Birefringence: The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Congo Red: An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Scanning Laser Polarimetry: A technique of diagnostic imaging of RETINA or CORNEA of the human eye involving the measurement and interpretation of polarizing ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES such as radio or light waves. It is helpful in the diagnosis of GLAUCOMA; MACULAR DEGENERATION; and other retinal disorders.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Echinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Gamma-Actinin, a new regulatory protein from rabbit skeletal muscle. I. Purification and characterization. (1/338)

A new regulatory protein which we have designated as gamma-actinin has been isolated from native thin filaments of rabbit skeletal muscle. Depolymerized native thin filaments were fractionated by salting out with ammonium sulfate, and the precipitates obtained at 40--60% ammonium sulfate saturation were further subjected to DEAE-Sephadex and Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. The purified gamma-actinin was shown to have a chain weight of 35,000 daltons and had a strong inhibitory action on the polymerization of G-actin. The results of amino acid analysis indicated a unique amino acid composition of gamma-actinin as compared with other structural proteins of muscle. Non-polar and neutral amino acid residues were abundant. One cysteine residue was contained per one molecule of gamma-actinin and played a critical role in the maintenance of the inhibitory activity. Pelleting of gamma-actinin with F-actin showed that gamma-actinin binds to F-action.  (+info)

Single-polymer dynamics in steady shear flow. (2/338)

The conformational dynamics of individual, flexible polymers in steady shear flow were directly observed by the use of video fluorescence microscopy. The probability distribution for the molecular extension was determined as a function of shear rate, gamma;, for two different polymer relaxation times, tau. In contrast to the behavior in pure elongational flow, the average polymer extension in shear flow does not display a sharp coil-stretch transition. Large, aperiodic temporal fluctuations were observed, consistent with end-over-end tumbling of the molecule. The rate of these fluctuations (relative to the relaxation rate) increased as the Weissenberg number, gamma;tau, was increased.  (+info)

Electric birefringence of recombinant spectrin segments 14, 14-15, 14-16, and 14-17 from Drosophila alpha-spectrin. (3/338)

Members of the spectrin protein family can be found in many different cells and organisms. In all cases studied, the major functional role of these proteins is believed to be structural rather than enzymatic. All spectrin proteins are highly elongated and consist mainly of homologous repeats that constitute rigid segments connected in tandem. It is commonly believed that the details of the spectrin function depend critically on the flexibility of the links between the segments. Here we report on a work addressing this question by studying the transient electric birefringence of recombinant spectrin fragments consisting of segments 14, 14-15, 14-16, and 14-17, respectively, from Drosophila alpha-spectrin. Transient electric birefringence depends sharply on both molecular length and flexibility. We found that the birefringence relaxation time of segment 14 measured at 4 degrees C, but scaled to what is expected at 20 degrees C, equals 16 ns (+/-15%) at pH 7.5 and ionic strength 6 mM. This is consistent with this single segment being rigid, 5 nm long and having an axial ratio equal to about two. Under the same conditions, segments 14-15, 14-16 and 14-17 show relaxation times of 45, 39 and 164 ns (all +/-20%), respectively, scaled to what is expected at 20 degrees C. When the temperature is increased to 37 degrees C the main relaxation time for each of these multisegment fragments, scaled to what is expected at 20 degrees C, increased to 46, 80, and 229 ns (all +/-20%), respectively. When the ionic strength and the Debye shielding is low, the dynamics of these short fragments even at physiological temperature is nearly the same as for fully extended weakly bending rods with the same lengths and axial ratios. When the ionic strength is increased to 85 mM, the main relaxation time for each of these multisegment fragments is reduced 20-50% which suggests that at physiological salt and temperature conditions the links in 2-4-segment-long fragments exhibit significant thermally induced flexing. Provided that the recombinant spectrin fragments can serve as a model for native spectrin, this implies that, at physiological conditions, the overall conformational dynamics of a native spectrin protein containing 20-40 segments equals that of a flexible polymer.  (+info)

Designing conditions for in vitro formation of amyloid protofilaments and fibrils. (4/338)

We have been able to convert a small alpha/beta protein, acylphosphatase, from its soluble and native form into insoluble amyloid fibrils of the type observed in a range of pathological conditions. This was achieved by allowing slow growth in a solution containing moderate concentrations of trifluoroethanol. When analyzed with electron microscopy, the protein aggregate present in the sample after long incubation times consisted of extended, unbranched filaments of 30-50 A in width that assemble subsequently into higher order structures. This fibrillar material possesses extensive beta-sheet structure as revealed by far-UV CD and IR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the fibrils exhibit Congo red birefringence, increased fluorescence with thioflavine T and cause a red-shift of the Congo red absorption spectrum. All of these characteristics are typical of amyloid fibrils. The results indicate that formation of amyloid occurs when the native fold of a protein is destabilized under conditions in which noncovalent interactions, and in particular hydrogen bonding, within the polypeptide chain remain favorable. We suggest that amyloid formation is not restricted to a small number of protein sequences but is a property common to many, if not all, natural polypeptide chains under appropriate conditions.  (+info)

Electric field-induced transient birefringence and light scattering of synthetic liposomes. (5/338)

The dynamics of electric field-induced transient birefringence Deltan(t) and light scattering (detected as turbidity) of 190 nm diameter unilamellar vesicles of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine are investigated as a function of applied field strength E, length of the square pulse Deltat, lipid concentration, mean hydrodynamic diameter , ionic strength, and temperature. Generally, induced birefringence exclusively is observed at low lipid concentration and below certain threshold values of E and Deltat, whereas concomitant induced turbidity appears at high lipid concentration and above thresholds values of E and Deltat. Turbidity is monitored through the change in transmitted intensity DeltaS parallel(t) and DeltaS perpendicular(t) of light polarized parallel and perpendicular to the applied field E. The field-induced structural changes are reflected in double-exponential forward relaxation and triple-exponential reverse relaxation of the positive birefringence, and in non-exponential relaxations of DeltaS parallel (t) and DeltaS perpendicular(t). Under the field, the associated physical events are interpreted as elongation of the spherical bilayer shells in the direction of E, linear chain formation (pearling) of the induced dipolar liposomes parallel to E, and partial fusion of adjoining vesicles within the chains. Under conditions where electroporation can be detected, pore opening succeeds the elongation of the vesicles. After termination of the field, the vesicles return to their original time average spherical shape, the oriented chains randomize and disintegrate, and the fused structures are converted either to unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles.  (+info)

Biomechanical, histological and immunohistological studies of patellar cartilage in an ovine model of osteoarthritis induced by lateral meniscectomy. (6/338)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biomechanical, histological and immunohistochemical changes induced in patellar articular cartilage (AC) in ovine stifle joints 3 months after bilateral lateral meniscectomy, a procedure known to induce experimental osteoarthritis (OA) in the femoro-tibial joint (FTJ). METHODOLOGY: Fifteen mature adult Merino female sheep were used in this study. Ten were subjected to bilateral-lateral meniscectomy, while the remaining five were used as 'non-operated controls' (NOC). All animals were killed 3 months post-surgery. Topographical biomechanical indentation tests were performed on each patellae using a UMIS-2000 micro-indentation system. Initial load, relaxed and unload shear moduli were determined using an elastic analytical model, while the permeability was assessed by comparing the indentation response to a simulated indentation test conducted using a poroelastic finite element model. Immunohistochemical, normal and polarized histological studies were performed on each specimen after biomechanical testing. RESULTS: Patellar AC from meniscectomized joints exhibited an overall decrease in initial (-34%), relaxed (-32%) and unload shear modulus (-22%), and an increase in the permeability (+72%) relative to NOC cartilage (P< 0.01). The most significant differences in mechanical properties occurred on the lateral and central aspects of the patellae. There were no significant histological difference in staining between sections from NOC and meniscectomized joint AC using Toluidine Blue, a dye which binds to proteoglycans. However immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody MAb 3B3(-), a putative marker of early OA change in PGs, demonstrated increased binding in the lateral and central regions of patellar sections from meniscectomized joints relative to the same regions of NOC AC. Moreover polarized light microscopy of Picro Sirius red stained sections revealed a significant decrease in birefringence intensity in the superficial-middle zones of the lateral and central regions of the patellar cartilage derived from the meniscectomized joints. CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated that lateral meniscectomy is a procedure which was known to induce classical OA like changes in AC and subchondral bone of the FTJ also produced an early pathological response in the patellar AC.  (+info)

Calculation of protein form birefringence using the finite element method. (7/338)

An approach based on the finite element method (FEM) is employed to calculate the optical properties of macromolecules, specifically form birefringence. Macromolecules are treated as arbitrarily shaped particles suspended in a solvent of refraction index n1. The form birefringence of the solution is calculated as the difference in its refractive index when all the particles of refractive index n2 are either parallel to or normal to the direction of the polarization of light. Since the particles of interest are small compared to the wavelength of light, a quasi-static approximation for the refractive index is used, i.e., that it is equal to the square root of the dielectric constant of the suspension. The average dielectric constant of the mixture is calculated using the finite element method. This approach has been tested for ellipsoidal particles and a good agreement with theoretical results has been obtained. Also, numerical results for the motor domains of ncd and kinesin, small arbitrarily shaped proteins with known x-ray structures, show reasonable agreement with the experimental data obtained from transient electric birefringence experiments.  (+info)

The effects of increasing the reverse curve of Spee in a lower archwire examined using a dynamic photo-elastic gelatine model. (8/338)

This paper describes the development and testing of a dynamic in vitro photo-elastic model for evaluating the effects of orthodontic mechanics on an entire arch of teeth. A model of a mandibular arch was made and the teeth were embedded in a gelatine material with a high level of mechanical creep which permitted tooth movement in response to orthodontic forces. The excellent photo-elastic properties of this material also facilitated the analysis of the stress distribution around the roots of the teeth. The model of a mandibular arch was used to investigate the tooth movements and stress distributions produced by increasing the reverse curve of Spee in a 0.018 x 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire. The results revealed that a 1-mm reverse curve of Spee increased the arch length by 1.6 mm, but increasing the reverse curve of Spee to 5 mm did not increase arch length further. Photo-elastic analysis showed an increased stress distribution around the roots of the incisors and molars as the reverse curve of Spee was increased in the archwire.  (+info)

*Grossular

Birefringence. none. Pleochroism. none. Dispersion. .028. Ultraviolet fluorescence. near colorless to light green - inert to ...

*Torbernite

Birefringence. δ = 0.009 - 0.010. Pleochroism. Visible. Melting point. Decompose before. Fusibility. Decompose before. ...

*Lazulite

Birefringence. δ = 0.033 - 0.037. Pleochroism. Strong: X= colorless, Y= blue, Z= darker blue. ...

*Pseudomalachite

Birefringence. δ = 0.076. Pleochroism. Weak; X = bluish green to pale green; Y = yellowish green; Z = deep bluish green to blue ...

*Diamond

Birefringence. None. Pleochroism. None. Dispersion. 0.044. Melting point. Pressure dependent. References. [1][2]. ...

*Elbaite

Birefringence. δ = 0.020. Other characteristics. piezoelectric and pyroelectric. References. [1][2]. Major varieties. ...

*Sugilite

Birefringence. δ = 0.003. Pleochroism. Weak. References. [1][2][3]. Sugilite (/ˈsuːɡɪlaɪt/ SOO-gi-lyt), also known as lavulite ...

*Moldavite

Birefringence. None. Pleochroism. Absent. Dispersion. None. References. [1]. Moldavite (Czech: Vltavín) is a forest green, ...

*Quartz

Birefringence. +0.009 (B-G interval). Pleochroism. None. Melting point. 1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (β cristobalite)[3]. ...

*Pyrope

Birefringence. Isotropic, appears black in cross-polarized light. Pleochroism. none. Ultraviolet fluorescence. inert. ...

*Smoky quartz

Birefringence. +0.009 (B-G interval). Pleochroism. weak, from red-brown to green-brown. ...

*Asbestos

Birefringence. 0.008. 2V angle. 20° to 60°. Dispersion. relatively weak. Ultraviolet fluorescence. Non-fluorescent. ...

*Epsomite

Birefringence. δ = 0.028. 2V angle. Measured: 52°. Solubility. In water. Alters to. Dehydrates in dry air. ...

*Index ellipsoid

Birefringence D-DIA. ...

*Peter K. Hepler

CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Inoué, S.; A. Bajer (1961). "Birefringence in endosperm mitosis". Chromosoma. 12 ...

*Sewardite

... illustrates weak birefringence; birefringence is directly dependent on the material being anistropic, so since ... sewardite is weakly anistropic, it exhibits weak birefringence. Sewardite has only been found at three locations, in the Tsumeb ...

*1816 in Scotland

David Brewster discovers stress birefringence. Rev. Robert Stirling obtains a U.K. patent for the Stirling hot air engine. ...

*Minyulite

Its birefringence value is 0.007. It has three refractive indices which are nα=1.531 nβ=1.534 nγ=1.538. Refractive indices are ...

*Leonite

The change in a dimension is −11×10−6 K−1. Birefringence drops as temperature rises. It varies from 0.0076 at −150 °C down to ... 0.0067 at 0 °C and 0.0061 at 100 °C. At the lower phase transition, birefringence steps down as the temperature drops; for the ...

*Grandreefite

... and its birefringence is .025. Grandreefite, while not a valuable mineral in terms of commercial use, is useful in the sense ...

*Kanoite

Weisstein, Eric, 1996-2007, "Birefringence." http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/Birefringence.html. Accessed 7 November ...

*Quantum vacuum thruster

T., Roth; G. L. J. A., Rikken (2002). "Observation of Magnetoelectric Linear Birefringence". Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (6): 063001. ...

*Leifite

The maximum birefringence δ = 0. 011. Leifite is not luminescent. The type locality is the Narsaarsuk pegmatite on the ...

*Modern searches for Lorentz violation

For additional coefficients in the photon sector leading to birefringence of light in vacuum, which cannot be redefined as the ... Lorentz violating dispersion relations due to the presence of an anisotropic space might also lead to vacuum birefringence and ... J. P. Leahy: (1997) Comment on the Measurement of Cosmological Birefringence, arXiv:astro-ph/9704285 Wardle; et al. (1997). " ... Borge Nodland, John P. Ralston (1997), Response to Leahy's Comment on the Data's Indication of Cosmological Birefringence, ...

*Kröhnkite

... exhibits the optical property birefringence; the difference in the two refractive indices of a mineral. Because this ...
Abstract: : Purpose: To determine the wavelength dependence of corneal birefringence. Methods: A corneal polarimeter described previously (ARVO 2001; IOVS 2002;43:82-86) was modified to incorporate a multi-spectral light source and a video detector. Corneal birefringence was measured by using a variable retarder to null the fourth Purkinje image viewed through crossed polarizers. The corneas of five eyes of five normal subjects were measured three times at each of several wavelengths from 440 to 700 nm. Results: Corneal axis did not vary significantly with wavelength. Corneal retardance ranged from 85-143 nm in the five subjects. Pooling variances across subjects, the within wavelength s.d. was 10.2 nm and the between wavelength s.d. was 5.3 nm. Conclusion: Corneal birefringence was constant across visible wavelengths. This is consistent with the frequently assumed mechanism of form birefringence, i.e., birefringence due to oriented collagen fibrils in the corneal stroma. ...
Corneal birefringence affects polarization-sensitive optical measurements of the eye. Recent literature supports the idea that corneal birefringence is biaxial, although with some disagreement among reports and without considering corneas with very low values of central retardance. This study measured corneal retardation in eyes with a wide range of central corneal retardance by means of scanning laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC™, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.), which computes the retardance and slow axis of the cornea from images of the bow tie pattern formed by the radial birefringence of the macula. Measurements were obtained at many points on the cornea by translating the instrument. Data were compared to calculations of the retardation produced by a curved biaxial material between two spherical surfaces. Most corneas showed one or two small areas of zero retardance where the refracted ray within the cornea aligned with an optical axis of the material. The retardation patterns in these corneas could ...
Photoreceptors in the central macula are prone to damage in many progressive sight threatening diseases, including AMD. Direct assessment of these photoreceptors is difficult in the aging eye, making indirect techniques particularly valuable. Indirect techniques must utilize unique optical signatures to isolate structures of interest and permit quantitative metrics for comparison. As a complementary technique for assessing the central macula, SLP imaging can utilize the phase retardation signal generated by the photoreceptor axons of the HFL, the only known birefringent structure in the central macula, to selectively study the central macular photoreceptor density and regularity. Similar to the nerve fiber layer (NFL), the magnitude of the phase retardation signal in the central macula would be proportional to the number of axons that make up the Henle fiber layer at any given eccentricity. These central photoreceptor axons splay out in a well-organized, radially symmetric pattern,18 suggesting ...
Nearly all circular dichroism (CD) and linear dichroism (LD) spectrometers use a photoelastic modulator (PEM) in which an optical element is stressed using a high-tension voltage (HT) signal to induce birefringence. The birefringence consequently produces a phase difference between perpendicular polarization states of light passing through the PEM that is appropriate to CD or LD measurements. However, even without external stress (i.e., at zero HT) the PEM exhibits an inherent static birefringence. This article discusses the characterization of the static birefringence inherent to a PEM and its effect on the measurement of CD and LD, as well as the development and implementation of a novel model that accommodates for the presence of static birefringence. The model is validated with CD and LD experiments using purely chiral or linearly structured molecules (camphorsulfonic acid and chrysazin).. PDF Article ...
In this dissertation, liquid crystal (LC) materials and devices are investigated in order to meet the challenges for photonics and displays applications. We have studied three kinds of liquid crystal materials: positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, negative dielectric anisotropic LCs, and dual- frequency LCs. For the positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, we have developed some high birefringence isothiocyanato tolane LC compounds with birefringence ~0.4, and super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane LC compounds with birefringence as high as ~0.7. Moreover, we have studied the photostability of several high birefringence LC compounds, mixtures, and LC alignment layers in order to determine the failure mechanism concerning the lifetime of LC devices. Although cyano and isothiocyanato LC compounds have similar absorption peaks, the isothiocyanato compounds are more stable than their cyano counterparts under the same illumination conditions. This ultraviolet-durable performance of
We report an optical film with electrically tunable birefringence in which the liquid crystals (LCs), mixed with the host polymer, form longrange ordering. The film was prepared through polymerization without phase separation between the LCs and polymers. Driving voltage below 30 V for full switching of birefringence is achieved in a 6 μm-thick film. Electro-optical investigations for the film suggest that the long-range ordering of the LCs mixed in the film caused by polymerization lead to rotations of the LCs as well as optical anisotropy in the film. These films with electrically tunable birefringence could have applications as flexible light modulators and phase retardation films for 2D-3D image switching. © 2014 Optical Society of America. ...
Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) nanofibers are 1D crystalline semiconducting nanostructures, which are known for their application in photovoltaics. Due to the internal arrangement, P3HT nanofibers possess optical anisotropy, which can be enhanced on a macroscale if nanofibers are aligned. Alternating electric field, applied to a solution with dispersed nanofibers, causes their alignment and serves as a method to produce solid layers with ordered nanofibers. The transmission ellipsometry measurements demonstrate the dichroic absorption and birefringence of ordered nanofibers in a wide spectral range of 400-1700 nm. Moreover, the length of nanofibers has a crucial impact on their degree of alignment. Using electric birefringence technique, it is shown that external electric field applied to the solution with P3HT nanofibers can cause direct birefringence modulation. Dynamic alignment of dispersed nanofibers changes the refractive index of the solution and, therefore, the polarization of transmitted ...
Sex chromosomes in crane-fly spermatocytes move polewards at anaphase after the autosomes have reached the poles. In Nephrotoma abbreviate the sex chromosomes are 8 μm long by 3.5 μm wide and have two orientations when they move: the long axis of the sex chromosome is either perpendicular or parallel to the spindle axis. We assume (1) that when a sex chromosome is perpendicular to the spindle axis it has a chromosomal spindle fibre to each pole, one from each kinetochore, as in other species; and (2) that when a sex chromosome is parallel to the spindle axis each kinetochore has spindle fibres to both poles, i.e. that the latter sex chromosomes are maloriented.. We irradiated one kinetochore of one sex chromosome using an ultraviolet microbeam. When both sex chromosomes were normally oriented, irradiation of a single kinetochore permanently blocked movement of both sex chromosomes. Irradiation of non-kinetochore chromosomal regions or of spindle fibres did not block movement, or blocked ...
Over the past twenty years our understanding of polymer solutions has undergone a dramatic evolution. New methods and concepts have extended the frontier of the theory from dilute solutions in which polymers move independently of each other, to concentrated solutions where many polymersentangle with each other. This book provides a comprehensive account of the modern theory for the dynamical properties of polymer solutions. This includes viscoelasticity, diffusion, dynamic light scattering and flow and electric birefringence. Nonlinear viscoelasticity is discussed in detail on thebasis of molecular dynamical models. The book fills a gap between classical theory and modern developments and constructs a consistent picture for the dynamics of polymer solutions over the entire concentration range.
Cascadability and simplicity of design and operation are primary attributes of a novel electrooptic polarization transformer for reset-free endless polarization control that allows general polarization transformations from any arbitrarily varying input and into any arbitrarily varying output polarization by producing adjustment elliptical birefringence of constant total phase retardation in a single-mode waveguide. Here, a particular transformation is obtained by adjusting the azimuth of linear birefringence and the ratio of linear to circular birefringence. In this integrated-optic realization, the endless polarization transformer includes at least one cascadable transformer section comprising a first TE←→TM mode converter followed by a first TE/TM phase shifter followed by a second TE←→TM mode converter and a second TE/TM phase shifter. The sections are formed over a birefringent waveguide capable of supporting propagation of TE and TM optical signal modes.
Birefringent materials have a wide range of optical applications. Single crystals of calcium carbonate and barium borate have been well known as inorganic birefringent materials. Organic single crystals such as urea have also been known to show birefringence. Since birefringence is related to crystal structures, studies on molecular structures and packing in a crystal are important. In 1957, birefringence of tetrakis(4-phenylphenyl)silane was reported (Hinch & Krc, 1957). Recently, birefringence of single crystals of phenyl-substituted linear oligosilanes and their application to polarizers have been reported (Matsumoto & Tanaka, 2008). From these results, crystals of phenyl-substituted silicon compounds seem interesting as potential optical materials. We report herein the synthesis and X-ray crystal analysis of a phenyl-substituted cyclotetrasilane.. The coupling of 1,3-dibromo-1,1,3,3-tetra-tert-butyl-2,2-diphenyltrisilane and dichlorodiisopropylsilane with lithium in tetrahydrofuran (THF) ...
The processing of optical polymers in the production of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and lenses tends to produce birefringence in the materials. Man
... ,In finance, portfolio performance assessment is an important area of research. The two popular indices of performance are the Jensens alpha and the Sharpe index. However there are a number of shortcomings of the above measures that have been highlighted in the literature. We propose a new measure of performance
An electrically dimmable rear-view mirror for motor vehicles of simple and robust construction, suitable for use as an outside mirror or as an interior mirror possessing a transmission layer which is composed of a PLZT ceramic, on which a linear birefringence can be imposed by means of a controlling electric field. The transmission layer is located between a linear polarizer and a reflective layer, the latter being designed as a dielectric multilayer arrangement. Suitable comb-type electrodes are located on that side of the reflective layer which faces away from the transmission layer and, if appropriate, on that side of the polarizer which faces the transmission layer, the function of these comb-type electrodes being to generate the controlling field. The polarizer defines the direction of polarization, which is inclined at 45 with respect to the field direction and/or the optical axis of the transmission layer. The strength of the electric field controlling the dimming effect is regulated in a manner
O. Mykhaylyk. Soft Matter Analytical Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7HF, UK. Since polymeric liquids subjected to an external field (flow) often respond with a related anisotropy of their refractive index and stress, flow birefringence is commonly used for structural characterization of these materials. In this respect, rotational geometries are well suited for visual observations of the flow and, consequently, mechano-optical rheology of polymeric liquids. New applications of a rheo-optical method based on a combination of rotational rheology and a recently developed optical technique - shear-induced polarized light imaging (SIPLI) are presented [1]. Simultaneous rheo-optical studies using rheo-SIPLI have already been successfully used for characterization of self-assembled copolymers and liquid crystals [1, 2]. The proposed rheo-optical method is also effective for studying flow-induced crystallization of semi-crystalline polymers (FIC) [3]. ...
Equipment in the colloidal and particle technology laboratories includes an atomic force microscope, a dynamic light scattering apparatus, a flow birefringence system, an imaging ellipsometer, a Brewster angle microscope, Langmuir troughs for BAM analysis and spectroscopic analysis of monolayers at liquid/vapor and liquid/liquid interfaces, Sensadyne bubble tensiometer, Cahn dynamic contact angle system, an image analysis system for sessile and pendant drop analysis, HPLC with evaporative mass and UV detectors, particle size analyzers, various testers for powder flow and mechanics, and turbulent flow heat transfer and drag reduction circulation loops.. ...
waveplate, Phase retardation plate, Phase plates, compensator, retarder, Zo Order, Lo Order, Zero Order, Low Order, Crystal, Quartz, shifter, polarization rotators, birefringence, electro-optic High, Energy, Waveplates
Abstract: Gravitational waves (GWs) provide an excellent opportunity to test the gravity in the strong gravitational fields. In this article, we calculate the waveform of GWs, produced by the coalescence of compact binaries, in an extension of the Chern-Simons gravity by including higher derivatives of the coupling scalar field. By comparing the two circular polarization modes, we find the effects of amplitude birefringence and velocity birefringence of GWs in their propagation caused by the parity violation in gravity, which are explicitly presented in the GW waveforms by the amplitude and phase modifications respectively. Combining the two modes, we obtain the GW waveforms in the Fourier domain, and find that the deviations from those in General Relativity are dominated by effects of velocity birefringence of GWs. In addition, we also map the effects of the parity violation on the waveform onto the parameterized post-Einsteinian (PPE) framework and identify explicitly the PPE parameters ...
Faint levels of circular polarization (Stokes V) have been detected in several relativistic jets. While typically less than a few percent, circular polarization can give us critical insight into the underlying nature of the jet plasma. Circular polarization can be produced through a process known as linear birefringence, in which initially linearly polarized emission produced in one region of the jet is altered by Faraday rotation as it propagates through other regions of the jet with distinct magnetic field orientations. Recently, Marscher has developed the Turbulent Extreme Multi-Zone (TEMZ) model for blazar emission, in which turbulent plasma crossing a standing shock in the jet is represented by a collection of thousands of individual plasma cells, each with distinct magnetic field orientation. In order to test whether the TEMZ model can reproduce circularly polarized radiation at levels comparable to those observed in blazars, I have developed a numerical algorithm to solve the full Stokes
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP), also and better known as monoammonium phosphate (MAP) in order not to confuse it with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), with formula NH4H2PO4, is formed when a solution of phosphoric acid is added to ammonia until the solution is distinctly acidic. It crystallizes in tetragonal prisms. Monoammonium phosphate is often used in the blending of dry agricultural fertilizers. It supplies soil with the elements nitrogen and phosphorus in a form usable by plants. The compound is also a component of the ABC powder in some dry chemical fire extinguishers. This substance is also supplied in an emerald green, amethyst, aquamarine and any other color available, crystal growing box kit for children. Solid monoammonium phosphate shows a dissociation pressure of ammonia of 0.05 mm Hg at 125 °C based on the decomposition reaction as follows: NH4H2PO4(s) ⇌ NH3(g) + H3PO4(l) ADP is a widely used crystal in the field of optics due to its birefringence properties. As a result of ...
Among the signs of activity in excitable membranes, the action current (electrical spike) has been extensively studied. Recently, a new approach with optical methods has been rewarding. In nerves, a transient, rapid change of light scattering, birefringence and induced fluorescence can be observed during the passage of the action current. These optical effects are synchronous with the electrical spike and are therefore called the optical spikes. Birefringence decreases during excitation in the giant axon of the squid, the walking nerves of Maia, the vagus nerve of the rabbit, but it increases in the olfactory nerve of the pike, which contains 4 million nonmedullated nerve fibres. Light scattering increases or decreases depending on the angle of observation. Vitally stained nerves with fluorescent probes show an increase and a shift in the wavelength distribution of the fluorescent spike. ...
In previous papers on the micellar organization of the nerve fibre, attention has been directed almost entirely to the lipoid-containing sheaths. Polarized light and X-ray diffraction studies have emphasized the similarity of the architecture of these structures over a wide range of animal forms, from the highly myelinated nerves of vertebrates to the so-called non-medullated fibres of invertebrates (Schmitt, Bear and Clark 1935; see preceding paper for other references). To date little more than a beginning has been made with analysis of the ultrastructure of the axoplasm. This has been due largely to technical difficulties arising from the small size and weak birefringence of the axons so far studied, from the unfavourable position of the axis cylinder within more or less complex sheaths, and from the extreme sensitivity of this colloid to the action of reagents. Valentin (1861), Klebs (1865), v. Ebner (1882), and Friedlaender (1889), found no birefringence in the fresh axis cylinder, although ...
0229] Using the two active and one passive dithering systems of the optical display system 640 is it possible to obtain eight copies of the original image, if desired, namely that provided at pixel 660, for example. Such eight copies may be obtained for every field for every frame, if desired and, thus, provide a macro pixel effectively about eight times the size of the pixel 660. In another embodiment, the data picked off the incoming analog signal or other video signal that operates the pixel 660, e.g., to turn it on or off, may be selected at the appropriate time to drive the pixel 660; and subsequently the pixel 661 may be operated as a function of information picked off the incoming video or analog signal representing the desired operation of the pixel 661 for interlaced fields operation of a conventional NTS or PAL system. However, additionally, if desired, the information from the incoming signal also could be picked off to represent the on/off or intensity effect of a pixel presented at ...
In between stress and strain, which one is the more fundamental physical quantity? Or is it the case that each is defined independent of the other and so nothing can be said about their order? Is this the case? To begin with these questions, consider the fact that first we have to apply a force to an object and it is only then that the object is observed to have been deformed or strained. Accordingly, one may say that forces produce strains, and therefore, it seems that stress has to be more fundamental. If so, how come stress cannot be measured directly? This is the paradox I would like to address here. Of course, to begin with, my position is that you can never directly measure stress. I have read somewhere an argument (and forgot exactly where!) that even in photoelasticity what you really measure is strain. The argument, essentially, is this: Birefringence arises because the molecular chains in the photoelastic polymer get stretched. (In case of crystals, "stress-induced" birefringence ...
In between stress and strain, which one is the more fundamental physical quantity? Or is it the case that each is defined independent of the other and so nothing can be said about their order? Is this the case? To begin with these questions, consider the fact that first we have to apply a force to an object and it is only then that the object is observed to have been deformed or strained. Accordingly, one may say that forces produce strains, and therefore, it seems that stress has to be more fundamental. If so, how come stress cannot be measured directly? This is the paradox I would like to address here. Of course, to begin with, my position is that you can never directly measure stress. I have read somewhere an argument (and forgot exactly where!) that even in photoelasticity what you really measure is strain. The argument, essentially, is this: Birefringence arises because the molecular chains in the photoelastic polymer get stretched. (In case of crystals, "stress-induced" birefringence ...
We theoretically propose a method to enhance dramatically a magnetochiral (MC) effect by using the photonic crystals composed of a multiferroic material. The MC effect, the directional birefringence even for unpolarized light, is so small that it has been difficult to observe experimentally. Two kinds of periodic structures are investigated: (a) a multilayer and (b) a stripe composed of a magnetochiral material and air. In both cases, the difference in reflectivity between different magnetization directions is enhanced by a factor of hundreds compared with a bulk material ...
The eyes follow a typical scan path across the text, in the appropriate direction depending upon the language of the propranollol (e. Clin Vis Sri.
An optical film includes a layer of simultaneously biaxially stretched polyolefin film that is substantially non-absorbing and non-scattering for at least one polarization state of visible light. The layer has x, y, and z orthogonal indices of refraction where at least two of the orthogonal indices of refraction are not equal. The layer has an in-plane retardance of 100 nm or less and an out-of-plane retardance of 50 nm or greater.
A reflective polarizer and a dichroic polarizer are combined to provide an improved optical polarizer. The dichroic and reflective polarizers are typically in close proximity to each other, and are preferably bonded together to eliminate the air gap between the polarizers. The combination of the two polarizers provides a high reflectivity of one polarization and high transmission for the perpendicular polarization from the reflective polarizer side of the combined polarizer, and high absorption and transmission for light of orthogonal polarization from the dichroic polarizer side. The combination also reduces iridescence as seen in transmission and when viewed in reflection from the dichroic polarizer side. The increased extinction ratio and low reflectivity of the optical polarizer allows use of a lower extinction ratio dichroic polarizer in applications requiring a given extinction ratio and high transmission.
The two independent refractive indices of anisotropic crystals are quantified in terms of their birefringence, a measure of the difference in refractive index.
The authors demonstrate a high performance electrically controlled birefringence (ECB) mode with solution-derived La{sub 2}O{sub 3} films at various molar concentrations. Uniform and homogeneous liquid crystal (LC) alignment was spontaneously achieved on the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} films for lanthanum concentrations at ratios greater than and equal to 0.2. A preferred orientation of LC molecules appeared along the filling direction, and the LC alignment was maintained via van der Waals force by nanocrystals of the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. The LC alignment mechanism was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. Superior electro-optical characteristics of the ECB cells constructed with solution-derived La{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were observed, which suggests that the proposed solution-derived La{sub 2}O{sub 3} films have strong potential for use in the production of advanced LC displays. ...
The export of the calcitic platelets (coccoliths) of coccolithophores to the sea floor acts as a long-term sink of carbon. In order to understand the effects of current ocean acidification on coccolithophore calcification, it is important to estimate the amount of calcite that is bound in single coccoliths, which - due to their minuteness (1-10 μm) - cannot be individually weighed. To estimate single coccolith weights, this study takes advantage of the birefringence method (Beaufort, 2005), which links the interference color of calcite under polarized light with calcite thickness. Two similar techniques, one using crossed-polarized light (XPL) and one using circular polarized light (CPL), were tested to compare coccolith weight estimates of cultured single clones of Gephyrocapsa oceanica, which - in a previous study (Rickaby et al., 2010) - were grown in increasing concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) but constant pH-levels (~8.1) to reflect long-term buffering of the ocean. In ...
Looking for online definition of Spindle fibers in the Medical Dictionary? Spindle fibers explanation free. What is Spindle fibers? Meaning of Spindle fibers medical term. What does Spindle fibers mean?
Our results identify a dmd morpholino cocktail that induces a high penetrance of muscle lesions and strongly resembles the zebrafish dmd mutant phenotype. We also show that the HDAC inhibitor TSA rescues both dmd-MO and dmd mutant muscle lesions. By comparing different approaches to scoring muscle lesions, our study confirms a previous report 13 that simple assessment of the muscle birefringence pattern in whole larvae, using a stereomicroscope, is a reliable approach to scoring the dmd-MO or dmd mutant phenotype following chemical treatment. Thus, our work identifies optimal morpholino and phenotypic scoring approaches for dystrophic zebrafish, further enhancing the zebrafish dmd model for rapid and cost-effective small molecule screening.. Our work provides additional support for using cocktails of non-overlapping morpholinos targeted against a single gene in order to provide more robust knock down and reduce non-specific morpholino toxicity than by using individual morpholinos 26,29,30,31. We ...
!%Carl Zeiss MicroImaging Inc.s%! Axio Scope.A1 offers polarization microscopy. With minimal effort, six versions of the microscope can be specifical
Optically birefringent microstructures are formed within fluoride films that are produced on uranium dioxide by hydrofluorination. The positive molar volume change of the reaction produces nonuniform tensile and compressive stresses around sites of surface roughness which result in optical double refraction.
A projection system includes a light source producing illumination light, an imager disposed to receive the illumination light, and a projection lens disposed to receive the illumination light from the imager. The imager includes an intrinsic polarizer. The intrinsic polarizer can be an intrinsic polarizer stack including a U.V. curable adhesive.
Toy or novelty including a first polarizer and a second polarizer movable relative to the first polarizer. In a first mode, the first and second polarizers interact to be reflective, and in a second mode, the first and second polarizers is transmissive. The toy may further include an object or image located adjacent the second polarizer, wherein the object or image is viewable through the first and second polarizers in the second mode.
Look at Figure 1, for example; this is a 30 µm thick rock thin-section as viewed between crossed polarizers using a 4X objective for a visual magnification of 40X. The individual mineral grains that make up this rock section are all lying at different orientations, and showing many shades of white and gray. When I view this figure filling up my monitor screen, I can go from grain to grain and name off colors: snow white, off- white, bone, ivory, cream, steel gray, bluish gray, greenish gray, light gray, medium gray, dark gray, charcoal, blue-green gray, olive gray, slate gray, gun metal, mushroom, etc. What I need, however, are not these often-creative verbal descriptions, but a value in nanometers, that the color I am looking at corresponds to; this is why I prefer a Michel-Lévy Interference Color Chart with colors printed as accurately as possible, but with the names of the colors as well. Only with an accurate determination of interference color can I obtain the characteristic birefringence ...
PANDA Polarization Maintaining (PM) fibers are designed with high performance properties including excellent birefringence and low attenuation. Corning offers the broadest portfolio of PANDA PM fibers from wavelengths of 400-1550nm and designs such as High NA and Flame Retardant coatings.
G. It a nd with Congo red, displays birefringence 539 пппппппппппппппCHAPTER 43 Page 585 ппппCh043-X0016. Szabo and T. This account then may suggest questions that can be asked in order to elicit additional nnaproxen.
The colours in the image are the result of birefringence and relate to the residual strain in the polystyrene. The pattern of strain is indicative of the flow of material during the injection process and it highlights the injection point (known as a sprue) which can also be identified by a small lump on the surface; the molecular alignment is greatest near this point. Towards the edges of the ruler and along its length, the material becomes more relaxed and as the molecular alignment falls, the retardation of light is less. If heated above the glass transition temperature of polystyrene (about 100 °C), the material will tend to relax, particularly near the sprue. This will result in a wrinkling of the component ...
Video articles in JoVE about muscular dystrophies include Isometric and Eccentric Force Generation Assessment of Skeletal Muscles Isolated from Murine Models of Muscular Dystrophies, Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Disease, Analysis of Zebrafish Larvae Skeletal Muscle Integrity with Evans Blue Dye, Transplantation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Mesoangioblast-like Myogenic Progenitors in Mouse Models of Muscle Regeneration, In Situ Immunofluorescent Staining of Autophagy in Muscle Stem Cells, In Vivo Modeling of the Morbid Human Genome using Danio rerio, Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Defects in Larval Zebrafish by Birefringence and Touch-evoke Escape Response Assays, Isolation and Immortalization of Patient-derived Cell Lines from Muscle Biopsy for Disease Modeling, Dos and Donts in the Preparation of Muscle Cryosections for Histological Analysis, Analysis of Embryonic and Larval Zebrafish Skeletal Myofibers from Dissociated Preparations,
Electronic, Birefringence, Electron, Report, Charge, X-ray, Absorption, Potassium, Refractive Indices, Magnetic, Vanadium, Anisotropy, Theoretical Study, Art, Laser, Theoretical Studies, Yag Laser, Rotation, Cations, Temperature
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Duncan Johnstone.. The lecture will highlight three experimental strategies that we have developed for exploring crystallization pathways and structural properties of solids: (i) in-situ solid-state NMR techniques for understanding the time-evolution of crystallization processes, (ii) the study of X-ray birefringence for spatially resolved mapping of the distribution of molecular orientations in materials, and (iii) structure determination of organic materials when single crystals cannot be prepared.. Our in-situ solid-state NMR technique [1-3] for studying crystallization pathways exploits the ability of NMR to selectively detect the solid phase in heterogeneous solid/liquid systems of the type that exist during crystallization from solution. We have shown that this technique can establish the sequence of solid phases formed during crystallization processes [1] and can be exploited in the discovery of new polymorphs [2]. Our most recent ...
B Kahr, ed. Optically Anomalous Crystals. English language edition of Nauka publication by A. Shtukenberg and Y. O. Punin Springer Series in Solid State Science, Springer, Dordrecht, 2007. T Bullard, J Freudenthal, S Avagyan, B Kahr. Test of Cairns-Smiths crystals-as-genes hypothesis Faraday Discussions, 2007, 136, 231-245 See also: Chemical Sciences, 2007, 4, C60. D Cohen, JB Benedict, B Morland, D Chiu, B Kahr. Dyeing polymorphs: The MALDI host 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid Cryst. Growth Des. 2007, 7, 492-495. C Isborn, K Claborn, B Kahr. The optical rotatory power of water J. Phys. Chem. A, 2007, 111, 7800-7804. KL Wustholz, ED Bott, CM Isborn, X Li, B Kahr, PJ. Reid. Dispersive kinetics from single molecules oriented in single crystals of potassium acid phthalate J. Phys. Chem. C, 2007, 111, 9146-9156. W Kaminsky, E Gunn, R Sours, B Kahr. Simultaneous false-color imaging of birefringence, extinction, and transmittance at camera speed J. Microscopy, 2007, 228, 153-164. B Kahr, K Claborn The ...
Five monomers 5-[4-(5-cyano-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl)phenoxy]undecyl acrylate (7a); n-alkyl 3-{4-[5-(acryloyloxyundecyl) oxyphenyl]}-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylate (7b,c for n-butyl and n-hexyl, respectively); 3-{4-[5-(acryloyloxyundecyl) oxyphenyl]}-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylic acid (7d) and (1R,2S,5R)-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl acrylate (9) and the corresponding copolymers 10a-d, 11 and homopolymers 12 from 7a and 13 from 9 were designed and synthesized. Except for acrylate 9 which is derived from (-)-menthol, all of the monomers belong to the series containing the isoxazoline ring linked to the acrylate unit by a flexible spacer chain of eleven methylene units. They presented low glass temperature and despite birefringence behavior, these copolymers showed no mesomorphic properties ...
As I mentioned yesterday, I originally ordered 2 and loved them so much I had to go back and get the other two. The original order was for Birefringence and My Little Glacier. After wearing each of those colors for like, an hour, I realized I had made a grave mistake not ordering the rest of the set. Im hemmed and hawed over it because I knew Id have to have them shipped to me before we left Texas. Finally on the Tuesday before we left, I broke down and placed my order in the morning. I sent an inquiry email to make sure I had selected the proper shipping type to make sure the polishes would get to me on time. Within an hour, I had a very lovely email back from Barbra saying that Id managed to catch her just before she went to the post office, and that she would make sure my order went out that day! I was over the moon on that one. So often when you order things online, youre never sure how long its going to take before they process and ship your order (born pretty store, Im looking at ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of…
Dimethyl-Histone H3-K14 Antibody is a Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against Dimethyl-Histone H3-K14. Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Nucleosomes consist of approxim
H4/e Lysate, 0.1 mg. Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes.
Polarcor is a keystone optical element in polarization-dependent isolators, optical modulators, polarimetry systems, ellipsometers, shutters and many other polarization-based devices.
An intrinsic polarizer, including a sheet of PVA-type matrix that includes vinylene polymer blocks, the sheet defining a pass polarization axis and a block polarization axis perpendicular to the pass polarization axis, light having an electrical vector parallel to the pass polarization axis being substantially transmitted through the sheet and light having an electrical vector parallel to the block polarization axis being substantially absorbed by the vinylene blocks, the sheet exhibiting a dichroic ratio of more than 100.
A projection display apparatus (10) uses a modulation optical system (200) that includes a liquid crystal device (210) in combination with a wire grid polarization beamsplitter (240), a wire grid polarization analyzer (270) and a projection lens (285) to form an image. In order to achieve high contrast and maintain high brightness levels, a compensator (260) is provided for minimizing leakage light for pixels in the black (OFF) state. A number of configurations are possible, such as with the compensator (260) disposed in the optical path between the liquid crystal device (210) and the wire grid polarization beamsplitter (240) and with a secondary compensator (265) disposed between wire grid polarization analyzer (270) and the wire grid polarization beamsplitter (240).
GeniCity.com: Innovations Start Here; Shop for Innovative Research Tools - Hardware, Software, and Reagents in Science & Technology - Directly from the Original Manufacturer.
X-ray Polarimetry: A new window in astrophysics, Ed by Ronaldo Bellazzini et al, Published by Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 83-87,(proceedings of The Coming of Age of X-ray Polarimetry, Rome, Italy, April 27-30, 2009) ...
Consumers should immediately stop using the recalled buoyancy compensators and return the two weight pockets to an authorized Aqua Lung dealer to receive a free inspection and free newly-designed replacement weight pocket handles.
Automatisk Polarimeter P3000-Serie. Den måler prøver på bare 1 sekund, uanset rotationsvinklen sparer meget tid over måling med konventionelle polarimetre. Den P3000 betjenes fuldautomatisk med en intuitiv touchscreen. Målte værdier kan vises som optiske rolation vinkler eller i ICUMSA international sukkerskala, og kan udskrives med printeren interface. Det P3000 tilbyder uovertruffen værdi for pengene for alle applikationer, hvor er tilstrækkelig målenøjagtighed til 2 decimaler.. Specifikationer ...
We propose and demonstrate a method for quantum-state tomography of qudits encoded in the quantum polarization of N-photon states. This is achieved by distributing N photons nondeterministically into three paths and their subsequent projection, which for N = 1 is equivalent to measuring the Stokes (or Pauli) operators. The statistics of the recorded N-fold coincidences determines the unknown N-photon polarization state uniquely. The proposed, fixed setup manifestly rules out any systematic measurement errors due to moving components and allows for simple switching between tomography of different states, which makes it ideal for adaptive tomography schemes.. ...
No, your doubts are fine, I think its just that its a long weekend :). As far as I know, VCC cannot be used to prove liveness properties, and I do not think it can be adapted, as the whole point of VCC is to prove properties of arbitrary parallel compositions of threads by proving local properties of single threads. This modularity cannot, a priori, work for liveness property, since you could always add a thread that never releases its locks and break liveness properties of already verified code.. However, you may be able to find invariants on your synchronisation structures (locks, semaphores...), to ensure, for example, that they are released whenever they are not being actively used. A simple paper proof on the side could then convince you (and perhaps others) that your program is indeed deadlock-free.. If those liveness properties are really important to you, I would advise looking into more specific tools (a quick Google gave me this paper, but I am not an expert in liveness, and it is ...
The M-2000 was the first widely-used high-speed ellipsometer. It has a long history of success in research and production, and its optical design includes a single rotating compensator. The RC2 is a newer design with many of the same great features combined with innovative new technology. Further, it has two rotating compensators, which allow measurement of the full Mueller-matrix.. ...
In myopic eyes, it is believed that the assessment of RNFL thickness by SLP should be conducted with caution because of the incidence of ARP. However, there is a paucity of reports that describe the details of SLP assessment of myopic glaucomatous eyes. In the study described herein, we conducted RNFL measurement using both GDx VCC and GDx ECC, and have shown the results of SLP assessment of myopic glaucomatous eyes. As is expected in myopic eyes, we noted that with GDx VCC, myopic glaucomatous eyes, especially highly myopic eyes, showed an ARP in many cases. Although the definition of ARP was not identical between studies, the prevalence of ARP (TSS less than 80) in our study, 14/40 (35.0%) of the moderately and 19/35 (54.3%) of the highly myopic eyes, was higher than that in previous studies, most of which were conducted in populations without highly myopic eyes. According to previous reports, the prevalence of ARP was between 7 and 51%,13 16 17 19 and TSS values were between 71.2 and ...
A miniature optical imaging probe based on a high-fill-factor MEMS mirror has been developed for nondestructive diagnosis of articular joint diseases and i
Selection of the best oocyte for subsequent steps of fertilization and embryo transfer was shown to be the crucial step in human infertility treatment procedure. Oocyte selection using morphological criteria mainly Zona pellucida (ZP) has been the gold standard method in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) clinics, but this selection approach has limitations in terms of accuracy, objectivity and constancy. Recent studies using OMICs-based approaches have allowed the identification of key molecular markers that quantitatively and non-invasively predict the oocyte quality for higher pregnancy rates and efficient infertility treatment. These biomarkers are a valuable reinforcement of the morphological selection criteria widely used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. In this context, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between transcriptomic predictors of oocyte quality found by our group and the conventional morphological parameters of oocyte quality mainly the ZP
Infertility is "a disease" that affects the reproductive apparatus making it unable to carry out a successful clinical pregnancy after at least one year of regular and unprotected intercourse [1]. The worldwide prevalence of this disease keeps rising and is estimated to 1 out of 6 couples of reproductive age. Consequently, an increase need for assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to help couples achieving their parenthood project has been recorded. It is important to highlight that regardless of the infertility cause, the oocyte quality is recognized as the main cornerstone amongst others of any successful ART treatment [2]. Consequently, numerous studies focused on the criteria allowing an efficient selection of high-quality oocytes, named also competent oocytes, for assisted reproduction procedure using both human and animal models. Such oocyte competence is defined as its ability to properly achieve full maturation at nuclear, cytoplasmic and molecular levels, to achieve successful steps ...
WHAT ARE SPRINGLIFE POLARIZERS? Polarizers are antennas that attract amplified chi (life -force) energy which originates from Universal Source. This energy bombards the earth plane at a 45 degree angle and is the sustenance of life. Polarizers are the formulation of just the right mixture of plants and minerals which are considered to be the attracting factor of the Springlife Polarity devices. This formulation remains proprietary for the benefit of humanity. Chi energy is cosmic radiation which is beneficial to all forms of life . The principle action of Springllife Polarizers is to bring into balance all energy fields thus creating a harmonious living environment . Some harmonious have called this measurement of chi the wavelength of "OM". This beneficial wavelength has been found throughout the universe and may be considered one of the cosmic constants of life support. How do polarity products work? They are energy attractors which polarize the energy fields that produce negative toxic ...
Next, we did a variety of controls for the staining procedures: we omitted the primary antibodies; we stained for one protein at a time; we used different secondary antibodies with the same primary antibody; we changed the order of the double staining; we used secondary antibodies with different fluorochromes; and we used a variety of fixation procedures. Results from these control experiments indicate that the staining is due to the primary antibody and is not specific to any single fixation or lysis procedure. Thus, we are confident that the described staining patterns represent non-perturbed patterns of D-titin localization, patterns consistent with staining observed in C. elegans spindles (Zastrow et al., 2006) and in mammalian spindles (Wernyj et al., 2001). Whereas Machado et al. (Machado et al., 1998) did not report staining of spindle fibers in Drosophila or mammalian cells with anti-KZ, the same anti-KZ antibody in the present study did stain spindle fibers. The difference in staining ...
A stainable polymeric sheet material adapted to the production of a light polarizer therefrom is provided by a method, according to which, a support sheet of amorphous polymeric material is uniaxially stretched in a first direction (at or above the glass transition temperature of the polymeric support material), a layer of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is coated from an aqueous PVA-containing composition onto the uniaxially stretched support material, and the PVA-coated uniaxially stretched polymeric sheet material is stretched along a second direction, at an angle within about 60 degrees to a normal to the first direction of stretch. The method provides a material which can be converted, by incorporation of visible dichroism into the PVA layer, to a light polarizer which combines efficient light polarizing properties and good mechanical strength and resistance to fracture along the stretch directions.
We developed a free-space monolithically integrated semi-isolator based on a new type of wire-grid polarizer, nanowire-grid polarizer. The nanowire-grid po
Solid para-H-2 is a promising gain medium for stimulated Raman scattering, due to its high number density and narrow Raman linewidth. In preparation for the design of a cw solid hydrogen Raman laser, we have made the first measurements, to our knowledge, of the index of refraction of a solid para-H-2 crystal, in the wavelength range of 430-1100 nm. For a crystal stabilized at 4.4 K, this refractive index is measured to be n(p-H2) 1.130 +/- 0.001 at 514 nm. A slight, but significant, dependence on the final crystal-growth temperature is observed, with higher n(p-H2) at higher crystal-growth temperatures. Once a crystal is grown, it can be heated up to 10 K with no change in n(p-H2). The refractive index varies only slightly over the observed wavelength range, and no significant birefringence was observed. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America. ...
This study describes a technique which makes it possible to introduce the amyloid-like order to protein aggregates by using the scaffolding framework built from supramolecular, fibrillar Congo red structures arranged in an electric field. The electric field was used not only to obtain a uniform orientation of the charged dye fibrils, but also to make the fibrils long, compact and rigid due to the delocalization of pi electrons, which favors ring stacking and, as a consequence, results in an increased tendency to self-assemble. The protein molecules (immunoglobulin L chain lambda, ferritin) attached to this easily adsorbing dye framework assume its ordered structure. The complex precipitating as plate-like fragments shows birefringence in polarized light. The parallel organization of fibrils can be observed with an electron microscope. The dye framework may be removed via reduction with sodium dithionite, leaving the aggregated protein molecules in the ordered state, as confirmed by X-ray ...
In 1957, Inoué added a polarization rectifier to his custom-built microscope, which dramatically decreased distortion and improved the contrast of the image. Rudolf Oldenbourg further improved the polarizing microscope in the mid-1990s, adding liquid crystals with electro-optical controls and software. This version, called the LC-PolScope, allows one to simultaneously measure the birefringence in every resolved specimen point across the entire viewing field of the microscope; traditional models could only measure a single point of the specimen at a time. The LC-PolScope continues to be refined and expanded for live cell imaging at the MBL. Its technology is being adapted to different application areas by Cambridge Research & Instrumentation and is sold under trademarks such as Oosight and Abrio ...
Liquid crystals are a promising candidate for development of active plasmonics due to their large birefringence, low driving threshold, and versatile driving methods. We review recent progress on the interdisciplinary research field of liquid crystal based plasmonics. The research scope of this field is to build the next generation of reconfigurable plasmonic devices by combining liquid crystals with plasmonic nanostructures. Various active plasmonic devices, such as switches, modulators, color filters, absorbers, have been demonstrated. This review is structured to cover active plasmonic devices from two aspects: functionalities and driven methods. We hope this review would provide basic knowledge for a new researcher to get familiar with the field, and serve as a reference for experienced researchers to keep up the current research trends.
Histone H3R17me2a Antibody is a Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against Histone H3R17me2a. Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core hist
Background Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Nucleosomes consist of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer...
Multi-wavelength optical buffer will be a key element in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) system and all-optical packet-switched networks. In this paper we have presented and demonstrated the dual-wavelength signal buffering in Dual-Loop Optical Buffer (DLOB) based on Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA). The dual-wavelength packets are written in and read out of DLOB by single control signal. As the power of the control signal increasing, the output of the signals is better. In simulation confirmed by experiments, we obtained suitable control power, where the gain and phase-shift difference between "1" bit and "1+1" bit is minimum. More than 12 cycles buffering results have been obtained and the power loss is lower than 4db ...
Thank you for your collagen lesson. Being a histologist in a orthopedic lab for 18 years, I would never offer a partial procedure, so as you can see the procedure I sent does advise the use of polarized observation, as well as the published reference to help answer any questions that mightarise from the procedure. :~} Karen Bowden Research Associate II University of CA, San Diego 9500 Gilman Dr. La Jolla, CA 92093 Tarpley, John wrote: > Sirius red staining must be read using polarized light otherwise the stain > will be over read since structures other than collagen stain red with light > microscopy. Perhaps the best reference for this point is Junqueira LCU, > Bignolas G, & Brentani RR: Picrosirius staining plus polarization > microscopy, a specific method for collagen detection in tissue sections, > Histochemical Journal 11:447-455, 1979. I think the original paper was > Sweat F, Puchtler H, & Rosenthal S: Sirius red F3BA as a stain for > connective tissue, Archives of Pathology 78:69-72, ...
Vector polarizers are a light filtering technology hidden behind the operation of many optical systems, an advance in technology enables flexible filtering.
You can say any foolish thing to a dog, and the dog will give you a look that says, Wow, youre right! I never wouldve thought of that ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a one year programme of running training (up to 40 km/day for 15 weeks) on the spatial orientation pattern of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage in different parts of the knee (stifle) and shoulder joints of young beagle dogs. METHODS: Area specific measurements of the optical path difference (= retardation, gamma) and the cartilage zone thickness were performed using conventional procedures and a new computer based quantitative polarised light microscopy method. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the zonal volume density of collagen fibrils. The concentrations of collagen and hydroxypyridinium crosslinks were investigated biochemically. RESULTS: Running training decreased gamma by 24-34% (p , 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral femoral condyle articular cartilage and at the centre of the tibial condyles. Gamma of glycosaminoglycans decreased by 26% (p , 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral condyle ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Asymmetry in the mitotic spindle induced by the attachment to the cell surface during maturation in the starfish oocyte. AU - Satoh, S. K.. AU - Oka, M. T.. AU - Hamaguchi, Y.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - In order to study the dynamic behavior of the mitotic apparatus leading to unequal cleavage, we investigated the distribution of mitotic microtubules (MTs) during maturation division of starfish oocytes. When the mitotic apparatus attached to the cell surface at metaphase, in both the first and second meiotic division, it is revealed, by immunofluorescence, that the MT distribution in the spindle, as well as in the aster, became asymmetric. MTs in the peripheral half spindle increased in number compared with those in the inner half spindle. Furthermore, these results were confirmed in the living cell by polarization microscopy; shortly after the attachment, the birefringence retardation of the peripheral half spindle became greater than that of the inner one, and the difference ...
0125]Meanwhile, as illustrated in FIGS. 6(a) and 6(b) taking the display element 80 as an example, according to the display element which carries out the display by utilizing a change in an optical anisotropy caused by applying an electric field, including the display element 80 of the example embodiment, the refractive index ellipsoid 3a is spherical when no electric field is applied, that is, the refractive index ellipsoid 3a is optically isotropic when no electric field is applied (nx=ny=nz, orientational order parameter≈0 (substantially 0) in a scale not smaller than the wavelength of visible light). Moreover, the refractive index ellipsoid is optically anisotropic when an electric field is applied (nx,ny, orientational order parameter ,0 in the scale not smaller than the wavelength of visible light), and the refractive index ellipsoid 3a becomes an ellipse (shows the optical anisotropy). Moreover the major axis direction of the refractive index ellipsoid 3a becomes perpendicular to the ...
A polarizer having increased hydrolytic stability is produced by impregnating a polyvinyl alcohol substrate with an iodine containing composition and then subjecting the substrate to both concentrated infrared and ultraviolet radiation treatments sufficient to substantially increase the hydrolytic stability of the thusly formed polarizer. The polyvinyl alcohol film had been laminated to a polyester support with a dispersed, aqueous composition of polyvinyl alcohol or polyurethane on its surface.
1) M. P. Lisitsa et al.. Dispersion of the refractive indices and birefringence of CdSxSe1-x single crystals, Phys. Status Solidi, 31, 389-399 (1969) ...
This sequence taken with the polarizing microscope in 1967 shows the reversible enhancement of spindle volume and birefringence by heavy water in arrested metaphase oocyte of Pectinaria gouldi (ice cream cone worm). In heavy water (45% D2O, middle panel) the spindles get much larger as more tubulin is incorporated into microtubules. This work was conducted before the discovery of how to assemble microtubules in vitro in the early 1970s.. ...
Flow-induced crystallization (FIC) behavior of a high-density polyethylene melt in two entry-exit flow geometries was investigated by direct optical observation using a multi-pass rheometer and the results compared with a viscoelastic flow simulation. A set of experiments was performed at several piston speeds using a sharp and a rounded entry-exit slit and the region of onset for visible FIC was identified in both cases. During flow narrow crystal filament regions localized at the sidewalls and in a downstream "fang" region of stress accumulation were identified. A melt flow two-dimensional numerical simulation using a Lagrangian solver, FLOWSOLVE, and an 11-mode Pom-Pom model satisfactorily matched experimental pressure difference and birefringence fringe distribution for the flow. An algorithm to calculate the specific work accumulated by each fluid element in the complex flow field was implemented within FLOWSOLVE and a method was proposed to estimate the critical specific work for the onset ...
Professors Shin-Tson Wu and Debashis Chandas paper titled "Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces" is a cover/featured article in the June issue of Nature Communications. Other authors include Daniel Franklin, Yuan Chen, Abraham Vazquez-Guardado, Sushrut Modak, Javaneh Boroumand, and Daming Xu.. This paper appeared as a cover/featured article in the June issue of Nature Communications.. "Structural colour arising from nanostructured metallic surfaces offers many benefits compared to conventional pigmentation based display technologies, such as increased resolution and scalability of their optical response with structure dimensions. However, once these structures are fabricated their optical characteristics remain static, limiting their potential application. Here, by using a specially designed nanostructured plasmonic surface in conjunction with high birefringence liquid crystals, we demonstrate a tunable polarizationindependent reflective ...
Division-of-focal plane (DoFP) imaging polarimeters are useful instruments for measuring polarization images for a variety of applications, however only recent advances in nanofabrication have enabled the practical manufacture of these sensors. These sensors are made by integrating nanowire polarization filters directly with an imaging array, and size variations of the nanowires due to fabrication can cause the optical properties of the filters to vary up to 20% across the imaging array. If left unchecked, these variations introduce significant errors when reconstructing the polarization image. Calibration methods offer a means to correct these errors. This work evaluates a scalar and matrix calibration derived from a mathematical model of the polarimeter behavior. The methods are evaluated quantitatively with an existing DoFP polarimeter while varying illumination intensity and angle of linear polarization.
1. Structure and fundamental properties of DNA and RNA. 2. History of discovery of DNA structure. 3. Components, conformation, A-, B-, and Z-form. 4. Forces stabilizing double helix. 5. Higher organization of DNA, chromosomes, nucleosomes, chromatin. 6. Forms of t-RNA, ribosomes. 7. Interactions of DNA with ions, hydrodynamic properties, viscosity. 8. Sedimentation, diffusion, osmosis. 9. Absorption spectra, hypochromicity, thermal stability and thermodynamics of nucleic acids. 10. Thermodynamics of nucleic acids. 11. Optical anisotropy and activity, fluorescence. 12. Electric and magnetic properties of DNA and RNA. 13. Electrophoresis of nucleic acids. 14. Electrochemistry of nucleic acids. 15. Artificial DNA, expanded DNA ...
The combination of rheology with light and polarization microscopy allows deeper insights into the flow and application behavior of products such as foodstuffs, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics, and crude oil. The resulting combined results presented here correlate the microstructure with actual flow and transport processes.. ...
Looking for online definition of VCC1 in the Medical Dictionary? VCC1 explanation free. What is VCC1? Meaning of VCC1 medical term. What does VCC1 mean?
Polarized light microscopy utilizes both a polarizer and an analyzer to provide contrast in specimens. Microscopes with polarization use a polarizer positioned above the light path before the specimen, and an analyzer placed in the optical path between the objective and the eyepiece or camera port. A biological microscope or stereo microscope can have a polarizing kit added on. For advanced polarizing microscopy a polarizing microscope is used ...
the spindle fibers enter the nuclear regioin attaching to a complex system of fibers on the centromere known as the kinetochore. after attachment the spindle fibers align the centromeres along an equatrorial region in the nucleus known as the metaphase plate so that the arms of the chromosome point towards the poles of the cell ...
Im very fond of the views along the length of Strathearn - from the Knock at Crieff or above Monzie joinery on the A822 road looking west, the view to overlapping hills in the distance is deeply pleasant.. This is an unashamed dump of a load of photos made over the course of two strolls up and down Torlum Hill outside Crieff - the first mid-afternoon with a variable-ND / polariser filter, the second immediately afterwards with a regular 2-stop circular polariser instead. The same technique has been applied to all - auto whitebalance and handheld HDR with a 1EV bracket either way. All are presented here in chronological order to compare the difference the light and a proper filter make in the landscape. ...
... : Expression of the iNOS and Arg1 genes in BMA cells as indicators of their polarization states following treatment with LPS, IFNγ+LPS or IL-4. Transcriptional expression of genetic markers in BMA macrophages was determined following treatment and analyzed by densitometry. A. Expression of iNOS was found to increase following LPS and IFNγ+LPS treatments, respectively. Treatment with IL-4 reduced iNOS expression. B. Arg1 expression was found to decrease following LPS treatment, while treatment with IFNγ+LPS and IL-4 produced increased it, with IL-4-treated cells having higher expression than IFNγ+LPS-treated BMAs. This is one representative experiment from 5 independent trials ...
Apparatus for acquiring an image of a specimen comprising a cassette having an optical portion holding a specimen array on a TIR surface and being removably matable to a processing portion having a polarized light beam source and a processing polarization-sensitive portion to image the spatially distributed charges in polarization of the specimen array. In one form the array optical portion comprises a transparent slide having a bottom surface with first and second gratings located to direct polarized light to the TIR surface and to direct light reflected by that (TIR) surface to an imager, respectively. The apparatus may include a flow cell integral with the optical portion as well as means for selecting the direction and wavelength of the polarized light.
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The research protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board for Human Research of the Semmelweis University, and informed consent was obtained from all participants before imaging was done. Of the 357 White individuals (174 glaucoma patients and 183 healthy subjects) imaged with SLP-VCC between May 2004 and January 2005, 27 glaucoma patients (mean age 68.4 years, range 42-82 years) suffering from chronic open angle glaucoma (primary open angle, normal tension, or juvenile glaucoma) and 19 healthy White subjects (mean age 44.8 years, range 18-80 years) without any ocular abnormality were enrolled in the study. The glaucoma patients had reliable and reproducible visual field defects typical for glaucoma, shown with the Octopus program G2 threshold perimetry test (MD and CPSD higher than 2 dB with inferior and/or superior paracentral or arcuate scotomas, nasal step, hemifield defect, or generalised depression) as well as glaucomatous and optic nerve head damage (diffuse or localised ...
Nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) was obtained by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from celluloses of annual plants: miscanthus, flax straw, hemp, Jerusalem artichoke, jute and flax. Properties of CNC suspensions and films were studied using transmission electron microscopy, polarizing optical microscopy, IR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. Nanoscale CNC particles have a pronounced anisotropic rod-like shape. High colloidal stability of CNC aqueous suspensions is determined by a high negative surface charge of CNC particles. CNC films exhibit birefringence and display "fingerprints" textures, which are characteristic of chiral nematic structures ...
DIAGNOSIS: LIGHT CHAIN DEPOSITION DISEASE (LCDD) OF THE BRAIN FOLLOWING CEREBRAL LOW-GRADE LYMPHOMA. DISCUSSION:. Monoclonal Ig deposition diseases (MIDD) are defined by tissue deposits of monotypic Ig heavy or light chains, the major cause being a clonal expansion of Ig-secreting plasma cells. The most common form of MIDD is light chain-derived amyloidosis (AL), characterized by Congo red staining of the deposits and green birefringence under polarization microscopy caused by the -pleated sheet arrangement of amyloid protein. Electron microscopy visualizes nonbranching fibrils with an accompanying pentagonal glycoprotein (P component). Immunohistochemically, the deposits stain monotypically for or chains, the latter predominating (Gallo 1986). In contrast, the less frequently recognized LCDD and the combined light and heavy chain deposition diseases (LHCDD) are characterized by deposits of non-fibrillary, amorphous material without -pleated sheet configuration, which makes them ...
View Notes - genetics help me!!! from FNR 305 at Purdue. Lecture 2 Mitosis and Meiosis Chromatin Allele Centriole Spindle fibers Homologous chromosomes Chromatids Cell cycle Interphase Mitosis
Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and visual sensitivity using scanning laser polarimetry with variable and enhanced corneal compensation.
H. Lekkerkerker (Debye Research Institute, The Netherlands). You described the use of optical tweezers to drag a colloidal particle through a nematic liquid and measure from the velocity the viscosity. Would the measurement of the mean square displacement of a particle fixed in a trap be viable and perhaps allow a more detailed analysis?. H. Gleeson. A measurement of the mean square displacement of the particle would be expected to show anisotropy in the viscosity. However, additional complications might arise from the optical anisotropy of the medium in determining the mean square displacement of the particle in the trap by interferometry of the scattered light. Furthermore, this method provides only a passive measurement of the dynamics within the system. Our measurement evaluates the effective viscosity under flow conditions and is comparable to the theory of Stark & Ventzki (2001) and Stark et al. (2003).. V. Götz (Department of Chemistry, University of York, UK). Is the direction of ...

Birefringence - WikipediaBirefringence - Wikipedia

Birefringence for facetors I: what is birefringence? Archived December 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. First published in ... "Birefringence". Sixty Symbols. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham. The Birefringence of Thin Ice (Tom Wagner, ... Isotropic solids do not exhibit birefringence. However, when they are under mechanical stress, birefringence results. The ... or a crystal of known birefringence is added to the sample for comparison. Birefringence can be observed in amyloid plaques ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birefringence

Flow birefringence - WikipediaFlow birefringence - Wikipedia

In biochemistry, flow birefringence is a hydrodynamic technique for measuring the rotational diffusion constants (or, ... equivalently, the rotational drag coefficients). The birefringence of a solution sandwiched between two concentric cylinders is ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_birefringence

Molecular Expressions DNA Collection - Birefringence of the Transition RegionMolecular Expressions DNA Collection - Birefringence of the Transition Region

Birefringence of the Transition Region. Examination of the cholesteric to high density phase transition region with the aid of ... The result is confusing images that show disorganized birefringence with a negative value for the minute structures seen ... a full-wave retardation plate was conducted to observe the sign of birefringence for this mesophase. ...
more infohttps://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/dna/pages/transition11.html

Birefringence of Dilute PS Solutions in Abrupt Contraction Flow | SpringerLinkBirefringence of Dilute PS Solutions in Abrupt Contraction Flow | SpringerLink

Rheo-optical measurements revealed a localized birefringence zone above a critical strain-rate in... ... Results show a steep decrease in birefringence with axial distance. Birefringence profiles determined in a direction ... Birefringence was studied with a polarization-modulation technique for dilute PS solutions (50-500 ppm) as a function of fluid ... 1999) Birefringence of Dilute PS Solutions in Abrupt Contraction Flow. In: Nguyen T.Q., Kausch HH. (eds) Flexible Polymer ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-58252-3_8

Crystals Compensate for Birefringence in Polymer | Oct 2003 | Photonics SpectraCrystals Compensate for Birefringence in Polymer | Oct 2003 | Photonics Spectra

... and lenses tends to produce birefringence in the materials. Man ... explained that birefringence is a serious problem for LCDs and ... In the pickup lens systems in CD and DVD players, birefringence increases the spot size of the laser beam, thus compromising ... Crystals Compensate for Birefringence in Polymer. Photonics Spectra. Oct 2003 Daniel S. Burgess ... LCDs use plane-polarized light, and the change to elliptical polarization due to birefringence degrades the contrast and other ...
more infohttps://www.photonics.com/Article.aspx?AID=17236

Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics, and You: Light and Color - Optical BirefringenceMolecular Expressions: Science, Optics, and You: Light and Color - Optical Birefringence

The two independent refractive indices of anisotropic crystals are quantified in terms of their birefringence, a measure of the ... Thus, the birefringence (B, often termed d, or D) of a crystal is defined as:. B = ,nhigh - nlow, where n(high) is the largest ... Retardation (G) = thickness (t) x birefringence (B) or G = t x ,nhigh - nlow, where G is the quantitative retardation of the ... Optical Birefringence. Many transparent solids, such as glass, are optically isotropic, which means that their index of ...
more infohttps://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/lightandcolor/birefringence.html

Sensors  | Free Full-Text | Recent Advances in High-Birefringence Fiber Loop Mirror Sensors | HTMLSensors | Free Full-Text | Recent Advances in High-Birefringence Fiber Loop Mirror Sensors | HTML

The paper analyses and compares different types ofhigh-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors using conventional and ... Recent advances in devices and applications of high-birefringence fiber loopmirror sensors are addressed. In optical sensing, ... Birefringence. The birefringence (β) of an optical fiber relates the difference in refractive indices along the fast axis (ny) ... Recent Advances in High-Birefringence Fiber Loop Mirror Sensors. Orlando Frazão 1,3,*, José M. Baptista 2,1 and José L. Santos ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/7/11/2970/htm

Single coccolith weight estimates using two birefringence methods on cultured Gephyrocapsa oceanicaSingle coccolith weight estimates using two birefringence methods on cultured Gephyrocapsa oceanica

... Lochte, Annalena Antonia ... To estimate single coccolith weights, this study takes advantage of the birefringence method (Beaufort, 2005), which links the ... Gephyrocapsa oceanica, coccolith weight estimates, birefringence method, cross-polarized light, circular polarizer, dissolved ...
more infohttp://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:739268

Birefringence measurements in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomographyBirefringence measurements in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

... Mark C. Pierce; John ... Mark C. Pierce, John Strasswimmer, Hyle Park, Barry Cense, Johannes F. de Boer, "Birefringence measurements in human skin using ... Mark C. Pierce, John Strasswimmer, Hyle Park, Barry Cense, Johannes F. de Boer, "Birefringence measurements in human skin using ... Variation in normal skin birefringence according to anatomical location is demonstrated, and discussed in relation to collagen ...
more infohttps://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/journals/Journal-of-Biomedical-Optics/volume-9/issue-2/0000/Birefringence-measurements-in-human-skin-using-polarization-sensitive-optical-coherence/10.1117/1.1645797.short

Effects of M II stage oocytes zona pellucida birefringence on pregnancy outcome.Effects of M II stage oocytes zona pellucida birefringence on pregnancy outcome.

To explore the effects of different M II stage oocytes zona pellucida birefringence on pregnancy outcome. A total of 46 couples ... HZB/low zona birefringence (LZB) group and LZB/LZB group according to different oocytes zona pellucida birefringence. ... Birefringence. Embryo Implantation / physiology*. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Infertility, Male ... Age and FSH levels were negatively correlated with the single oocyte zona pellucida birefringence; While the LH level on the ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Effects-M-II-stage-oocytes/23768833.html

OSA | Tailored surface birefringence by femtosecond laser assisted wet etchingOSA | Tailored surface birefringence by femtosecond laser assisted wet etching

Tailored surface birefringence by femtosecond laser assisted wet etching Rokas Drevinskas, Mindaugas Gecevičius, Martynas ... H. Kikuta, Y. Ohira, and K. Iwata, "Achromatic quarter-wave plates using the dispersion of form birefringence," Appl. Opt. 36(7 ... H. Kikuta, Y. Ohira, and K. Iwata, "Achromatic quarter-wave plates using the dispersion of form birefringence," Appl. Opt. 36(7 ... H. Kikuta, Y. Ohira, and K. Iwata, "Achromatic quarter-wave plates using the dispersion of form birefringence," Appl. Opt. 36(7 ...
more infohttps://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-23-2-1428

En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomographyEn face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

The value of birefringence is calculated for each A-scan in the PS-OCT volume using a quadrature demodulation and phase ... The resulting en face images of tissue birefringence are more useful than conventional PS-OCT B-scans in assessing the severity ... Birefringence and vascular imaging of in vivo human skin by... Proceedings of SPIE (February 16 2017) ... A technique for generating en face parametric images of tissue birefringence from scans acquired using a fiber-based ...
more infohttps://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/journals/Journal-of-Biomedical-Optics/volume-18/issue-6/066005/iEn-face-i-parametric-imaging-of-tissue-birefringence-using-polarization/10.1117/1.JBO.18.6.066005.short?SSO=1

Vitamin C birefringence, polarised light micrograph - Stock Image C036/0910 - Science Photo LibraryVitamin C birefringence, polarised light micrograph - Stock Image C036/0910 - Science Photo Library

Vitamin C crystals, polarised light micrograph. Vitamin C, ascorbic acid, is an essential vitamin that is found in fruit and green vegetables. It is needed for the growth and maintenance of bones, teeth, skin and blood vessels. It is also a powerful antioxidant. Deficiency in vitamin C leads to scurvy, which causes bleeding gums and anaemia. Magnification: x72 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C036/0910
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/854998/view

Superior electro-optical properties of electrically controlled birefringence mode using solution-derived La{sub 2}O{sub 3}...Superior electro-optical properties of electrically controlled birefringence mode using solution-derived La{sub 2}O{sub 3}...

37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ABUNDANCE; BIREFRINGENCE; FILMS; GRAIN ORIENTATION; LANTHANUM; ... Title: Superior electro-optical properties of electrically controlled birefringence mode using solution-derived La{sub 2}O{sub ... The authors demonstrate a high performance electrically controlled birefringence (ECB) mode with solution-derived La{sub 2}O{ ... Journal Article: Superior electro-optical properties of electrically controlled birefringence mode using solution-derived La{ ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479722-superior-electro-optical-properties-electrically-controlled-birefringence-mode-using-solution-derived-la-sub-sub-films

Flow Birefringence - Hinds InstrumentsFlow Birefringence - Hinds Instruments

... especially molten polymers in which flow birefringence has been induced by shear stress. ... Home/Techniques/Birefringence Measurement/Flow Birefringence Flow Birefringence. Photoelastic modulators have been used to ... The laser beam is then analyzed to determine flow birefringence and/or linear dichroism characteristics of the sheared fluid. ... S.J. Johnson, P.L. Frattini and G.G. Fuller, "Simultaneous Dichroism and Birefringence Measurements of Dilute Colloidal ...
more infohttp://www.hindsinstruments.com/techniques/birefringence/flow-birefringence/

Birefringence Measurement   - Hinds InstrumentsBirefringence Measurement - Hinds Instruments

Home/Knowledge Center/Technology Primer/Birefringence Measurement Birefringence Tutorial. Birefringence occurs when an optical ... The induced birefringence may be temporary, as when the material is oscillated, or the birefringence may be residual, as may ... This phenomenon is birefringence and is exhibited to a greater or lesser degree in all anisotropic crystals. The axis along ... Birefringence is measured as the difference of indices of the refraction of the components within the material. For a light ...
more infohttp://www.hindsinstruments.com/knowledge-center/technology-primer/birefringence-primer/

Axonal Birefringence Changes Following Surgical Reduction in Iop | IOVS | ARVO JournalsAxonal Birefringence Changes Following Surgical Reduction in Iop | IOVS | ARVO Journals

... birefringence declines prior to RNFL atrophy. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that RNFL birefringence ... Axonal Birefringence Changes Following Surgical Reduction in Iop You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... M. Sehi, D. S. Grewal, W. J. Feuer, W. Shi, D. S. Greenfield; Axonal Birefringence Changes Following Surgical Reduction in Iop ... Sixty-four corresponding RNFL segments were extracted from the GDxECC and OCT measurement circles and RNFL birefringence values ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2366979

Birefringence Properties of the Central Cornea After LASIK  | IOVS | ARVO JournalsBirefringence Properties of the Central Cornea After LASIK | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Birefringence Properties of the Central Cornea After LASIK You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... Abstract: : Purpose: To determine the changes in corneal birefringence that result from ablation of collagen fibrils in the ... Using the waveplate to extinguish the image yielded values for the axis and retardance of the corneal birefringence. ... D Dursun, V Fernandez, SH Yoo, W Feuer, RW Knighton; Birefringence Properties of the Central Cornea After LASIK . Invest. ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2417391

OSA | High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensorsOSA | High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors

High-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensor using a WDM fused fiber coupler D. J. Passos, Manuel J. Marques, and Orlando Frazão ... High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors Yange Liu, Bo Liu, Xinhuan Feng, Weigang Zhang, Guang ... Liquid-level sensor with a high-birefringence-fiber loop mirror Dong Bo, Zhao Qida, Lvjun Feng, Guo Tuan, Xue Lifang, Li ... Tunable comb filters and refractive index sensors based on fiber loop mirror with inline high birefringence microfiber Wa Jin, ...
more infohttps://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-44-12-2382

Fabrication Procedures and Birefringence Measurements for Designing Magnetically Responsive Lanthanide Ion Chelating...Fabrication Procedures and Birefringence Measurements for Designing Magnetically Responsive Lanthanide Ion Chelating...

Therefore, the final birefringence signal at 5 °C should be the same as before the temperature cycle.11,16 If the birefringence ... The peak birefringence was reached at 5.5 T in accordance with equation 1. This maximal birefringence value is reported in B). ... Moreover, the birefringence signal measured under a magnet field must be normalized by subtracting the mean birefringence ... Birefringence measurements are a viable and comparatively simple alternative. Analogously to NMR experiments, birefringence ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/56812/fabrication-procedures-birefringence-measurements-for-designing

Spatially resolved mapping of phase transitions in liquid-crystalline materials by X-ray birefringence imaging   - Chemical...Spatially resolved mapping of phase transitions in liquid-crystalline materials by X-ray birefringence imaging - Chemical...

While optical birefringence depends on the overall symmetry properties of a material, X-ray birefringence (when studied using ... Subsequently, a new technique called X-ray Birefringence Imaging (XBI) was developed21 to allow X-ray birefringence data to be ... The value of S is often determined by measurement of the optical birefringence (S is proportional to the birefringence). As an ... 5 While optical birefringence is widely exploited in this way, the opportunity to study birefringence of anisotropic materials ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2019/sc/c8sc05285a

Birefringence imaging of biological tissue by spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography | (2007) |...Birefringence imaging of biological tissue by spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography | (2007) |...

And the birefringence contrast of biological tissue possibly changes by some outside force. In addition, the local thickness of ... Birefringence imaging of biological tissue by spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography Author(s): ... Reconstructed images, i.e. birefringence images, from Stokes parameters, retardation and polarization degree of biological ... the birefringence layer determined with our system is significant. The results presented show SDPS-OCT is a potentially ...
more infohttp://spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Paper/10.1117/12.705736

Decreased birefringence of the superficial zone collagen network in the canine knee (stifle) articular cartilage after long...Decreased birefringence of the superficial zone collagen network in the canine knee (stifle) articular cartilage after long...

Decreased birefringence of the superficial zone collagen network in the canine knee (stifle) articular cartilage after long ... Decreased birefringence of the superficial zone collagen network in the canine knee (stifle) articular cartilage after long ... CONCLUSION: Endurance type running exercise in beagles caused a reduction in the superficial zone birefringence of the ...
more infohttp://ard.bmj.com/content/55/4/253

Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography | (1998) |...Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography | (1998) |...

Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography Author(s ... Using a polarization sensitive Michelson interferometer, we measure 2D images of optical birefringence in bovine tendon as a ... Images showing the change in birefringence in response to laser irradiation are presented. The technique allows rapid non- ...
more infohttp://spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Paper/10.1117/12.297943

BirefringenceBirefringence

... , or double refraction, is the decomposition of a ray of light into two rays (the ordinary ray and the ... Measuring birefringence Birefringence and related optical effects (such as optical rotation and linear or circular dichroism) ... Creating birefringence While birefringence is often found naturally (especially in crystals), there are several ways to create ... Elastic birefringence. Another form of birefringence is observed in anisotropic elastic materials. In these materials, shear ...
more infohttp://www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Birefringence.html
  • Hinds Instruments' photoelastic modulation technology can be applied to the measurement of linear birefringence of transparent optical materials and is used in Exicor instrumentation in patented and proprietary ways to produce unprecedented sensitivity. (hindsinstruments.com)
  • They found that the addition of the crystals nearly eliminated orientational birefringence in the drawn polymer film, although it did slightly increase scattering loss, which they suggest may be reduced by employing crystals smaller than approximately 200 X 20 nm. (photonics.com)
  • While optical birefringence depends on the overall symmetry properties of a material, X-ray birefringence (when studied using an X-ray energy corresponding to an absorption edge of an element in the material) is sensitive to the local orientational properties of individual molecules and/or bonds. (rsc.org)
  • The ability of X-ray birefringence to yield insights into molecular orientational properties was first exploited 10 for accurate determination of bond orientations and for establishing changes in molecular orientational distributions associated with order-disorder phase transitions in solids. (rsc.org)
  • Now researchers at Keio University in Yokohama, Japan, and at Japan Science and Technology Corp. in Kawasaki have developed an approach that introduces inorganic crystals with the opposite birefringence to compensate for that of the polymer. (photonics.com)
  • Variation in normal skin birefringence according to anatomical location is demonstrated, and discussed in relation to collagen distribution at each location. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Decreased birefringence of the superficial zone collagen network in the canine knee (stifle) articular cartilage after long distance running training, detected by quantitative polarised light microscopy. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Endurance type running exercise in beagles caused a reduction in the superficial zone birefringence of the articular cartilage, which indicates either a disorganisation or a reorientation of the superficial zone collagen network. (bmj.com)
  • While birefringence is often found naturally (especially in crystals), there are several ways to create it in optically isotropic materials. (chemeurope.com)
  • In many scientific disciplines, the phenomenon of optical birefringence 1 is used as a basis for studying structural anisotropy of materials through the use of the polarizing optical microscope, 2,3 including the widespread application of this technique in the characterization of liquid-crystalline phases. (rsc.org)
  • Applying an electric field can induce molecules to line up or behave asymmetrically, introducing anisotropy and resulting in birefringence. (chemeurope.com)
  • To estimate single coccolith weights, this study takes advantage of the birefringence method (Beaufort, 2005), which links the interference color of calcite under polarized light with calcite thickness. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, the local thickness of the birefringence layer determined with our system is significant. (spie.org)
  • The birefringence is often quantified as the maximum difference between refractive indices exhibited by the material. (wikipedia.org)
  • The crystals properly oriented themselves to compensate for the polymer's birefringence as the polymer chains in the material oriented themselves in processing. (photonics.com)
  • The resulting en face images of tissue birefringence are more useful than conventional PS-OCT B-scans in assessing the severity of tissue damage and in localizing the spatial extent of damage. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The technique allows rapid non-contact investigation of tissue structural properties through 2D imaging of birefringence. (spie.org)
  • METHODS: A total of 46 couples with infertile which induced by single cause received in-vitro fertilization treatment were analyzed retrospectively, and randomly divided into the high zona birefringence (HZB)/HZB group, HZB/low zona birefringence (LZB) group and LZB/LZB group according to different oocytes zona pellucida birefringence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Photoelastic modulators have been used to study the properties of viscous fluids, especially molten polymers in which flow birefringence has been induced by shear stress. (hindsinstruments.com)
  • Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birefringence occurs when an optical material in the path of a beam of light causes the beam to be split into two polarization components which travel at different velocities. (hindsinstruments.com)
  • For a light beam that has been split into two components by a material, birefringence is the difference of the indices of refraction of the components within the material. (hindsinstruments.com)
  • Congo red dye intercalates between the folds and, when observed under polarized light, causes birefringence. (chemeurope.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that RNFL birefringence improves following surgical reduction of IOP. (arvojournals.org)
  • The result is confusing images that show disorganized birefringence with a negative value for the minute structures seen adjacent to the high density phase. (fsu.edu)
  • The authors demonstrate a high performance electrically controlled birefringence (ECB) mode with solution-derived La{sub 2}O{sub 3} films at various molar concentrations. (osti.gov)
  • In biochemistry, flow birefringence is a hydrodynamic technique for measuring the rotational diffusion constants (or, equivalently, the rotational drag coefficients). (wikipedia.org)
  • Birefringence profiles determined in a direction perpendicular to the flow show a maximum, not at the center, but in the vicinity of the orifice walls. (springer.com)
  • Notable departure from the affine deformation model is, however, observed with multiple birefringence saturation levels changing with flow rate conditions. (springer.com)
  • Contact us for more information about flow birefringence. (hindsinstruments.com)
  • Results show a steep decrease in birefringence with axial distance. (springer.com)
  • A significant birefringence change was defined as 1.96 x the weighed test-retest SD in 4 contiguous segments with change occurring in the same direction. (arvojournals.org)
  • The birefringence of a solution sandwiched between two concentric cylinders is measured as a function of the difference in rotational speed between the inner and outer cylinders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birefringence is measured as the difference of indices of the refraction of the components within the material. (hindsinstruments.com)
  • Subsequently, a new technique called X-ray Birefringence Imaging (XBI) was developed 21 to allow X-ray birefringence data to be measured in a spatially resolved manner. (rsc.org)
  • While the LH level on the day of hCG injection was positively correlated with the single oocyte zona pellucida birefringence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Akihiro Tagaya, group leader of the Koike Photonics Polymer Project at Japan Science and Technology, explained that birefringence is a serious problem for LCDs and lens systems. (photonics.com)