.. PY - 2007/7/1. Y1 - 2007/7/1. N2 - Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important naturally occurring viral diseases of chickens worldwide. The causative agent, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), belongs to the family Birnaviridae. This viruscauses an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease in chickens. The virus infects and destroys actively dividing IgM-bearing B cells. Although B cells are the principal targets for IBDV, recent data show that the virus also infects macrophages. IBDV-infected macrophages produce various cytokines and chemokines which may play an important role in the protection and/or pathogenesis of IBDV. In this review, the modulatory effects of IBDV on macrophages will be discussed.. AB - Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important naturally occurring viral diseases of chickens worldwide. The causative agent, infectious ...
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious disease of young chickens between 3 and 6 weeks of age. It is caused by infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV) which occursworldwide affecting livelihoods of resource - compromised poor communities. In Zambia, there is scantily documented information on the epidemiology of IBD. In-depth knowledge on the epidemiology of IBD is needed for effective control measures. This study aimed at molecular detection of circulating IBDV strains, andknowledge assessment of farmers about the disease in Ndola, Kitwe, Kalulushi, Luanshya and Mufulira districts of the Copperbelt province. A cross-sectional purposive study was carried out in the Copperbelt province from February to March, 2015 to determine the occurrence of IBD. The identification of IBDV was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the hypervariable domain (VP2-HVR). A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 77 respondents who presented poultry ...
詹明才。1992。農桿菌轉殖水稻系統的建立。國立台灣大學農藝學研究所博士論文。 Alvarez, M.L., Pinyerd, H.L., Topal, E. and Cardineau, G.A. 2008. P19-dependent and P19-independent reversion of F1-V gene silencing in tomato.Plant Molecular Biology 68:61-79. Angel, C.A., Hsieh, Y.C., Schoelz, J.E. 2011. Comparative analysis of the capacity of tombusvirus P22 and P19 proteins to function as avirulence determinants in Nicotiana species. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 24:91-99. Arnold, M., Durairaj, V., Mundt, E., Schulze, K., Breunig, K.D., Behrens, S.E.2012. Protective vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus with whole recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis yeast expressing the viral VP2 subunit. PLoS ONE 7:e42870. Azad, A. A. Mckern, N. M., Macreadie, I. G., Failla, P., Heine, H. G., Chapman, A., Ward, C. W., Fahey, K. J. 1991. Physicochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant host-protective antigen (VP2) of infectious bursal disease ...
The nucleotide sequence of genome segment A cDNA of the STC strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was determined and compared with sequences of the homologous genome segment of the 002-73 strain of IBDV and the Jasper strain of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The STC-IBDV genome segment A was determined to be 3262 base pairs (bp), which is close to the estimated total length of 3300 bp for genome segment A in IBDV, although there is no proof that it is the real length of this genome segment. The STC-IBDV genome segment A contains two major overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). The large ORF of 3036 bp predicts a polyprotein of M r 109358, whereas the small ORF is 435 bp and predicts a protein of M r 16550 in STC-IBDV. STC-IBDV and 002-73-IBDV polyproteins are closely related (97.4% amino acid homology). Most of the amino acid mismatches are in VP2 sequences, mainly within the area of the conformation-dependent epitope. Comparison with the Jasper-IPNV polyprotein reveals levels
Recently, multiple spillover events between domesticated poultry and wild birds have been reported for several avian viruses. This phenomenon highlights the importance of the livestock-wildlife interface in the possible emergence of novel viruses. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential spillover and epidemiological links of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) between wild birds and domestic poultry. To this end, twenty-eight cloacal swabs were collected from four species of free-living Egyptian wild birds (i.e. mallard duck, bean goose, white-fronted goose and black-billed magpie). Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of three positive isolates revealed that the IBDV/USC-1/2019 strain clustered with previously reported very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) Egyptian isolates. Interestingly, two other wild bird-origin isolates (i.e. IBDV/USC-2/2019 and IBDV/USC-3/2019) grouped with a vaccine strain that is being used in commercial poultry. In conclusion, our results revealed the ...
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a birnavirus that infects the B-cells in the bursa of Fabricius of young chickens, causing Gumboro disease. The IBDV 114 kDa polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH) is thought to be processed at 512Ala-Ala513 and 755Ala-Ala756 through the proteolytic activity of VP4, a serine protease which uses a Ser/Lys catalytic dyad, to release pVP2, VP4 and VP3. Precursor VP2 (pVP2) is further processed at its C-terminus to generate VP2 and structural peptides through the cleavage of the 441Ala-Phe442, 487Ala-Ala488, 494Ala-Ala495 and 501Ala-Ala502 peptide bonds to release VP2 and four structural peptides, pep46, pep7a, pep7b and pep11. While the processing at the 441Ala-Phe442 site was shown to be mediated by the endopeptidase activity of VP2, the processing at the other two sites is not well understood. The products resulting from the processing of the IBDV polyprotein were previously identified by anti-VP2 and anti-VP3 antibodies. The present study used anti-VP4 ...
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a chicken pathogen that infects the bursa of Fabricius, an organ involved in the development of the immune system in chickens. Infection by the virus leads to destruction of the bursa and immunosuppression. Infection by virulent strains may result in mortality. Current methods to combat the virus involve the use of vaccines. These are usually a mixture of live attenuated and oil inactivated virus. Variant strains of the virus are able to escape the vaccine-generated antibodies. In addition, the vaccines result in damage to the bursa. Identification of a receptor for IBDV could result in the development of either treatment for the virus or superior vaccines by interfering with the attachment of the virus to host cells. Several methods for identifying IBDV binding proteins from the membranes of cells from the bursa of Fabricius were examined. Affinity chromatography of IBDV binding proteins with a matrix consisting of IBDV cross-linked to Sepharose 4B ...
Read Infectivity and propagation of attenuated infectious bursal disease virus in the chicken B-lymphocyte cell line DT40, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Testing by the egg and poultry industries, Biosecurity New Zealand and a specialist overseas laboratory confirmed the presence of the chicken virus infectious bursal disease virus type 1 (IBDV-1) in layer hens at a South Island egg farm in September 2019.. The likely presence of the disease was first picked up by Mainland Poultry at its Waikouaiti farm in Otago through its regular, voluntary testing routine. No birds at the farm have shown any signs of sickness due to IBDV-1 infection. Results of testing from Mainland Poultrys Hillgrove site returned positive at this location. No other properties appear to be affected.. IBDV-1 was previously discovered in New Zealand in 1993. An industry-led programme has allowed New Zealand to claim absence from the disease. The virus is present in many other countries and they successfully manage it. ...
The study aimed to identify putative virulence determinants for the exotic poultry pathogen infectious bursal disease virus. Results suggest that three specific amino acids in viral protein 2 influence viral pathogenicity, and as a consequence these were exploited for the development of two new molecular diagnostic assays that are currently undergoing evaluation ...
Read Efficient rescue of infectious bursal disease virus using a simplified RNA polymerase II-based reverse genetics strategy, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) alters host genomic methylation patterns. Here the implications for viral release and immunosuppression
REAL, right upper lobe, apical segment (B1), posterior segment (B2), anterior segment (B3), right middle lobe (or more correctly - just middle lobe), lateral segment (B4), medial segment (B5), right lower lobe superior segment (B6), medial segment (B7), anterior segment (B8), lateral segment (B9), posterior segment , left upper lobe, apicoposterior segment (B1/2), anterior segment (B3), superior lingular segment (B4), inferior lingular segment (B5), left lower lobe, superior segment (B6), anteromedial segment (B8), lateral segment (B9), posterior segment (B10), 3d, model, .stl, printable ...
Infectious bursal disease, IBD (also known as Gumboro disease, infectious bursitis and infectious avian nephrosis) is a highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), characterized by immunosuppression and mortality generally at 3 to 6 weeks of age. The disease was first discovered in Gumboro, Delaware in 1962. It is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide due to increased susceptibility to other diseases and negative interference with effective vaccination. In recent years, very virulent strains of IBDV (vvIBDV), causing severe mortality in chicken, have emerged in Europe, Latin America, South-East Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Infection is via the oro-fecal route, with affected bird excreting high levels of the virus for approximately 2 weeks after infection. IBDV is a double stranded RNA virus that has a bi-segmented genome and belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of family Birnaviridae. There are two distinct serotypes of the ...
PROPAGATION OF INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS VIRUS IN FISH CELL CULTURES. M. Maistrenko1, Yu. Rud2, L. Buchatsky1,2. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. 1Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, 60, Volodymyrska str., 01033, Kyiv, Ukraine. 2Institute of Fisheries of NAAS, 135, Obukhivska str., 03164, Kyiv, Ukraine. The reproduction of the Ukrainian isolate of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) «Carpathians» in fish continuous cell cultures of RTG-2, FHM and EPC was investigated. All three cell lines were sensitive to virus. IPNV caused morphological changes, such as vacuole enlargements and cells rounding. Subsequently cells scaled from a surface and characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) of virus on cells was visible. For cell lines of RTG-2 and FHM the complete destruction of monolayer was noted on 7-8 day after infection (d.a.i.). For culture of EPC characteristic CPE and complete destruction of cell monolayer were marked ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigenicity of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus VP2 subviral particles expressed in yeast. AU - Allnutt, F. C.Thomas. AU - Bowers, Robert M.. AU - Rowe, Christopher G.. AU - Vakharia, Vikram N.. AU - LaPatra, Scott E.. AU - Dhar, Arun K.. PY - 2007/6/21. Y1 - 2007/6/21. N2 - Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus, the etiologic agent of infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish, causes significant losses to the aquaculture industry. The gene for the viral capsid protein (VP2) was cloned into a yeast expression vector and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisae. Expression of the capsid gene in yeast resulted in formation of ∼20 nm subviral particles composed solely of VP2 protein. Anti-IPNV antibodies were detected in rainbow trout vaccinated either by injection of purified VP2-subviral particles (rVP2-SVP) or by feeding recombinant yeast expressing rVP2-SVP. Challenge of rVP2-SVP immunized trout with a heterologous IPNV strain and subsequent viral load ...
Yousif AA, Mohammad WA, Khodeir MH, Zeid AZ, el-Sanousi AA, Saber MS, Reda IM. 2006, Egypt J Immunol. 13(2):85-94.Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the most
Two serotypes have been identified in infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the family Birnaviridae. A reverse genetics system was used for generation of chimeras in genome segment A of the two serotypes, in which the complete viral VP5 gene and 3′ noncoding region (NCR), or parts thereof, were exchanged. The engineered viruses were characterized in vitro and in vivo in comparison to serotype I and II IBDV. Our results show that IBDV chimeras exhibit a different phenotype in cell culture compared to the wild-type viruses. In in vitro-cultivated bursal-derived cells, chimeric viruses infected B lymphocytes, as does serotype I IBDV. Surprisingly, serotype II virus was also able to infect in vitro-cultivated bursal cells, but these were neither B lymphocytes nor macrophages. After infection of susceptible chickens all chimeras replicated in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), and three chimeric viruses caused mild depletion of bursal cells. In contrast, after infection of chickens with a chimeric
Two different real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection approaches based on SYBR Green I dye and Taqman probe based assays were developed for the detection and differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) subtypes. Both approaches were able to detect and differentiate IBDV subtypes based on the use of subtype-specific primers or subtype-specific probes where the primers were designed based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) concept. After optimization of the primer combinations and PCR parameters, very virulent-specific primer, IF & IVIR, and classical-specific primer, IF & RCLA were used in the SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay. Plasmid DNA carrying the VP4 gene of the references IBDV strains: very virulent strain UPM94/273 and classical strain D78 were established and used as positive controls in the real time RT-PCR. The developed assay had a dynamic detection limit which spans over 5 log10 concentration range for very virulent and spans over 7 log10 ...
The present invention relates to a non pathogenic vaccine comprising a recombinant Infectious Bursal Disease virus that includes a recombinant Segment A, designated as rD78GLSNSΔ, that includes sequences from D78 and GLS strains and wherein the NS protein is not expressed.
Materials and methods. The bursae obtained from clinically normal indigenous scavenging chickens and IBD-confirmed dead broiler chickens from different farms were smeared directly onto separate filter papers, fixed with 99% ethanol and transported to Japan for molecular characterisation, as described previously (Kasanga et al. 2008; Maw et al. 2006).Total RNA was isolated from the bursal tissues fixed on filter papers and first-strand complementary DNAs were synthesised as described in a previous report (Kasanga et al. 2008). The VP2-HVRs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the V1forward primer (5-CCAGAGTCTACACCATAA-3) and V2 reverse primer (3-TAGAAAGAGTGGCAACAGG-5) (Yamaguchi et al. 2007). The PCR products were cloned into the plasmid pGEM-T-Easy vector (Promega, Madison WI, USA) and cloned DNAs were sequenced at the Dragon Genomics Center (TAKARA Bio, Mie, Japan) using a Templiphi DNA sequencing Template Amplification Kit, DYEnamic ET dye terminator kit, and ...
Materials and methods. The bursae obtained from clinically normal indigenous scavenging chickens and IBD-confirmed dead broiler chickens from different farms were smeared directly onto separate filter papers, fixed with 99% ethanol and transported to Japan for molecular characterisation, as described previously (Kasanga et al. 2008; Maw et al. 2006).Total RNA was isolated from the bursal tissues fixed on filter papers and first-strand complementary DNAs were synthesised as described in a previous report (Kasanga et al. 2008). The VP2-HVRs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the V1forward primer (5-CCAGAGTCTACACCATAA-3) and V2 reverse primer (3-TAGAAAGAGTGGCAACAGG-5) (Yamaguchi et al. 2007). The PCR products were cloned into the plasmid pGEM-T-Easy vector (Promega, Madison WI, USA) and cloned DNAs were sequenced at the Dragon Genomics Center (TAKARA Bio, Mie, Japan) using a Templiphi DNA sequencing Template Amplification Kit, DYEnamic ET dye terminator kit, and ...
Methods. Construction of the scFv Bacterial Displaying Library against Vp2. Immunization of Chicken: Three specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were immunized by intra-ocular administration of IBDV vaccine strain B-87 in the dose of 107pfu, the chickens were boosted one week later by intra-muscular injection with 0.5ml of formalin-inactivated preparation of B-87 emulsified with an equal volume of Freunds incomplete adjuvant. Four weeks after the secondary vaccination, the titer of immune serum was determined by ELISA, chickens were euthanized and spleens were collected for extraction of RNA by Trizol.. cdna Synthesis from Spleen Total Rna of The Immunized Chicken. Splenocytes were isolated from the immunized chicken for RNA extraction, and total RNA was extractd using Trizol. cDNA was synthesized from total RNA sample using Superscript II (Invitrogen) and random hexamer oligonucleotide pimers (2 μg). Construction of scFv library. Primers for scFv designed based on the variable region gene ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Infectious Bursal Disease in Poultry. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira has completed a study conducted in fish farms between 2000 and 2015 to determine the genetic characteristics of the virus that causes infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in fish. IPN is a viral disease which causes financial losses in aquaculture across the world. The mortality rate caused by the IPN virus in Finnish fish farms has so far remained low. The disease is not contagious to humans and fish are not used as food at the juvenile stage when they are vulnerable to the disease.. As the disease is highly contagious, it is important to determine any potential changes in the genome of the virus to facilitate the monitoring of the spreading of the disease and to prevent spreading both in the wild and in fish farms. The viral disease is particularly found in juvenile salmonids e.g. rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, but other fish species can also become infected.. Since 1987, the IPN virus has been found every year in asymptomatic fish in the Finnish sea ...
Thinking about what has changed since the 1980s when although IPNV could be found in fish the actual disease condition was very rare. Over the last 2 decades considerable advances have been made in feed and feeding strategies, photoperiod manipulation and light exposure per se for salmon fry have produced smolting fish at different times of the year and much faster (I hesitate to say better) growth. In land-based freshwater rearing systems with the introduction of oxygen injection the stocking density has increased significantly in a number of farms; along with baseline carbon dioxide levels. So it could be argued that salmon in the 21st century are more highly stressed than their counterpart from the 20th Century. A bit like finely tuned athletes walking a fine line between health and disease susceptibility. Elite human athletes often fall prey to opportunistic and exotic pathogens such as colds and Epstein-Barr virus, the cause of Infectious mononucleosis or alternatively known as the ...
Cleavage sites.Two IPNV VP4 cleavage sites, located at the pVP2-VP4 and VP4-VP3 junctions, were identified by N-terminal sequence analysis of cleavage products produced in E. coli and probed by site-directed mutagenesis. They are characterized by the Ser-X-Ala↓Ser-Gly motif. Two other additional cleavage sites in the carboxyl part of pVP2 (P1 and P′1 positions 486 and 487 and positions 495 and 496) were first identified by sequence comparison (Fig. 10). The P1 and the P′2 residues appeared to be conserved as an alanine and a glycine, respectively. The P3 serine residue can substitute to a threonine (cleavage site positions 486 and 487), whereas the P′1 serine residue was notably substituted to an alanine. The cleavage between pVP2 and VP4 was abolished only when the Ala-Ser 508-509 and the two Ala-Ala 495-496 and 486-487 pairs were mutated together. These observations do not prove definitively the existence (and the functionality) of these two additional cleavage sites. However, these ...
Genome replication is a critical step in virus life cycles. Here, we analyzed the role of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP3, a major component of ...
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Simply ask us ! One of the most interesting features of EVAgs catalogue is its flexibility, please do not hesitate to contact us by using our contact form. We can add to the catalogue tailor-made products on demand, as well as access to plateforms, or services. With the large panel of virology laboratories in our consortium, there are good chances that we would have what you are looking for. If you are interested in acquiring cell-lines, please visit this page: access-cell-lines.. If you are interested in acquiring insect vectors, please visit this page: access-insect-vectors.. ...
1. Fernandez R, Rojo F, Garcia H, Sanchez P, Martinez H, Menendez A, Ruiz H et al. Field efficacy in broiler chickens in Latin America of vHVT-013, a Mareks HVT vector vaccine expressing VP2 in infectious bursal disease virus. Oral presentation and abstract at the 15th congress of the World Veterinary Poultry Association, 2007; p199.. 2. Atienza JC, Nagera AJ, Martinez PO, Baysac ND, Castillo MT, Damaso VR, Lemière S. Evaluation of a herpesvirus of turkey vector vaccine inducing protection against infectious bursal and Mareks diseases (VAXXITEK® HVT+IBD) under Philippines field conditions. Oral presentation. XXIII World Poultry Congress, Brisbane, Australia. 2008. Article wpc0801684, 9 p.. 3. Garritty AT. The eff ect of vectored HVT+IBD (Vaxxitek® HVT + IBD) vaccination on body weights, uniformity and virus shedding in commercial broilers. Abstract. International Poultry Scientifi c Forum, Atlanta, 2011; p31.. 4. Godinho E, Pereira CJ, Fernandez A, Lemiere S. Case study of broiler chicken ...
Authors: Galloux, M.; Libersou, S.; Morellet, N.; Bouaziz, S.; Ouldali, M.; Da Costa, B.; Lepault, J.; Delmas, B.. Citation: Galloux, M.; Libersou, S.; Morellet, N.; Bouaziz, S.; Da Costa, B.; Ouldali, M.; Lepault, J.; Delmas, B.. Infectious bursal disease virus, a non-enveloped virus, possesses a capsid-associated peptide that deforms and perforates biological membranes J. Biol. Chem. 282, 20774-20784 (2007).. Assembly members: ...
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Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Infectious Bursal Disease (Standard) (IBD) antibody (ab31672) : Immunohistochemistry protocols, Immunocytochemistry…
The avian industry needs solutions tailored to both smaller farms and integrated global operations dealing with high animal counts and labour-intensive practices. Merials vaccines effectively target the sectors biggest health threats, such as Mareks disease, infectious bursal disease, and avian flu. But equally important, we focus on innovative drug delivery mechanisms, diagnostic tools, and on-site consulting to support these on complex businesses in on going challenges ...
The 2.6-angstrom structure of infectious bursal disease virus-derived t=1 particles reveals new stabilizing elements of the virus capsid ...
Pusat Agen Resmi Jual Melia Propolis dan Melia Biyang di PANDEGLANG Banten Selamat datang di pusat penjualan produk Melia Propolis dan Melia Biyang di
Infectious pancreatic disease (IPN) and pancreas disease (PD) of salmon are viral diseases caused by Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) (Birnaviridae) and Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) (Togaviridae). Both IPNV- and SAV infections induce lesions in pancreas tissue/cells and are frequently detected from the same individual; hence it is possible that the viruses target the same cell types and therefore might interfere with each other during such infections. In the present study, Chinook Salmon Embryo Cells (CHSE-214) were experimentally co-infected with SAV and IPNV and infections were studied by IFAT, real-time RT- PCR and by viral end-point titration. Real-time RT-PCR was also used to examine to what extent the viruses up-regulated key transcripts (IFN and Mx) in the cellular antiviral immune response. IFAT and end-point titration indicated that SAV to some extent inhibited IPNV replication , whereas IPNV did not affect SAV infections notably. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrated that ...
A cohabitation challenge model was developed for use in evaluating the efficacy of vaccines developed against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) using a stepwise approach. The study involved identifying a set of input variables that were optimized before inclusion in the model. Input variables identified included the highly virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI015-TA encoding the T217A221 motif having the ability to cause |90% mortality and a hazard risk ratio of 490.18 (p|0.000) for use as challenge virus. The challenge dose was estimated at 1x107 TCID50/mL per fish while the proportion of virus shedders was estimated at 12.5% of the total number of fish per tank. The model was designed based on a three parallel tank system in which the Cox hazard proportional regression model was used to estimate the minimum number of fish required to show significant differences between the vaccinated and control fish in each tank. All input variables were optimized to generate
La bursite infectieuse aviaire (IBD) est une des causes majeures de pertes économiques pour lindustrie aviaire. La vaccination est le principal outil de contrôle de cette maladie et les oiseaux susceptibles doivent être vaccinés aussitôt que le niveau des anticorps maternels (MA) anti-IBDV est suffisamment bas. Lestimation du moment de vaccination est habituellement déterminée par la formule de Deventer qui utilise le titre initial de MA anti-IBDV et la demi-vie des anticorps pour prédire lévolution du titre. Dans la présente étude, leffet du gain de poids sur la vitesse de disparition des MA a été étudié dans le but de lutiliser pour prédire la détermination du moment de la vaccination. Lanalyse des taux danticorps neutralisants par ELISA a montré que les poussins avec une forte croissance avaient un taux de disparition plus rapide des MA que ceux à faible croissance. Une formule pour la prédiction du moment de vaccination contre le IBDV, basée sur le gain de poids ...
A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (RT-PCR/RFLP) technique was used for the identification and characterization of Pakistani field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). A total of 8 bursa samples were collected from two outbreaks during September and October 2003 from Tehsil Sumandri, Dist. Faisalabad with 40-50% mortality in commercially reared broiler chicken flocks experiencing signs typical of infectious bursal disease (IBD). Four samples were found to contain IBDV genome by One Step RT-PCR using VP2 gene specific primers. The assay amplified a 743 bp fragment from 701-1444 nucleotides. RT-PCR product was further subjected to restriction digestion using MboI and MvaI restriction enzymes. A third enzyme SspI was used to identify the very virulent phenotype. The RFLP profile was found similar for all four isolates with MvaI enzyme but different for one isolate when digested with MboI. All three MvaI-positive viruses were ...
The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases.[3] The large RNA segment, segment A, of birnaviruses codes for a polyprotein (N-VP2-VP4-VP3-C) [4] that is processed into the major structural proteins of the virion: VP2, VP3 (a minor structural component of the virus), and into the putative protease VP4.[4] VP4 protein is involved in generating VP2 and VP3.[4] recombinant VP3 is more immunogenic than recombinant VP2.[5] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is an important pathogen in fish farms. Analyses of viral proteins showed that VP2 is the major structural and immunogenic polypeptide of the virus.[6][7] All neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are specific to VP2 and bind to continuous or discontinuous ...
Viral capsids are metastable structures that perform many essential processes; they also act as robust cages during the extracellular phase. Viruses can use multifunctional proteins to optimize resources (e.g., VP3 in avian infectious bursal disease virus, IBDV). The IBDV genome is organized as ribonucleoproteins (RNP) of dsRNA with VP3, which also acts as a scaffold during capsid assembly. We characterized mechanical properties of IBDV populations with different RNP content (ranging from none to four RNP). The IBDV population with the greatest RNP number (and best fitness) showed greatest capsid rigidity. When bound to dsRNA, VP3 reinforces virus stiffness. These contacts involve interactions with capsid structural subunits that differ from the initial interactions during capsid assembly. Our results suggest that RNP dimers are the basic stabilization units of the virion, provide better understanding of multifunctional proteins, and highlight the duality of RNP as capsid-stabilizing and genetic ...
Immunosuppressive viruses are frequently found as co-infections in the chicken industry, potentially causing serious economic losses. Because traditional molecular biology methods have limited detection ability, a rapid, high-throughput method for the differential diagnosis of these viruses is needed. The objective of this study is to develop a GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler Analyser-based multiplex PCR method (GeXP-multiplex PCR) for simultaneous detection of eight immunosuppressive chicken viruses. Using chimeric primers, eight such viruses, including Mareks disease virus (MDV), three subgroups of avian leucosis virus (ALV-A/B/J), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) and avian reovirus (ARV), were amplified and identified by their respective amplicon sizes. The specificity and sensitivity of the optimised GeXP-multiplex PCR assay were evaluated, and the data demonstrated that this technique could selectively amplify
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is an aquatic member of the Birnaviridae family that causes widespread disease in salmonids. IPNV is represented by multiple strains with markedly different virulence. Comparison of isolates reveals hyper variable regions (HVR), which are presumably associated with pathogenicity. However little is known about the rates and modes of sequence divergence and molecular mechanisms that determine virulence. Also how the host response may influence IPNV virulence is poorly described. In this study we compared two field isolates of IPNV (NFH-Ar and NFH-El). The sequence changes, replication and mortality were assessed following experimental challenge of Atlantic salmon. Gene expression analyses with qPCR and microarray were applied to examine the immune responses in head kidney. Significant differences in mortality were observed between the two isolates, and viral load in the pancreas at 13 days post infection (d p.i.) was more than 4 orders of magnitude ...
PULLMAN, Wash. (AP) - Researchers say a serious new form of a viral poultry disease has been found in Washington state.Infectious bursal disease virus, known as IBDV for short, is not known to infe...
Vet Parasitol. 2013 Feb 18;192(1-3):98-103. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.10.010. Epub 2012 Oct 23. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
VAXXITEK® HVT+IBD+ILT is the first vaccine to offer protection in one shot from Infectious Laryngotracheitis, Mareks Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health launched an innovative, first-of-its-kind vaccine in the United States to protect poultry from three diseases. VAXXITEK HVT+IBD+ILT is the first vaccine to offer protection in one shot from Infectious Laryngotracheitis, Mareks Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease (classic and variant types). This new trivalent vaccine provides a strong immune foundation, optimizes protection for flocks and offers reliable protection, said Matt Nelson, who . . .
Ol h, I., Magyar, A., Nagy, N., Horv th, E., Kov cs, A., Nagy, E. (2001): Effect of IBDV infection on the secretory dendritic cells. - In: van den Berg, T. (szerk.) EU Cost Action 839: International Symposium on Infectious Bursal Disease and Chicken Infectious Anemia. Office for Official Publication of the European Communities, Luxemburg, pp. 329-340 ...
Infectious Brusal Disease Virus Antibody Test Kit [IBD-2P] - Kit includes approximately 640 test samples plus controls, contains 5 microtiter plates. Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) affects primarily young chickens. The condition is considered economically significant due its ability to induce profound immunosuppression in chickens often resulting in susceptibility to secondary bacterial and viral infections. The symptoms include depression, anorexia, ruffled feathers, and
A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the rapid detection of equine coronavirus (ECoV). This assay was conducted at 60°C for 40min. Specificity of the RT-LAMP assay was confirmed using several equine intestinal and respiratory pathogens in addition to ECoV. The novel assay failed to cross-react with the other pathogens tested, suggesting i ...
VAXXITEK HVT+IBD+ILT is the first vaccine to offer protection in one shot from infectious laryngotracheitis, Mareks disease and infectious bursal disease
I, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, am serving as Editor on Archives of Biotechnology and Biomedicine (ABB). I submitted an editorial titled, Edible vaccines to combat Infectious Bursal Disease of poultry for publication in ABB. After submitting the manuscript; the services rendered by the management and technical personnel to handle and process the manuscript were marvelous. Plagiarism report was shared with me with complements before reviewers comments, All steps including article processing and service charges were well taken care of keeping in view the authors interest/preference. All together, it was an encouraging and wonderful experience working with ABB personnel.. ...
Preparing for ABSITE Chair: Michael M. Awad, MD Faculty: Jeffrey Blatnik, MD; Amber Traugott, MD; and Adnan Alseidi, MD Program Outline: Welcome and Overview , Michael M. Awad, MD, PhD Esophagus, Stomach, Obesity , Michael M. Awad, MD, PhD General Abdomen, Hernia, Spleen , Jeffrey Blatnik, MD Colorectal & Anal Disease , Amber Traugott, MD […] ...
Does not work either. Also, your mailer destroys your patches. Le 20/02/2015 19:37, Steve Lhomme a écrit : , Heres one over the current master. Ill submit the other one after this , one is in, as it depends on it. , , --- , modules/demux/mkv/demux.cpp , 2 +- , modules/demux/mkv/matroska_segment.cpp , 12 ++++++------ , modules/demux/mkv/matroska_segment_parse.cpp , 14 +++++++------- , 3 files changed, 14 insertions(+), 14 deletions(-) , , diff --git a/modules/demux/mkv/demux.cpp b/modules/demux/mkv/demux.cpp , index 1feca55..21618f4 100644 , --- a/modules/demux/mkv/demux.cpp , +++ b/modules/demux/mkv/demux.cpp , @@ -519,7 +519,7 @@ matroska_stream_c , *demux_sys_t::AnalyseAllSegmentsFound( demux_t *p_demux, EbmlS , // find the families of this segment , KaxInfo *p_info = static_cast,KaxInfo*,(p_l1); , b_keep_segment = b_initial; , - if( unlikely( p_info-,GetSize() ,= SIZE_MAX ) ) , + if( unlikely( p_info-,IsFiniteSize() && , p_info-,GetSize() ,= SIZE_MAX ) ) , { , msg_Err( p_demux, KaxInfo ...
Line graphs showing the results of numerical simulation of the temporal evolution of the output power of a Tm3+:ZBLAN fiber laser and the temporal evolution of the energy level population of the Tm3+ ions ...
chronic infection in adult, and acute viral disease in young salmonid fish.[1][2] ... Birnaviridae proteins[edit]. The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), ... Birnaviridae is a family of viruses. Salmonid fish, young sexually immature chickens, and insects serve as natural hosts. There ... Viruses in Birnaviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Single-shelled geometries, and T=13 symmetry. The diameter is ...
chronic infection in adult, and acute viral disease in young salmonid fish. Group: dsRNA Order: Unassigned Family: Birnaviridae ... "ICTV Report Birnaviridae". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ICTV Report: ... Aquabirnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Birnaviridae. Salmonid fish serve as natural hosts. There are currently ... Birnaviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 100 (1): 5-6. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001185. PMID 30484762. " ...
Resistance to infection develops more rapidly in warmer water. It is highly contagious and found worldwide, but some regions ... It is caused by infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, which is a member of the Birnaviridae family. This disease mainly affects ...
... may be susceptible to opportunistic infection and may die of infection by agents that would not usually cause disease in ... is a double-stranded RNA virus that has a bi-segmented genome and belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of family Birnaviridae. ... Infection is via the oro-fecal route, with affected bird excreting high levels of the virus for approximately 2 weeks after ... Passive immunity may protect against challenge with homologous IBDV, as does previous infection with homologous avirulent ...
... (DXV) belongs to the Birnaviridae family of viruses. Birnaviridae currently consists of three genera. The ... Infection studies with DXV has shed light on the innate immune response and RNA interference (RNAi) in Drosophila flies. ... This polypeptide is 977 amino acids in length, making it the largest encoded RdRp in the Birnaviridae family. The RdRp contains ... Although widely used in the laboratory, DXV has never been found as a natural infection of Drosophila, and was originally ...
It then injects its DNA or RNA into the host to initiate infection. In animal cells these viruses get into the cell through the ... This class includes two major families, the Reoviridae and Birnaviridae. Replication is monocistronic and includes individual, ... Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells. Viruses must ...
Tan FL, Yin JQ (December 2004). "RNAi, a new therapeutic strategy against viral infection". Cell Research. 14 (6): 460-6. doi: ... except retroviruses and Birnaviridae All positive-strand RNA eukaryotic viruses with no DNA stage All RNA-containing ... Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 14: 247-57. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2012.12.004. PMID 23291407. Yin W, Mao C, Luan X, Shen DD, ... such as orthomyxoviruses and bunyaviruses dsRNA virus family Birnaviridae (InterPro: IPR007100) RNA transcription is similar to ...
... which often aims to prevent viral infections. In modern history, numerous disease outbreaks have been caused by RdRp-encoding ... Birnaviridae Permutotetraviridae Botybirnavirus The kingdom contains three groups in the Baltimore classification system, which ...
Purified RNA of a positive-sense virus can directly cause infection though it may be less infectious than the whole virus ... Family Amalgaviridae Family Birnaviridae Family Chrysoviridae Family Cystoviridae Family Endornaviridae Family Hypoviridae ... Kondo H, Chiba S, Toyoda K, Suzuki N (January 2013). "Evidence for negative-strand RNA virus infection in fungi". Virology. 435 ... The resulting recombinant viruses may sometimes cause an outbreak of infection in humans. Classification of the RNA viruses is ...
Infection prevention and control during health care for probable or confirmed cases of novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection (PDF) ... 双DNA病毒科 Birnaviridae. *金色病毒科 Chrysoviridae. *囊状噬菌体科 Cystoviridae ... WHO: Novel coronavirus infection. 2013-02-11 [2013-02-13].. *^ James Gallagher. Coronavirus: Signs the new Sars-like virus can ... Camel infection 'led to Mers death'. BBC News. 2014-06-05 [2014-06-05].. ...
The gammaherpesviruses, including HVS, EBV, KSHV, and RRV, are capable of establishing latent infection in lymphocytes.[9] ... Ackermann, M. (2006). "Pathogenesis of gammaherpesvirus infections". Veterinary Microbiology. 113 (3-4): 211-222. doi:10.1016/j ... Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected ... Attenuated virus mutants represent a promising approach towards gamma-herpesvirus infection control. Surprisingly, latency- ...
Breuil, G., Bonami, J.R., Pepin, J.F., and Pichot, Y. (1991). Viral infection (picorna-like virus) associated with mass ... Mechanisms of Capsid Assembly and Viral Infection. PLoS Pathogens 11(10), e1005203. ...
The presence of IgM in the blood of the host is used to test for acute infection, whereas IgG indicates an infection sometime ... Vaccination is a cheap and effective way of preventing infections by viruses. Vaccines were used to prevent viral infections ... Smallpox infections have been eradicated.[196] Vaccines are available to prevent over thirteen viral infections of humans,[197] ... Hepatitis viruses can develop into a chronic viral infection that leads to liver cancer.[179][180] Infection by human T- ...
But, unlike other viral infections, the incidence of polio - the rarer severe form of the infection - increased in the 20th ... Many bacteriologists soon discovered the cause of numerous infections. However, some infections remained, many of them ... Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[3] ... Infections by poliovirus most often cause the mildest of symptoms. This was not known until the virus was isolated in cultured ...
Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ... At that point, the infection will persist indefinitely. In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is ... As a result, cells such as neurons are very resistant to infection and transduction by retroviruses. This gives rise to a ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of ...
Hepatis B Virus (HBV) was identified as an infection distinct from Hepatitis A through its contamination of measles, mumps, and ... Diseases associated with this family include: liver infections, such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinomas (chronic ... cell to infect others or are immediately dismantled so the new viral genomes can enter the nucleus and magnify the infection. ...
Without the virus infection, phagocytic hemocytes (blood cells) will encapsulate and kill the wasp egg and larvae but the ... The infection does not lead to replication of new viruses, rather it affects the caterpillar's immune system. ...
Common infections in humans caused by members of this order include cold sores, genital herpes, chickenpox, shingles, and ...
Birnaviridae Infections. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several ... FAQ - Birnaviridae Infections. (Powered by Yahoo! Answers). What are some ways of preventing infections in wrestling?. I am a ... Besides a yeast infection, you can get a bacterial infection without having sex.. Different types of infections:. Signs of ... How many ear infections before tubes go in?. I know a common procedure done for kids with a lot of ear infections is putting ...
chronic infection in adult, and acute viral disease in young salmonid fish.[1][2] ... Birnaviridae proteins[edit]. The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), ... Birnaviridae is a family of viruses. Salmonid fish, young sexually immature chickens, and insects serve as natural hosts. There ... Viruses in Birnaviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Single-shelled geometries, and T=13 symmetry. The diameter is ...
Results for Query ‹ Birnaviridae infection symptoms ›. Pathogeneses of respiratory infections with virulent and attenuated ... FIV replication in the face of previous PLV infection is highly constrained during acute infection. If during co-infection, FIV ... 1A), and most of mice died at 7-10 days post-infection (with 106 p.f.u. all mice died by 8 days post-infection) (Fig. 1B). ... Co-Infection of Swine with Porcine Circovirus Type 2 and Other Swine Viruses - 2. Co-Infection with Different Porcine ...
Animals , Birnaviridae Infections/immunology , Bursa of Fabricius/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8- ... Animals , Birnaviridae Infections/veterinary , Chickens , Infectious bursal disease virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/ ... Animals , Birnaviridae Infections/immunology , Chickens , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , ... Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Birnaviridae Infections/immunology , Chickens , Egg Yolk/immunology , Enzyme-Linked ...
94; BIRNAVIRUS INFECTIONS was see BIRNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS 1994-96. Online Note:. use BIRNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS to search ... Infections à Birnaviridae Entry term(s):. Birnaviridae Infection. Infection, Birnaviridae. Infections, Birnaviridae. ... Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE. Preferred term. Birnaviridae Infections Entry term(s). Birnaviridae Infection ... Birnaviridae Infections - Preferred Concept UI. M0027402. Scope note. ...
Our findings suggest that IPNv infection increase oxidative stress on headkidney as a consequence of iron overload induced by a ... Our findings suggest that IPNv infection increase oxidative stress on headkidney as a consequence of iron overload induced by a ... While immune modulation induced by IPNv infection has been widely characterized on Salmo salar, viral impact on iron host ... While immune modulation induced by IPNv infection has been widely characterized on Salmo salar, viral impact on iron host ...
Birnaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Birnaviridae Infections/genetics , Birnaviridae Infections , Salmonidae , Fluorescent ... Chick Embryo , Birnaviridae Infections , Chick Embryo , In Vitro Techniques , Infectious bursal disease virus , Methods , ... Animals , Birnaviridae Infections , Virology , Chickens , Infectious bursal disease virus , Genetics , Physiology , Poultry ... Animals , Birnaviridae Infections , Genetic Variation , In Vitro Techniques , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , ...
Birnaviridae. *Birnaviridae infections. *birnavirus. *Birnbaum - Saunders Distribution. *Birnbaum Interpreting Services. * ...
Persistent infection, immunotolerance, and early dissemination of the virus at local sites of infection have been linked to the ... Members of the Birnaviridae family, including infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), exhibit a dual behavior, causing acute ... Cellular Response to Infection. Neuronal Ablation of Alpha/Beta Interferon (IFN-α/β) Signaling Exacerbates Central Nervous ... Enteric viral infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and have the potential to trigger or exacerbate ...
The blotched snakehead (BSN) cell line associated virus was shown to be a new member of the family Birnaviridae and was also ... Studies on virus infections of food fish in the Indo-Pacific region. Final Project Report, University of Stirling, UK, 15 pp. ... Studies on virus infections of food fish in the Indo-Pacific region. Final Project Report. ... Studies on virus infections of food fish in the Indo-Pacific region. Final Project Report. ...
Birnaviridae. *Birnaviridae infections. *birnavirus. *Birnbaum - Saunders Distribution. *Birnbaum Interpreting Services. * ...
Birnaviridae) and Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) (Togaviridae). Both IPNV- and SAV infections induce lesions in pancreas tissue/ ... Co-infection with Norwegian Salmonid Alphavirus (NSAV) and Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) in Chinook Salmon Embryo ... In the present study, Chinook Salmon Embryo Cells (CHSE-214) were experimentally co-infected with SAV and IPNV and infections ... in the cellular antiviral immune system were affected by the infections. Interestingly, transcription of these mRNAs were up- ...
Animals, Birnaviridae Infections, pathology, veterinary, virology, Bursa of Fabricius, Chickens, Infectious bursal disease ... Experimental infection of laboratory-bred bank voles (Myodes glareolus) with murid herpesvirus 4.. 2012 David J Hughes et al. ... Differential expression of the Toll-like receptor pathway and related genes of chicken bursa after experimental infection with ... Animal Structures, pathology, virology, Animals, Arvicolinae, Herpesviridae Infections, veterinary, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, ...
Birnaviridae; Hepadnaviridae (Hepatitis B virus); Parvoviridae (parvoviruses); Papovaviridae (papilloma viruses, polyoma ... Persistent infections can be chronic infections, latent infections, or slow infections. Latent infection is characterized by ... Persistent infections include for example, latent, chronic and slow infections. Persistent infection occurs with viruses such ... In additional examples, the subject has an infection, such as a persistent infection. A subject with a persistent infection can ...
During infection, rigid tubes 55 nm in diameter are formed by preVP2. In the case of IBDV, additional tubules 25 nm in diameter ... Birnaviridae: from Latin prefix bi, "two", signifying the bisegmented nature of the viral genome as well as the presence of ... Birnaviridae is a family of viruses with bisegmented dsRNA genomes with a total of about 6 kbp forming icosahedral, non- ... Figure 4.Birnaviridae. A distance tree representing the phylogenetic relationships of VP1 in the various genera and genetic ...
chronic infection in adult, and acute viral disease in young salmonid fish. Group: dsRNA Order: Unassigned Family: Birnaviridae ... "ICTV Report Birnaviridae". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ICTV Report: ... Aquabirnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Birnaviridae. Salmonid fish serve as natural hosts. There are currently ... Birnaviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 100 (1): 5-6. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001185. PMID 30484762. " ...
... our observations suggest that T cell infiltration exacerbates early immunopathology within the BF during an IBDV infection ... following an IBDV infection, Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens have fewer surviving B cells and higher levels of 5hmC in the BF ... Birnaviridae Infections, Chickens, DNA Methylation, Infectious bursal disease virus, Poultry Diseases ... following an IBDV infection, Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens have fewer surviving B cells and higher levels of 5hmC in the BF ...
Arenaviridae Infections. *Astroviridae Infections. *Birnaviridae Infections. *Bunyaviridae Infections. *Caliciviridae ... "Arenaviridae Infections" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Arenaviridae Infections" by people in this website by year, ... Regulation of tissue-dependent differences in CD8+ T cell apoptosis during viral infection. J Virol. 2014 Sep 1; 88(17):9490- ...
The Pathogenesis of Virus Infections 4. Antiviral Immunity and Prophylaxis 5. The Diagnosis of Virus Infections 6. The ... Birnaviridae 17. Paramyxoviridae 18. Rhabdoviridae 19. Filoviridae 20. Bornaviridae 21. Orthomyxoviridae 22. Bunyaviridae 23. ... partI presents the fundamental principles of virology related to animal infection and disease, and partII addresses the ... Epidemiology of Virus Infections. PART II: VETERINARY AND ZOONOTIC VIRUSES 7. Poxviridae 8. Asfarviridae and Iridoviridae 9. ...
Animals, Birnaviridae Infections, veterinary, virology, Chickens, Cluster Analysis, Genotype, Infectious bursal disease virus, ...
The average number of VFs significantly decreased from 60 to 5 per cell between 10 and 24 h post infection (P,0.01), while the ... or stained with ReAsH following IBDV-TC infection, which led to the apprearance of green or red foci in the cytoplasm, ... DF-1 cells were either transfected with GFP1-10 prior to IBDV-GFP11 infection, ... The Birnaviridae family is comprised of non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded RNA genome that is divided into two ...
Mechanisms of Infection and Viral Spread through the Body *Determinants of Viral Virulence and Host Resistance ...
218.The IBD virus belongs to the Birnaviridae family of RNA viruses. Two serotypes are known to exist, but only serotype 1 is ... The incubation period is short and the first symptoms appear 2-3 days after infection. The lesions in the bursa of Fabricius ... 217.A natural IBD infection is mostly observed in chickens. In turkeys and ducks it could occur subclinical^, without ... In premises, once contaminated with the IBD virus, the disease tends to recur, usually as subclinical infection. The dead ...
Birnaviridae. *Birnaviridae infections. *Birnavirus. *Birnbaum - Saunders Distribution. *Birnbaum Interpreting Services. * ... A virus in the family Birnaviridae that includes infectious bursal disease virus of chickens, ducks, and turkeys; an infectious ...
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is an aquatic member of the Birnaviridae family that causes widespread disease in ... and viral load in the pancreas at 13 days post infection (d p.i.) was more than 4 orders of magnitude greater for NFH-Ar in ... IPNV with high and low virulence: host immune responses and viral mutations during infection. Permanent lenke. http://hdl. ...
Double stranded RNA , RNA , Active sites , Birnaviridae infections , Infectious bursal disease virus , Thumb , Crystals , ... Infections , Fungal infections , Antiinfectives and antibacterials , Blood , Microorganisms , Etiology , Bacterial infections ... Bacterial Infections - etiology , Humans , Bacterial Infections - epidemiology , Bacteria - classification , Organ Preservation ... SOLID-ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION , SURVIVAL , CRITERIA , INFECTIONS , MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES , POSITIVE CULTURES , BACTERIAL , ...
Bunyavirales infection * Viral entry into host cell via pilus retraction * Birnaviridae infection ... Viral Infection in Adults with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection in Colombia - Introduction. PMC Open Access (CC BY-NC-SA) , ... Respiratory viral infections are underdiagnosed in patients with suspected sepsis - Respiratory tract infections. PMC Open ... Recent clinical studies on respiratory infections that used novel multiplexing assays have shown that more severe infections (i ...
Birnaviridae Infections*/physiopathology Birnaviridae Infections*/veterinary Glycoproteins. */metabolism Infectious bursal ... Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes ... Infection of bursal disease virus abrogates the extracellular glycoprotein in the follicular medulla.. Autorzy :. Felföldi B; ... Orthomyxoviridae Infections/*prevention & control. Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/blood ; Cross Protection ; Cross Reactions ; ...
Birnaviridae Infections - immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic - administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines - immunology , Antibodies ... Infections , Vaccines , Streptococcus infections , Proteins , Virulence factors , Combined vaccines , Bacteria , Recombinant , ... Birnaviridae Infections - prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Vaccines, Virosome - administration & ... Infections , DNA vaccines , Immunity (cell-mediated) , Proteins , Hepatitis , Lymphocytes , Conflicts of interest , Immunity ( ...
  • Birnaviridae is a family of viruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses in Birnaviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Single-shelled geometries, and T=13 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variola and monkeypox viruses cause systemic infections with high levels of lethality, but the details of their pathogenesis are not well-understood. (datexis.com)
  • hence it is possible that the viruses target the same cell types and therefore might interfere with each other during such infections. (uib.no)
  • Aquabirnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Birnaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: dsRNA Order: Unassigned Family: Birnaviridae Genus: Aquabirnavirus Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus Tellina virus Yellowtail ascites virus Viruses in Aquabirnavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Single-shelled geometries, and T=13 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birnaviridae is a family of viruses with bisegmented dsRNA genomes with a total of about 6 kbp forming icosahedral, non-enveloped virions. (ictvonline.org)
  • The Birnaviridae family is comprised of non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded RNA genome that is divided into two segments, A and B. Birnaviruses are responsible for major economic losses to the poultry and aquaculture industries, and reassortment complicates their epidemiology and control. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 218. The IBD virus belongs to the Birnaviridae family of RNA viruses. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • For a long time, the number of respiratory infections with clinical symptoms caused by respiratory viruses had no detectable causative agent. (datexis.com)
  • A retrospective study revealed 17 (3.1 %) out of 540 NPAs positive for HBoV, with 14 specimens tested negative for other viruses, giving the suggestion that HBoV is a causative agent of respiratory tract infections. (datexis.com)
  • The apparent inability to control IBDV infection through current vaccination warrants a necessity to develop alternate IBDV vaccine strategies that would not result in variant viruses. (asm.org)
  • Accordingly, the present disclosure relates to compounds and methods for treating viral infection, including infection by RNA viruses, wherein the compounds can modulate the RIG-I pathway. (justia.com)
  • Using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, we identify the ribosomal protein RACK1 as a cellular factor required for infection by internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-containing viruses. (cnrs.fr)
  • We further show that RACK1 is an essential determinant for hepatitis C virus translation and infection, indicating that its function is conserved for distantly related human and fly viruses. (cnrs.fr)
  • More recently, viruses have come to the front, and RNA interference was shown to play a critical role in the control of viral infections in drosophila. (cnrs.fr)
  • A diverse set of RNA viruses belonging to several families (Rhabdoviridae, Dicistroviridae, Birnaviridae, Reoviridae, Errantiviridae) has been reported in D. melanogaster. (cnrs.fr)
  • IBDV belongs to the Birnaviridae family of viruses, characterised by a bi-segmented genome of double stranded (ds)RNA. (avianvirusresearch.org)
  • 1,2 In addition, NDV (family Paramyxoviridae ) is contained in one serotype and therefore called as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) where as IBD virus (family, Birnaviridae of RNA viruses) especially serotype 1 is pathogenic and highly resistant to most of these disinfectants including environmental conditions. (ac.ir)
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is an acute, contagious disease of trout fry and fingerlings caused by viruses of the family birnaviridae. (oregonstate.edu)
  • IBDV is the only species of virus under the Avibirnavirus genus in the Birnaviridae family of viruses. (msstate.edu)
  • The family Birnaviridae are a group of non-enveloped double-stranded RNA viruses which infect poultry, aquatic animals and insects. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most infecting viruses check if the host file already has an infection. (everything2.com)
  • This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Birnaviridae , which is available at www.ictv.global/report/birnaviridae . (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Additionally, to determine the ratio PP/infectivity is useful to define and characterize the capacity of some viruses to produce chronic infections with virus being shed from healthy hosts. (conicyt.cl)
  • Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected cell throughout the life of the host, yet at the same time must also be capable of avoiding elimination by the immune surveillance system especially must avoid being detected by host CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important member of the Birnaviridae family. (bvsalud.org)
  • Members of the Birnaviridae family, including infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), exhibit a dual behavior, causing acute infections that are often followed by the establishment of lifelong persistent asymptomatic infections. (asm.org)
  • Our findings indicate that, following an IBDV infection, Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens have fewer surviving B cells and higher levels of 5hmC in the BF than the more resistant 15l line of birds. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Collectively, our observations suggest that T cell infiltration exacerbates early immunopathology within the BF during an IBDV infection contributing to B cell genomic instability and death to facilitate viral egress and immunosuppression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • DF-1 cells were either transfected with GFP1-10 prior to IBDV-GFP11 infection, or stained with ReAsH following IBDV-TC infection, which led to the apprearance of green or red foci in the cytoplasm, respectively. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus (IBDV) is a double-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of the family Birnaviridae. (ac.tz)
  • IBDV is a causative agent of IBD, the highly contagious viral infection of young chickens aged 3 to 6 weeks. (ac.tz)
  • The effect of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection on cellular protein expression is essential for viral pathogenesis. (mcponline.org)
  • To characterize the cellular response to IBDV infection, the differential proteomes of chicken embryo fibroblasts, with and without IBDV infection, were analyzed at different time points with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF identification. (mcponline.org)
  • Comparative analysis of multiple 2-DE gels revealed that the majority of protein expression changes appeared at 48 and 96 h after IBDV infection. (mcponline.org)
  • Notably 2-DE analysis revealed that IBDV infection induced the increased expression of polyubiquitin, apolipoprotein A-I, heat shock 27-kDa protein 1, actins, tubulins, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A isoform 2, acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein, and ribosomal protein SA isoform 2. (mcponline.org)
  • In addition, IBDV infection considerably suppressed those cellular proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation, energy metabolism, intermediate filaments, host translational apparatus, and signal transduction. (mcponline.org)
  • Western blot further confirmed the inhibition of Rho protein GDP dissociation inhibitor expression and the induction of polyubiquitin during IBDV infection. (mcponline.org)
  • Subcellular distribution analysis of the cytoskeletal proteins vimentin and β-tubulin clearly demonstrated that IBDV infection induced the disruption of the vimentin network and microtubules late in IBDV infection. (mcponline.org)
  • Thus, this work effectively provides useful dynamic protein-related information to facilitate further investigation of the underlying mechanism of IBDV infection and pathogenesis. (mcponline.org)
  • Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), 1 a member of the Birnaviridae family, is a pathogenic agent that damages the precursors of antibody-producing B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (central humoral immune organ) and causes severe immunodeficiency and mortality in young chickens ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • IBDV replicates within the cytoplasm of infected cells, leading to cytopathic effect or cytolytic infection. (mcponline.org)
  • The early protein VP5 plays a crucial role in IBDV infection by inhibiting apoptosis in the early stage of viral infection ( 9 ) and accumulates within the host plasma membrane, thus contributing to cell lysis in the late stage of viral replication ( 10 ). (mcponline.org)
  • IBDV replicates specifically in developing B-lymphoid cells, resulting in the destruction of the precursors of antibody-producing B cells in the bursa of Fabricius, and consequently, the immunosuppression, which leads to vaccination failures and susceptibility to other infections and diseases ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • IBDV is a member of the genus Avibirnavirus in the family Birnaviridae , and its genome is composed of two segments of double-stranded RNA ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • This feeding habit exposes them to contact with wild birds, which might be a source of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection 16,32 . (scielo.org.za)
  • IBDV is a double-stranded dsRNA virus that has a bi-segmented genome and belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of the family Birnaviridae 26 . (scielo.org.za)
  • For this reason, the aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence rate of IBDV and the factors that may be associated with risk of infection in free-range poultry in northern Tanzania. (scielo.org.za)
  • In the USA, antibodies against IBDV serotype 2 are widespread in chicken and turkey flocks, indicating the common prevalence of the infection. (au-ibar.org)
  • In conclusion, our study provides a lead candidate for further development of therapeutic antibodies for IBDV infection. (heighpubs.org)
  • IBD is caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a double stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Birnaviridae [2]. (heighpubs.org)
  • Consequently, birds that recover from IBDV infection are frequently more susceptible to secondary infections and respond less well to vaccination programmes. (avianvirusresearch.org)
  • IBDV is a small, non-enveloped double-stranded RNA virus, belonging to the Birnaviridae family. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Since MDV and IBDV are widespread on industrial chicken farms and in field conditions can retain their infectivity for a long time, the sanitary measures commonly applied are not sufficient to control these infections and vaccination has become an essential tool for the protection of chickens. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Chicken B cell line DT40, an avian leukosis virus-induced B cell line, supports very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) infection in vitro and thereby serves as a good model for investigating the infection and pathogenesis of this virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the family Birnaviridae, is a non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA virus composed of two segments: A (3.2 kb) and B (2.9 kb). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection with IBDV results in infectious bursal disease, a highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease, in 3- to 15-week-old chickens and causes severe economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increasing evidence indicates that IBDV infection differentially regulates host cellular genes and pathways correlated with virus replication and apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, more detailed information about the interactions between IBDV and host canonical pathways is needed to obtain an improved understanding of viral infection and pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the family Birnaviridae and is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • We found that key genes involved in B-cell activation and signalling (TNFSF13B, CD72 and GRAP) were down-regulated following infection relative to mock, which we speculate could contribute to IBDV-mediated immunosuppression. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Australian endemic IBDV serotype 1 variant strain 02/95 was quantified using qRT-PCR in bursal tissues of commercial broiler chickens inoculated orally at days zero and 14 of age and maintained to 28 days post infection (dpi). (zootecnicainternational.com)
  • The experiment utilized a 2 x 2 factorial design with two levels of IBDV challenge (IBDV infection and uninfected control) and two ages of infection (days zero and 14). (zootecnicainternational.com)
  • Infections with very virulent IBDV have caused economic losses due to high mortality rates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 215. Infectious bursal disease (IBD, Gumboro) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection in chickens manifested by inflammation and subsequent atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius, various degrees of nephroso-nephritis and immunosuppression. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • 217. A natural IBD infection is mostly observed in chickens. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Infectious bursal disease (IBD) or Gumboro disease is a highly contagious immunosuppressive viral infection of young chickens (3-6 weeks old) causing severe economic and production losses worldwide 22 . (scielo.org.za)
  • First, in the case of classical IBD, as a result of high mortality in chickens of 3 -6 weeks and second as a result of a severe and prolonged immunosuppression that may pave the way for gangrenous dermatitis, E. coli infections and vaccination failures. (au-ibar.org)
  • IBD is an acute and highly contagious among chicken, and characterized as highly contagious immunosuppressive in chickens by rapid replication of IBD virus within the bursa of Fabricius and depleting B cell populations [3], and increased susceptibility to other diseases such as bacterial infection or viral infections [4]. (heighpubs.org)
  • Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute and highly contagious viral infection in young chickens that attacks the bursa of Fabricius that is located inside the vent area of the bird. (msstate.edu)
  • The virus responsible is a bisegmented, double-stranded RNA virus, belonging to the Avibirnavirus genus in the family Birnaviridae. (au-ibar.org)
  • IPNV is the etiological agent of a disease which causes high mortality rates in young salmonid fish, it belongs to the Birnaviridae family whose members are characterized by a genome which consists of two segments of double stranded RNA, named A and B. IPNV total genome size is 6 kb and it is enclosed in a naked icosahedral single-shelled capsid of 60 nm diameter ( Dobos, 1995 ). (conicyt.cl)
  • chronic infection in adult, and acute viral disease in young salmonid fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Western Reserve (WR) strain was generated by intracerebral mouse passages, and an intranasal inoculation results in an acute infection of the lung followed by dissemination of the virus to various organs. (datexis.com)
  • In one report intranasal infection with the WR strain caused pneumonia showing severe alveolar edema and acute necrotizing bronchiolitis and peribronchiolitis as well as neutrophilic infiltrates in the interstitium of the lung. (datexis.com)
  • Diseases associated with this family include infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish, which causes significant losses to the aquaculture industry, with chronic infection in adult salmonid fish and acute viral disease in young salmonid fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • in respiratory samples from children with suspected acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) using a novel technique. (datexis.com)
  • Human bocavirus (HBoV) was first found in children with acute respiratory tract infections in 2005. (datexis.com)
  • Moreover, treatments for acute influenza and HCV infections are only moderately effective. (justia.com)
  • Both classes of acute influenza antivirals, adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors, are only effective within the first 48 hours after infection, thereby limiting the window of opportunity for treatment. (justia.com)
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a young man with acute hepatitis E infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 of the second envelope protein is infectious and causes acute resolving or persistent infection in chimpanzees", Pro. (lens.org)
  • This family is also not as well studied as the rest and includes 2 major families, the Reoviridae and Birnaviridae . (enacademic.com)
  • Birnaviridae , Journal of General Virology, (In Press). (ictvonline.org)
  • In this study, we focused on the differences in virus replication and host immune responses between lethal and non-lethal respiratory infections with VV. (datexis.com)
  • IFAT and end-point titration indicated that SAV to some extent inhibited IPNV replication , whereas IPNV did not affect SAV infections notably. (uib.no)
  • Since the discovery of HBoV, numerous studies related to the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and replication of this newly detected virus have been performed, and they have provided novel insights into viral infection of the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal diseases. (datexis.com)
  • The latter include not only cellular mechanisms such as programmed cell death and autophagy, but also the induction of a large set of genes, some of which contribute to the control of viral replication and resistance to infection. (cnrs.fr)
  • In view of the function of Erns in pestivirus infection and replication, the viral load and histological distribution of APPV in different tissues of naturally infected piglets were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection using Erns as the target. (bvsalud.org)
  • Viral replication is the term used by virologist s to describe the formation of biological virus es during the infection process in the target host cells. (enacademic.com)
  • Proper infection and production of progeny requires that the cell be in replication as that is when the cell's polymerases are active. (enacademic.com)
  • Infeksiøst pankreasnekrose-virus (IPNV) er et robust nakent RNA-virus i slekten Aquabirnavirus, familien Birnaviridae. (imr.no)
  • The Synthetic AMS got from reaction of Aluminum silicate and Magnesium silicate [10] has exhibited antiviral effects against all four viral families, so far tested, including, Paramyxoviridae, Birnaviridae, Parvoviridae and Othomyxoviridae [10]. (scirp.org)
  • Fully revised and updated by the new author team, partI presents the fundamental principles of virology related to animal infection and disease, and partII addresses the clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology and prevention of individual diseases. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The Pathogenesis of Virus Infections 4. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • In general, fish viral diseases are difficult to control due to the high susceptibility of fish at an early age, and insufficient knowledge of pathogenesis of virus infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bergen Open Research Archive: Co-infection with Norwegian Salmonid Alphavirus (NSAV) and Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) in Chinook Salmon Embryo Cells (CHSE-214). (uib.no)
  • Infectious pancreatic disease (IPN) and pancreas disease (PD) of salmon are viral diseases caused by Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) (Birnaviridae) and Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) (Togaviridae). (uib.no)
  • however, infection with a high dose of WR strain caused lethality, which has been used as a challenge model to study the effect of antiviral drugs, immune IgG, soluble viral proteins and other vaccine strains. (datexis.com)
  • Mass spectrometry identified 51 altered cellular proteins, including 13 up-regulated proteins and 38 down-regulated proteins 12-96 h after infection. (mcponline.org)
  • They code for proteins that effect virus virulance, host cell susceptibility or the host response to infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These proteins are made in the infected cell after infection. (biosci.blog)
  • The present invention is drawn to exploiting the role of RNase-L in innate immunity for methods of treating a microbial infection. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The first section provides an introduction to microbiology, infection, immunity and molecular diagnostic methods. (booksmed.com)
  • Immunity to viral infections in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster involves both RNA interference and additional induced responses. (cnrs.fr)
  • Passive hyper immune therapy (PHT) is an alternative for standard vaccination, and is characterize by the advantage of immediate acquired the immunity once injection, and passive immunization with antibodies are widely used to prevent or treat infections like measles, hepatitis A, tetanus, varicella, and vaccinia [7,8]. (heighpubs.org)
  • While immune modulation induced by IPNv infection has been widely characterized on Salmo salar , viral impact on iron host metabolism has not yet been elucidated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our findings suggest that IPNv infection increase oxidative stress on headkidney as a consequence of iron overload induced by a massive upregulation of genes involved in iron metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present study, Chinook Salmon Embryo Cells (CHSE-214) were experimentally co-infected with SAV and IPNV and infections were studied by IFAT, real-time RT- PCR and by viral end-point titration. (uib.no)
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is an aquatic member of the Birnaviridae family that causes widespread disease in salmonids. (uit.no)
  • Bergnebb kan bli smittet og representere en symptomfri bærer av IPNV, og kan trolig spre viruset (Gibson mfl. (imr.no)
  • 2008). En særlig høy IPNV prevalens ble observert i villaks samlet inn for bruk som stamfisk i Galicia (Spania), 39 % i 2004 og 51 % 2005 (Bandín & Dopazo 2006). (imr.no)
  • I Norge har en gjennomført IPNV-analyser av laks samlet som stamfisk for kultiveringsformål. (imr.no)
  • IPNV ble i denne perioden påvist i en laks. (imr.no)
  • Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, subjects with infections, such as persistent infections can be treated using PD-1 antagonists. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • They are not easily spread and mostly cause persistent infections. (biosci.blog)
  • Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recently, avian viral diseases have become one of the main models to study mechanisms of viral infections and pathogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Enteric viral infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and have the potential to trigger or exacerbate intestinal inflammatory diseases. (asm.org)
  • The blotched snakehead (BSN) cell line associated virus was shown to be a new member of the family Birnaviridae and was also shown to be non-pathogenic for snakehead fish. (www.gov.uk)
  • Nevertheless, RNAi represents a potent response to VSV infection, as illustrated by the high susceptibility of RNAi-defective mutant flies to this virus. (cnrs.fr)
  • The disease targets the lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, compromising the immune system, resulting in immunosuppression and susceptibility to other secondary infections. (msstate.edu)
  • Norovirus infection is highly contagious, and anyone can become infected more than once. (ecohealth2018.co)
  • the activation of the Toll-mediated response to microbial infections and the prophenoloxydase cascade, which triggers melanization. (cnrs.fr)
  • Most infections that occur in the field are of the subclinical variety, and this is the more economically important form of the disease. (msstate.edu)
  • The incubation period is short and the first symptoms appear 2-3 days after infection. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • 10. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject is not exhibiting symptoms of a viral infection prior to administration of the agent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3,4 The incubation period of IBD virus is short and the first symptoms will be appeared after 2-3 days infection. (ac.ir)
  • Regulatory T cells resist virus infection-induced apoptosis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Regulation of tissue-dependent differences in CD8+ T cell apoptosis during viral infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • In premises, once contaminated with the IBD virus, the disease tends to recur, usually as subclinical infection. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Direct economic losses usually occur in case of clinical forms of MD and IBD, but even in case of subclinical infections the damage caused to the immune system results in lowered resistance to other infectious agents and in a poor immune response to commonly used vaccines. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The Diagnosis of Virus Infections 6. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections (collection and transport of samples). (univet.hu)
  • TroCCAP recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of parasitic infections in dogs and cats in the tropics. (rossu.edu)
  • Furthermore, the experiments demonstrated that key transcripts (IFN and Mx) in the cellular antiviral immune system were affected by the infections. (uib.no)
  • Therefore, the proteomics analysis of host cellular responses to virus infection is more likely to probe potential cellular factors involved directly or indirectly in viral infection and to identify potential drug targets of antiviral treatment. (mcponline.org)
  • We review here recent developments, from the sensing of viral infection to the induction of signaling pathways and production of antiviral effector molecules. (cnrs.fr)
  • Kaushik N, Anang S, Ganti KP, Surjit M. Zinc: A Potential Antiviral Against Hepatitis E Virus Infection? (harvard.edu)
  • Vertebrates [ 9 ], including fish [ 10 ], mount an early strong innate immune response against virus infections, characterized by the induction and secretion of cytokines, such as type I interferons (IFN-α/β) that mediate an antiviral state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, cells responded to infection by expressing antiviral type I IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes, but the induction was far less pronounced upon infection with UK661, which we speculate could contribute to its virulence. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Retrieved 19 March Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. (ecohealth2018.co)
  • Significant differences in mortality were observed between the two isolates, and viral load in the pancreas at 13 days post infection (d p.i.) was more than 4 orders of magnitude greater for NFH-Ar in comparison with NFH-El. (uit.no)
  • VP3 has been shown to co-localise with vesicular structures bearing features of early and late endocytic compartments in the juxtanuclear region, even in cultures studied at 36 hours post-infection 22 , implying that the virus may remodel cellular endosomal membranes to its advantage. (avianvirusresearch.org)
  • Early interactions of marine birnavirus infection in several fish cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A warm-water fish cell line developed from blotched snakehead caudal peduncle (BSN) was found to have persistent birnavirus infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mosquitoes are a major global public health concern, with a concomitant increase in people at risk of infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • many of them may cause bursal atrophy and thus immunosuppression with poor immune response to vaccination against other pathogens and an increase in vulnerability to various types of infections [6]. (heighpubs.org)
  • The economic significance is therefore twofold: a result of the morbidity and mortality caused by infection, and a result of secondary effects following immunosuppression. (avianvirusresearch.org)
  • Lethal infection with WR strain resulted in fewer lymphocytes and an altered phenotype of T cells in the lung compared to non-lethal infection and uninfected controls, and induced severe thymus atrophy with a marked reduction of CD4 and CD8 double positive (DP) T cells. (datexis.com)
  • Therapeutic depletion of natural killer cells controls persistent infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • Disclosed herein are compounds and related compositions for the treatment of viral infection, including RNA viral infection, and compounds that can modulate the RIG-I pathway in vertebrate cells, including compounds that can activate the RIG-I pathway. (justia.com)
  • This would inhibit infection at the stage of attachment of the virus to host cells. (scirp.org)
  • CHSE-214 cells constitutively expressing ASMx1 showed increased resistance to infection with the cytopathic ISAV strain NBISA01, manifested as delayed development of cytopathic effects (CPE) and significant reduction in the severity of CPE, as well as a 10-fold reduction in virus yield. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study aimed to employ time-course DNA microarrays to investigate gene expression patterns in DT40 cells after infection with vvIBDV strain LX. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive differential transcriptional profile of cultured DT40 cells in response to vvIBDV infection and further extends our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying vvIBDV infection and pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection with classical virulent strains results in high morbidity and usually low mortality, whereas vvIBDV strains can cause up to 90 per cent of mortality in layer type birds. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Antibiotics are used just to control secondary bacterial infections and vitamin A helps to heal the lesions [5]. (scirp.org)
  • Unlike influenza and HCV, there are no approved therapies for the treatment of West Nile virus infection, and it is a high-priority pathogen for drug development due to its potential as a bioterrorist agent. (justia.com)
  • BinJ/ZIKA-prME vaccination also did not result in antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection or disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • Getah virus infection. (wa.gov.au)
  • Menangle virus infection. (wa.gov.au)
  • 11. The method of claim 1 wherein the agent is co-administered with at least one additional therapy used to treat a bacterial infection. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 12. A method of treating a bacterial infection in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering an agent that increases the activity of RNase-L, wherein said agent is a nucleic acid comprising cathepsinE mRNA or a 2',5'-linked oligoadenylate (2-5A) mRNA. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Persistent infection, immunotolerance, and early dissemination of the virus at local sites of infection have been linked to the antagonism of type I IFN induction by N pro . (asm.org)
  • This induced response to infection is complex and involves both virus-specific and cell-type specific mechanisms. (cnrs.fr)
  • It was then detected in children with respiratory tract infections in addition to gastroenteritis worldwide-[12]. (datexis.com)
  • Prior studies have identified specialized innate immune responses that are active in the intestinal epithelium following viral infection, but our understanding of the benefits of such an epithelium-specific response is incomplete. (asm.org)
  • The RIG-I pathway is intimately involved in regulating the innate immune response to RNA virus infections. (justia.com)
  • Compared to influenza and HCV, West Nile virus causes the lowest number of infections, 981 in the United States in 2010. (justia.com)