A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.
A genus of RNA viruses in the family BIRNAVIRIDAE infecting fish, mollusks, and crustaceans. It is transmitted both vertically and horizontally with no known vectors. The natural hosts are salmonids and the type species is INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
The type species of AQUABIRNAVIRUS, causing infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish and other freshwater and marine animals including mollusks.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
A family of RNA viruses that infect fungi and protozoa. There are three genera: TOTIVIRUS; GIARDIAVIRUS; and LEISHMANIAVIRUS.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).
A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.

Gill lamellar pillar cell necrosis, a new birnavirus disease in Japanese eels. (1/29)

Since the late 1980s, a birnaviral gill disease has been occurring in Japanese eels Anguilla japonica reared in warmwater ponds in western regions in Japan. Diseased eels mostly displayed marked formations of aneurysmal hematomas within gill lamellae and high mortalities. Histological examination revealed necrosis of pillar cells and subsequent aggregation of erythrocytes inside the lamellar capillaries, and proliferation of interlamellar epithelia onto the lamellae. Gastric gland cells were also necrotized. Electron microscopy revealed birnavirus infection in lamellar pillar cells. The causative birnavirus was isolated and cultured in fish cell lines and was found to be related to an infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) Sp serotype by neutralization tests. The viral pathogenicity was confirmed by the results of histopathological examinations and infectivity experiments.  (+info)

Characteristics of a new birnavirus associated with a warm-water fish cell line. (2/29)

A warm-water fish cell line developed from blotched snakehead caudal peduncle (BSN) was found to have persistent birnavirus infection. Purified virus particles were of icosahedral shape and had 57+/-1.6 nm diameter. The BSN virus was resistant to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and induced yellowish-green cytoplasmic inclusions when stained with acridine orange. The virus was resistant to chloroform, acid and alkaline pH and heat treatment at 56 degrees C for 2 h. Purified virions had a buoyant density of 1.33 g/ml in CsCl and contained two genomic segments with molecular masses of 2.56 x 10(6) and 2.00 x 10(6) Da and four structural polypeptides of 112 (polyprotein, PP), 91 (VP1), 44 (VP2) and 37 (VP3) kDa. Reciprocal beta cross-neutralization tests incorporating four classical strains of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) (WB, Sp, Ab and TV-1) and the BSN virus established the complete serological distinctness of the virus from IPNV. Considering the uniqueness of the virus, the name blotched snakehead virus is proposed for this agent.  (+info)

Isolation of different types of birnavirus from ayu Plecoglossus altivelis and amago salmon Oncorhynchus rhodurus cultured in the same geographic area. (3/29)

A birnavirus was recently isolated from cultured ayu Plecoglossus altivelis on Shikoku island, Japan. The diseased fish displayed vertebral or vertical curvature and mild haemorrhage around the brain. Cytopathic effects (CPE) of the virus, including cell roundness, filamentous change and cell lysis, were observed in CHSE-214, RTG-2 and RSBK-2 cells. The virus isolated from ayu, designated the AY-98 strain, was found to be antigenically related to the marine birnavirus (MABV) Y-6 strain that originated from yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. AY-98 had a bi-segmented RNA genome and the same nucleotide sequence in the 310 bp VP2/NS junction as MABV Y-6. At the same time that the ayu epizootics occurred, another birnavirus (AM-98) was isolated from amago salmon Oncorhynchus rhodurus which were cultured 66 km away from the ayu farm. AM-98 showed a similar CPE and had the same host cell ranges as AY-98. However, AM-98 was serologically similar to the VR-299 strain of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and their nucleotide sequences in the VP2/NS junction region showed 98% homology without changes at the amino acid level. In this study, the ayu strain AY-98 was grouped into MABV, whereas the amago salmon strain AM-98 was grouped into IPNV. This indicates that the 2 birnaviruses originated from different sources in spite of the fact that the places where they were isolated are close to one another. The results in this paper show a new aspect of the traditional consensus that the same serogroup of birnavirus distribute in close geographic areas.  (+info)

Active residues and viral substrate cleavage sites of the protease of the birnavirus infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. (4/29)

The polyprotein of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is processed by the viral protease VP4 (also named NS) to generate three polypeptides: pVP2, VP4, and VP3. Site-directed mutagenesis at 42 positions of the IPNV VP4 protein was performed to determine the active site and the important residues for the protease activity. Two residues (serine 633 and lysine 674) were critical for cleavage activity at both the pVP2-VP4 and the VP4-VP3 junctions. Wild-type activity at the pVP2-VP4 junction and a partial block (with an alteration of the cleavage specificity) at the VP4-VP3 junction were observed when replacement occurred at histidines 547 and 679. A similar observation was made when aspartic acid 693 was replaced by leucine, but wild-type activity and specificity were found when substituted by glutamine or asparagine. Sequence comparison between IPNV and two birnavirus (infectious bursal disease virus and Drosophila X virus) VP4s revealed that serine 633 and lysine 674 are conserved in these viruses, in contrast to histidines 547 and 679. The importance of serine 633 and lysine 674 is reminiscent of the protease active site of bacterial leader peptidases and their mitochondrial homologs and of the bacterial LexA-like proteases. Self-cleavage sites of IPNV VP4 were determined at the pVP2-VP4 and VP4-VP3 junctions by N-terminal sequencing and mutagenesis. Two alternative cleavage sites were also identified in the carboxyl domain of pVP2 by cumulative mutagenesis. The results suggest that VP4 cleaves the (Ser/Thr)-X-Ala / (Ser/Ala)-Gly motif, a target sequence with similarities to bacterial leader peptidases and herpesvirus protease cleavage sites.  (+info)

Expression of YAV proteins and vaccination against viral ascites among cultured juvenile yellowtail. (5/29)

Yellowtail ascites virus (YAV) is a member of the family Birnaviridae and causes viral ascites among juvenile yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata). We have reported the cloning and expression of two viral cDNAs, the first being segment A encoding a polyprotein of viral capsid proteins (VP2 and VP3) and a protease (NS), and the second being VP2-epitope encoding serotype-specific epitope region on VP2, using a baculovirus expression system. Another viral cDNA encoding a polyprotein of NS and VP3 was cloned and expressed in this study. For the expression of NS/VP3 (YAV nt 1626 to 3066) in insect cells a 31-kDa protein, corresponding to VP3 was detected, indicating an appropriate posttranslational processing of NS/VP3 polypeptide by NS protease itself. The analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein showed that NS protease may cleave an Ala-Ser bond. A study of the potential for vaccination of yellowtail fry by injection of insect cell lysates infected with baculovirus, containing either cDNA of segment A, VP2-epitope, or NS/VP3 was undertaken. Only a vaccination with cell lysates infected with a recombinant virus carrying the full length of YAV segment A gene demonstrated approximately the same effect as that of inactivated YAV. This result suggested that all proteins VP2, VP3, and NS are required for an effective vaccination.  (+info)

First isolation of an aquatic birnavirus from farmed and wild fish species in Australia. (6/29)

During routine sampling and testing, as part of a systematic surveillance program (the Tasmanian Salmonid Health Surveillance Program), an aquatic birnavirus was isolated from 'pin-head' (fish exhibiting deficient acclimatisation on transfer to saltwater) Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, approximately 18 mo old, farmed in net-pens located in Macquarie Harbour on the west coast of Tasmania, Australia. The isolate grows readily in a range of fish cell lines including CHSE-214, RTG-2 and BF-2 and is neutralised by a pan-specific rabbit antiserum raised against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) Ab strain and by a commercial pan-specific IPNV-neutralising monoclonal antibody. Presence of the virus was not associated with gross clinical signs. Histopathological examination revealed a range of lesions particularly in pancreatic tissue. The virus was localised in pancreas sections by immunoperoxidase staining using the polyclonal antiserum and by electron microscopy. Examination by electron microscopy demonstrated that the virus isolated in cell culture (1) belongs to the family Birnaviridae, genus Aquabirnaviridae; (2) was ultrastructurally and antigenically similar to virus identified in the index fish; (3) is related to IPNV. Western blot analysis using the polyclonal rabbit antiserum confirmed the cross-reactions between various aquatic birnavirus isolates. In addition, PCR analysis of isolated viral nucleic acid from the index case indicated that the virus is more closely related to IPNV fr21 and N1 isolates than to other birnavirus isolates available for comparison. Sampling of other fish species within Macquarie Harbour has demonstrated that the virus is present in several other species of fish including farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, wild flounder Rhombosolea tapirina, cod Pseudophycis sp., spiked dogfish Squalus megalops and ling Genypterus blacodes.  (+info)

Genome sequence of a VP2/NS junction region of pillar cell necrosis virus (PCNV) in cultured Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. (7/29)

Pillar cell necrosis virus (PCNV) is an aquatic birnavirus that was isolated from farmed Japanese eel experiencing mass mortality. In this study, a VP2/NS junction region in genome segment A of PCNV was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequenced. The VP2/NS region in PCNV had the highest homology with that of a strain Ab of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). This result revealed that PCNV belongs to birnavirus genogroup II.  (+info)

Blotched snakehead virus is a new aquatic birnavirus that is slightly more related to avibirnavirus than to aquabirnavirus. (8/29)

By different approaches, we characterized the birnavirus blotched snakehead virus (BSNV). The sequence of genomic segment A revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs): a large ORF with a 3,207-bp-long nucleotide sequence and a 417-nucleotide-long small ORF located within the N-terminal half of the large ORF, but in a different reading frame. The large ORF was found to encode a polyprotein cotranslationally processed by the viral protease VP4 to generate pVP2 (the VP2 precursor), a 71-amino-acid-long peptide ([X]), VP4, and VP3. The two cleavage sites at the [X]-VP4 and VP4-VP3 junctions were identified by N-terminal sequencing. We showed that the processing of pVP2 generated VP2 and several small peptides (amino acids [aa] 418 to 460, 461 to 467, 468 to 474, and 475 to 486). Two of these peptides (aa 418 to 460 and 475 to 486) were positively identified in the viral particles with 10 additional peptides derived from further processing of the peptide aa 418 to 460. The results suggest that VP4 cleaves multiple Pro-X-Ala downward arrow Ala motifs, with the notable exception of the VP4-VP3 junction. Replacement of the members of the predicted VP4 catalytic dyad (Ser-692 and Lys-729) confirmed their indispensability in the polyprotein processing. The genomic segment B sequence revealed a single large ORF encoding a putative polymerase, VP1. Our results demonstrate that BSNV should be considered a new aquatic birnavirus species, slightly more related to IBDV than to IPNV.  (+info)

The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases.[3] The large RNA segment, segment A, of birnaviruses codes for a polyprotein (N-VP2-VP4-VP3-C) [4] that is processed into the major structural proteins of the virion: VP2, VP3 (a minor structural component of the virus), and into the putative protease VP4.[4] VP4 protein is involved in generating VP2 and VP3.[4] recombinant VP3 is more immunogenic than recombinant VP2.[5] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is an important pathogen in fish farms. Analyses of viral proteins showed that VP2 is the major structural and immunogenic polypeptide of the virus.[6][7] All neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are specific to VP2 and bind to continuous or discontinuous ...
Blosnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Birnaviridae. Blotched snakehead fish serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Blotched snakehead virus. Group: dsRNA Order: Unassigned Family: Birnaviridae Genus: Blosnavirus Blotched snakehead virus Viruses in Blosnavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Single-shelled geometries, and T=13 symmetry. The diameter is around 70 nm. Genomes are linear and have 2 segments, around 2.7-3.4kb in length. The genome codes for 6 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded rna virus transcription is the method of transcription. Blotched snakehead fish serve as the natural host. Viral Zone. ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Blosnavirus ...
Would Someone Please Just Release a Mac OS X Virus Already? For eight plus years weve been told that Mac OS X is just as easy to subvert in the real world as Windows. For eight plus years, Ive waited for the predicted malware tsunami to hit the Mac. Yet, its never happened and the suspense is kil...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is an aquatic member of the Birnaviridae family that causes widespread disease in salmonids. IPNV is represented by multiple strains with markedly different virulence. Comparison of isolates reveals hyper variable regions (HVR), which are presumably associated with pathogenicity. However little is known about the rates and modes of sequence divergence and molecular mechanisms that determine virulence. Also how the host response may influence IPNV virulence is poorly described. In this study we compared two field isolates of IPNV (NFH-Ar and NFH-El). The sequence changes, replication and mortality were assessed following experimental challenge of Atlantic salmon. Gene expression analyses with qPCR and microarray were applied to examine the immune responses in head kidney. Significant differences in mortality were observed between the two isolates, and viral load in the pancreas at 13 days post infection (d p.i.) was more than 4 orders of magnitude ...
218.The IBD virus belongs to the Birnaviridae family of RNA viruses. Two serotypes are known to exist, but only serotype 1 is pathogenic. The virus is highly resistant to most disinfectants and environmental onditions. In contaminated premises, it could persist for months and in water, forage and faeces for weeks. The incubation period is short and the first symptoms appear 2-3 days after infection. The lesions in the bursa of Fabricius are progressive. In the beginning, the bursa is enlarged, oedematous and covered with a gelatinous transudate.. ...
A funny thing happened during an electroshock study of northern snakehead fish that live in the upper tidal Potomac River and its tributaries. It turned out that the largemouth bass outnumbered the dreaded Chinese invaders by at least 100 to 1.
Ella gave Olivia the 8 ball which shows up again in 3.12 Concentrate and ask again. 8 is also Olivias number. Sam knew shes size 8, it shows up throughout S2. In Earthling there is a door number 8 right by her head, In Snakehead when they leave Matts house, the number is 4488, in Jacksonville the building number is 2280, in White Tulip Walter holds two molds together which form an 8 as Olivia sits there with him, in 6B the number on the police car was 4738. I played around with it came up with this: 4 +7= 11, 3+8= 11, 8-3= 5, 7-4= 3, 5+3= 8 which is Olivias number. 8 also stands for infinity. 11+11=22 which is the strongest number. 22 shows up in 3.15 Subject 13. Olivia sits at the table when she sees Peter for the first time and 22 is right behind her ...
REAL, right upper lobe, apical segment (B1), posterior segment (B2), anterior segment (B3), right middle lobe (or more correctly - just middle lobe), lateral segment (B4), medial segment (B5), right lower lobe superior segment (B6), medial segment (B7), anterior segment (B8), lateral segment (B9), posterior segment , left upper lobe, apicoposterior segment (B1/2), anterior segment (B3), superior lingular segment (B4), inferior lingular segment (B5), left lower lobe, superior segment (B6), anteromedial segment (B8), lateral segment (B9), posterior segment (B10), 3d, model, .stl, printable ...
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the aetiological agent of an important disease in hatchery-reared salmonid fish in North America, Europe and Japan. It belongs to the family Birnaviridae and shows a high degree of antigenic heterogeneity. However, genomic variations between the 10 identified serotypes have not yet been studied. In order to correlate genomic heterogeneity with the different serotypes, oligonucleotides were synthesized according to the published sequence of the Jasper strain (serotype A9). They were used as primers for the amplification of a 359 bp cDNA fragment of the viral genome using the polymerase chain reaction. Fragments amplified from 37 strains were digested with five different restriction enzymes. Restriction fragment profiles obtained on agarose gels showed heterogeneity not only between strains of different serotypes, but also among those belonging to serotype A1. A cluster analysis of the restriction patterns showed that IPNV strains can be divided into three
Cleavage sites.Two IPNV VP4 cleavage sites, located at the pVP2-VP4 and VP4-VP3 junctions, were identified by N-terminal sequence analysis of cleavage products produced in E. coli and probed by site-directed mutagenesis. They are characterized by the Ser-X-Ala↓Ser-Gly motif. Two other additional cleavage sites in the carboxyl part of pVP2 (P1 and P′1 positions 486 and 487 and positions 495 and 496) were first identified by sequence comparison (Fig. 10). The P1 and the P′2 residues appeared to be conserved as an alanine and a glycine, respectively. The P3 serine residue can substitute to a threonine (cleavage site positions 486 and 487), whereas the P′1 serine residue was notably substituted to an alanine. The cleavage between pVP2 and VP4 was abolished only when the Ala-Ser 508-509 and the two Ala-Ala 495-496 and 486-487 pairs were mutated together. These observations do not prove definitively the existence (and the functionality) of these two additional cleavage sites. However, these ...
Article: John KR, George MR, Richards R & Frerichs GN (2001) Characteristics of a new reovirus isolated from epizootic ulcerative syndrome infected snakehead fish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 46 (2), pp. 83-92. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao046083
Snakehead rhabdovirus stored in cell culture medium was found to be relatively temperature resistant with ≥ 99.9% reduction in infectivity only occurring after 6 months at 15°C, 6 weeks at 25°C and 10 days at 35°C. At 25°C, virus stability was greatest in the range pH 5-7. Infectivity was less well retained at pH9 and rapidly lost at pH3 and pH11. Stability was poor in serum-free media with a 99.9% reduction in infectivity occurring in less than 48 hours at 25°C in de-ionized water, tap water, balanced salt solutions and artificial seawater. ...
PROPAGATION OF INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS VIRUS IN FISH CELL CULTURES. M. Maistrenko1, Yu. Rud2, L. Buchatsky1,2. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. 1Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, 60, Volodymyrska str., 01033, Kyiv, Ukraine. 2Institute of Fisheries of NAAS, 135, Obukhivska str., 03164, Kyiv, Ukraine. The reproduction of the Ukrainian isolate of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) «Carpathians» in fish continuous cell cultures of RTG-2, FHM and EPC was investigated. All three cell lines were sensitive to virus. IPNV caused morphological changes, such as vacuole enlargements and cells rounding. Subsequently cells scaled from a surface and characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) of virus on cells was visible. For cell lines of RTG-2 and FHM the complete destruction of monolayer was noted on 7-8 day after infection (d.a.i.). For culture of EPC characteristic CPE and complete destruction of cell monolayer were marked ...
Two serotypes have been identified in infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the family Birnaviridae. A reverse genetics system was used for generation of chimeras in genome segment A of the two serotypes, in which the complete viral VP5 gene and 3′ noncoding region (NCR), or parts thereof, were exchanged. The engineered viruses were characterized in vitro and in vivo in comparison to serotype I and II IBDV. Our results show that IBDV chimeras exhibit a different phenotype in cell culture compared to the wild-type viruses. In in vitro-cultivated bursal-derived cells, chimeric viruses infected B lymphocytes, as does serotype I IBDV. Surprisingly, serotype II virus was also able to infect in vitro-cultivated bursal cells, but these were neither B lymphocytes nor macrophages. After infection of susceptible chickens all chimeras replicated in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), and three chimeric viruses caused mild depletion of bursal cells. In contrast, after infection of chickens with a chimeric
These pages were created in support of the dsRNA Virus Symposia. The editors also wish to acknowledge continuing support from BBSRC, DEFRA and the Commission of the European Community. ...
Snakehead fish helps to promote wound-healing after injury and surgery. Get it easily in bottled Fish Essence extracts from Chinese medicine shops & NTUC.
Many of you are suffering from urinary tract infections and using medicines as per their conditions. Is using medicine can cure this disease? Medicine can give only one thing and that is instant relief more […]. ...
Invasive Species - (Channa argus) Watch List - Prohibited in Michigan Northern Snakeheads can reach up to 33 inches in length. They have a tan color with dark brown mottling, an extended anal fin, a pelvic fin up near the gills and pectoral fins. They have sharp teeth like a pike or pickerel.
Methylepitiostanol yog ib qho khoom siv hluav taws xob thiab anemolic steroid (AAS) uas yog thawj zaug tau piav nyob rau hauv phau ntawv 1974 .Nws yog 17a-methylated derivative ntawm epitiostanol, AAS thiab antiestrogen yav tas los siv rau kev kho mob cancer mis hauv Nyij Pooj, thiab zoo sib xws rau mepitiostane (epitiostanol 17-methyloxycyclopentyl ether), yog ib qho ntawm cov lus hais ntawm epitiostanol.
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Noisy Pillars (I Should Have Told You mix) - c64 remix by Mordi. Original by Jeroen Tel. Released |span itemprop=datePublished content=1223804494|12/10/2008|/span|. Lyrics: Running just as far as you can.Beating on my heart.Its all he wants, so.Running just as far as you can. I dont want to wanna no more.I cant take, take no more.(x2). I should have told you.You make the difference.I should have told you.You ...
Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is an acute, contagious disease of trout fry and fingerlings caused by viruses of the family birnaviridae. IPN disease usually results in mortality that is inversely proportional to the age of the fish. While many studies have been carried out to increase our understanding of IPN, little is known about its virulence characteristics for some subtypes common to the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Knowledge of relationships between IPN virus subtypes, epitope patterns and virulence patterns could be useful for developing a successful IPNV vaccine. This study investigated virulence characteristics of IPN viruses in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, fry, using fish mortality, virus titer in fish tissue, and the presence of clinical signs of IPN as indicators of virulence. The relationship between virulence and different IPN virus subtypes, and specific epitopes, or monoclonal antibody binding sites, was also addressed. An additional study focused ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of macrophages by infectious bursal disease virus. AU - Khatri, M.. AU - Sharma, J. M.. PY - 2007/7/1. Y1 - 2007/7/1. N2 - Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important naturally occurring viral diseases of chickens worldwide. The causative agent, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), belongs to the family Birnaviridae. This viruscauses an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease in chickens. The virus infects and destroys actively dividing IgM-bearing B cells. Although B cells are the principal targets for IBDV, recent data show that the virus also infects macrophages. IBDV-infected macrophages produce various cytokines and chemokines which may play an important role in the protection and/or pathogenesis of IBDV. In this review, the modulatory effects of IBDV on macrophages will be discussed.. AB - Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important naturally occurring viral diseases of chickens worldwide. The causative agent, infectious ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigenicity of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus VP2 subviral particles expressed in yeast. AU - Allnutt, F. C.Thomas. AU - Bowers, Robert M.. AU - Rowe, Christopher G.. AU - Vakharia, Vikram N.. AU - LaPatra, Scott E.. AU - Dhar, Arun K.. PY - 2007/6/21. Y1 - 2007/6/21. N2 - Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus, the etiologic agent of infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish, causes significant losses to the aquaculture industry. The gene for the viral capsid protein (VP2) was cloned into a yeast expression vector and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisae. Expression of the capsid gene in yeast resulted in formation of ∼20 nm subviral particles composed solely of VP2 protein. Anti-IPNV antibodies were detected in rainbow trout vaccinated either by injection of purified VP2-subviral particles (rVP2-SVP) or by feeding recombinant yeast expressing rVP2-SVP. Challenge of rVP2-SVP immunized trout with a heterologous IPNV strain and subsequent viral load ...
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a birnavirus that infects the B-cells in the bursa of Fabricius of young chickens, causing Gumboro disease. The IBDV 114 kDa polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH) is thought to be ...
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a birnavirus that infects the B-cells in the bursa of Fabricius of young chickens, causing Gumboro disease. The IBDV 114 kDa polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH) is thought to be ...
The complete genome of snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) was cloned and molecularly characterized. This was initially accomplished through the sequence determination of its glycoprotein gene and the phylogenetic analysis of this gene with orthologous genes from other rhabdoviruses. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that SHRV groups with viruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. The full-length glycoprotein was expressed in mammalian cells to investigate its potential use in the production of pseudotyped retroviruses. The sequence of the entire SHRV genome of 11.6 kb was determined, and all encoded proteins, intergenic transcriptional control motifs, and the leader and trailer regions were identified. The genome was found to encode six proteins including a nucleoprotein, a phosphoprotein, a matrix protein, a glycoprotein, a small--presumably non-virion--protein, and a polymerase protein. The presence of a non-virion protein, which is the hallmark feature of all Novirhabdoviruses, supported SHRVs ...
Looking for selective myocardial cell necrosis? Find out information about selective myocardial cell necrosis. 1. the death of one or more cells in the body, usually within a localized area, as from an interruption of the blood supply to that part 2. death of plant... Explanation of selective myocardial cell necrosis
Does not work either. Also, your mailer destroys your patches. Le 20/02/2015 19:37, Steve Lhomme a écrit : , Heres one over the current master. Ill submit the other one after this , one is in, as it depends on it. , , --- , modules/demux/mkv/demux.cpp , 2 +- , modules/demux/mkv/matroska_segment.cpp , 12 ++++++------ , modules/demux/mkv/matroska_segment_parse.cpp , 14 +++++++------- , 3 files changed, 14 insertions(+), 14 deletions(-) , , diff --git a/modules/demux/mkv/demux.cpp b/modules/demux/mkv/demux.cpp , index 1feca55..21618f4 100644 , --- a/modules/demux/mkv/demux.cpp , +++ b/modules/demux/mkv/demux.cpp , @@ -519,7 +519,7 @@ matroska_stream_c , *demux_sys_t::AnalyseAllSegmentsFound( demux_t *p_demux, EbmlS , // find the families of this segment , KaxInfo *p_info = static_cast,KaxInfo*,(p_l1); , b_keep_segment = b_initial; , - if( unlikely( p_info-,GetSize() ,= SIZE_MAX ) ) , + if( unlikely( p_info-,IsFiniteSize() && , p_info-,GetSize() ,= SIZE_MAX ) ) , { , msg_Err( p_demux, KaxInfo ...
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Thinking about what has changed since the 1980s when although IPNV could be found in fish the actual disease condition was very rare. Over the last 2 decades considerable advances have been made in feed and feeding strategies, photoperiod manipulation and light exposure per se for salmon fry have produced smolting fish at different times of the year and much faster (I hesitate to say better) growth. In land-based freshwater rearing systems with the introduction of oxygen injection the stocking density has increased significantly in a number of farms; along with baseline carbon dioxide levels. So it could be argued that salmon in the 21st century are more highly stressed than their counterpart from the 20th Century. A bit like finely tuned athletes walking a fine line between health and disease susceptibility. Elite human athletes often fall prey to opportunistic and exotic pathogens such as colds and Epstein-Barr virus, the cause of Infectious mononucleosis or alternatively known as the ...
According to Seafood Watch, nearly all wild caught Yellowtail, primarily in U.S. waters, is a Good Alternative while farmed Yellowtail from Japan and Australia is an Avoid. As about 75% of all Yellowtail is farmed, that can be a significant issue. One of the most serious complaints about the farmed Yellowtail is the high FIFO ratio. On the other hand, Kampachi, another type of Yellowtail, is farmed in the waters of Hawaii and is considered by many to be a more sustainable choice. There is now a new producer in the waters, seeking to create a sustainable Yellowtail farm in the pristine ocean off the coast of Baja, in Mexico ...
The Northern snakehead (Channa argus), a member of Channidae family in Perciformes, is an economically important freshwater fish with its main distributions in Asian and African countries. In North America, it has become notorious as an intentionally released invasive species. Its ability to breathe air with gills and migrate short distances over land makes it a good model for bimodal breath research. Therefore, recent researches have been focused on the identification of relevant candidate genes. Here, we performed whole genome sequencing of C. argus to construct its draft genome, aiming to offer useful information for further functional studies and identification of target genes related to air breathing, a distinguished feature of this teleost fish.|br| We assembled the C. argus genome with a total of 140.3 Gigabases (Gb) of raw reads, which were sequenced by the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. The final draft genome assembly is approximately 615.3 million bases (Mb), with contig N50 of 81.4 kb and
To remove the head and tail of fish in possession while at the fishing location, except for snakeheads. The head and tail shall remain attached in such a manner as to permit identification of fish species and total length. A person may take snakehead fish from Maryland waters by any legal means provided that the head of the snakehead fish is immediately removed, or the body is gutted, or the gills are removed from both sides of the fish, or the fish is filleted upon capture ...
A pressure relieving pad with graduated pillars to effectively reduce the development of decubitus ulcers. The pad is preferably made of foam to keep the manufacturing costs down and includes a first plurality of large pillars or columns. A second plurality of smaller pillars or columns is then positioned atop each of the larger pillars forming a progression or graduation of pillars. Adjacent larger pillars are preferably attached to one another at their bases to form an underlying, support platform or level for the pad. In operation, the weight or force of the patient using the pad is progressively transferred from the small pillars on top downwardly through the larger pillars to the underlying support platform or level.
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A cohabitation challenge model was developed for use in evaluating the efficacy of vaccines developed against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) using a stepwise approach. The study involved identifying a set of input variables that were optimized before inclusion in the model. Input variables identified included the highly virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI015-TA encoding the T217A221 motif having the ability to cause |90% mortality and a hazard risk ratio of 490.18 (p|0.000) for use as challenge virus. The challenge dose was estimated at 1x107 TCID50/mL per fish while the proportion of virus shedders was estimated at 12.5% of the total number of fish per tank. The model was designed based on a three parallel tank system in which the Cox hazard proportional regression model was used to estimate the minimum number of fish required to show significant differences between the vaccinated and control fish in each tank. All input variables were optimized to generate
Dan, Ayu adalah seorang yang x tahan sejuk dulu. Camne pun keadaan Ayu akan tidur dengan berselimut satu badan. Dok kat opis pun dengan sarung kaki shawl kot sume lengkap. Ye la..dok dalam aircond kan. Dan Ayu jugak mmg susah nak berpeluh tau dulu. Ko bersukan la camne pun, peluh tu xde la maha hebat die keluar. Tapi sekarang, x heran pun selimut ke sarung kaki ke shawl ke.... Orang lain dok sejut gedix gedix, Ayu mmg relax ea. Siap sape pegang tangan Ayu heran ea nape tangan Ayu panas. Habis Ayu lagi la heran..... Kalau kua dari opis ni, Ayu cam da tekanan da ea..x rela nak berpanas [cam puteri lilin] Mana x nye... Kalau kene matahari,mmg berpeluh. So, Ayu akan jadi x selesa & rase nak mandi je. Kalau kat umah, tgh2 malam Ayu rase panas...mmg Ayu mand. X kisah la kul brp pagi pun. Dan, Ayu akan tidur dengan kipas betul2 menghala kat Ayu. Jgn la sape pun gerakkan kipas tu... ...
Firdaus-e-Bareen & Uwe Braun. Mycofalcella iqbalii, a new aquatic hyphomycete, and a discussion about the generic concept of Anguillospora and similar genera. Mycotaxon 102: 355-363. 2007.. ABSTRACT: A new aquatic hyphomycete, Mycofalcella iqbalii, is described and illustrated from canal water in Pakistan. The conidia have been detected in water throughout the year, but sporulation on randomly collected leaves more commonly occurred between August and December. The generic affinity of the new species is debated in the context of a general discussion about the generic concepts of the complex of hyphomycetes resembling Anguillospora, Anguillosporella, Mycofalcella, and aquatic species of Mycocentrospora. It is proposed to confine Anguillospora to species with unilocal conidiogenous cells and rhexolytic conidial secession, and to widen the concept of Pseudoanguillospora to include taxa with unilocal, determinate or percurrent to multilocal, sympodial conidiogenous cells and schizolytic conidial ...
In one embodiment, a neck bridge for bridging the neck of an aneurysm includes a junction region, a number of radially extending array elements attached to the junction region, and a cover attached to one or both of the junction region and an array element. The array elements are configured to be positioned within the aneurysm after the neck bridge is deployed from a delivery device. In a second embodiment, the neck bridge includes a junction region and a braided or mesh-like structure secured to the junction region. The braided or mesh-like structure is made from an elastic material.
Ayu - Name Meaning. Your name of Ayu has given you a pleasant, easy-going, friendly nature. ... Is the name of Ayu helping or hurting you? Discover your core purpose and make it a reality through a Balanced Name.
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BALAJI SURGICAL - Manufacturer and Distributor of CENTRAL Pillar 4 Function Electric OT Table in New Area, Delhi, Delhi, India. Get deals on CENTRAL Pillar 4 Function Electric OT Table at Tradeindia.
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Birnaviridae proteins[edit]. The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), ... Birnaviridae is a family of viruses. Salmonid fish, young sexually immature chickens, and insects serve as natural hosts. There ... Viruses in Birnaviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Single-shelled geometries, and T=13 symmetry. The diameter is ... "Genome and polypeptides characterization of Tellina virus 1 reveals a fifth genetic cluster in the Birnaviridae family". ...
Blosnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Birnaviridae. Blotched snakehead fish serve as natural hosts. There is ... Group: dsRNA Order: Unassigned Family: Birnaviridae Genus: Blosnavirus Blotched snakehead virus Viruses in Blosnavirus are non- ...
"Birnaviridae" taxonomic term. The additional filters enable you with creating a sub-selection of items of this list. The ...
Birnaviridae Infections. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several ... FAQ - Birnaviridae Infections. (Powered by Yahoo! Answers). What are some ways of preventing infections in wrestling?. I am a ...
Birnaviridae: from Latin prefix bi, "two", signifying the bisegmented nature of the viral genome as well as the presence of ... Birnaviridae is a family of viruses with bisegmented dsRNA genomes with a total of about 6 kbp forming icosahedral, non- ... Figure 4.Birnaviridae. A distance tree representing the phylogenetic relationships of VP1 in the various genera and genetic ... Birnaviridae: Supporting Information. *Authors - Corresponding author: Bernard Delmas ([email protected]) ...
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes an immunosuppressive disease in chickens by destruction of B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius. Apoptosis has also been observed in this and other lymphoid organs. VP5 inhibits apoptosis at the early stage of viral infection in chicken embryonic fibroblast cells, whereas VP2 induces apoptosis in transfected mammalian cells. The latter finding correlates with evidence of apoptosis and B cell death in chickens infected with IBDV. The rapid depletion of B cells in the bursa of Fabricius leads to immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to other infections and diseases. The virus is highly contagious and is of major importance to the poultry industry worldwide. Two serotypes (1 and 2) of IBDV have been identified by cross-neutralization assays. Serotype 1 strains are pathogenic in chickens, whereas serotype 2 strains are nonpathogenic.. ...
The continuous growth of knowledege makes it very difficult for scientists to retrieve comprehensive and accurate data on viruses. The desired information is often dispersed in a variety of books, jou
Birnaviridae. In: Concise Review of Veterinary Virology Author(s):. Carter G.R. and ...
Birnaviridae The genome segments and proteins of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) (genus Aquabirnavirus: family ...
The present invention relates to detecting target nucleic acid sequences in pooled samples. In particular, the present invention relates to compositions and methods for detecting the presence or absence of target nucleic acid sequences (e.g. RNA virus sequences) in a pooled sample employing an INVADER detection assay. In certain embodiments, the present invention allows target nucleic acid sequence detection in pooled biological samples (e.g. pooled blood samples) without prior amplification of the target.
Familie Birnaviridae. *Genus Aquabirnavirus. *Genus Avibirnavirus. *Genus Blosnavirus. *Genus Entomobirnavirus. *Familie ...
Birnaviridae 17. Paramyxoviridae 18. Rhabdoviridae 19. Filoviridae 20. Bornaviridae 21. Orthomyxoviridae 22. Bunyaviridae 23. ...
Family Birnaviridae 392. Family Nadoviridae 394. Family Picornaviridae 394. Family Caliciviridae 399 ...
Birnaviridae. Genus. Aquabirnavirus. Genus. Avibirnavirus. Genus. Blosnavirus. Genus. Entomobirnavirus. Family. Chrysoviridae. ...
Birnaviridae. ; Hepadnaviridae (Hepatitis B virus); Parvoviridae (parvoviruses); Papovaviridae (papilloma viruses, polyoma ...
Birnaviridae. *Reoviridae (e.g. human rotaviruses). Single-stranded RNA. Bacteriophages. *Leviviridae (MS2) ...
Birnaviridae:. Aquabirnavirus. infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Vertebrates. Avibirnavirus. infectious bursal disease ...
The Birnaviridae family is comprised of non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded RNA genome that is divided into two ... The Birnaviridae family is comprised of non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded RNA genome that is divided into two ... Characterising Birnaviridae replication and reassortment in vitro: virus factories derived from distinct input viruses form in ...
双DNA病毒科 Birnaviridae. *金色病毒科 Chrysoviridae. *囊状噬菌体科 Cystoviridae ...
双DNA病毒科 Birnaviridae. *金色病毒科 Chrysoviridae. *囊状噬菌体科 Cystoviridae ...
Drosophila X virus (DXV) belongs to the Birnaviridae family of viruses. Birnaviridae currently consists of three genera. The ... This polypeptide is 977 amino acids in length, making it the largest encoded RdRp in the Birnaviridae family. The RdRp contains ... or downstream pseudoknot that is seen in other members of Birnaviridae. It is hypothesized the small ORF is translated in a ... which is consistent with birnaviridae (Shwed, 2002). The segment A genome is 3360-bp in length. Segment A encodes a polyprotein ...
Icosahedral Symmetry. The cubic symmetry found in viruses is invariably that of an icosahedron, one of the five classical Platonic solids of geometry; it has 12 vertices (corners), 30 edges, and 20 faces, each an equilateral triangle. It has axes of two-, three-, and fivefold rotational symmetry, passing through its edges, faces, and vertices, respectively. The icosahedron is the optimum solution to the problem of constructing, from repeating subunits, a strong structure to enclose a maximum volume. Before icosahedrons were discovered in viruses, the same principles were applied by the architect Buckminster Fuller to the construction of icosahedral buildings (geodesic domes). An object with icosahedral symmetry need not appear angular in outline; the virions of many animal viruses with icosahedral symmetry appear spherical with a bumpy surface.. Only certain arrangements of the capsomers can fit into the faces, edges, and vertices of the viral icosahedron. The capsomers on the faces and ...
... or Birnaviridae (2 dsRNA segments). To date, for viruses of the family Reoviridae, no reverse genetics systems are available. ... Birnaviridae) and positive strand RNA viruses (e.g., Flaviviridae, Picornaviridae, Coronaviridae, Togaviridae). Because the ...
Examples of Class III viruses include Rheoviridae and Birnaviridae.. Class IV: Single stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses. Class IV ...
Birnaviridae. Bromoviridae. Bromovirus. Bunyaviridae. Caulimoviridae. Caulimovirus. Circovirus. Cladosporium Coronavirus. ...
The composition of the cell wall is not completely deciphered. Recent studies indicate that the walls are made of mostly of polysaccharides and chitin. Chitin and phosphate are more abundant in the mycelial form that in the yeast (Ruiz-Herrara, 1998). Knowledge of the cell wall composition and metabolism of Ustilago maydis is still being investigated. However, recent studies have shown that cell walls of the yeast and mycelial forms are mostly made up of polysaccharides. Mycelial forms contain both polysaccharides and chitin (Feldbrugge, 2004). Ustilago maydis is useful in studying many things, such as mating determination, homologous recombination and signaling pathways. This is because during the life cycle of U. maydis, non-pathogenic haploid cells, which grow like yeast, fuse together to form a dikaryotic hyphae (Bolker, ). U. maydis can only induce disease in the dikaryotic stage that occurs after mating. This process involves cAMP and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling that ...
Reoviridae, Birnaviridae. 12 April 2021. Picornavirales, Caliciviridae. Hepeviridae, Astroviridae. 19 April 2021. Togaviridae, ...
Birnaviridae; Hepadnaviridae (Hepatitis B virus); Parvovirida (parvoviruses); Papovaviridae (papilloma viruses, polyoma viruses ...
Birnaviridae. 1. by Padmaja Natarajan Last Modified : Tue Jan 8 19:38:43 PST 2002 ...
  • Birnaviridae is a family of viruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses in Birnaviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Single-shelled geometries, and T=13 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blosnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Birnaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: dsRNA Order: Unassigned Family: Birnaviridae Genus: Blosnavirus Blotched snakehead virus Viruses in Blosnavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Single-shelled geometries, and T=13 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infeksiøst pankreasnekrose-virus (IPNV) er et robust nakent RNA-virus i slekten Aquabirnavirus, familien Birnaviridae. (imr.no)
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is a highly transmissible disease caused by IPN virus (IPNV) which belongs to the Birnaviridae family, genus Aquabirnavirus ( Roberts and Pearson 2005 ). (g3journal.org)
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a bisegmented double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Birnaviridae, genus Aquabirnavirus, which is a major viral pathogen of salmonid fish. (elsevier.com)
  • IBDV is a small, non-enveloped double-stranded RNA virus, belonging to the Birnaviridae family. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • 1974). IBDV is a member of the genus Avibirnavirus of the family Birnaviridae (Chettle, Stuart & Wyeth 1989). (scielo.org.za)
  • IBDV is a member of the genus Avibirnavirus in the family Birnaviridae , and its genome is composed of two segments of double-stranded RNA ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), 1 a member of the Birnaviridae family, is a pathogenic agent that damages the precursors of antibody-producing B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (central humoral immune organ) and causes severe immunodeficiency and mortality in young chickens ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Our main virus model, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is the aetiological agent of an acute immunosuppressive disease that affects juvenile domestic chickens and causes heavy economic losses to the poultry industry world-wide (http://www.oie.int/eng/maladies/en_classification2007.htm?e1d7). (csic.es)
  • The causative agent, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), belongs to the family Birnaviridae. (elsevier.com)
  • Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important member of the Birnaviridae family. (bvsalud.org)
  • IBD is caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a double stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Birnaviridae [2]. (heighpubs.org)
  • Genus Tequatrovirus ( T4virus , T4-ähnliche Viren , en. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus responsible is a bisegmented, double-stranded RNA virus, belonging to the Avibirnavirus genus in the family Birnaviridae. (au-ibar.org)
  • Bergnebb kan bli smittet og representere en symptomfri bærer av IPNV, og kan trolig spre viruset (Gibson mfl. (imr.no)
  • 2008). En særlig høy IPNV prevalens ble observert i villaks samlet inn for bruk som stamfisk i Galicia (Spania), 39 % i 2004 og 51 % 2005 (Bandín & Dopazo 2006). (imr.no)
  • I Norge har en gjennomført IPNV-analyser av laks samlet som stamfisk for kultiveringsformål. (imr.no)
  • IPNV ble i denne perioden påvist i en laks. (imr.no)
  • The blotched snakehead (BSN) cell line associated virus was shown to be a new member of the family Birnaviridae and was also shown to be non-pathogenic for snakehead fish. (www.gov.uk)
  • Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases. (wikipedia.org)