Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
A family of gram negative, aerobic, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacteria.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. All strains can utilize FRUCTOSE for energy. It is occasionally isolated from humans and some strains are pathogenic to WATERMELON.
Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for the root used in hot SPICES. It is also the source of HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE which is widely used in laboratories.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A widely used industrial solvent.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Damages to reproductive health prior to conception (FERTILIZATION), a legal term for torts liability concerning environmental safety issues. Preconception injuries may involve either the male or the female, such as chromosomal mutations in the OVA or the SPERMATOZOA.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A central nervous system stimulant. It was formerly used in the treatment of barbiturate overdose but is now considered to be of no value for such purposes and may be dangerous. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1229)
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.

Irbesartan reduces QT dispersion in hypertensive individuals. (1/2256)

Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists have direct effects on the autonomic nervous system and myocardium. Because of this, we hypothesized that irbesartan would reduce QT dispersion to a greater degree than amlodipine, a highly selective vasodilator. To test this, we gathered electrocardiographic (ECG) data from a multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind parallel group study that compared the antihypertensive efficacy of irbesartan and amlodipine in elderly subjects with mild to moderate hypertension. Subjects were treated for 6 months with either drug. Hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol were added after 12 weeks if blood pressure (BP) remained uncontrolled. ECGs were obtained before randomization and at 6 months. A total of 188 subjects (118 with baseline ECGs) were randomized. We analyzed 104 subjects who had complete ECGs at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Baseline characteristics between treatments were similar, apart from a slight imbalance in diastolic BP (irbesartan [n=53] versus amlodipine [n=51], 99.2 [SD 3. 6] versus 100.8 [3.8] mm Hg; P=0.03). There were no significant differences in BP normalization (diastolic BP <90 mm Hg) between treatments at 6 months (irbesartan versus amlodipine, 80% versus 88%; P=0.378). We found a significant reduction in QT indexes in the irbesartan group (QTc dispersion mean, -11.4 [34.5] milliseconds, P=0.02; QTc max, -12.8 [35.5] milliseconds, P=0.01), and QTc dispersion did not correlate with the change in BP. The reduction in QT indexes with amlodipine (QTc dispersion, -9.7 [35.4] milliseconds, P=0.06; QTc max, -8.6 [33.2] milliseconds, P=0.07) did not quite reach statistical significance, but there was a correlation between the change in QT indexes and changes in systolic BP. In conclusion, irbesartan improved QT dispersion, and this effect may be important in preventing sudden cardiac death in at-risk hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation. (2/2256)

1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2.  (+info)

ACE inhibition and ANG II receptor blockade improve glomerular size-selectivity in IgA nephropathy. (3/2256)

Protein trafficking across the glomerular capillary has a pathogenic role in subsequent renal damage. Despite evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve glomerular size-selectivity, whether this effect is solely due to ANG II blocking or if other mediators also play a contributory role is not clear yet. We studied 20 proteinuric patients with IgA nephropathy, who received either enalapril (20 mg/day) or the ANG II receptor blocker irbesartan (100 mg/day) for 28 days in a randomized double-blind study. Measurements of blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, and fractional clearance of neutral dextran of graded sizes were performed before and after 28 days of treatment. Both enalapril and irbesartan significantly reduced blood pressure over baseline. This reduction reached the maximum effect 4-6 h after drug administration but did not last for the entire 24-h period. Despite transient antihypertensive effect, proteinuria was effectively reduced by both treatments to comparable extents. Neither enalapril nor irbesartan modified the sieving coefficients of small dextran molecules, but both effectively reduced transglomerular passage of large test macromolecules. Theoretical analysis of sieving coefficients showed that neither drug affected significantly the mean pore radius or the spread of the pore-size distribution, but both importantly and comparably reduced the importance of a nonselective shunt pathway. These data suggest that antagonism of ANG II is the key mechanism by which ACE inhibitors exert their beneficial effect on glomerular size-selective function and consequently on glomerular filtration and urinary output of plasma proteins.  (+info)

Neurotensin is a proinflammatory neuropeptide in colonic inflammation. (4/2256)

The neuropeptide neurotensin mediates several intestinal functions, including chloride secretion, motility, and cellular growth. However, whether this peptide participates in intestinal inflammation is not known. Toxin A, an enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, mediates pseudomembranous colitis in humans. In animal models, toxin A causes an acute inflammatory response characterized by activation of sensory neurons and intestinal nerves and immune cells of the lamina propria. Here we show that neurotensin and its receptor are elevated in the rat colonic mucosa following toxin A administration. Pretreatment of rats with the neurotensin receptor antagonist SR-48, 692 inhibits toxin A-induced changes in colonic secretion, mucosal permeability, and histologic damage. Exposure of colonic explants to toxin A or neurotensin causes mast cell degranulation, which is inhibited by SR-48,692. Because substance P was previously shown to mediate mast cell activation, we examined whether substance P is involved in neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation. Our results show that neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation in colonic explants is inhibited by the substance P (neurokinin-1) receptor antagonist CP-96,345, indicating that colonic mast activation in response to neurotensin involves release of substance P. We conclude that neurotensin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-induced colonic inflammation and mast cell activation.  (+info)

Angiotensin II receptor blockade in normotensive subjects: A direct comparison of three AT1 receptor antagonists. (5/2256)

Use of angiotensin (Ang) II AT1 receptor antagonists for treatment of hypertension is rapidly increasing, yet direct comparisons of the relative efficacy of antagonists to block the renin-angiotensin system in humans are lacking. In this study, the Ang II receptor blockade induced by the recommended starting dose of 3 antagonists was evaluated in normotensive subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, 4-way crossover study. At 1-week intervals, 12 subjects received a single dose of losartan (50 mg), valsartan (80 mg), irbesartan (150 mg), or placebo. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system was assessed before and 4, 24, and 30 hours after drug intake by 3 independent methods: inhibition of the blood pressure response to exogenous Ang II, in vitro Ang II receptor assay, and reactive changes in plasma Ang II levels. At 4 hours, losartan blocked 43% of the Ang II-induced systolic blood pressure increase; valsartan, 51%; and irbesartan, 88% (P<0.01 between drugs). The effect of each drug declined with time. At 24 hours, a residual effect was found with all 3 drugs, but at 30 hours, only irbesartan induced a marked, significant blockade versus placebo. Similar results were obtained when Ang II receptor blockade was assessed with an in vitro receptor assay and by the reactive rise in plasma Ang II levels. This study thus demonstrates that the first administration of the recommended starting dose of irbesartan induces a greater and longer lasting Ang II receptor blockade than that of valsartan and losartan in normotensive subjects.  (+info)

ESR study on the structure-antioxidant activity relationship of tea catechins and their epimers. (6/2256)

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the free radical scavenging activities and the chemical structures of tea catechins ((-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC)) and their corresponding epimers ((-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), (-)-gallocatechin (GC) and (+)-catechin ((+)-C)). With electron spin resonance (ESR) we investigated their scavenging effects on superoxide anions (O-.2) generated in the irradiated riboflavin system, singlet oxygen(1O2) generated in the photoradiation-hemoporphyrin system, the free radicals generated from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride (AAPH) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The results showed that the scavenging effects of galloylated catechins (EGCG and GCG) on the four free radicals were stronger than those of nongalloylated catechins (EGC, GC, EC, (+)-C), and the scavenging effects of EGC and GC were stronger than those of EC and (+)-C. Thus, it is suggested that the presence of the gallate group at the 3 position plays the most important role in their free radical-scavenging abilities and an additional insertion of the hydroxyl group at the 5' position in the B ring also contributes to their scavenging activities. Moreover, the corresponding phenoxyl radicals formed after the reaction with O-.2 were trapped by DMPO and the ESR spectra of DMPO/phenoxyl radical adducts were observed (aN=15.6 G and aHbeta=21.5 G). No significant differences were found between the scavenging effects of the catechins and their epimers when their concentrations were high. However, significant differences were observed at relatively low concentrations, and the lower their concentrations, the higher the differences. The scavenging abilities of GCG, GC and (+)-C were stronger than those of their corresponding epimers (EGCG, EGC and EC). The differences between their sterical structures played a more important role in their abilities to scavenge large free radicals, such as the free radicals generated from AAPH and the DPPH radical, than to scavenge small free radicals, such as O-.2 and 1O2, especially in the case with EGCG and GCG with more bulky steric hindrance.  (+info)

Serial changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum gene expression in volume-overloaded cardiac hypertrophy in the rat: effect of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. (7/2256)

This study was designed to clarify whether gene expression in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum [sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), phospholamban, ryanodine receptor and calsequestrin] changes in accordance with left ventricular functional alterations in the volume-overloaded heart. Further, the effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, TCV-116, on the expression of these genes was also evaluated. Left ventricular fractional shortening was significantly increased at 7 days, had returned to control levels at 21 days, and had significantly decreased at 35 days after the shunt operation, compared with sham-operated rats. The level of SERCA mRNA was significantly decreased at both 21 days and 35 days after the shunt operation. The levels of ryanodine receptor and phospholamban mRNAs were significantly decreased at 35 days in shunt-operated rats. The decrease in the SERCA mRNA level preceded the development of cardiac dysfunction. The levels of SERCA and ryanodine receptor mRNAs were correlated positively with left ventricular fractional shortening (r=0.73, P<0.0001 and r=0.61, P<0.01 respectively). Attenuation of the decrease in left ventricular fractional shortening occurred on treatment with TCV-116. After the treatment with TCV-116, the levels of SERCA and phospholamban mRNAs were restored to the respective values in sham-operated rats. Ryanodine receptor mRNA levels remained unchanged after treatment with TCV-116. These results indicate that the down-regulation of SERCA and ryanodine receptor mRNA levels may be related to cardiac dysfunction in the volume-overloaded heart. In addition, treatment with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist may restore the altered sarcoplasmic reticulum mRNA levels to control levels, and this may result in attenuation of the functional impairment in the volume-overloaded heart.  (+info)

Pharmacological diversity between native human 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors sited on different neurons and involved in different functions. (8/2256)

The releases of [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine ([3H]5-HT) and of endogenous glutamic acid and their modulation through presynaptic h5-HT1B autoreceptors and h5-HT1D heteroreceptors have been investigated in synaptosomal preparations from fresh neocortical samples obtained from patients undergoing neurosurgery. The inhibition by 5-HT of the K+ (15 mM)-evoked overflow of [3H]5-HT was antagonized by the 5-HT1B/5-HT1D receptor ligand GR 127935, which was ineffective on its own; this drug was previously found to behave as a full agonist at the h5-HT1D heteroreceptor regulating glutamate release. The recently proposed selective h5-HT1B receptor ligand SB-224289 also prevented the effect of 5-HT at the autoreceptor, being inactive on its own; in contrast, SB-224289, at 1 microM, was unable to interact with the h5-HT1D heteroreceptor. The inhibitory effect of 5-HT on the K+-evoked overflow of glutamate was antagonized by the h5-HT1D receptor ligand BRL-15572; added in the absence of 5-HT the compound was without effect. BRL-15572 (1 microM) was unable to modify the effect of 5-HT at the autoreceptor regulating [3H]5-HT release. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (+)-WAY 100135, previously found to be an agonist at the h5-HT1D heteroreceptor regulating glutamate release, could not interact with the h5-HT1B autoreceptor when added at 1 microM. It is concluded that native h5-HT1B and h5-HT1D receptors exhibit a hitherto unexpected pharmacological diversity.  (+info)

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Description: IC50 Value: 1.2 ±0.4 mM (Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase elicited by 0.1 microM Ang II) [2] PD 123319 ditrifluoroacetate is a potent, selective, non-peptide angiotensin AT2 receptor antagonist. IC50 values are 34 and 210 nM in rat adr
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0101] In addition, particular compounds of formula I that are of interest include: [0102] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}ethyl)piper- idin-4-yl ester; [0103] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]ethylamino}ethyl)piperi- din-4-yl ester; [0104] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{methyl-[4-(4-methylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]amino}ethy- l)piperidin-4-yl ester; [0105] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-ethylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}ethyl)- piperidin-4-yl ester; [0106] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{methyl-[4-(4-propylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]amino}ethy- l)piperidin-4-yl ester; [0107] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-isopropylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}et- hyl)piperidin-4-yl ester; [0108] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-{2-[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)-2-fluorobenzoylamino]ethyl}pipe- ridin-4-yl ester; [0109] ...
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Background The Swedish irbesartan left ventricular hypertrophy investigation versus atenolol (SILVHIA). Objective Angiotensin II induces myocardial hypertrophy. We hypothesized that blockade of angiotensin II subtype 1 (AT1) receptors by the AT1-receptor antagonist irbesartan would reduce left ventricular mass (as measured by echocardiography) more than conventional treatment with a beta blocker. Design and methods This double-blind study randomized 115 hypertensive men and women with left ventricular hypertrophy to receive either irbesartan 150 mg q.d. or atenolol 50 mg q.d. for 48 weeks. If diastolic blood pressure remained above 90 mmHg, doses were doubled, and additional medications (hydrochlorothiazide and felodipine) were prescribed as needed. Echocardiography was performed at weeks 0, 12, 24 and 48. Results Baseline mean blood pressure was 162/104 mmHg, and mean left ventricular mass index was 157 g/m2 for men and 133 g/m2 for women. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure reductions were ...
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Fimasartan is a newly developed angiotensin receptor blocker, which may have protective effects during myocardial infarction or atherosclerosis. In this context, we investigated the effects of long-term treatment with low-dose fimasartan on focal ischemia in rat brain. We induced focal ischemia in brain by transient intraluminal occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA) and administered low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) or regular doses (1 or 3 mg/kg) of fimasartan via intravenous routes. After the administration of low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) fimasartan, blood pressure did not decrease compared to the phosphate-buffered saline- (PBS-) control with MCA occlusion (MCAO) group. The infarct volume and ischemic cell death were reduced in the low-dose fimasartan-treated group (46 ± 41 mm|sup |3|/sup| for 0.5 mg/kg and 153 ± 47 mm|sup |3|/sup| for PBS-control with MCAO; |svg xmlns:xlink=http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink xmlns=http:/
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This page contains information on the chemical (1,1\-Biphenyl)-4-ol, 3-chloro-, sodium salt including: 6 synonyms/identifiers.
1-(3-(aminomethyl)phenyl)-N-(3-fluoro-2-(methylsulfonyl)(1,1-biphenyl)-4-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide: DPC423 is the HCl salt; structure in first source
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This page contains information on the chemical 2,2\-((3,3\-Dichloro(1,1\-Biphenyl)-4,4\-Diyl)Bis(Azo))Bis(N-(4-C-Horo-2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)-3-Oxobutyramide) including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
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Irbesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Irbesartan keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow
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When pregnant rats were treated with irbesartan from Day 0 to Day 20 of gestation (oral doses of 50 mg/kg/day, 180 mg/kg/day, and 650 mg/kg/day), increased incidences of renal pelvic cavitation, hydroureter and/or absence of renal papilla were observed in fetuses at dosages ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD], 300 mg/day, on a body surface area basis). Subcutaneous edema was observed in fetuses at dosages ≥180 mg/kg/day (about 4 times the MRHD on a body surface area basis). As these anomalies were not observed in rats in which irbesartan exposure (oral doses of 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day) was limited to gestation days 6 to 15, they appear to reflect late gestational effects of the drug. In pregnant rabbits, oral doses of 30 mg irbesartan/kg/day were associated with maternal mortality and abortion. Surviving females receiving this dose (about 1.5 times the MRHD on a body surface area basis) had a slight increase in early resorptions and a ...
When pregnant rats were treated with irbesartan from Day 0 to Day 20 of gestation (oral doses of 50 mg/kg/day, 180 mg/kg/day, and 650 mg/kg/day), increased incidences of renal pelvic cavitation, hydroureter and/or absence of renal papilla were observed in fetuses at dosages ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD], 300 mg/day, on a body surface area basis). Subcutaneous edema was observed in fetuses at dosages ≥180 mg/kg/day (about 4 times the MRHD on a body surface area basis). As these anomalies were not observed in rats in which irbesartan exposure (oral doses of 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day) was limited to gestation days 6 to 15, they appear to reflect late gestational effects of the drug. In pregnant rabbits, oral doses of 30 mg irbesartan/kg/day were associated with maternal mortality and abortion. Surviving females receiving this dose (about 1.5 times the MRHD on a body surface area basis) had a slight increase in early resorptions and a ...
Genetic structures of the genes encoding 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase and 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid hydrolase from biphenyl- and 4-chlorobiphenyl-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain DJ-12
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Drowsiness/reduced alertness: Irbesartan, like other medications for blood pressure may cause dizziness and lightheadedness, especially if you have been taking a diuretic (water pill). This may affect your ability to drive or operate machinery. Avoid these and other activities until you have determined that this medication does not affect you in this way.. Heart disease: If you have a history of heart problems, such as a recent heart attack or stroke, narrowing of the heart valves (valvular stenosis) or other heart disease, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.. Kidney function: Irbesartan may affect the function of the kidneys, especially for people who already have kidney problems. If you have reduced kidney function or kidney disease, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how ...
Pharmacists are exempted also in a mathematically unique position to help designers select products for pediatric asthma patients, because children are aged 2 years and younger should not use antihistamine products, such as irbesartan and acetaminophen. Further analysis it showed that combined with administration of irbesartan and vardenafil axetil had additive effect in prolonging t
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Cozaar (losartan) can be used in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. Only a qualified health care professional can make such a decision - to combine this medication with other drugs for best effects. This medicine belongs to the class of angiotensin II receptor antagonists and provides for a better blood flow.
The Dropship Medicines is a high quality exporter and supplier of Pharmcy Medicines.We are provided generic pharmacy wholesale, Medicine Dropshipper.Generic Avapro (Irbesartan)Antihypertensive drug, antagonist of angiotensin receptors II. It specifically and irreversibly blocks receptors of angiotensin which leads to diminishing of biological effects of angiotensin II.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Learn about the potential side effects of hydrochlorothiazide/irbesartan. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
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In type 2 diabetics with microalbuminuria, irbesartan reduces albumin excretion independent of its antihypertensive effect. That, according to the results of a randomized controlled trial reported in the November issue of Diabetes Care. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors delay the progression from
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... polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs), DDT compounds, and TCDD. These toxins can be, and often are, passed on to the ... These issues are compounded by the lack of research of maternal and child health effects caused by the demise of the Aral Sea. ... Furthermore, "PCB-compounds and heavy metals" from industrial pollution contaminants were added. Due to the minimal amount of ...
S. paucimobilis is able to degrade lignin-related biphenyl chemical compounds. Yabuuchi, Eiko; Yano, Ikuya; Oyaizu, Hiroshi; ... January 2009 Cloning of a Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 Gene Encoding a Novel Oxygenase That Cleaves Lignin-Related Biphenyl ...
Fürst P. Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, trends and ... Nucleotides Nucleotides are compounds found naturally in human breast milk. They are involved in critical metabolic processes, ... Other studies have further found that the levels of most persistent organohalogen compounds in human milk decreased ... such as polychlorinated biphenyls, can bioaccumulate in the food chain and may be found in humans including mothers' breast ...
Steric effects from the biphenyl substituents also contribute to the compound's stability. BDPA and closely related compounds ... The compound was first synthesized by C. Frederick Koelsch while he was a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University in the ... He attempted to publish a paper describing the compound, but the paper was rejected on the grounds that the described ... BDPA is an unusually stable radical compound due to the extent to which its electrons are delocalized through resonance ...
Masuda, Y (2003). "Health Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Related Compounds" (PDF). J Health Sci. 49 (5): 333-336. doi: ... Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are two groups of predominately man-made toxic chemicals which, when consumed, ... It was announced that "dioxins & dioxin like PCBs", a group of highly toxic synthetic halogenated organic compounds, had been ... 2006). Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (Report in Brief) (PDF). The National ...
Novel biphenyl tricyclic quinazoline compounds and aryloxy quinolone derivatives are multiple kinase inhibitors. They are less ... Another compound with sunitinib heterocyclic moiety and a pyrrole side chain has very good VEGFR-2 potency, with an IC50 of 65 ... Compounds with thieno [3,2-b] pyridine urea moiety are inhibitory for VEGF receptor signaling and HGF receptor signaling. HGF ... For R2, two groups can show this effect on the compound, an ether group on one, and on the other a chloride group. When ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of chlorinated compounds used as industrial coolants and lubricants. PCBs are ... Fürst P (October 2006). "Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, ... Endocrine disrupting compounds encompass a variety of chemical classes, including drugs, pesticides, compounds used in the ... "Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and ...
4,4′-Biphenol is an organic compound which is a phenolic derivative of biphenyl. It is a colorless solid. 4,4′-Biphenol is ... "Dimerization of Aromatic Compounds Using Palladium-Carbon-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling by One-Pot Synthesis ( ...
... as well as human-induced cycles for synthetic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). In some cycles there are ... These compounds are oxidized to release carbon dioxide, which can be captured by plants to make organic compounds. The chemical ... Energy can be released through the oxidation and reduction of sulfur compounds (e.g., oxidizing elemental sulfur to sulfite and ...
... as well as human-induced cycles for synthetic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). In some cycles there are ... human-induced cycles for synthetic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). Biogeochemical Cycles, OpenStax, 9 May ... and phosphorus is returned to the soil where a large part of the phosphorus is transformed into insoluble compounds. Runoff may ... and it is transformed into organic compounds. The plants may then be consumed by herbivores and the phosphorus is either ...
... and at 1 mg/kg for the individual PFOA-related compounds or a combination of those compounds. They also included some specific ... Polychlorinated Biphenyl, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas". Environ. ... The compound is also used in "insulators for electric wires, planar etching of fused silica", fire fighting foam, and outdoor ... Butt CM, Berger U, Bossi R, Tomy GT (May 2010). "Levels and trends of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in the arctic ...
Compounds such as biphenyl and naphthalene are reduced by the powder and form highly coloured radical anions. The powder can ... converts benzyl chloride to bibenzyl in a Wurtz coupling and in a similar fashion dibenzothiophene is reduced to biphenyl. ...
Ingested plastics release toxic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls, which may accumulate in internal tissues. Such ... An iron compound, magnetite, in their brains allows the turtles to perceive the Earth's magnetic field, for navigation. Many ... for loggerheads to reach sexual maturity and the high mortality rates of eggs and young turtles from natural phenomena compound ...
This compound and other long-lasting cyano-biphenyls made the twisted nematic display (LCD) popular. Gray wrote the first ...
... with the use of ultrasound the reaction can also be made useful for the production of biphenyl compounds. There are two ... The Direct Preparation of an Organosodium (Potassium) Compound from an RX Compound". Journal of the American Chemical Society. ... The alkyl and aryl radicals then combine to form a substituted aromatic compound. The second approach involves the formation of ... Organosilicon compounds successfully synthesized using the Wurtz-Fittig reaction include silylated calixarenes, t-butylsilicon ...
Its type strain is JCM 7371 (= GIFU 9882). It is notable for degrading a variety of aromatic compounds including biphenyl, ... Not only this, but S. yanoikuyae has also been found in a few locations contaminated by toxic compounds, such as ... More so, the bacteria obtains energy from sources like Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), biphenyl, naphthalene, phenanthrene, toluene, ... the bacteria's ability to grow and survive under low-nutrient conditions as it can utilize a broad range of organic compounds. ...
Computational analysis of this compound suggests valence isomerization to biphenyl is very exothermic but also with a high ... 8]annulyne is known to exist but quickly dimerizes or trimerizes; the compound has been trapped as its radical anion and ... Soc., 1962, 84 (22), pp 4307-4312 doi:10.1021/ja00881a022 Unsaturated Macrocyclic Compounds. XXXVI.1 The Synthesis of Two ... Annulyne and their Reactive Relationships to Heptalene and Biphenyl Brad D. Rose, Richard C. Reiter, and Cheryl D. Stevenson ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds as well as cyanide and heavy metals ...
It occurs as a late step in the meta-cleavage pathways of a variety of compounds, including catechol, biphenyl, toluene, ...
PCB, or polychlorinated biphenyl, is a chlorine compound that was once widely found in dielectric and coolant fluids used in ... Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Hites, Ronald A. (May 1988). "Occurrence and bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in fishes from ... "Learn about Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) , US EPA". US EPA. Retrieved 2018-10-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( ... "persistent organic compounds." Her research more specifically centered on PCBs, dioxins, and pesticides in the Great Lakes ...
Heteroaromatic analogues of the biphenyl compounds also exist, where hindered rotation occurs about a carbon-nitrogen or a ... The use of axially chiral biaryl compounds such as BINAP, QUINAP and BINOL, have been found to be useful in the area of ... Axially chiral biaryl compounds are prepared by coupling reactions, e.g., Ullmann coupling, Suzuki-Miyaura reaction, or ... The atropisomer is an iodoaryl compound synthesised starting from (S)-valine and exists as the (M,S) isomer and the (P,S) ...
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds Polychlorinated biphenyl "Proceedings of the Subregional Awareness Raising Workshop on ... For general population the most important source is food of animal origin like with other dioxin-like compounds. The most ... doi: 10.1136/oem.59.6.362 Tuomisto J (2019). Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds: toxicity in humans and animals, sources, and ... Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a family of organic compounds with one or several of the hydrogens in the ...
However, it was later found that the correct structures were of sandwich compound type complexes and based on biphenyl not ... Hein created a mixture of compounds. He was able to produce what he called phenylmagnesium salts. Hein denoted them as: (C6H5) ...
In 1991, the Navy discovered nine metals, two semi-volatile organic compounds and a polychlorinated biphenyl in Ford Island's ...
"Aryne coupling" reactions allow for generation of biphenyl compounds which are valuable in pharmaceutical industry, agriculture ... Thus, the process is formally analogous to the E1cb mechanism of aliphatic compounds. Aryl bromides and iodides, on the other ... invoked zwitterionic intermediate in the reaction of fluorobenzene and phenyllithium to give biphenyl. This hypothesis was ...
In 1997, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, compounds common in transformers, hydraulic fluids, paint additives and pesticides ... Compounds from these pesticide residues find themselves in food items with metamidophos, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and diazinon ...
... or PBDEs, are a class of organobromine compounds that are used as flame retardants. Like other ... They are structurally akin to polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other ... The available commercial PBDE products are not single compounds or even single congeners but rather mixtures of congeners. ... Emma L. Teuten; Li Xu; Christopher M. Reddy (2005). "Two Abundant Bioaccumulated Halogenated Compounds Are Natural Products". ...
In sum, he isolated and studied 24 new chemical compounds, including toluene, biphenyl, nitrotoluene, cedrene, potassium ...
"Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)". Toxtown.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 25 September 2017. "Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)". ... Volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, are organic compounds that can easily become vapors or gases. These compounds are released ... The contaminants include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semiVOCs and heavy ... Most compounds are hazardous air pollutants, so it is more common to be exposed by breathing in the air that is polluted. Some ...
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The compound is one of the benzopyrenes, formed by a benzene ring fused to pyrene, and is the result of incomplete combustion ... Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ... In 1933, BaP was determined to be the compound responsible for these cases, and its carcinogenicity was demonstrated when skin ... The ubiquitous compound can be found in coal tar, tobacco smoke and many foods, especially grilled meats. The substance with ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (often shortened to PCBs) are organic chemical compounds that contain chlorine atoms. They were used ... Polychlorinated biphenyls were widely used, and they can be found in the atmosphere, the soil, and the bodies of water anywhere ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polychlorinated_biphenyl&oldid=5795636" ...
"Pubchem Compound. NCBI. Retrieved 21 February 2015.. *^ "Components of Gyokuro| IPPODO". Ippodo-tea.co.jp. Retrieved 2015-05-07 ... 6-Biphenyl-4-yl-QDC. *7-CKA. *Acid red 114. *Amido black 10B (naphthol blue black) ...
a b Dichlorobenzidine - Compound Summary, PubChem. *^ a b c d e "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0191". National ... 3,3'-Dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diamine. Other names 4-(4-Amino-3-chlorophenyl)-2-chloroaniline. 4,4'-Diamino-3,3'- ... 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine is an organic compound with the formula (C6H3Cl(NH2))2. The pure compound is pale yellow, but commercial ... This article about an aromatic compound is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
Hazardous waste[15] or PCB waste:[16] Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) landfills that are monitored in the United States by the ... During this phase, the decomposition intermediate compounds like the VFAs contribute much COD. Long-chain volatile organic ... "Disposal and Storage of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Waste". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved May 10, ... Meanwhile, the leachate's chemical oxygen demand increases with increasing concentrations of the more recalcitrant compounds ...
Chemical compound. The correct title of this article is Benzo[a]pyrene. The substitution of any brackets is due to technical ... Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ... The compound is one of the benzopyrenes, formed by a benzene ring fused to pyrene, and is the result of incomplete combustion ... In 1933, BaP was determined to be the compound responsible for these cases, and its carcinogenicity was demonstrated when skin ...
... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds (such as pyridine or quinoline), ... Iodinated compounds may be dehalogenated as well, though the process may not satisfy the need for an electron acceptor.[5] ... Aromatic compounds are among the most persistent of these pollutants and lessons can be learned from the recent genomic studies ... Many synthetic steroidic compounds like some sexual hormones frequently appear in municipal and industrial wastewaters, acting ...
Polychlorinated/polybrominated biphenyls (PCBs/PBBs), derived from biphenyl, of which twelve are "dioxin-like". Under certain ... Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs ... Furst P (2006). "Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, ... These compounds have also not been shown to have any direct mutagenic or genotoxic activity.[13] Their main action in causing ...
... the debris is highly likely to be contaminated with PAHs and probably with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and furan ... compounds.[161]. Health care. Al-Quds hospital, Gaza City, following Israeli shelling ...
Schorlemmer, Carl (1874). A Manual of the Chemistry of the Carbon compounds; or, Organic Chemistry. London.. .mw-parser-output ... Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ... The molecule absorbs light in the orange part of the spectrum (λmax = 613 nm).[18] The compound owes its deep color to the ... The compound has been found to act as an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.[23] ...
Environmental impacts of cleaning products entail the consequences that come as a result of chemical compounds in cleaning ... Some of the chemicals that were restricted included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos, lead-based paint, and radon.[16 ... Odabasi, Mustafa; Elbir, Tolga; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Sofuoglu, Sait C. (2014-08-01). "Halogenated volatile organic compounds in ... Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds. "Solvent use" is the source that originates from cleaning chemicals. ...
Compounds that are used in manufacturing pollute the environment by releasing chemicals into the air and water. Some compounds ... Toxic chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) also become concentrated on the surface of plastics at sea and are ... Even though these compounds are unsafe, they have been used in the manufacturing of food packaging, medical devices, flooring ... The large dosage of these compounds are hazardous to humans, destroying the endocrine system. BRA imitates the female's hormone ...
Aromatic compounds are those chemical compounds (most commonly organic) that contain one or more rings with pi electrons ... In contrast to compounds that exhibit aromaticity, aliphatic compounds lack this delocalization. The term "aromatic" was ... Examples of non-benzene compounds with aromatic properties are furan, a heterocyclic compound with a five-membered ring that ... The configuration of six carbon atoms in aromatic compounds is called a "benzene ring", after the simple aromatic compound ...
cellular response to organonitrogen compound. • regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose ... Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ...
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Examples of non-benzene compounds with aromatic properties are furan, a heterocyclic compound with a five-membered ring that ... Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ... Rhodium-platinum oxide, a catalyst used to hydrogenate aromatic compounds.. References[edit]. *^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical ... are also called aromatic compounds. In these compounds, at least one carbon atom is replaced by one of the heteroatoms oxygen, ...
Phenyl compounds are derived from benzene (C6H6), at least conceptually and often in terms of their production. In terms of its ... Biphenyl, consisting of two phenyl groups. The two rings tend not to be coplanar. ... One of the simplest phenyl-containing compounds is phenol, C6H5OH. It is often said the resonance stability of phenol makes it ... So, a given substituted phenyl compound has three isomers, ortho (1,2-disubstitution), meta (1,3-disubstitution) and para (1,4- ...
... tanning devices This evaluation applies to the group of compounds as a whole and not necessarily to all individual compounds ... analgesic mixtures containing Plants containing aristolochic acid Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin-like Processed meats, ...
The compound is used as a mixture of four stereoisomers. Its two stereoisomeric centers are at the phenyl- and the hydroxyl- ... Biphenyls. Hidden categories: *Webarchive template wayback links. *Articles needing additional references from October 2014 ...
Tris-Biphenyl Triazine 10% EU Neo Heliopan AP Bisdisulizole Disodium, Disodium phenyl dibenzimidazole tetrasulfonate, ... Organic chemical compounds that absorb ultraviolet light.. *Inorganic particulates that reflect, scatter, and absorb UV light ( ... Most organic compounds in sunscreens slowly degrade and become less effective over the course of several years if stored ... Organic particulates that mostly absorb UV light like organic chemical compounds, but contain multiple chromophores that ...
Organomercury compounds. Main article: Organomercury compound. Organic mercury compounds are historically important but are of ... polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE)." ... Compounds of mercury(I). Unlike its lighter neighbors, cadmium and zinc, mercury usually forms simple stable compounds with ... Methylmercury, a generic term for compounds with the formula CH3HgX, is a dangerous family of compounds that are often found in ...
Toxic chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) also become concentrated on the surface of plastics at sea and are ... It was found that pellets found on beaches in America, Vietnam and southern Africa contained compounds from pesticides ...
As in biphenyls, the center of chirality does not belong to any particular carbon atom.[27] Such optical activity was described ... Adamantane is a colorless, crystalline chemical compound with a camphor-like odor. With a formula C10H16, it is a cycloalkane ... Reaction of either compound with acetonitrile affords the acetamide, which is hydrolyzed to give 1-adamantylamine:[46] ... Because of the (assumed) similarity of its structure to that of diamond, the new compound was named adamantane.[8] ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls. *Radon and other natural sources of radioactivity. *Soil pollution. *Tobacco smoking ... Health issues of plastics and polyhalogenated compounds (PHCs). Plasticizers: Phthalates. *DIBP. *DBP ...
... carbonyl compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls". Journal of Chromatography A. 1216 (3): 540 ... Compounds appearing earlier are called VVOC (very volatile organic compounds); compounds appearing later are called SVOC (semi- ... volatile organic compounds) are all compounds that appear in the gas chromatogram between and including n-hexane and n- ... the main compound being isoprene. The remainder are produced by animals and microbes. Microbial volatile organic compounds ( ...
... carbonyl compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls". Journal of Chromatography A. 1216 (3): 540 ... Compounds appearing earlier are called VVOC (very volatile organic compounds); compounds appearing later are called SVOC (semi- ... Volatile Organic Compounds Protocol. References[edit]. *^ "Plants: A Different Perspective". Content.yudu.com. Retrieved 2012- ... volatile organic compounds) are all compounds that appear in the gas chromatogram between and including n-hexane and n- ...
Rao is the pioneer of Chiral synthesis and technology in India and is known to have synthesized compounds of high structural ... on K-13 has been adopted for the synthesis of Vancomycin and has helped in the synthesis of vancomycinic acid and the biphenyl ... His researches led to the isolation of 100 new compounds from plants and insects. Association with Corey at Harvard University ...
Since cells are very selective in the compounds that pass through the membrane, in a viable cell trypan blue is not absorbed; ... 6-Biphenyl-4-yl-QDC. *7-CKA. *Acid red 114. *Amido black 10B (naphthol blue black) ... https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/9562061#section=Color *^ https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/9562061#section= ...
Halogenated compounds with aromatic rings can degrade into dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, particularly when heated, such as ... The earliest flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were banned in the U.S. in 1977 when it was discovered that ... compounds contain both phosphorus and a halogen. Such compounds include tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (brominated tris) and ... Organohalogen compounds. This class includes organochlorines such as chlorendic acid derivatives and chlorinated paraffins; ...
... "are less able than adults to break down and excrete toxic compounds."[46] Children are exposed to newly invented chemicals used ... process or distribute in commerce or use any polychlorinated biphenyl in any manner other than in a totally enclosed manner." ... and disposal of chemical substances including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos, radon and lead-based paint.[19] ... including regulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) products and bans certain activities with respect to elemental mercury.[ ...
Biphenyl, an aromatic hydrocarbon, used alone or with diphenyl ether as a heat-transfer fluid; chemical formula, C6H5C6H5. It ... polychlorinated biphenyl. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). , any of a class of organohalogen compounds prepared by the reaction ... simplest organic, aromatic hydrocarbon and parent compound of numerous important aromatic compounds. Benzene is a colourless ... Biphenyl, also called Diphenyl, an aromatic hydrocarbon, used alone or with diphenyl ether as a heat-transfer fluid; chemical ...
Structure-activity relationships of phenylcyclohexene and biphenyl antitubulin compounds against plant and mammalian cells.. [D ... Structure-activity relationships for PCHs and biphenyl AC-ring analogues of colchicine (e.g., 2,3,4,4-tetramethoxy-2-methyl-1 ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical ... In this paper we compare the elimination kinetics of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into ... Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and ... for many compounds as persistent hydrophilic compounds may be released into sweat while persistent lipophilic compounds may be ...
... processes and intermediates for preparing such compounds and methods of using such compounds to treat pulmonary disorders. ... The compounds of formula I are muscarinic receptor antagonists. The invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions ... This invention provides compounds of formula I: wherein a, b, c, d, m, n, p, s, t, Ar 1 , R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 6 , R 7 , R ... Biphenyl compounds useful as muscarinic receptor antagonists CN1930125B (en) 2004-03-11. 2010-07-21. 施万制药. Biphenyl compounds ...
Our ability to provide a voice for scientists and engineers and to advance science depends on the support from individuals like you.. Give. ...
... ... Organochlorine compounds in Lake Superior: Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation in the aquatic food web. ...
The compounds are useful in the treatment of hepatitis C virus. ... The invention provides compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 , R ... WO2010094977A1 - Novel biphenyl compounds useful for the treatment of hepatitis c - Google Patents. Novel biphenyl compounds ... 150000001875 compounds Chemical class 0.000 claims abstract description 169 * 238000003786 synthesis Methods 0.000 claims ... FQDIYLIZBIZMML-UHFFFAOYSA-N C(CC)S(=O)(=O)N1CCN(CC1)N=[N+]=[N-] Chemical compound data:image/svg+xml;base64, ...
Catecholamines, Serotonin, and Related Compounds on Raptor Biphenyl Catecholamines, Serotonin, and Related Compounds on Raptor ... raptor biphenyl. , catecholamine. , serotonin. , dopamine metabolite. , serotonin metabolite. , biogenic amine. , raptor. , ...
Compound I, biphenyl; compound II, 23DHBP; compound III, HPDA; compound IV, 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate; compound V, benzoic ... acid; compound VI, ethylbenzene (toluene); compound VII, 3-ethylcatechol (3-methylcatechol); compound VIII, HOHD; compound IX, ... the biphenyl dioxygenase gene encoding the first step in the biphenyl/PCB degradation pathway is induced by both biphenyl and ... The following compounds were used as inducers: sodium succinate (0.2%), sodium benzoate (0.2%), biphenyl (0.2%), benzene, ...
Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.63 ... Induction of bphA, encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, in two polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacteria, psychrotolerant ... Enantiomer separation of polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers and polychlorinated biphenyl retention behavior on modified ... For example, biphenyl-grown treatments of R. globerulus strain P6 exhibited preferential transformation of the first eluting ...
Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and ... Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and ... Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and ... Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and ...
Rapid and Accurate LC-MS/MS Analysis of Nicotine and Related Compounds in Urine Using Raptor Biphenyl LC Columns and MS- ... Nicotine-Related Compounds in Urine on Raptor Biphenyl by LC-MS/MS. ... Nicotine-Related Compounds in Urine on Raptor Biphenyl by LC-MS/MS ... Raptor Biphenyl EXP cartridges 5 mm, 2.1 mm ID, 5 µm (cat.# 930950252). ...
Data show that a fast and highly efficient analysis of these basic compounds can be achieved with the Raptor Biphenyl column ... Rapid and Accurate LC-MS-MS Analysis of Nicotine and Related Compounds in Urine Using Raptor Biphenyl LC Columns and MS- ... Data show that a fast and highly efficient analysis of these basic compounds can be achieved with the Raptor Biphenyl column ... Data show that a fast and highly efficient analysis of these basic compounds can be achieved with the Raptor™ Biphenyl column ...
Biphenyl Compounds. Known as: Biphenyl Compounds [Chemical/Ingredient], Compounds, Biphenyl, biphenyl compound ... Enhanced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by directed evolution of biphenyl dioxygenase. *T. Kumamaru, H. Suenaga, M. ... Biphenyl dioxygenases (BP Dox) from different organisms, which are involved in the initial oxygenation and subsequent ... Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl/dioxin exposure and feeding type on infants mental and psychomotor development. ...
Patent application title: CRYSTALLINE FORM OF A BIPHENYL COMPOUND. Inventors: Pierre-Jean Colson Miroslav Rapta Robert S. Chao ... The resulting precipitate was dried to provide the title compound as a white solid (28.5 mg, 85% yield). Example 3 Biphenyl-2- ... Patent application title: CRYSTALLINE FORM OF A BIPHENYL COMPOUND. Inventors: Robert S. Chao (Santa Clara, CA, US) Robert S. ... Process for preparing biphenyl imidazole compounds. Top Inventors for class "Drug, bio-affecting and body treating compositions ...
... biphenyl compounds, processes and intermediates for preparing such biphenyl compounds and methods of using such biphenyl ... coupling a compound of formula IV with a compound of formula V; or [0040] (c) reacting a compound of formula VI with a compound ... 0178] Compounds of formula X can be prepared by reacting an isocyanate compound of formula XI: ##STR00015## with a compound of ... 0181] Compounds of formula IV can be prepared by reacting a compound of formula II with a compound of formula XIII: OHC(CH2)mCH ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls / this publication represents the views and expert opinions of two IARC ... Biphenyl. by Boehncke, A , Koennecker, G , Mangelsdorf, Inge , Wibbertmann, A , World Health Organization , International ... Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs : health and safety guide. by World Health Organization , International Programme on Chemical ...
Results of search for su:{Biphenyl compounds.} and available No results found! No results found for that in WHO HQ Library ...
Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are chemicals produced by human activity and are found in plastics used in many consumer ... PBBs are mixtures of brominated biphenyl compounds known as congeners.. In the United States, manufacturing of PBBs was stopped ... ToxFAQs™ for Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs). Spanish: Bifenilos Polibromados. PDF Versionpdf icon[54.6 KB] This fact sheet ... Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are chemicals produced by human activity and are found in plastics used in many consumer ...
PBBs are mixtures of brominated biphenyl compounds known as congeners. In the United States, manufacturing of PBBs was stopped ... Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are manufactured chemicals. They are added to the plastics used to make products like computer ... PBBs are mixtures of brominated biphenyl compounds known as congeners. In the United States, manufacturing of PBBs was stopped ... Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are manufactured chemicals. They are added to the plastics used to make products like computer ...
3. Chemical Compound - Polychlorinated Biphenyl. PCBs in addition took part in transformers and capacitors, oil-based paint, ...
Phenolic compounds; Polychlorinated-biphenyls; Biphenyls ...
METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured selected organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls ... Organic-compounds; Organo-chlorine-compounds; Polychlorinated-biphenyls; Agricultural-workers; Questionnaires ... METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured selected organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (p, p-DDE, p, p-DDT, o, p-DDT, beta- ...
Biphenyl Compounds. *Biphenyl Compounds: therapeutic use. *Carbolines. *Carbolines: therapeutic use. *Dose-Response ...
Biphenyl Compounds. *Cardiovascular Agents. *Cardiovascular System. *Chemical Actions and Uses. *Combined Inhibitors of CYP3A4 ... 2-Butyl-4-chloro-1-{[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl}-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methanol ... 2-N-Butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]imidazole ...
Biphenyl Compounds * Brassica / chemistry* * Cell Survival / drug effects * Cells, Cultured * Ferric Compounds / chemistry ...
cadmium and compounds; mercury and compounds; mercury; polychlorinated biphenyls; lead and compounds; lead; data sheet; garbage ... Basic notions of the accumulation of certain pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and cadmium in living ...
Flow cytometry-based method for isolating live bacteria with meta-cleavage activity on dihydroxy compounds of biphenyl. In: ... Flow cytometry-based method for isolating live bacteria with meta-cleavage activity on dihydroxy compounds of biphenyl. / ... title = "Flow cytometry-based method for isolating live bacteria with meta-cleavage activity on dihydroxy compounds of biphenyl ... T1 - Flow cytometry-based method for isolating live bacteria with meta-cleavage activity on dihydroxy compounds of biphenyl ...
... manufacture of biphenyl compounds [email protected]; catalyst preparation; functionalization of SBA-15; Suzuki coupling ...
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. (hindawi.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are some of the most serious environmental pollutants because of their exceptional stability. (asm.org)
  • The bacteria that have been isolated and examined in aerobic PCB degradation studies are mainly gram-negative bacteria, and these bacteria degrade PCBs through cometabolism with biphenyl. (asm.org)
  • Enantioselective biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been suggested from studies showing differential occurrence of PCB enantiomers in environmental samples, including river and riparian biota and sediments ( 19 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have already been proposed to truly have a vulnerable estrogenic activity and for that reason create a risk as potential environmental endocrine disruptors towards the perinatal development of the feminine reproductive tract. (cdkkinase.com)
  • The morphologic adjustments which were elicited by PCBs and DES had been different soon after publicity, recommending that down-regulation is normally transient after estrogenic publicity, subsequent morphologic adjustments became even more pronounced during postnatal and adult lifestyle, suggesting that the feminine reproductive tract is normally completely reprogrammed after publicity also to vulnerable estrogenic compounds. (cdkkinase.com)
  • We thus set out to determine if is deregulated in response to potential weak estrogenic compounds such as PCBs, by comparing the molecular and cellular responses to both PCBs and very low concentrations of DES (10 ng/g bw). (cdkkinase.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are serious environmental pollutants that threaten both the natural ecosystem and human health. (springer.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known as neurotoxic chemicals or endocrine-disrupting compounds. (slideplayer.com)
  • A mixture of PCBs such as Aroclor may contain PCB compounds which are known estrogen agonists , but on the other hand are not classified as dioxin-like in terms of toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels. (mdpi.com)
  • The possible exposures to polychlorinated-biphenyls (1336363) (PCBs) from ballast burnout were discussed, based on surveys carried out in schools in Ohio, Washington, Virginia, Delaware, and Michigan. (cdc.gov)
  • A previous study of six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners showed that PCBs with four or fewer chlorines and ortho substitution stimulate uterine contraction frequency in vitro, whereas congeners with a greater number of chlorines or non-ortho substitution are inactive in vitro. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants previously used in transformers, in the manufacture of paints, and for various other industrial purposes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • [1] (PCBs) is the acronym for Polychlorinated biphenyls which are complex chlorinated compounds [2] . (sourcewatch.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (often shortened to PCBs ) are organic chemical compounds that contain chlorine atoms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine-containing chemicals like hexachlorobenzene (HCB), tetra- and trichloroethenes (PCE and TCE), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols (CPs) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are persistent pollutants in our environment. (wiley.com)
  • The developers say the process will be effective on solvents, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), dioxins, pesticides, dyes and cyanide compounds. (newscientist.com)
  • Nine percent of the doctors told their patients about polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), industrial compounds often found in fish. (sfgate.com)
  • We are aiming to create some magic intelligent bacteria to track and 'eat' pollutants PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) and dioxins efficiently, based on the methods of synthetic biology. (igem.org)
  • The aerobes attack PCBs oxidatively , breaking open the carbon ring and destroying the compounds. (igem.org)
  • 2000. Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (cdc.gov)
  • Basic notions of the accumulation of certain pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and cadmium in living organisms and in the food chain, as well as their toxicological consequences, are highlighted. (ilo.org)
  • Organic compounds: polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, insecticides (chlorinated hydrocarbons). (fao.org)
  • Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds ( DLCs ) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because dioxins refer to such a broad class of compounds that vary widely in toxicity, the concept of toxic equivalency factor (TEF) has been developed to facilitate risk assessment and regulatory control. (wikipedia.org)
  • In reference to their importance as environmental toxicants the term dioxins is used almost exclusively to refer to the sum of compounds (as TEQ) from the above groups which demonstrate the same specific toxic mode of action associated with TCDD . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical contaminants cover a broad range of contaminants including but not limited to, natural components of ingredients (e.g., glucosinolates) or natural toxins (e.g., mycotoxins), pesticides, or industrial compounds (e.g., dioxins, melamine, etc. (fda.gov)
  • Biosensors for detecting dioxins and related compounds, although still under development, show potential to overcome these limitations. (mdpi.com)
  • Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a group of chemical compounds, collectively known as "dioxins", produced by chemical processes, combustion and waste incineration, involving chlorine [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chlorinated compounds: polychlorinated dibenzo-1 ,4-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls. (unibo.it)
  • Researchers in two American laboratories are working on ways to exploit the power of sunlight in breaking down harmful compounds such as dioxins. (newscientist.com)
  • In the biphenyl metabolic pathway (Fig. 1 ), biphenyl is transformed to 2,3-dihydroxy-1-phenylcyclohexa-4,6-diene (dihydrodiol) by a multicomponent biphenyl dioxygenase (BphA). (asm.org)
  • Barriault D, Plante MM, Sylvestre M (2002) Family shuffling of a targeted bphA region to engineer biphenyl dioxygenase. (springer.com)
  • Bruhlmann F, Chen W (1999b) Tuning biphenyl dioxygenase for extended substrate specificity. (springer.com)
  • Erickson BD, Mondello FJ (1993) Enhanced biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls after site-directed mutagenesis of a biphenyl dioxygenase gene. (springer.com)
  • In 2002, elements of the Triad Approach were used at the Albert Steel Drum Site to collect real time data in conjunction with field decision-making to map the boundaries of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 'hot spots. (clu-in.org)
  • Health Canada monitoring activities focused on human exposure to contaminants, including measurement of chemicals in household dust, volatile organic compounds in drinking water, a selection of chemicals in indoor air, hexachloro-norborne-based flame retardants in human milk and serum, and phthalates and BPA exposure in pregnant women. (gc.ca)
  • Volatile organic compounds ( VOCs ) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature . (wikipedia.org)
  • The ARB revised the definition of "Volatile Organic Compounds" used in the consumer products regulations, based on their committee's findings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VOC Solvents Emissions Directive is the main policy instrument for the reduction of industrial emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the European Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volatile organic compounds that are classified as hazardous materials are regulated by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration while being transported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are organic chemicals that have a high vapour pressure at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CARB revised the definition of "Volatile Organic Compounds" used in the consumer products regulations, based on their committee's findings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) encompass VOCs emitted by plants, animals, or microorganisms, and while extremely diverse, are most commonly terpenoids, alcohols, and carbonyls (methane and carbon monoxide are generally not considered). (wikipedia.org)
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is the organic chemicals with high levels of vapor pressure while at room-temperature conditions. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Volatile Organic Compounds are a major contributor of the ground level pollution. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Research into Volatile Organic Compounds and their effects proves difficult because their concentrations are usually low and their symptoms are slow to develop. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Those kind of volatile organic compounds not only were not in common use -- they didn't even exist in that time frame. (universalhub.com)
  • Allen JG, MacNaughton P, Satish U (2016) Associations of cognitive function scores with carbon dioxide, ventilation, and volatile organic compound exposures in office workers: a controlled exposure study of green and conventional office environments. (springer.com)
  • Volatile organic compounds, carbonyl compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. (springer.com)
  • Eleven percent said they mention volatile organic compounds, which are fumes emitted by gasoline, paints and solvents. (sfgate.com)
  • Halogenated hydrocarbons, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are removed from aqueous media including waste water from chemical manufacturing operations by contacting the aqueous media with an effective amount of a polyolefinic microporous. (google.es)
  • Halogenated hydrocarbons, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are removed from aqueous media including waste water from chemical manufacturing operations by contacting the aqueous media with an effective amount of a polyolefinic microporous adsorbent, preferably in the form of a filter or cartridge. (google.es)
  • TCDD binding to the AH receptor induces the cytochrome P450 1A class of enzymes which function to break down toxic compounds, e.g., carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons such as benzo (a) pyrene (but making many of them more toxic in the process). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrocarbons are those organic compounds that contribute in the photochemical production of the ozone (Hester & Harrison 1995). (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons , or arenes , are aromatic organic compounds containing solely carbon and hydrogen atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new method for isolating targeted live bacterial cells was established with the use of cell sorting by flow cytometry (FCM) based on the fluorescence of the intermediate metabolite of biphenyl degradation. (elsevier.com)
  • During biphenyl degradation, a PCB degrader, Comamonas testosteroni TK102, produces a meta-cleavage intermediate metabolite, 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA), which emits green fluorescence. (elsevier.com)
  • Main mechanisms of degradation of organic compounds in water and soil: reactions of hydrolysis, photolytic processes, redox reactions, microbiological degradation. (unibo.it)
  • Source: Kensuke Furukawa and Hidehiko Fujihara, Microbial Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Biochemical and Molecular Features , Journal of bioscience and bioengineering , Vol. 105, No. 5, 433-449. (igem.org)
  • Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs : health and safety guide. (who.int)
  • HIGHLIGHTS: Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are chemicals produced by human activity and are found in plastics used in many consumer products to make them difficult to burn. (cdc.gov)
  • Since PBBs are no longer produced or used, the risk of Studies in animals exposed to large amounts of PBBs for a exposure to these compounds is low. (cdc.gov)
  • PBBs are mixtures of brominated biphenyl compounds known as congeners. (cdc.gov)
  • The intent of this application was to develop a method for the analysis of nicotine-related compounds in urine using solutions that are "friendly" to LC-MS-MS systems. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl/dioxin exposure and feeding type on infants' mental and psychomotor development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • SERI's tests showed that sunlight, concentrated 1000 times above its normal intensity, can destroy 99.9999 per cent of a sample of dioxin, a toxic compound. (newscientist.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls / this publication represents the views and expert opinions of two IARC Working Groups on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, which met in Lyon, 10-15 October 1977 and 6-13 June 1978. (who.int)
  • Bruhlmann F, Chen W (1999a) Transformation of polychlorinated biphenyls by a novel BphA variant through the meta-cleavage pathway. (springer.com)
  • In the forth step BphD, a hydrolase, hydrolyzes the ring meta-cleavage yellow compound(HOPDA) to chlorobenzoic acid and 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate. (igem.org)
  • Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum and adipose tissue from Bolivia. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The blood samples were tested for levels of 11 pesticides and 36 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Lead, mercury, toluene, perchlorate, bisphenol A, flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, organochlorine pesticides and phthalates are among the chemicals, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 's nationwide testing program. (sfgate.com)
  • Billingsley KA, Backus SM, Ward OP (1999) Effect of surfactant solubilization on biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by Pseudomonas LB400. (springer.com)
  • They have used it to destroy samples of trichloroethylene, a solvent that pollutes ground water, and salicylic acid, a harmless compound but one which is chemically similar to some pollutants. (newscientist.com)
  • strain LB400 and other biphenyl-utilizing bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Through the program, many priority substances, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), other flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds (including PFOS and PFCAs), siloxanes, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA) and metals, have been measured to provide environmental data for risk assessment and risk management decision making. (gc.ca)
  • Harmful VOCs typically are not acutely toxic , but have compounding long-term health effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health Canada classifies VOCs as organic compounds that have boiling points roughly in the range of 50 to 250 °C (122 to 482 °F). The emphasis is placed on commonly encountered VOCs that would have an effect on air quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] EPA also publishes wastewater testing methods for chemical compounds, including a range of VOCs, pursuant to the Clean Water Act . (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of VOCs are produced by plants, the main compound being isoprene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though VOCs are not acutely toxic, they have compounding long term health effects. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • VOCs, as well as other organic compounds are key ingredients of ground level photochemical oxidant formation. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Antibiotic sensitization using biphenyl tetrazoles as potent inhibitors of Bacteroides fragilis metallo-beta-lactamase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Breast adipose tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls are associated with breast cancer risk. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • However, associations with fetal motor activity measures were more consistent and robust: higher concentrations of 7 of 10 organochlorine compounds were positively associated with one of more measures of more frequent and more vigorous fetal motor activity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In this research study, a strain of Cunninghamella elegans (UCP 596) was isolated from mangrove sediments to metabolize an organosulfur dibenzothiophene (DBT) compound in the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mM and transform to DBT sulfone (DBT-5-dioxide), followed by dibenzothiophene 5,5-dioxide and 2-hydroxybiphenyl metabolites, thus suggesting the use of the "4S" metabolic pathway. (intechopen.com)
  • The process uses a carbonyl compound, such as acetone, to reduce byproduct levels in the resulting product. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The process of claim 1, wherein the carbonyl compound is fed to the reaction zone in an amount sufficient to cause the crude product composition to comprise 7 to 35 weight percent of the carbonyl compound based on the total weight of the crude product composition. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The process of claim 1, wherein the feed composition comprises at least some of the carbonyl compound. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9. The process of claim 1, wherein the carbonyl compound and the feed composition are fed separately to the reaction zone. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. (hindawi.com)
  • Microorganisms are known to be capable of degrading diverse chemical substances including man-made chemicals in the environment that are mostly aromatic compounds. (genome.jp)
  • Polybrominated biphenyl exposure and menstrual cycle function. (cdc.gov)
  • Allred EN, Bleecker ER, Chaitman BR (1989) Short-term effects of carbon monoxide exposure on the exercise performance of subjects with coronary artery disease. (springer.com)
  • Although severe cases of juvenile acne may mimic adult chloracne in appearance and distribution, it is generally agreed that exposure to chlorinated aromatic compounds causes the overwhelming preponderance of chloracne cases in adults (Crow and Puhvel, 1991). (nap.edu)
  • Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Maloideae, a subfamily of the economically important Rosaceae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Studies suggest that for many these compounds, low-level exposures in the womb disrupt development of the brain or reproductive systems. (sfgate.com)
  • Two Nearly Identical Aromatic Compound Hydrolase Genes in a Strong Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degrader,Rhodococcus sp. (asm.org)
  • The two 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate (HOHD) hydrolase genes, etbD1 and etbD2 , were cloned from a strong polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader, Rhodococcus sp. (asm.org)
  • We isolated a gram-positive biphenyl/PCB degrader, Rhodococcus sp. (asm.org)
  • This invention is directed to pyrrole, pyrazole, imidazole, triazole, and morpholine based selective androgen receptor degrader (SARD) compounds including heterocyclic anilide rings and their synthetic precursors, R-isomers, and non-hydr. (sumobrain.com)
  • Here, biphenyl compounds were conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to enhance the activity of small molecular inhibitors. (rsc.org)
  • Ephedrine as a lead compound for the development of new DPP-IV inhibitors. (bireme.br)
  • The invention provides a crystalline 1,2-ethanedisulfonic acid salt of biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-[2-(2-chloro-4-{[(R)-2-hydroxy-2-(8-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-5 -yl)ethylamino]methyl}-5-methoxyphenylcarbamoyl)ethyl]piperidin-4-yl ester or a solvate thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This packing pattern is maintained when we extend the aromatic groups by attaching flexible aliphatic chains, which yields compounds with thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline properties. (nature.com)
  • The invention provides crystalline forms of biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}ethyl)piper- idin-4-yl. (patents.com)
  • The disclosure provides compounds of formula I, including pharmaceutically acceptable salts, as well as compositions and methods of using the compounds. (patents.com)
  • Fava F, Bertin L, Fedi S, Zannoni D (2003) Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin-enhanced solubilization and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in two aged contaminated soils. (springer.com)
  • Gilbert ES, Crowley DE (1997) Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. (springer.com)
  • The evidence in the literature suggests that PCDD/F compounds are subject to biodegradation in the environment as part of the natural chlorine cycle. (igem.org)
  • This diagram illustrates combination patterns of reaction modules for biodegradation of aromatic compounds, consisting of three main types of ring dihydroxylation modules, followed by meta- or ortho-cleavage modules, together with an optional preprocessing module for converting methyl group to carboxyl group on the aromatic ring. (genome.jp)
  • Examples of non-benzene compounds with aromatic properties are furan , a heterocyclic compound with a five-membered ring that includes a single oxygen atom, and pyridine , a heterocyclic compound with a six-membered ring containing one nitrogen atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are organic compounds containing to benzene rings linked together by a C-C bond. (drugbank.ca)
  • A benzenoid aromatic compound that consists of two benzene rings connected by a single covalent bond. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Recognition of the ability of microorganisms to degrade these hazardous compounds opened up a new vista for the microbially mediated remediation of polluted environments. (wiley.com)
  • 9. A liquid crystal composition containing at least one species of 2-fluoro-1-alkanol compound represented by the formula (Ia): ##STR16## wherein R is an alkyl group having 1-16 carbon atoms, and C* is an asymmetric carbon atom. (google.com.au)
  • The configuration of six carbon atoms in aromatic compounds is called a "benzene ring", after the simple aromatic compound benzene , or a phenyl group when part of a larger compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biphenyl molecule is made up of two connected rings of six carbon atoms each, and a PCB is any molecule having multiple chlorines attached to the biphenyl nucleus. (igem.org)
  • It catalyzed the conversion of biphenyl to dihydrodiol compound in step 1. (igem.org)
  • In response, research is currently underway to determine methods to eliminate persistent compounds from the body in order to preclude and overcome health problems [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The present invention relates to processes for removal of Michael acceptors from certain compositions wherein the composition is treated with a thiol-containing compound under conditions sufficient to remove Michael acceptors and the resulting thiol-Michael adducts. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to methods for preventing damage to excitable cells following ischemic by administering to a patient who is undergoing or who has undergone an ischemic event an effective amount of a compound which increases a transient potassium (K+) conductance in the excitable cells of. (google.es)
  • A process of forming compounds of formula (I) comprising the steps of addition of an amino compound H2NR to a compound of formula (II) followed by cyclization, isomerization and hydrolysis. (sumobrain.com)
  • 2. Biphenyl and its 4-hydroxy and 4,4′-dihydroxy derivatives are extensively excreted in the bile as glucuronides in amounts increasing in order of molecular weight. (biochemj.org)
  • HOPDA was produced from 2,3-dihydroxy biphenyl as a substrate, but it was not appropriate for labeling cells because it was released from the cells into the medium. (elsevier.com)
  • In the second step of the upper pathway BphB enzymes catalyzes the conversion of dihidrodiol to dihydroxy compound. (igem.org)
  • Compounds of Formula I, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, are pro. (sumobrain.com)
  • The chemistry of organic compounds in the atmosphere: photochemical and radical reactions. (unibo.it)
  • Thus, the products of a set of catabolic genes, bphA1A2A3A4BCDEFG , are responsible for the aerobic metabolism of biphenyl. (asm.org)
  • 15. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable aqueous carrier and biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}ethyl)piper- idin-4-yl ester or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 05 μg/mL to about 10 mg/mL of biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}ethyl)piper- idin-4-yl ester or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)