Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Ovum Transport: Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Chlamydia muridarum: Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Psittaciformes: An order of BIRDS comprised of several families and more than 300 species. It includes COCKATOOS; PARROTS; PARAKEETS; macaws; and BUDGERIGARS.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Sperm Capacitation: The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Galliformes: An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Falconiformes: An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Metestrus: The period following ESTRUS during which the phenomena of estrus subside in those animals in which pregnancy or pseudopregnancy does not occur.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Conalbumin: A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sparrows: The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Animals, Inbred Strains: Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)GeeseDucksEmbryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Bird Fancier's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Oviparity: The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Salpingitis: Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
... such as insect spermatheca and bird sperm storage tubules (bird anatomy), to more general regions of the reproductive tract ... Formation of a reservoir of sperm in the oviduct. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 37:140-143. Suarez SS. 2008. Control of ... Sperm Competition in Birds: mechanisms and function. In Birkhead TR & Møller AP (eds.) 1998. Sperm Competition and Sexual ... Female choice of young sperm in a genetically monogamous bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 271:134-137. Moore JA ...
Oviduct prolapse is an often fatal condition in birds. When an egg is laid, the vagina everts through the cloaca to deliver the ... Untreated birds will begin to tear at the injury site, and other flockmates will begin to cannibalize the prolapse area, a ... Immediate veterinary assistance is paramount to the survival of a bird with prolapse. Even with immediate medical intervention ...
Six to 14 young with gills develop inside the female's oviduct. At first, they feed on the yolks of their eggs, but they ... Nevertheless, it is eaten by birds, snakes, and large fish. At breeding time, a male and female Cayenne caecilian twine around ... develop rasping teeth and later consume glandular secretions produced by the lining of the oviduct. Birth takes place after ...
Unlike most vertebrates female birds typically have only one functional ovary and oviduct. As a group, birds, like mammals, are ... At the time of fertilization, the eggs travel along oviducts to be fertilized by the sperm and are then expelled from the body ... In females, these gonads are then connected by oviducts to an opening to the outside of the body, typically the cloaca, but ... The uterus and vagina are unique to mammals with no homologue in birds, reptiles, amphibians, or fish.[citation needed] In ...
Initially thought to be a bone fragment from a bird, it was later considered a troodontid, but may in fact be an alvarezsaurid ... This is evidence that these dinosaurs had two functioning oviducts. Varrichio and the other researchers also noted that the ... Ji, Q.; Ji, S.; Lu, J.; You, H.; Chen, W.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. (2005). "First avialan bird from China (Jinfengopteryx elegans gen ... Kessler, E.; Grigorescu, D.; Csiki, Z. (2005). "Elopteryx revisited - a new bird-like specimen from the Maastrichtian of the ...
In early 2017 the population reached about 220 birds. As local farmers suffered harvest losses due to the birds, some farmers ... Macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the oviduct in the sexually mature rhea (Rhea americana). Anatomia, histologia, ... ISBN 0-671-42234-0. "Greater Rhea: Germany's new Big Bird". 10000 Birds. Accordi, Iury Almeida; Barcellos, André. "Composição ... Like many birds which feed on tough plant matter, the greater rhea swallows pebbles which help grind down the food for easy ...
However, crocodilians produce multiple shelled eggs per oviduct at a time, whereas oviraptorosaurs, like birds, produced only ... one egg per oviduct at a time.[15] Relationship to birds[edit]. Oviraptorosaurs, like deinonychosaurs, are so bird-like that ... Paul, G.S. (2002). Dinosaurs of the Air: The Evolution and Loss of Flight in Dinosaurs and Birds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins ... Kurzanov, S.M. (1987). "Avimimidae and the problem of the origin of birds." Transactions of the Joint Soviet-Mongolian ...
However, crocodilians produce multiple shelled eggs per oviduct at a time, whereas oviraptorosaurs, like birds, produced only ... This brooding posture is found today only in birds and supports a behavioral link between birds and theropod dinosaurs. ... In modern bird eggs, coloration can camouflage the eggs or help parents identify eggs, and it is correlated with more intensive ... Paul, G.S. (2002). Dinosaurs of the Air: The Evolution and Loss of Flight in Dinosaurs and Birds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins ...
During rearing, bird weight is carefully monitored, as an over-weight bird will be a poor egg producer. The feed mix will be ... When the rooster mates with the hen, sperm enter the hen's oviduct and are stored within sperm storage glands. These glands can ... The birds are then moved to broiler breeder laying houses or production barns. The birds are typically placed into crates, and ... 11,000 bird capacity (about 1.4 sq ft (0.13 m2) per bird) Ceiling is insulated Exterior curtain side walls. A "minimum ...
... flight narrows the oviduct, which changes the type of egg a bird can lay.[14] Cliff-nesting birds often have highly conical ... Bird eggs. Main article: Bird egg. Bird eggs are laid by females and incubated for a time that varies according to the species ... This shape results from the egg being forced through the oviduct. Muscles contract the oviduct behind the egg, pushing it ... though the extinct elephant bird and some dinosaurs laid larger eggs. The bee hummingbird produces the smallest known bird egg ...
This shows that oviraptorosaurs had two functional oviducts (unlike birds, which have only one), and would produce two eggs at ... All of them have their arms spread out over the eggs in a bird-like posture, and the parent's body would effectively cover the ... like birds), suggesting it was a male. Also, the clutches were proportionally large compared to the size of the adult, which ...
In most birds, the right ovary is not fully developed; however, a study found 6 out of 150 specimens had traces of a right ... ovary although the oviduct was absent. The name in some Hindi dialects for the bird is dabhak churi, which means "crouching ... Birds. Volume 3 (2nd ed.). London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 353-355. Santharam, V (1995). "Some observations on the ground ... The nests and eggs of Indian birds. Volume 2 (2nd ed.). London: R H Porter. pp. 243-247. Mehrotra, PN (1962). "A note on the ...
... as in birds. Crocodiles lay many eggs that are small proportional to adult body size. Birds lay fewer, larger, eggs. The Two ... The eggs are statistically grouped in pairs, which suggests that the animal had two functional oviducts, like crocodiles, ... However, it would not have possessed mammary glands, and would have fed its young, as some birds do, on regurgitated food. He ... The results are that they appear to have had a type of reproduction that is intermediate between crocodiles and birds, as ...
... is a tetrameric biotin-binding protein produced in the oviducts of birds, reptiles and amphibians and deposited in the ... The natural function of avidin in eggs is not known, although it has been postulated to be made in the oviduct as a bacterial ...
Most animals that lay eggs, such as birds and reptiles, including most ovoviviparous species, have an oviduct instead of a ... In monotremes, mammals which lay eggs, namely the platypus and the echidnas, either the term uterus or oviduct is used to ... It is essentially identical with the shell gland of birds and reptiles, with which the uterus is homologous. In mammals, the ...
... as in birds. Crocodiles lay many eggs that are small proportional to adult body size. Birds lay fewer, larger, eggs. The Two ... The eggs are statistically grouped in pairs, which suggests that the animal had two functional oviducts, like crocodiles, ... The metotic strut of Stenonychosaurus was enlarged from side-to-side, similar to Dromaeosaurus and primitive birds like ... Stenonychosaurus had one of the largest known brains of any dinosaur, relative to its body mass (comparable to modern birds).[5 ...
Bird eggs[edit]. The bird egg is a fertilized gamete (or, in the case of some birds, such as chickens, possibly unfertilized) ... The fibrous chicken shell membranes are added in the proximal (white) isthmus of the oviduct.[2] In the distal (red) isthmus ... Hatching birds, amphibian and egg-laying reptiles have an egg-tooth used to start an exit hole in the hard eggshell.[16][17] ... Kilner, R. M. (2006). "The evolution of egg colour and patterning in birds". Biological Reviews. 81 (3): 383-406. CiteSeerX ...
The ovary of teleosts is often contains a hollow, lymph-filled space which opens into the oviduct, and into which the eggs are ... Similarly, while the sinus venosus is present as a vestigial structure in some reptiles and birds, it is otherwise absorbed ... Secondary gymnovarian ovaries shed ova into the coelom from which they go directly into the oviduct. In the third type, the ... Fish eyes are similar to terrestrial vertebrates like birds and mammals, but have a more spherical lens. Their retinas ...
Eggs found in the feces of infected birds are oval with smooth shells and measure 73-92 by 45-57 microns The life cycle of A. ... In heavy infections, adult worms may move up the oviduct and be found in hens' eggs, and sometimes they are also found in the ... The nematode infects fowl of all ages, but the greatest degree of damage is often found in young birds under 12 weeks of age. ... Transport hosts such as earthworms are thought to play a role in transmission of A. galli and hence, free range birds tend to ...
The pairing of the eggs suggests that, like other maniraptorans, the egg-layer of Montanoolithus had two functioning oviducts ... and birds. It contains a single oospecies: M. strongorum. D. K. Zelenitsky and F. Therrien. (2008) "Unique maniraptoran egg ...
Birds do not have lymph nodes. The thymus, where T cells develop, is located in the neck of birds. The Bursa of Fabricius is an ... Maternal IgA and IgM get transferred to the egg as it passes down the oviduct. An important element of immune systems in ... Birds, like other animals, have B cells, T cells and humoral immunity as part of their adaptive response. Various bird organs ... Located in the rump of birds, this organ is full of stem cells and very active in young birds but atrophies after six months. ...
In contrast, bird eggs contain enough to supply the chick with nutriment throughout the whole period of incubation. In the ... the ova develop protective layers and pass through the oviduct to the outside of the body. They are fertilized by male sperm ... either inside the female body (as in birds), or outside (as in many fish). After fertilization, an embryo develops, nourished ... oviparous animals (all birds, most fish, amphibians and reptiles) ...
Infected birds will die 6-12 hours after contracting the bacterium, and very few ill birds have been described.[10] Due to ... peritoneal cavity and oviducts.[12] ... In wild birds, this disease is most commonly associated with ... Adult birds and old chickens are more susceptible. In parental flocks, cocks are far more susceptible than hens. [2] ... Due to the speed of infection and mortality, birds are in good body condition and do not exhibit the signs of prolonged illness ...
... connected to an oviduct - although two ovaries are present in the embryonic stage of each female bird. Some species of birds ... See also: Bird vision and Avian pallium. Birds have acute eyesight-raptors (birds of prey) have vision eight times sharper than ... Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of birds' bodies, shows many unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight. Birds have ... The immune system of birds resembles that of other animals. Birds have both innate and adaptive immune systems. Birds are ...
Infected birds will die 6-12 hours after contracting the bacterium, and very few ill birds have been described. Due to ... peritoneal cavity and oviducts. In acute cases, the most typical p.m. lesion is the petechiae observed in the epicardial fatty ... Chronic carriers can always lead to re-emerging of the disease in susceptible birds... In wild birds, this disease is most ... Adult birds and old chickens are more susceptible. In parental flocks, cocks are far more susceptible than hens. Besides ...
In North America, the females of some species store sperm in their oviducts for at least eight months, and the males (all ... Certain species of birds frequently prey on these snakes, but this is not without risk. Two cases were reported in which dead ... while those that do so for a longer duration mate in the fall and store sperm in the oviduct over the winter, after which ... birds, such as hawks, eagles, owls, roadrunners, and ravens, and mammals, such as coyotes, foxes, wildcats, badgers, skunks and ...
1). Oviduct mass did not differ between birds at the 1-egg stage (with a full follicle hierarchy) and late-laying birds that ... but oviduct masses in these birds (73 mg, 112 mg) were similar to those in birds on the HQD at this stage (mean 91 mg, range 75 ... oviduct mass did not differ between early laying birds at the 1-egg stage compared with late-laying birds (with one remaining ... Diet had a marginally significant effect on oviduct mass in late laying birds: LQD, 151±8 mg, N=4, vs. HQD, 170±4 mg, N=16 (F2, ...
Internal fertilization occurs in birds and eutherian mammals. Foetal development, however, is either extra- respectively intra- ... To determine if the oviduct alters its gene expression in response to sperm entry, segments from the oviduct (UVJ, uterus, ... Oviducts were retrieved for gene-expression analyses via microarray immediately post-mortem (chicken) or at surgery (pig), 24 h ... Seminal Influence on the Oviduct: Mating and/or semen components induce gene expression changes in the pre-ovulatory functional ...
... which has led to further development of the oviduct. In reptiles, birds, and monotremes, the main part of the oviduct is a ... This part of the oviduct is lined with glands that secrete the components of the egg white. The lower portion of the oviduct, ... In mammals, the portion of the oviduct above the uterus is referred to as the Fallopian tube.[citation needed] ... The passageway from the ovaries to the outside of the body is known as the oviduct. In female mammals this passageway is also ...
Egg in oviduct current AHY Generally used for How Sexed, but can be used for AHY ... Auxiliary Marker on bird at capture current Any age Birds with auxiliary markers (like web tags) and no Federal band or with ... A nestling or young bird incapable of sustained flight. After a young bird achieves sustained flight it becomes age HY until ... Re-captured bird with USGS band current Any Age Can be used with recaptures (including replaced bands) for ages beyond SY, TY. ...
Paired ovaries and oviducts. Oviduct structure and function is similar to birds. Most species are oviparous - viviparous. Most ... 2. Some birds have a countercurrent heat exchange system in legs to reduce heat loss and conserve energy. 3. Birds and reptiles ... Birds cannot fall off a perch when asleep. Each toe is connected to a cord inside the leg. When the leg is bent the cord ... Bird poop. Urine is the liquid portion, uric acid is the pasty portion, feces is the color variation. ...
... muscles and smooth muscles of the viscera of birds resemble those of reptiles and mammals. The smooth muscles in the skin ... Usually only the left ovary and oviduct are functional. As the egg moves down the oviduct, the albumen, membranes, and shell ... The origin of birds. The debate over the origin of birds centres on whether birds descended directly from thecodont reptiles ... 66 species in 6 families worldwide, including cormorants, boobies, gannets, tropic birds, and frigate birds. Water birds with ...
However, crocodilians produce multiple shelled eggs per oviduct at a time, whereas oviraptorosaurs, like birds, produced only ... one egg per oviduct at a time.[15] Relationship to birds[edit]. Oviraptorosaurs, like deinonychosaurs, are so bird-like that ... Paul, G.S. (2002). Dinosaurs of the Air: The Evolution and Loss of Flight in Dinosaurs and Birds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins ... Kurzanov, S.M. (1987). "Avimimidae and the problem of the origin of birds." Transactions of the Joint Soviet-Mongolian ...
Histochemical studies of utervaginal sperm storage areas and other regions of the oviduct in birds (Bakst, 1987; Bakst and Bird ... Bakst MR, Bird DM. 1987. Location of oviduct sperm-storage tubules in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Auk 104:321- 324 ... UTERUS, OVIDUCT, AND STORED SPERM IN TURTLE Bjorkman N, Fredricsson B. 1961. The bovine oviduct epithelium and its secretory ... The secretory cells of the oviduct in green turtles Chelonia mydas L likely UTERUS, OVIDUCT, AND STORED SPERM IN TURTLE Fig. 13 ...
That approach cant work with birds, because their embryos never implant; they move constantly down the oviduct. There is a ... It involves creating chimeric parent birds with the gonads of the extinct birds, capable of fertilizing and laying eggs of the ... If it looks like a passenger pigeon and flies like one, is it the original bird?. And how do you then get to a living animal? ... If it looks like a passenger pigeon and flies like one, is it the original bird? We dont have any living originals to compare ...
In reptiles and birds, ovarian weight also is high in proportion to body weight during egg-laying seasons. The weight of the ... At this time, the egg has little shape and is partly squirted and partly flows into the oviduct; never completely free in the ... Elasmobranchs, reptiles, and birds have massively yolked eggs. As ovulation approaches, the fimbria (i.e., frills, or fringes) ... Full growth of the follicle in reptiles and birds requires only a few days or weeks (nine days in the domestic hen). In mammals ...
Infection in a hens oviduct. Such infections are rare. If they occur, make every effort to identify and cull the affected ...
Oviduct prolapse is an often fatal condition in birds. When an egg is laid, the vagina everts through the cloaca to deliver the ... Untreated birds will begin to tear at the injury site, and other flockmates will begin to cannibalize the prolapse area, a ... Immediate veterinary assistance is paramount to the survival of a bird with prolapse. Even with immediate medical intervention ...
For expression in avian oviduct cells, primary tubular gland cells were isolated as follows. The oviduct of a Japanese quail ( ... an ornamental bird or a feral bird. In another embodiment, the avian is a chicken and the heterologous protein produced under ... an ornamental bird or a feral bird. In another embodiment of the present invention, the transgenic avian is a chicken. ... an ornamental bird or a feral bird.. In another embodiment of the present invention, the isolated nucleic acid is obtained from ...
... suggesting convergent emotional evolution in birds and mammals. ... Ut and oviducts from WT females mated with WT and Lypd4 KO ... S6D). As expected, (Cstl1-Cstdc2)del/del spermatozoa failed to migrate from the Ut to the oviduct (Fig. 4E). These results ... Factors controlling sperm migration through the oviduct revealed by gene-modified mouse models. Exp. Anim. 67, 91-104 (2018).. ... However, Lypd4 KO spermatozoa were unable to migrate through the oviduct (Fig. 6E). These results indicate that Lypd4 KO ...
Most birds forgo genitalia for a single all-purpose opening called the cloaca. Waterfowl are the well-endowed exception. The ... But amongst the webfooted Ron Jeremys, phallus and oviduct size is related to sexual violence. Female ducks in large-phallused ... Female ducks have equally elaborate reproductive tracts , called oviducts, with spirals and twists and dead ends. (Incidentally ... the bends and twists in her oviduct make it hard for the male to get his phallus position. Considering only 2 percent to 5 ...
The younger the birds the more likely there will be severe damage. In birds where the oviduct is damaged, the ovary will still ... When the birds mature, fluid filled cysts may be seen in the oviduct.. Follicles will be found on the ovary, and the pelvic ... For post-mortem, try to select birds with pendulous abdomens and make a detailed examination of the oviduct.. Serum samples ... Birds in rear must be kept under a very high standard of biosecurity till at least eight weeks and all people entering the ...
This organism found a new niche in the oviduct of laying chickens. While causing no disease to the bird, by seeding itself in ...
Six to 14 young with gills develop inside the females oviduct. At first, they feed on the yolks of their eggs, but they ... Nevertheless, it is eaten by birds, snakes, and large fish. At breeding time, a male and female Cayenne caecilian twine around ... develop rasping teeth and later consume glandular secretions produced by the lining of the oviduct. Birth takes place after ...
As the egg passes down the oviduct what gets added to it?. ... How can birds reduce stalling?. Definition. As lift and angle ... a vertical LIFTing force to support the birds weight. horizontal THRUSTing force to move bird against the resistive forces of ... If the angle is greater than 15 percent the bird may stall. - they have wing slots (from the alula which are small feathers on ... In large plant-eating birds what serve as fermentation chambers?. Definition. paired ceca at the junction of the intestine and ...
Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park - Alligator Attractions and Exhibits, Zoo, Zip Lining, Bird Rookery and Nature and ... turtles and birds; oviduct homologies between crocodilians and birds; similar forelimb structures in crocodiles and other ... Unlike most birds, hatchling crocodiles are ready to feed on their own soon after hatching. In spite of this, there have been ... Modern crocodilians and birds are the only living representatives of the Archosauria, a group that also includes non-avian ...
Top-down regression of the avian oviduct during late oviposition in a small passerine bird. J. Exp. Biol. 207:263-268.. ... Intraspecific variation in bird colors. In: Bird Coloration, Function and Evolution, Hill, G.E.and K.J. McGraw, eds., pp. 36-86 ... Bycatch and Beached Birds: Assessing mortality impacts in coastal net fisheries with marine bird strandings. Marine Ornithology ... The abundance and distribution of estuarine birds in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. B.C. Birds 6:18-19.. Breault, S ...
... such as insect spermatheca and bird sperm storage tubules (bird anatomy), to more general regions of the reproductive tract ... Formation of a reservoir of sperm in the oviduct. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 37:140-143. Suarez SS. 2008. Control of ... Sperm Competition in Birds: mechanisms and function. In Birkhead TR & Møller AP (eds.) 1998. Sperm Competition and Sexual ... Female choice of young sperm in a genetically monogamous bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 271:134-137. Moore JA ...
... flight narrows the oviduct, which changes the type of egg a bird can lay.[14] Cliff-nesting birds often have highly conical ... Bird eggs. Main article: Bird egg. Bird eggs are laid by females and incubated for a time that varies according to the species ... This shape results from the egg being forced through the oviduct. Muscles contract the oviduct behind the egg, pushing it ... though the extinct elephant bird and some dinosaurs laid larger eggs. The bee hummingbird produces the smallest known bird egg ...
Lack of signs in the birds themselves. Post-mortem lesions. *No specific lesion - only a slight atrophy of ovary and oviduct. ... Lateral transmission from bird to bird is slow and may be prevented or slowed for weeks by netting divisions. Contamination of ... Histopathology - it may be possible to demonstrate degenerative changes in the epithelial cells of the magnum of the oviduct. ... Antibodies passed from mother to chick provide young birds with their earliest form of immune protection. However, new s… ...
Avidin is produced in the oviducts of birds, reptiles and amphibians and is deposited in the whites of their eggs. Avidin binds ...
  • While these studies suggest potential `costs' to individuals with large oviducts, Christians and Williams ( 1999 ) reported a positive relationship between albumen protein content of eggs and oviduct mass, i.e. individuals with larger oviducts might benefit in being able to produce higher quality eggs ( Williams, 1994 ). (biologists.org)
  • The eggs travel along the oviduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ovary itself is hollow, with eggs being shed into the central cavity, and thence passing directly into the oviduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • In reptiles, birds, and monotremes , the main part of the oviduct is a muscular tube, capable of considerable distension to transport the large eggs that are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Follicles will be found on the ovary, and the pelvic bones will open, but the oviduct, due to cysts, constrictions or other damage, will not allow the proper formation or passage of eggs. (fwi.co.uk)
  • This means that the birds that are producing eggs will be over stimulated by feed and the number of double yolks will increase, as will birds with peritonitis. (fwi.co.uk)
  • At first, they feed on the yolks of their eggs, but they develop rasping teeth and later consume glandular secretions produced by the lining of the oviduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggs of various birds , a reptile , various cartilaginous fish , a cuttlefish and various butterflies and moths . (wikipedia.org)
  • Reptile eggs, bird eggs , and monotreme eggs are laid out of water, and are surrounded by a protective shell , either flexible or inflexible. (wikipedia.org)
  • At 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) and up to 17.8 cm × 14 cm (7.0 in × 5.5 in), the ostrich egg is the largest egg of any living bird, though the extinct elephant bird and some dinosaurs laid larger eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation of haemagglutinatin agent in duck eggs or cell culture, group antigen distinct from classical adenoviruses (white cells, throat swabs, oviduct). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Avidin is produced in the oviducts of bird s, reptiles and amphibians and is deposited in the whites of their eggs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Blood in the eggs is from ruptured blood vessels in the oviduct. (backyardchickens.com)
  • ALL bird eggs have them. (backyardchickens.com)
  • Eggs depend on a really interesting organ called an oviduct. (theconversation.com)
  • Birds lay eggs in a diverse array of colors, patterns, sizes, and shapes, as seen in this assortment from the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology collection. (eurekalert.org)
  • The eggs laid by birds come in an astonishing variety of shapes: ellipses in hummingbirds, spheres in owls, pointy ovoids in shorebirds and almost everything in between. (eurekalert.org)
  • Birds that are good fliers tend to lay asymmetric or elliptical eggs. (eurekalert.org)
  • The analysis revealed that birds tend to lay eggs that are more asymmetric and more elliptical if they are better fliers. (eurekalert.org)
  • For example, birds are special in that they can lay pointy, asymmetric eggs. (eurekalert.org)
  • This invention is directed to a surgical isolator and cradle, suitable for the use in a surgical method involving the removal of prematura eggs from birds in order to generate germ-free eggs and birds. (google.com)
  • The present invention is concerned with a surgical isolator and cradle for use in sterile procedures for obtaining eggs and birds of specified germ-free status. (google.com)
  • In this specification, the term "contamination free/germ-free" is used very broadly and relates to many pathogens and infections that can be carried by birds, particularly, poultry such as chickens and turkeys which are used widely to produce flocks of birds for breeding to produce fertile eggs for commercial production and to produce eggs and meat for human consumption. (google.com)
  • Further, such eggs and birds are used in the manufacture of a wide range of biological substances including vaccines, antibodies, monoclonal antibodies, fibroblasts and proteins, both for therapeutic and prophylactic use in people and animals. (google.com)
  • They are further used extensively for diagnostic tests and the production of transgenic eggs and birds. (google.com)
  • Many of these uses require eggs and/or the birds produced from them to be free of either all or specified contaminants such as infections, including a variety of species of parasite, bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses, retroviruses, prions, DNA and RNA fragments. (google.com)
  • Most birds lay their eggs at sunrise, but NOT robins! (learner.org)
  • That's several hours later than most birds lay eggs. (learner.org)
  • A robin can then fly over to her nest and lay her eggs easily, but most other birds seem to need a long period of quiet before they can lay eggs. (learner.org)
  • If you remove one egg each day, some kinds of birds will keep laying for a long time, as if they can stop laying only when the clutch of eggs feels right underneath them. (learner.org)
  • Some birds, like hawks and owls, lay their eggs when weather is still very cold, and start to incubate as soon as the first egg is laid. (learner.org)
  • This may be because the gene is expressed specifically in eggs or oviducts," says the scientist. (eurekalert.org)
  • Injured birds may also have fly eggs deposited at the injury. (liveducks.com)
  • Fly eggs already on the bird will still hatch. (liveducks.com)
  • Only birds produce eggs in such a wide range of eye-pleasing shades and intricate patterns on the hard surface of their eggs. (allaboutbirds.org)
  • The production process of eggs resembles a miniature assembly line inside a female bird. (allaboutbirds.org)
  • All birds are likely to have the basic genetic machinery to produce the two pigments, even if they use only one of them, or use none at all and produce plain white eggs. (allaboutbirds.org)
  • Birds that lay multiple eggs, such as thrushes and flycatchers, seem to change the color of their eggs through-out the laying cycle as if they were running out of the pigments," says Cornell PhD Mark Hauber, who wrote The Book of Eggs and studies them at Hunter College of the City University of New York. (allaboutbirds.org)
  • Some scientists think the dinosaur ancestors of birds pro-duced only white eggs, as reptiles still do today, and that pigmentation came later. (allaboutbirds.org)
  • Several species lay eggs which are nearly indistinguishable from bird eggs. (wikidoc.org)
  • Birds are known for their hard-shelled eggs. (wikidoc.org)
  • Several accomplishments focused on bird flu in chicken eggs and egg products. (usda.gov)
  • Another reproductive strategy of birds is to produce offspring that develop outside the mother's body in eggs. (extension.org)
  • 2001): The potential for TBBPA to affect reproduction variables in adult Japanese quail ( Cortunix japonica ) following in ovo exposure as well as TBBPA's distribution in eggs, embryos and laying birds was investigated using 14C-labelled material. (europa.eu)
  • The obvious bit is that birds lay eggs, and the eggs develop outside of their body (mammals do the same, but the eggs remain inside the body until the embryo is ready to face the cold world - this would not work for birds for the simple reasons that pregnant birds would have trouble flying). (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Eggs do not come out because of the oviduct damage. (engormix.com)
  • Like living neornithine birds, non-avian maniraptorans had daily oviposition and asymmetrical eggs with complex shell microstructure, and were known to protect their clutches. (cmnh.org)
  • However, like crocodilians, non-avian maniraptorans had two active oviducts (one present in living birds), relatively smaller eggs, and may not have turned their eggs in the way that living birds do. (cmnh.org)
  • Regression occurred unequally among different regions of the oviduct, with significant decreases in the proximal infundibulum/magnum and isthmus regions (59% and 40%, respectively), but no change in distal shell gland/vagina mass. (biologists.org)
  • Variously termed dusted, white banded, chalky or pink, these seem to happen when an egg gets a little stuck in the oviduct during the time it rotates in the vagina, and gets an extra helping of calcium. (theconversation.com)
  • Female insects and other invertebrates also have a vagina, which is the terminal part of the oviduct . (bionity.com)
  • The waxy cuticle is deposited on the shell in the vagina of the bird's oviduct. (wikidoc.org)
  • It is found in certain cyclostomes (hagfish) and fishes (sharks, skates, dipnoans and pipefish) and in all amphibians, reptiles, and birds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • if the segmentation cavity and alimentary canal in amphioxus, elasmobranchs, amphibians, and birds were to be conisideres homologous, how should one interpret their different germ-layer origins? (encyclopedia.com)
  • Next, the egg enters the isthmus (a long narrow tube) of the oviduct, where two membranes are laid down: one to enclose the albumin and one to attach directly to the shell. (theconversation.com)
  • Examination of birds' oviducts at the time the color is placed on the egg suggests that the color is produced and released over a very short time frame," Birkhead says, "usually in the last few hours before the egg is laid, and that makes it very hard to study. (allaboutbirds.org)
  • It is also more likely in young birds that have not laid before. (metzerfarms.com)
  • In egg binding, there is an egg stuck at the outer end of the oviduct, almost laid, and is a lack of muscle tone due to stress, a chill, or lack of calcium. (countrysmallholding.com)
  • I think of their statelets: hidden expandable nests, clutch that weighs as much as the bird that laid it. (morningporch.com)
  • In the developing oviducts, both qRARβ1 and β2 mRNAs reached their peak levels by 30 days of age, just before the rapid development of the oviduct occurred, and then decreased to almost undetectable levels when the oviduct developed to the laying stage (over 2.88 g in weight). (bioone.org)
  • The extent of the damage to the oviduct and the resulting pathology appears to depend on the age at which the infection occurs and the protective antibody status of the individual. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Infection of young chicks may cause permanent damage to the oviduct, resulting in layers or breeders that never reach normal levels of production. (backyardchickens.com)
  • The ovary looks like a cluster of tiny grapes, and if you care to dissect a bird, it's located near the backbone, usually between or on top of the kidneys. (theconversation.com)
  • Mortality is not common in mature hens but the virus may attack the airways, oviducts or kidneys of young or unvaccinated birds. (gov.mb.ca)
  • In bird droppings the green part is the feces, and the white part consists of urates from the kidneys- that's what ruins the paint on your car, in case you were wondering. (flyways.us)
  • The team then developed a biophysical model to explain how processes in the bird's oviduct might generate different egg shapes. (eurekalert.org)
  • If you have more than one age or type of bird in your backyard flock, you should never buy mature hens from a commercial egg farm. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Even if the birds are infected after the hens' protection wears off, a mild cough may be the only symptom that you first see. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. (frontiersin.org)
  • This condition is most common in overweight older hens and in early laying birds with low bodyweight. (liveducks.com)
  • An adult male chicken is referred to as a "rooster," adult females are called "hens," and newly hatched birds are "chicks. (animallaw.info)
  • Physiology and endocrinology symposium: role of the oviduct in maintaining sustained fertility in hens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This publication will help you study the formation of the egg and the avian (bird) embryo, or chick within the egg. (poultryhelp.com)
  • Chemical and physical processes of development will change the embryo from a single cell to the partially grown bird we will see at hatching. (treeswallowprojects.com)
  • Thus, TBBPA was readily excreted by the laying females as well as by the growing embryo, and consequently, the risk for embryonic exposure following dietary intake in laying birds is expected to be low. (europa.eu)
  • Oviducts were retrieved for gene-expression analyses via microarray immediately post-mortem (chicken) or at surgery (pig), 24 h after mating or genital infusion. (diva-portal.org)
  • Moreover, modern fertile pigs (Landrace) and chicken (WL), albeit being taxonomically distant, shared gene functions for preservation of viable sperm in the oviduct. (diva-portal.org)
  • The standard bird eggshell is a semipermeable membrane filled with thousands of pores and covered on its outer surface with a cuticle (called the bloom if it is around a chicken egg), which helps the egg retain its water and keep out bacteria . (wikidoc.org)
  • Archaeological evidence suggests that the bird commonly known as the chicken (Gallus domesticus) is a domesticated version of the Indian and Southeast Asian Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) which is still found in the wild today. (animallaw.info)
  • It is thought that the bird was first tamed in China around 6000 BC, with the birds moving into India by 2000 B.C. The chicken then spread from China to Russia and from there into Europe between 750 B.C. - 42 A.D. Some scholars believe that the bird may have been domesticated first for its use in cockfighting, and only later used as a food source. (animallaw.info)
  • It is important to remember when holding or restraining a chicken that the breastbone of the chicken, called the "keel," must be able to move freely or the bird might suffocate. (animallaw.info)
  • In the second case, one dead, adult female black-feathered chicken, weighing 1.42 kg, was presented for necropsy with a clinical history of the owner losing a bird a day. (tamu.edu)
  • The only means of control when avian influenza has been observed in a flock of domestic fowl is destruction of infected birds and disinfection of the farm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although wild birds, the natural hosts, seldom become sick when infected, avian influenza viruses can cause disease in domestic poultry and, rarely, in human beings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • bird 'flu' caused by the H5N1 virus that caused epidemics in poultry in Japan, Korea, Thailand, China and Vietnam early in 2004. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Metritis and other reproductive diseases are very common in birds kept as domestic pets, whether they are parrots or backyard poultry. (vin.com)
  • The symposium on new breeding technologies included presentations by Benjamin Schusser, TUM, Germany - Genome editing in birds - from concept to reality, Mike Mc Grew, Roslin Institute, UK - Biobanking of poultry breeds using primordial germ cells, and John Hickey, Roslin Institute, UK - Potential of genome editing and gene drive technologies to increase genetic gain in livestock breeding programmes. (wpsa.com)
  • Head of Poultry Section, Head of Animal Department and Coordinator of Non-Ruminant National Research Program during his professional activity at INTA, he also was an International consultant for IICA, BIRD, PNUD, Swedish Agency for Development, Winrock International and World Bank. (wpsa.com)
  • Full-genome phylogenetic analysis indicated a wild bird origin rather than recent circulation among poultry. (cdc.gov)
  • These results demonstrated that the virus from January 2019 had evolved into a poultry-adapted strain by April 2019, with a deletion in the stalk of the NA gene, previously described as crucial for adaptation from wild birds to poultry ( 10 , 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Dear Pitso Moeketsi, The major cause of Water Belly (Ascites) is lack of oxygen in the poultry house, resulting damage of heart & liver of birds. (engormix.com)
  • If one bird gets it, the whole flock probably will, unless the outbreak is isolated rather quickly. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Or perhaps you already have a flock of birds, either for exhibition purposes or just for your own use as egg or meat producers. (umaine.edu)
  • Anytime a bird is added or subtracted from the flock, even if it is only a well-known bird that has been temporarily removed and then returned to the group, the entire flock will fight briefly to re-establish the pecking order. (animallaw.info)
  • Usually I am recommending to vaccinate the flock against specific type of AI with inactivated oil base vaccine for the protection of uninfected birds of exposed flock. (engormix.com)
  • see also Nilsson and Raberg, 2001 ), and oviduct mass was the only organ that explained variation in RMR among laying females ( Vézina and Williams, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
  • Serving as an arena in which sperm from different mating males compete for access to oocytes, a process called sperm competition, and in which females may preferentially utilize sperm from some males over those of others, called female sperm preference or cryptic female choice (e.g. many invertebrate animals, birds and reptiles). (wikipedia.org)
  • Females - the lower part of the oviduct protrudes. (liveducks.com)
  • TBBPA's distribution in quail embryos (1.9 µg/g egg) and adult females (oral and intravenous, 250 µg/bird) was studied following a single dose. (europa.eu)
  • I don't believe male birds have penises, but have to rub themselves against the females sexual organs to allow the sperm to flow across from the male to the female (no doubt there will be others who can describe it in better detail than I). (thenakedscientists.com)
  • During the experiment, the birds received 6 g of egg food supplement (20.3% protein, 6.6% lipid) daily, which was always completely consumed, by both males and females, by the following day. (sfu.ca)
  • The site of storage is variable among different animal taxa and ranges from structures that appear to function solely for sperm retention, such as insect spermatheca and bird sperm storage tubules (bird anatomy), to more general regions of the reproductive tract enriched with receptors to which sperm associate before fertilization, such as the caudal portion of the cow oviduct containing sperm-associating annexins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Nomingia and Similicaudipteryx , the tail ends in four fused vertebrae which Osmólska, He, and others have referred to as a " pygostyle ", but which Witmer found was anatomically different and evolved separately from the pygostyle of birds (a bone which serves as the attachment point for a fan of tail feathers). (wikipedia.org)
  • Feathers - only birds have them! (slideserve.com)
  • Part feathers and apply powder to birds, avoiding the eyes. (liveducks.com)
  • Dominant birds peck at submissive birds, pluck their feathers, and may chase them away or steal their food. (animallaw.info)
  • Often the only way to determine that is bird is becoming thin is to feel it, the feathers hide too much! (littlecrittersvet.com)
  • Additionally, when petting a bird you make notices massed, abnormal or missing feathers, abnormal breathing or diarrhea staining on vent, and even a weakened grasp to feet. (littlecrittersvet.com)
  • Ill birds will sit with their feathers fluffed in an attempt to conserve heat. (littlecrittersvet.com)
  • A bird that is to o hot will have very sleek feathers held tightly to the body, will hold its wings (shoulders) slightly away from its body and may pant. (littlecrittersvet.com)
  • That last two ailments are specific to chicks, whereas some of the others are encountered by adult birds in the fall. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Keep right on using Germe-Zone for growing and adult birds, 30mL to 4.5L of drinking water every other day. (drugs.com)
  • Preserved in a specimen of the long bony-tailed Jeholornis and two enantiornithine birds from the Early Cretaceous period lacustrine Jehol Biota in northeastern China, these discoveries indicate that basal birds only had one functional ovary, but retained primitive morphologies as a result of their lower metabolic rate relative to living birds. (cmnh.org)
  • The avian oviduct is a highly differentiated linear organ, with five functionally specific regions. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the avian oviduct has a highly regulated size-function relationship consistent with a high maintenance energy cost for this organ. (biologists.org)
  • Given these identifiable costs and benefits, this predicts that oviduct size should be tightly coupled to the functional demands of this organ ( sensu Diamond and Hammond, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • The Argentine lake duck, although a holder of the Guinness World Record for length is not the only bird with a penis, or for that matter a bird with a most unusual penis (or a similar organ in a similar place with a similar function). (scienceblogs.com)
  • The group (along with all maniraptoran dinosaurs) is close to the ancestry of birds . (wikipedia.org)
  • theropods - a diverse group of dinosaurs that had many specialized skeletal features as birds. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Nature (advance online publication) doi:10.1038/nature11985 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature11985.html The two groups of archosaurs, crocodilians and birds, form an extant phylogenetic bracket for understanding the reproductive behaviour of dinosaurs. (cmnh.org)
  • They also indicate that basal birds reached sexual maturity before skeletal maturity, as in crocodiles and paravian dinosaurs. (cmnh.org)
  • Differences in follicular morphology between Jeholornis and the enantiornithines are interpreted as forming an evolutionary gradient from the reproductive condition in paravian dinosaurs towards neornithine birds. (cmnh.org)
  • From there, the food moves into the muscular gizzard which is used to crush and grind the food, with the help of small amounts of gravel and grit that the bird has swallowed. (animallaw.info)
  • Germe-Zone is a valuable astringent in the care of birds with Simple Diarrhea resulting from chilling or improper food, and as an antiseptic application for Occular Roup or Swelled Head, Eversion of Oviduct, Sore Eyes, Vent Gleet, and for its use for many other conditions. (drugs.com)
  • A. Huang et al, Expression of lipases and lipid receptors in sperm storage tubules and possible role of fatty acids in sperm survival in the hen oviduct, Theriogenology (2016). (phys.org)
  • They are only virus carriers and source of venereal infection for other birds. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Egg shell contamination was higher in S . Typhimurium + S . Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S . Typhimurium, 14.1% S . Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S . Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S . Typhimurium. (frontiersin.org)
  • There have been many instances of wild birds seen eating seashells, presumably in an effort to make egg shells without stripping the calcium from their own bones. (theconversation.com)
  • Breeder birds should not be fed high amounts of fattening feeds such as whole corn or rations designed for broilers. (umaine.edu)