Biphenyl CompoundsPolychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Polybrominated Biphenyls: Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.Aroclors: Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene: An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Burkholderiaceae: A family of gram negative, aerobic, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacteria.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Great Lakes Region: The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Hexachlorobenzene: An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers: Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Chlordan: A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedPesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Slovakia: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Milk, HumanEndocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.MichiganPrenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. All strains can utilize FRUCTOSE for energy. It is occasionally isolated from humans and some strains are pathogenic to WATERMELON.Phenyl Ethers: Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Pentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Armoracia: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for the root used in hot SPICES. It is also the source of HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE which is widely used in laboratories.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.ChlorobenzenesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane: An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Benzene DerivativesFurans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Safrole: A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Comamonas testosteroni: A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Chloroflexi: Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Organotin Compounds: Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Preconception Injuries: Damages to reproductive health prior to conception (FERTILIZATION), a legal term for torts liability concerning environmental safety issues. Preconception injuries may involve either the male or the female, such as chromosomal mutations in the OVA or the SPERMATOZOA.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Aniline CompoundsMicrosomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Toxaphene: A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Nikethamide: A central nervous system stimulant. It was formerly used in the treatment of barbiturate overdose but is now considered to be of no value for such purposes and may be dangerous. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1229)Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Nitroso CompoundsBenzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Organoselenium Compounds: Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship: A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.Bromine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.PhenanthrenesEnzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Chemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.Azo CompoundsTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.New YorkWater Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.

Irbesartan reduces QT dispersion in hypertensive individuals. (1/2256)

Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists have direct effects on the autonomic nervous system and myocardium. Because of this, we hypothesized that irbesartan would reduce QT dispersion to a greater degree than amlodipine, a highly selective vasodilator. To test this, we gathered electrocardiographic (ECG) data from a multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind parallel group study that compared the antihypertensive efficacy of irbesartan and amlodipine in elderly subjects with mild to moderate hypertension. Subjects were treated for 6 months with either drug. Hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol were added after 12 weeks if blood pressure (BP) remained uncontrolled. ECGs were obtained before randomization and at 6 months. A total of 188 subjects (118 with baseline ECGs) were randomized. We analyzed 104 subjects who had complete ECGs at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Baseline characteristics between treatments were similar, apart from a slight imbalance in diastolic BP (irbesartan [n=53] versus amlodipine [n=51], 99.2 [SD 3. 6] versus 100.8 [3.8] mm Hg; P=0.03). There were no significant differences in BP normalization (diastolic BP <90 mm Hg) between treatments at 6 months (irbesartan versus amlodipine, 80% versus 88%; P=0.378). We found a significant reduction in QT indexes in the irbesartan group (QTc dispersion mean, -11.4 [34.5] milliseconds, P=0.02; QTc max, -12.8 [35.5] milliseconds, P=0.01), and QTc dispersion did not correlate with the change in BP. The reduction in QT indexes with amlodipine (QTc dispersion, -9.7 [35.4] milliseconds, P=0.06; QTc max, -8.6 [33.2] milliseconds, P=0.07) did not quite reach statistical significance, but there was a correlation between the change in QT indexes and changes in systolic BP. In conclusion, irbesartan improved QT dispersion, and this effect may be important in preventing sudden cardiac death in at-risk hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation. (2/2256)

1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2.  (+info)

ACE inhibition and ANG II receptor blockade improve glomerular size-selectivity in IgA nephropathy. (3/2256)

Protein trafficking across the glomerular capillary has a pathogenic role in subsequent renal damage. Despite evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve glomerular size-selectivity, whether this effect is solely due to ANG II blocking or if other mediators also play a contributory role is not clear yet. We studied 20 proteinuric patients with IgA nephropathy, who received either enalapril (20 mg/day) or the ANG II receptor blocker irbesartan (100 mg/day) for 28 days in a randomized double-blind study. Measurements of blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, and fractional clearance of neutral dextran of graded sizes were performed before and after 28 days of treatment. Both enalapril and irbesartan significantly reduced blood pressure over baseline. This reduction reached the maximum effect 4-6 h after drug administration but did not last for the entire 24-h period. Despite transient antihypertensive effect, proteinuria was effectively reduced by both treatments to comparable extents. Neither enalapril nor irbesartan modified the sieving coefficients of small dextran molecules, but both effectively reduced transglomerular passage of large test macromolecules. Theoretical analysis of sieving coefficients showed that neither drug affected significantly the mean pore radius or the spread of the pore-size distribution, but both importantly and comparably reduced the importance of a nonselective shunt pathway. These data suggest that antagonism of ANG II is the key mechanism by which ACE inhibitors exert their beneficial effect on glomerular size-selective function and consequently on glomerular filtration and urinary output of plasma proteins.  (+info)

Neurotensin is a proinflammatory neuropeptide in colonic inflammation. (4/2256)

The neuropeptide neurotensin mediates several intestinal functions, including chloride secretion, motility, and cellular growth. However, whether this peptide participates in intestinal inflammation is not known. Toxin A, an enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, mediates pseudomembranous colitis in humans. In animal models, toxin A causes an acute inflammatory response characterized by activation of sensory neurons and intestinal nerves and immune cells of the lamina propria. Here we show that neurotensin and its receptor are elevated in the rat colonic mucosa following toxin A administration. Pretreatment of rats with the neurotensin receptor antagonist SR-48, 692 inhibits toxin A-induced changes in colonic secretion, mucosal permeability, and histologic damage. Exposure of colonic explants to toxin A or neurotensin causes mast cell degranulation, which is inhibited by SR-48,692. Because substance P was previously shown to mediate mast cell activation, we examined whether substance P is involved in neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation. Our results show that neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation in colonic explants is inhibited by the substance P (neurokinin-1) receptor antagonist CP-96,345, indicating that colonic mast activation in response to neurotensin involves release of substance P. We conclude that neurotensin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-induced colonic inflammation and mast cell activation.  (+info)

Angiotensin II receptor blockade in normotensive subjects: A direct comparison of three AT1 receptor antagonists. (5/2256)

Use of angiotensin (Ang) II AT1 receptor antagonists for treatment of hypertension is rapidly increasing, yet direct comparisons of the relative efficacy of antagonists to block the renin-angiotensin system in humans are lacking. In this study, the Ang II receptor blockade induced by the recommended starting dose of 3 antagonists was evaluated in normotensive subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, 4-way crossover study. At 1-week intervals, 12 subjects received a single dose of losartan (50 mg), valsartan (80 mg), irbesartan (150 mg), or placebo. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system was assessed before and 4, 24, and 30 hours after drug intake by 3 independent methods: inhibition of the blood pressure response to exogenous Ang II, in vitro Ang II receptor assay, and reactive changes in plasma Ang II levels. At 4 hours, losartan blocked 43% of the Ang II-induced systolic blood pressure increase; valsartan, 51%; and irbesartan, 88% (P<0.01 between drugs). The effect of each drug declined with time. At 24 hours, a residual effect was found with all 3 drugs, but at 30 hours, only irbesartan induced a marked, significant blockade versus placebo. Similar results were obtained when Ang II receptor blockade was assessed with an in vitro receptor assay and by the reactive rise in plasma Ang II levels. This study thus demonstrates that the first administration of the recommended starting dose of irbesartan induces a greater and longer lasting Ang II receptor blockade than that of valsartan and losartan in normotensive subjects.  (+info)

ESR study on the structure-antioxidant activity relationship of tea catechins and their epimers. (6/2256)

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the free radical scavenging activities and the chemical structures of tea catechins ((-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC)) and their corresponding epimers ((-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), (-)-gallocatechin (GC) and (+)-catechin ((+)-C)). With electron spin resonance (ESR) we investigated their scavenging effects on superoxide anions (O-.2) generated in the irradiated riboflavin system, singlet oxygen(1O2) generated in the photoradiation-hemoporphyrin system, the free radicals generated from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride (AAPH) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The results showed that the scavenging effects of galloylated catechins (EGCG and GCG) on the four free radicals were stronger than those of nongalloylated catechins (EGC, GC, EC, (+)-C), and the scavenging effects of EGC and GC were stronger than those of EC and (+)-C. Thus, it is suggested that the presence of the gallate group at the 3 position plays the most important role in their free radical-scavenging abilities and an additional insertion of the hydroxyl group at the 5' position in the B ring also contributes to their scavenging activities. Moreover, the corresponding phenoxyl radicals formed after the reaction with O-.2 were trapped by DMPO and the ESR spectra of DMPO/phenoxyl radical adducts were observed (aN=15.6 G and aHbeta=21.5 G). No significant differences were found between the scavenging effects of the catechins and their epimers when their concentrations were high. However, significant differences were observed at relatively low concentrations, and the lower their concentrations, the higher the differences. The scavenging abilities of GCG, GC and (+)-C were stronger than those of their corresponding epimers (EGCG, EGC and EC). The differences between their sterical structures played a more important role in their abilities to scavenge large free radicals, such as the free radicals generated from AAPH and the DPPH radical, than to scavenge small free radicals, such as O-.2 and 1O2, especially in the case with EGCG and GCG with more bulky steric hindrance.  (+info)

Serial changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum gene expression in volume-overloaded cardiac hypertrophy in the rat: effect of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. (7/2256)

This study was designed to clarify whether gene expression in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum [sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), phospholamban, ryanodine receptor and calsequestrin] changes in accordance with left ventricular functional alterations in the volume-overloaded heart. Further, the effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, TCV-116, on the expression of these genes was also evaluated. Left ventricular fractional shortening was significantly increased at 7 days, had returned to control levels at 21 days, and had significantly decreased at 35 days after the shunt operation, compared with sham-operated rats. The level of SERCA mRNA was significantly decreased at both 21 days and 35 days after the shunt operation. The levels of ryanodine receptor and phospholamban mRNAs were significantly decreased at 35 days in shunt-operated rats. The decrease in the SERCA mRNA level preceded the development of cardiac dysfunction. The levels of SERCA and ryanodine receptor mRNAs were correlated positively with left ventricular fractional shortening (r=0.73, P<0.0001 and r=0.61, P<0.01 respectively). Attenuation of the decrease in left ventricular fractional shortening occurred on treatment with TCV-116. After the treatment with TCV-116, the levels of SERCA and phospholamban mRNAs were restored to the respective values in sham-operated rats. Ryanodine receptor mRNA levels remained unchanged after treatment with TCV-116. These results indicate that the down-regulation of SERCA and ryanodine receptor mRNA levels may be related to cardiac dysfunction in the volume-overloaded heart. In addition, treatment with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist may restore the altered sarcoplasmic reticulum mRNA levels to control levels, and this may result in attenuation of the functional impairment in the volume-overloaded heart.  (+info)

Pharmacological diversity between native human 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors sited on different neurons and involved in different functions. (8/2256)

The releases of [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine ([3H]5-HT) and of endogenous glutamic acid and their modulation through presynaptic h5-HT1B autoreceptors and h5-HT1D heteroreceptors have been investigated in synaptosomal preparations from fresh neocortical samples obtained from patients undergoing neurosurgery. The inhibition by 5-HT of the K+ (15 mM)-evoked overflow of [3H]5-HT was antagonized by the 5-HT1B/5-HT1D receptor ligand GR 127935, which was ineffective on its own; this drug was previously found to behave as a full agonist at the h5-HT1D heteroreceptor regulating glutamate release. The recently proposed selective h5-HT1B receptor ligand SB-224289 also prevented the effect of 5-HT at the autoreceptor, being inactive on its own; in contrast, SB-224289, at 1 microM, was unable to interact with the h5-HT1D heteroreceptor. The inhibitory effect of 5-HT on the K+-evoked overflow of glutamate was antagonized by the h5-HT1D receptor ligand BRL-15572; added in the absence of 5-HT the compound was without effect. BRL-15572 (1 microM) was unable to modify the effect of 5-HT at the autoreceptor regulating [3H]5-HT release. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (+)-WAY 100135, previously found to be an agonist at the h5-HT1D heteroreceptor regulating glutamate release, could not interact with the h5-HT1B autoreceptor when added at 1 microM. It is concluded that native h5-HT1B and h5-HT1D receptors exhibit a hitherto unexpected pharmacological diversity.  (+info)

*Flame retardant

In one important class of flame retardants, compounds contain both phosphorus and a halogen. Such compounds include tris(2,3- ... The earliest flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were banned in the U.S. in 1977 when it was discovered that ... Halogenated compounds with aromatic rings can degrade into dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, particularly when heated, such as ... and boron compounds, mostly borates. Organohalogen compounds. This class includes organochlorines such as chlorendic acid ...

*Persistent organic pollutant

... and polychlorinated biphenyl production. Structurally similar to dioxins, the two compounds share toxic effects. Furans persist ... With synergistic effects, the toxicity of each compound is enhanced (or depressed) by the presence of other compounds in the ... which reconcentrates these chemical compounds to potentially dangerous levels. Compounds that make up POPs are also classed as ... Halogenated compounds also exhibit great stability reflecting the nonreactivity of C-Cl bonds toward hydrolysis and photolytic ...

*Polychlorinated dibenzofurans

California's Air Toxics "Hot Spots" List (Assembly Bill). Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds Polychlorinated biphenyl " ... Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a family of organic compounds with one or several of the hydrogens in the ... Polychlorinated Dibenzofuran and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyl in Healthy Japanese Men. J Health Sci. VOL.47; NO.2; PAGE. ... Polychlorinated dibenzofurans are much more toxic than the parent compounds, with properties and chemical structures similar to ...

*Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds

Polychlorinated/polybrominated biphenyls (PCBs/PBBs), derived from biphenyl, of which twelve are "dioxin-like". Under certain ... Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs ... polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, trends and exposure through ... "Persistent organochlorine and organobromine compounds in mother's milk from Sweden 1996-2006: compound-specific temporal trends ...

*Wurtz-Fittig reaction

... with the use of ultrasound the reaction can also be made useful for the production of biphenyl compounds. Wurtz reaction ... of aryl halides with alkyl halides and sodium metal in the presence of dry ether to give substituted aromatic compounds. The ...

*Atropisomer

Heteroaromatic analogues of the biphenyl compounds also exist, where hindered rotation occurs about a carbon-nitrogen or a ... The use of axially chiral biaryl compounds such as BINAP, QUINAP and BINOL, have been found to be useful in the area of ... In the example shown, A has priority over B. One way to synthesize these axially chiral biaryl compounds is through a direct ... The atropisomer is an iodoaryl compound synthesised starting from (S)-valine and exists as the (M,S) isomer and the (P,S) ...

*Aryne

"Aryne coupling" reactions allow for generation of biphenyl compounds which are valuable in pharmaceutical industry, agriculture ... The main drawback of this method is the explosive nature of diazonium compounds. As an example, anthranilic acid can be ... The Bergman cyclization proved to be even more important with the discovery of enediyne "cytostatics", compounds able to cleave ... Georg Wittig and coworkers proposed that the formation of biphenyl via reactions of fluorobenzene and phenyllithium proceeded ...

*Sphingomonas paucimobilis

... paucimobilis is able to degrade lignin-related biphenyl chemical compounds. George M. Garrity, ed. (July 26, 2005) [1984( ... January 2009 Cloning of a Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 Gene Encoding a Novel Oxygenase That Cleaves Lignin-Related Biphenyl ...

*4-Formylphenylboronic acid

... for example in the build up of pharmacologically active biphenyl compounds such as a precursor of the antihypertensive AT1 ... When the aryllithium compound of 1-bromo-4-(diethoxymethyl)benzene is used with triisopropylborate at -78 °C instead of the ... The compound is quite stable and readily forms dimers and cyclic trimeric anhydrides, which complicate purification and tend to ... The formation of the Grignard compound with magnesium requires 1,2-dibromoethane and activation with ultrasound. Reaction with ...

*2008 Irish pork crisis

Masuda, Y (2003). "Health Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Related Compounds" (PDF). J Health Sci. 49 (5): 333-336. doi: ... Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are two groups of predominately man-made toxic chemicals which, when consumed, ... It was announced that "dioxins & dioxin like PCBs", a group of highly toxic synthetic halogenated organic compounds, had been ... 2006). Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (Report in Brief) (PDF). The National ...

*XPhos

... is an organophosphorus compound derived from biphenyl. Its palladium complexes exhibit high activity for Buchwald-Hartwig ... Both palladium and copper complexes of the compound exhibit high activity for the coupling of aryl halides and aryl tosylates ...

*CPhos

... is an organophosphorus compound derived from biphenyl. It is a white solid that is soluble in organic solvents. Its ...

*SPhos

... is an organophosphorus compound derived from biphenyl. Its palladium complexes exhibit high activity for Suzuki coupling ...

*Sphingomonas yanoikuyae

Its type strain is JCM 7371 (= GIFU 9882). It is notable for degrading a variety of aromatic compounds including biphenyl, ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... biphenyl compounds MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.185.060 --- aminobiphenyl compounds MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.185.100 --- benzidines ... trialkyltin compounds MeSH D02.691.850.900.910 --- triethyltin compounds MeSH D02.691.850.900.950 --- trimethyltin compounds ... mustard compounds MeSH D02.455.526.728.468 --- mustard gas MeSH D02.455.526.728.650 --- nitrogen mustard compounds MeSH D02.455 ... bephenium compounds MeSH D02.092.877.096.333 --- bretylium compounds MeSH D02.092.877.096.333.150 --- bretylium tosylate MeSH ...

*Endocrine disruptor

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of chlorinated compounds used as industrial coolants and lubricants. PCBs are ... Fürst P (October 2006). "Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, ... Endocrine disrupting compounds encompass a variety of chemical classes, including drugs, pesticides, compounds used in the ... "Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and ...

*Infant formula

Fürst P. Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, trends and ... Nucleotides Nucleotides are compounds found naturally in human breast milk. They are involved in critical metabolic processes, ... Other studies have further found that the levels of most persistent organohalogen compounds in human milk decreased ... such as polychlorinated biphenyls, can bioaccumulate in the food chain and may be found in humans including mothers' breast ...

*National Pollutant Inventory

... compounds Arsenic & compounds Benzene Benzene hexachloro- (HCB) Beryllium & compounds Biphenyl (1,1-biphenyl) Boron & compounds ... compounds Magnesium oxide Manganese & compounds Mercury & compounds Methanol Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate Methyl ethyl ... compounds Copper & compounds Cumene (1-methylethylbenzene) Cyanide (inorganic) compounds Cyclohexane Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) ... Cadmium & compounds Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Chlorine dioxide Chlorine & compounds Chloroethane (ethyl chloride) ...

*Polychlorinated biphenyl

A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx. Polychlorinated biphenyls were ... Bay mud Organochlorine compound Polybrominated biphenyl Zodiac, a novel by Neal Stephenson which involves PCBs and their impact ... Safe, Stephen; Hutzinger, Otto (1984). "Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs): Biochemistry, ... some of the hydrogen atoms in biphenyl are replaced by chlorine atoms. There are 209 different chemical compounds in which one ...

*M-SG reducing agent

Compounds such as biphenyl and naphthalene are reduced by the powder and form highly coloured radical anions. The powder can ... converts benzyl chloride to bibenzyl in a Wurtz coupling and in a similar fashion dibenzothiophene is reduced to biphenyl. ...

*Loggerhead sea turtle

Ingested plastics release toxic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls, which may accumulate in internal tissues. Such ... An iron compound, magnetite, in their brains allows the turtles to perceive the Earth's magnetic field, for navigation. Many ... for loggerheads to reach sexual maturity and the high mortality rates of eggs and young turtles from natural phenomena compound ...

*Red List building materials

Mercury Polychlorinated biphenyls Perfluorinated compound Phthalates Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinylidene chloride Short Chain ... Chlorinated paraffins Wood treatments containing creosote, arsenic or pentachlorophenol Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ...

*Spiro compound

... from isolated ring compounds like biphenyl that have no connecting atoms, from fused ring compounds like decalin having two ... A spiro compound, or spirane, from the Latin spīra, meaning a twist or coil, is a chemical compound, typically an organic ... Spiro compounds are present throughout the natural world, some cases of which have been exploited to provide tool compounds for ... compound A is called 1-bromo-3-chlorospiro[4.5]decan-7-ol, and compound B is called 1-bromo-3-chlorospiro[3.6]decan-7-ol. Some ...

*Prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dimerisation domain

It occurs as a late step in the meta-cleavage pathways of a variety of compounds, including catechol, biphenyl, toluene, ...

*Mercer Rubber Company

Petroleum hydrocarbons Volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and Metals The site was ...

*Tapioca balls

Another German study found carcinogenic PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyls, in the starchy balls as well. But the German ... Over-consumption of these harmful compounds can lead to very serious negative health effects such as endocrine disruption, ...

*Public health problems in the Aral Sea region

... "exposure to industrial pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds and heavy metals but also to pesticides." ...
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During the 9-month study period an improvement in metabolic parameters was noted that was substantial for fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol (patients with the metabolic syndrome , patients without). Interestingly, even a reduction in abdominal obesity was noted; this was small, but resulted in a reduction in waist circumference of up to 3.2 cm (in patients on Irbesartan/HCTZ combination therapy after 9 months).. It cannot be ruled out that the observed effects are due to the study conduct that may have improved patient compliance, but several lines of reasoning point toward a metabolic profile of Irbesartan that may be in part responsible for these results. 1) Both Telmisartan and Irbesartan activate the PPARγ receptor [12, 14] and the EC50 value for transactivation is about 27 μmol/l for Irbesartan [14]. Clinical evidence for an insulin sensitizing effect of Irbesartan is lacking; however, administration of Irbesartan to insulin resistant genetically obese Zucker rats ...
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Irbesartan is also used to treat high blood pressure with diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is a complication of type 2 diabetes which causes the kidneys to not work properly. Irbesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). It works by blocking a substance in the body that causes blood vessels to tighten. As a result, irbesartan relaxes the blood vessels. This lowers blood pressure and increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. This medicine is available only with your doctors prescription. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
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HIC-Up files for compound 903 2-(4-(2-acetylamino-2-(1-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl-2-oxo- azepan-3-ylcarbamoyl)-ethyl)-2-methoxycarbonyl- phenyl)-2-fluoro-malonic acid; ru90395
biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(3-(4-(4-(2-(2-hydroxy-2-(8-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-5-yl)ethylamino)ethyl)phenoxy)phenyl)propyl)piperidin-4-yl ...
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5-Biphenyl-4-yl-2H-tetrazole | C13H10N4 | CID 112946 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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The structures and stabilities of 2,2-diBeX-1,1-biphenyl (X = H, F, Cl, CN) derivatives and their affinities for F-, Cl-, and CN- were theoretically investigated using a B3LYP/6-311 + G(3df, 2p)//B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) model. The results obtained show that the 2,2-diBeX-1,1-biphenyl derivatives (X = H, F, Cl, CN) exhibit very high F-, Cl-, and CN- affinities, albeit lower than those reported before for their 1,8-diBeX-naphthalene analogs, in spite of the fact that the biphenyl derivatives are more flexible than their naphthalene counterparts. Nevertheless, some of the biphenyl derivatives investigated are predicted to have anion affinities larger than those measured for SbF5, which is considered one of the strongest anion capturers. Therefore, although weaker than their naphthalene analogs, the 2,2-diBeX-1,1-biphenyl derivatives can still be considered powerful anion sponges. This study supports the idea that compounds containing -BeX groups in chelating positions behave as anion sponges due ...
Description: IC50 Value: 1.2 ±0.4 mM (Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase elicited by 0.1 microM Ang II) [2] PD 123319 ditrifluoroacetate is a potent, selective, non-peptide angiotensin AT2 receptor antagonist. IC50 values are 34 and 210 nM in rat adr
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b) THE ABOVE-MENTIONED WARRANTIES IN CLAUSE 8(A) ABOVE ARE GIVEN AND ACCEPTED IN SUBSTITUTION FOR, AND VWR HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES OR GUARANTEES WITH RESPECT TO THE SUBJECT MATTER OF THIS AGREEMENT, WHETHER STATUTORY, WRITTEN, ORAL, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, SUITABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU DO NOT RELY ON AND WAIVE ANY CLAIM FOR BREACH RELATING TO ANY ADVICE, REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY THAT IS NOT EXPRESSLY SET OUT HEREIN. IN PARTICULAR, WITHOUT LIMITING THE ABOVE, YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE PRODUCTS ARE NOT CUSTOMIZED FOR YOUR SPECIFIC USE OR ORDER AND VWR CANNOT AND DOES NOT MAKE ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY THAT THE PRODUCTS ARE FIT FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, EVEN WHERE SUCH PURPOSE WAS MADE KNOWN TO VWR, AND YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU DO NOT RELY ON ANY SUCH REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY.. (c) The liability of VWR under this limited warranty does not extend to any Products which are ...
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Product Name: 2,7-Diphenyl-9H-carbazoleFormula: C24H17NWeight: 319.39848SMILES: C1=CC=C(C=C1)C2=CC3=C(C=C2)C4C(=CC(=CC=4)C5=CC=CC=C5)N3CAS NO: 306-07-0 Product:
تتحقیق حاضر در زمینه مدل سازی و بهینه سازی پارامترهای فرایندی با روش سطح پاسخ ( RSM) در نانو کپسوله کردن عصاره پلی فنلی حاصل از ضایعات صنعتی سیب با استفاده از مالتودکسترین است. از روش جایگزینی حلال برای نانو کپسول کردن استفاده شده است. متغیرهای مستقل نسبت هسته به پوسته، درصد وزنی سورفکتانت، زمان همگن سازی و متغیر وابسته (پاسخ) درصد مهار رادیکالهای آزاد توسط پلی فنل باقی مانده (بیان شده بر حسب DPPH%) هستند. نتایج تحلیل واریانس نشانگر تاثیر گزار بودن متغیرهای مستقل بر متغیر پاسخ در سطح اطمینان 95% ، ( P | 0.05) است. در بین متغیرهای تحت بررسی ، نسبت هسته به پوسته و درصد وزنی
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0101] In addition, particular compounds of formula I that are of interest include: [0102] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}ethyl)piper- idin-4-yl ester; [0103] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]ethylamino}ethyl)piperi- din-4-yl ester; [0104] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{methyl-[4-(4-methylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]amino}ethy- l)piperidin-4-yl ester; [0105] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-ethylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}ethyl)- piperidin-4-yl ester; [0106] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{methyl-[4-(4-propylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]amino}ethy- l)piperidin-4-yl ester; [0107] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-isopropylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}et- hyl)piperidin-4-yl ester; [0108] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-{2-[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)-2-fluorobenzoylamino]ethyl}pipe- ridin-4-yl ester; [0109] ...
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Background The Swedish irbesartan left ventricular hypertrophy investigation versus atenolol (SILVHIA). Objective Angiotensin II induces myocardial hypertrophy. We hypothesized that blockade of angiotensin II subtype 1 (AT1) receptors by the AT1-receptor antagonist irbesartan would reduce left ventricular mass (as measured by echocardiography) more than conventional treatment with a beta blocker. Design and methods This double-blind study randomized 115 hypertensive men and women with left ventricular hypertrophy to receive either irbesartan 150 mg q.d. or atenolol 50 mg q.d. for 48 weeks. If diastolic blood pressure remained above 90 mmHg, doses were doubled, and additional medications (hydrochlorothiazide and felodipine) were prescribed as needed. Echocardiography was performed at weeks 0, 12, 24 and 48. Results Baseline mean blood pressure was 162/104 mmHg, and mean left ventricular mass index was 157 g/m2 for men and 133 g/m2 for women. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure reductions were ...
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A recent double-blind study of the treatment of hypertensive patients whose blood pressure remained above target on two-drug combinations, showed that a strategy of adding candesartan cilexetil (Atacand®) or of switching to candesartan and hydrochlorothiazide produced further reductions in blood pressure while maintaining tolerability. In addition, the results showed a trend in favour of the three-drug, standard-dose approach, compared to the two-drug, high-dose approach.
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Irbesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Irbesartan keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
When pregnant rats were treated with irbesartan from Day 0 to Day 20 of gestation (oral doses of 50 mg/kg/day, 180 mg/kg/day, and 650 mg/kg/day), increased incidences of renal pelvic cavitation, hydroureter and/or absence of renal papilla were observed in fetuses at dosages ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD], 300 mg/day, on a body surface area basis). Subcutaneous edema was observed in fetuses at dosages ≥180 mg/kg/day (about 4 times the MRHD on a body surface area basis). As these anomalies were not observed in rats in which irbesartan exposure (oral doses of 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day) was limited to gestation days 6 to 15, they appear to reflect late gestational effects of the drug. In pregnant rabbits, oral doses of 30 mg irbesartan/kg/day were associated with maternal mortality and abortion. Surviving females receiving this dose (about 1.5 times the MRHD on a body surface area basis) had a slight increase in early resorptions and a ...
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Drowsiness/reduced alertness: Irbesartan, like other medications for blood pressure may cause dizziness and lightheadedness, especially if you have been taking a diuretic (water pill). This may affect your ability to drive or operate machinery. Avoid these and other activities until you have determined that this medication does not affect you in this way.. Heart disease: If you have a history of heart problems, such as a recent heart attack or stroke, narrowing of the heart valves (valvular stenosis) or other heart disease, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.. Kidney function: Irbesartan may affect the function of the kidneys, especially for people who already have kidney problems. If you have reduced kidney function or kidney disease, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how ...
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In type 2 diabetics with microalbuminuria, irbesartan reduces albumin excretion independent of its antihypertensive effect. That, according to the results of a randomized controlled trial reported in the November issue of Diabetes Care. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors delay the progression from
Einleitung: Im Hinblick auf die Kompatibilit t der verschiedenen antihypertensiven Substanzklassen mit bewegungstherapeutischen Interventionen besteht insb. f r die At-1-Antagonisten ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit. Ziel der randomisierten, doppelblinden Studie war es, den AT-1 Antagonisten Irbesartan (IRB 150 mg/d) vs. den Betarezeptorenblocker Metoprolol (MET 95 mg/d) in Kombination mit einer 8-w . Bewegungstherapie auf Leistungsf higkeit, Energiestoffwechsel, kardiovaskul re und neurohormonale Parameter bei Patienten mit art. Hypertonie zu evaluieren. Patienten & Methode: 39 Patienten (9 w, 30 m): Alter: 54,69 9,5 Jahre; Gr e: 175,8 8,6 cm; Gewicht: 86,9 13,7 kg; BMI: 28,3 3,8 kg/m2; Blutdruck (BP): 152,2 12,6 / 94,3 8,1 mmHg. Methoden: spiroergometrischer Max-Test (WHO-Schema), submax. Fahrradergometrie (2.0 mmol-Laktat), Herzfrequenzvariabilit t (HRV). Pre/Post-Belastungstest Bestimmung neurohormonaler und metabolischer Parameter. Identischer Testablauf nach Intervention. Ergebnisse: ...
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No carcinogenicity studies have been conducted with the combination of candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity when candesartan cilexetil was orally administered to mice and rats for up to 104 weeks at doses up to 100 and 1,000 mg/kg/day, respectively. Rats received the drug by gavage whereas mice received the drug by dietary administration. These (maximally-tolerated) doses of candesartan cilexetil provided systemic exposures to candesartan (AUCs) that were, in mice, approximately 7 times and, in rats, more than 70 times the exposure in man at the maximum recommended daily human dose (32 mg). Two-year feeding studies in mice and rats conducted under the auspices of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) uncovered no evidence of a carcinogenic potential of hydrochlorothiazide in female mice (at doses of up to approximately 600 mg/kg/day) or in male and female rats (at doses of up to approximately 100 mg/kg/day). The NTP, however, found equivocal ...
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Also known as Magnolia total magnolols, honokiol Introduction Magnolia officianalis is the premier herb in the Traditional Chinese system of Medicine for reducing stress & anxiety while promoting the activities of the parasympathetic (rest & digest) nervous system. Extract data Origin: China Pure biphenol extract of Magnolia officinalis, standardized to a 90% total magnolol content with a 45% total being honokiol. Use Recommended amount per dose is 250-500 mg, or a half full to full size 00 capsule. Summary Magnolia is one tool that no herbalist should be without. Most effective in times of stress or anxiety, Magnolia has been shown to behave as a positive allosteric modulator of the benzodiazapine site which reduces the amount of GABA needed to activate the GABA(A) receptor. Magnolia also increases the expression of the alpha GABA receptors & has barbituate type effects. Outside of the potent GABAnergic effects, Magnolia may reduce the secretion of adrenaline from the adrenal glands, antagonize NMDA
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0055] Examples of the other radiation-sensitive compound include diphenyliodonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, diphenyliodonium nonafluoro-n-butanesulfonate, diphenyliodonium p-toluenesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 10-camphorsulfonate, diphenyliodonium 2-trifluoromethylbenzenesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 4-trifluoromethylbenzenesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-2-(norbornan-2-yl)ethanesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 2-(5-t-butoxycarbonyloxybicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl)-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroeth- anesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 2-(6-t-butoxycarbonyloxybicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl)-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroeth- anesulfonate, diphenyliodonium 1,1-difluoro-2-(bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl)ethanesulfonate, bis(4-t-butylphenyl)iodonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, bis(4-t-butylphenyl)iodonium nonafluoro-n-butanesulfonate, bis(4-t-butylphenyl)iodonium p-toluenesulfonate, bis(4-t-butylphenyl)iodonium 10-camphorsulfonate, bis(4-t-butylphenyl)iodonium ...
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Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis. 1381-1478, ISSN: 1522-1210 Suguro, T. et al. (2007). Increased human urotensin II levels are correlated with carotid atherosclerosis in essential hypertension. J. 211-217, ISSN: 0895-7061 Susic, D. et al. (2004). Cardiovascular and renal effects of a collagen cross link breaker (ALT 711) in adult and aged spontaneously hypertensive rats. 328-333, ISSN: 0895-7061 Timmermans, PB, et al. The discovery of a new class of highly specific nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists. 2010). In clinical studies, the antihypertensive effect of cilnidipine has been demonstrated in hypertensive patients, and also in patients with severe hypertension or with complications such as chronic kidney disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes. Cilnidipine has been reported to improve some hypertensive conditions closely associated with sympathetic nerve activation such as morning hypertension, nocturnal hypertension, white-coat phenomenon, mental stress and ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Unprecedented four-way-output molecular response system based on biphenyl-2,2′-diyldiacridiniums. T2 - induction of axial chirality through intramolecular hydrogen bonds between chiral amide groups. AU - Suzuki, Takanori. AU - Ohta, Kenji. AU - Nehira, Tatsuo. AU - Higuchi, Hiroki. AU - Ohta, Eisuke. AU - Kawai, Hidetoshi. AU - Fujiwara, Kenshu. PY - 2008/1/28. Y1 - 2008/1/28. N2 - Upon the attachment of N-(R)-2-phenylethylamide moieties to the acridinium units of the title dication, intramolecular hydrogen bonds induce a diastereomeric preference in terms of axial chirality (70% de at -40 °C in CH2Cl2). Thus, external stimuli induce not only UV-vis and fluorescence spectra changes but also changes in the CD and fluorescence-detected CD (FDCD) spectra, realizing unprecedented four-way-output molecular response systems.. AB - Upon the attachment of N-(R)-2-phenylethylamide moieties to the acridinium units of the title dication, intramolecular hydrogen bonds induce a ...
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Extracts of plants from the Malaysian rainforest and other fragile habitats are being researched intensively for identification of beneficial biological actions, with assessment of antioxidant behavior being a common component of such assessments. A number of tests for antioxidant behavior are used, with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reduction activity potential (FRAP) assays often being used in parallel, and also with measurement of total phenolics content (TPC) as a surrogate marker for antioxidant capacity. The present study investigated the possible redundancy in using all three assays to determine antioxidant capacity in 92 extracts obtained from 27 plants from the Malaysian rainforest. The results demonstrated that the assays displayed a high (R ≥ 0.82) and significant (P < 0.0001) correlation with one another, indicating a high level of redundancy if all three assays are used in parallel. This appears to be a waste of potentially valuable plant extracts. Because of
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4-((1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradec-1-yl)methyl)benzoic acid: structure given in first source; a chelating agent that can be conjugated to monoclonal antibodies
6-dimethoxy-2,4,6-tri-i-propyl-1,1-biphenyl](2-amino-1,1-biphenyl-2-yl)palladium(II), min. 98% [JackiePhos Palladacycle Gen. 3 ...
Voce principale: Magnolia. Elenco delle Specie di Magnolia: Magnolia acuminata (L.) L. Magnolia albosericea Chun & C.H.Tsoong Magnolia allenii Standl. Magnolia amazonica (Ducke) Govaerts Magnolia amoena W.C.Cheng Magnolia angatensis Blanco Magnolia angustioblonga (Y.W.Law & Y.F.Wu) Figlar Magnolia annamensis Dandy Magnolia arcabucoana (Lozano) Govaerts Magnolia argyrothricha (Lozano) Govaerts Magnolia aromatica (Dandy) V.S.Kumar Magnolia ashtonii Dandy ex Noot. Magnolia baillonii Pierre Magnolia balansae A.DC. Magnolia banghamii (Noot.) Figlar & Noot. Magnolia bankardiorum M.O.Dillon & Sánchez Vega Magnolia bawangensis Y.W.Law, R.Z.Zhou & D.M.Liu Magnolia betongensis (Craib) H.Keng Magnolia bintuluensis (A.Agostini) Noot. Magnolia biondii Pamp. Magnolia blaoensis (Gagnep.) Dandy Magnolia boliviana (M.Nee) Govaerts Magnolia borneensis Noot. Magnolia braianensis (Gagnep.) Figlar Magnolia calimaensis (Lozano) Govaerts Magnolia calophylla (Lozano) Govaerts Magnolia calophylloides Figlar & Noot. ...
Magnolia sect. Yulania es un subgénero de la familia de las magnoliáceas. Comprende las siguientes secciones: Magnolia acuminata (L.) L. Magnolia biondii Pamp. Magnolia × brooklynensis Kalmb. Magnolia campbellii Hook. f. & Thomson Magnolia cylindrica E. H. Wilson Magnolia dawsoniana Rehder & E. H. Wilson Magnolia denudata Desr. Magnolia kobus DC. Magnolia liliiflora Desr. Magnolia × loebneri Kache Magnolia × proctoriana Rehder Magnolia salicifolia (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim. Magnolia sargentiana Rehder & E. H. Wilson Magnolia × soulangeana Soul.-Bod. Magnolia sprengeri Pamp. Magnolia stellata (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim. Magnolia × veitchii Bean Magnolia zenii W. C. Cheng Terminología descriptiva de las plantas Anexo:Cronología de la botánica Historia de la Botánica USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: ...
The meta-analysis by Etminan and colleagues addresses an interesting question. Do angiotensin II receptor antagonists, similar to β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (1, 2), reduce the frequency of headaches in patients with hypertension? The pooled results show a reduction in headache frequency with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. The findings should be interpreted with caution, however, because headache was not the primary outcome in any of the individual studies; the angiotensin II receptor antagonists chosen were not standardized; doses were not equivalent; and the definitions and types of headaches were not specified. Did the patients in these studies have tension headaches, migraine headaches, nasosinus headaches, or cluster headaches? Meta-analysis of secondary study endpoints should be considered hypothesis-generating, and the authors rightly call for a clinical trial to confirm the findings of this meta-analysis. The mechanism of ...
Magnolol, a plant lignan isolated from the bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis, has been shown to have chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin cancer development. The objectives of this investigation are to study the anticarcinogenic effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 mice, a model relevant to humans, and determine the possible role of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest involved in the skin tumor development. UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis model in SKH-1 mice was used for determining the preventive effects of magnolol on skin cancer development. Western blottings and flow cytometric analysis were used to study the effects of magnolol on apoptosis and cell cycle. Magnolol pretreated groups (30, 60 μ g) before UVB treatments (30 mJ/cm2, 5 days/week) resulted in 27-55% reduction in tumor multiplicity as compared to control group in SKH-1 mice. Magnolol pretreatment increased the cleavage of caspase-8 and poly-(-ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), increased the
The influence of both acidic and basic hydrolysis on the yield, total phenolic content and antioxidative capacity of methanolic extract of germinated brown rice (GBR) was studied. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests were used for the measurement of antioxidant ability. There was a significant difference (p | 0.05) in the TPC and DPPH radical scavenging assay results when comparing neutral with acidic and basic catalysed hydrolysis. The yield of the crude extract was slightly higher in acidic hydrolysis than in basic hydrolysis (p | 0.05). The TPC and TFC were highest in acidic hydrolysis. A significant correlation was observed between ABTS radical cation scavenging and FRAP. The antioxidant activity measured using DPPH radical scavenging assay showed high activity in acidic
In this study, we examined changes in radical-scavenging activity, as well as in ascorbic acid content, total phenol content and color, in 6 kinds of shredded vegetables during storage. Radical-scavenging activity, ascorbic acid content and total phenol content of red cabbage were initially higher than those of the other vegetables. In shredded vegetables stored at 10°C for 7 days under air or under nitrogen gas, radical-scavenging activity remained unchanged, but ascorbic acid in green pepper decreased in the first day and remained unchanged thereafter. Total phenolics also remained relatively constant in shredded vegetables during storage.. In this study, we examined changes in radical-scavenging activity, as well as in ascorbic acid content, total phenol content and color, in 6 kinds of shredded vegetables during storage. Radical-scavenging activity, ascorbic acid content and total phenol content of red cabbage were initially higher than those of the other vegetables. In shredded vegetables ...
The bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl. was extracted with methanol and sequentially partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and deionized water. The antioxidant activities of the four extracts were evaluated using the DPPH• and ABTS+• methods. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Butylated hydroxytoluene was used as a positive control in the radical-scavenging activity tests. All the bark extracts showed significant radical-scavenging activity. In the ABTS+• assay, n-butanol extracts exhibited the strongest radical-scavenging activity, followed by ethyl acetate, water, and n-hexane extracts. The greatest total phenolic content was 428.54 mg GAE per gram of dry extract and was detected in the n-butanol extract, followed by the ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts. The antioxidant activities correlate with the amount of phenolics present in these extracts. The ...

US20050203134A1 - Biphenyl compounds useful as muscarinic receptor antagonists 
        - Google PatentsUS20050203134A1 - Biphenyl compounds useful as muscarinic receptor antagonists - Google Patents

... processes and intermediates for preparing such compounds and methods of using such compounds to treat pulmonary disorders. ... The compounds of formula I are muscarinic receptor antagonists. The invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions ... This invention provides compounds of formula I: wherein a, b, c, d, m, n, p, s, t, Ar 1 , R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 6 , R 7 , R ... Biphenyl compounds useful as muscarinic receptor antagonists CN1930125B (en) 2004-03-11. 2010-07-21. 施万制药. Biphenyl compounds ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US20050203134A1/en

Biphenyl | chemical compound | Britannica.comBiphenyl | chemical compound | Britannica.com

Biphenyl, an aromatic hydrocarbon, used alone or with diphenyl ether as a heat-transfer fluid; chemical formula, C6H5C6H5. It ... polychlorinated biphenyl. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). , any of a class of organohalogen compounds prepared by the reaction ... simplest organic, aromatic hydrocarbon and parent compound of numerous important aromatic compounds. Benzene is a colourless ... Biphenyl, also called Diphenyl, an aromatic hydrocarbon, used alone or with diphenyl ether as a heat-transfer fluid; chemical ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/biphenyl

BIPHENYL COMPOUNDS USEFUL AS MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS - Patent applicationBIPHENYL COMPOUNDS USEFUL AS MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS - Patent application

... biphenyl compounds, processes and intermediates for preparing such biphenyl compounds and methods of using such biphenyl ... coupling a compound of formula IV with a compound of formula V; or [0040] (c) reacting a compound of formula VI with a compound ... 0178] Compounds of formula X can be prepared by reacting an isocyanate compound of formula XI: ##STR00015## with a compound of ... 0181] Compounds of formula IV can be prepared by reacting a compound of formula II with a compound of formula XIII: OHC(CH2)mCH ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20120190657

CRYSTALLINE FORM OF A BIPHENYL COMPOUND - Patent application - crystalline 1,2-ethanedisulfonic acid salt of biphenyl-2...CRYSTALLINE FORM OF A BIPHENYL COMPOUND - Patent application - crystalline 1,2-ethanedisulfonic acid salt of biphenyl-2...

Patent application title: CRYSTALLINE FORM OF A BIPHENYL COMPOUND. Inventors: Pierre-Jean Colson Miroslav Rapta Robert S. Chao ... The resulting precipitate was dried to provide the title compound as a white solid (28.5 mg, 85% yield). Example 3 Biphenyl-2- ... Patent application title: CRYSTALLINE FORM OF A BIPHENYL COMPOUND. Inventors: Robert S. Chao (Santa Clara, CA, US) Robert S. ... Process for preparing biphenyl imidazole compounds. Top Inventors for class "Drug, bio-affecting and body treating compositions ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20090221638

Structure-activity relationships of phenylcyclohexene and biphenyl antitubulin compounds against plant and mammalian cells. |...Structure-activity relationships of phenylcyclohexene and biphenyl antitubulin compounds against plant and mammalian cells. |...

Structure-activity relationships of phenylcyclohexene and biphenyl antitubulin compounds against plant and mammalian cells.. [D ... Structure-activity relationships for PCHs and biphenyl AC-ring analogues of colchicine (e.g., 2,3,4,4-tetramethoxy-2-methyl-1 ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/11378362

Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and...Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and...

Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and ... Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and ... Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and ... Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/105/3/1275

Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and...Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and...

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical ... In this paper we compare the elimination kinetics of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into ... Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and ... for many compounds as persistent hydrophilic compounds may be released into sweat while persistent lipophilic compounds may be ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/483832/

Catecholamines, Serotonin, and Related Compounds on Raptor Biphenyl / Restek Searchable Chromatogram Library
 / Restek.comCatecholamines, Serotonin, and Related Compounds on Raptor Biphenyl / Restek Searchable Chromatogram Library / Restek.com

Catecholamines, Serotonin, and Related Compounds on Raptor Biphenyl Catecholamines, Serotonin, and Related Compounds on Raptor ... raptor biphenyl. , catecholamine. , serotonin. , dopamine metabolite. , serotonin metabolite. , biogenic amine. , raptor. , ...
more infohttps://www.restek.com/chromatogram/view/LC_CF0560

Organochlorine compounds in Lake Superior: Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation in the aquatic food webOrganochlorine compounds in Lake Superior: Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation in the aquatic food web

... ... Organochlorine compounds in Lake Superior: Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation in the aquatic food web. ...
more infohttps://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000877

Nicotine-Related Compounds in Urine on Raptor Biphenyl by LC-MS/MS / Restek Searchable Chromatogram Library
 / Restek.comNicotine-Related Compounds in Urine on Raptor Biphenyl by LC-MS/MS / Restek Searchable Chromatogram Library / Restek.com

Rapid and Accurate LC-MS/MS Analysis of Nicotine and Related Compounds in Urine Using Raptor Biphenyl LC Columns and MS- ... Nicotine-Related Compounds in Urine on Raptor Biphenyl by LC-MS/MS. ... Nicotine-Related Compounds in Urine on Raptor Biphenyl by LC-MS/MS ... Raptor Biphenyl EXP cartridges 5 mm, 2.1 mm ID, 5 µm (cat.# 930950252). ...
more infohttps://www.restek.com/chromatogram/view/LC_CF0606

Two Nearly Identical Aromatic Compound Hydrolase Genes in a Strong Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degrader,Rhodococcus sp. Strain...Two Nearly Identical Aromatic Compound Hydrolase Genes in a Strong Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degrader,Rhodococcus sp. Strain...

Compound I, biphenyl; compound II, 23DHBP; compound III, HPDA; compound IV, 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate; compound V, benzoic ... acid; compound VI, ethylbenzene (toluene); compound VII, 3-ethylcatechol (3-methylcatechol); compound VIII, HOHD; compound IX, ... the biphenyl dioxygenase gene encoding the first step in the biphenyl/PCB degradation pathway is induced by both biphenyl and ... The following compounds were used as inducers: sodium succinate (0.2%), sodium benzoate (0.2%), biphenyl (0.2%), benzene, ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/64/6/2006

Clinical trials in irritable bowel syndro... & related info | MendeleyClinical trials in irritable bowel syndro... & related info | Mendeley

Biphenyl Compounds. *Biphenyl Compounds: therapeutic use. *Carbolines. *Carbolines: therapeutic use. *Dose-Response ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/clinical-trials-irritable-bowel-syndrome-review/

RCSB PDB - LSN Ligand Summary PageRCSB PDB - LSN Ligand Summary Page

Biphenyl Compounds. *Cardiovascular Agents. *Cardiovascular System. *Chemical Actions and Uses. *Combined Inhibitors of CYP3A4 ... 2-Butyl-4-chloro-1-{[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl}-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methanol ... 2-N-Butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]imidazole ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/ligand/LSN

Catalysts | Free Full-Text | Preparation of Pd-Diimine@SBA-15 and Its Catalytic Performance for the Suzuki Coupling ReactionCatalysts | Free Full-Text | Preparation of [email protected] and Its Catalytic Performance for the Suzuki Coupling Reaction

... manufacture of biphenyl compounds [email protected]; catalyst preparation; functionalization of SBA-15; Suzuki coupling ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2073-4344/6/12/181

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Alkanes); 0 (Alkenes); 0 (Biphenyl Compounds); 0 (Free Radical Scavengers); 0 (Hydrocarbons, Aromatic); 0 ( ... The only compound detected in all samples was tridecane, with small amounts of (E)-2-decenal found in most samples. We also ... The predominant compounds consistently found from both groups were tridecane, (E)-2-decenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, with a ... Polar fractions of WM and DM peloids were characterized by the presence of several bioactive natural compounds, showing high ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D02.455.326.271

Integrating drug pharmacokinetics for phenotyping individual renin response to angiotensin II blockade in humans.Integrating drug pharmacokinetics for phenotyping individual renin response to angiotensin II blockade in humans.

Biphenyl Compounds / administration & dosage, pharmacokinetics*, pharmacology. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Cross-Over ... 0/Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers; 0/Benzimidazoles; 0/Biphenyl Compounds; 0/Diuretics; 0/Tetrazoles; 11128-99-7/ ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Integrating-drug-pharmacokinetics-phenotyping-individual/15023936.html

CP-96,345, a non-peptide antagonist of substance P. III. Cardiovascular effects in mammals unrelated to actions on substance P...CP-96,345, a non-peptide antagonist of substance P. III. Cardiovascular effects in mammals unrelated to actions on substance P...

Biphenyl Compounds / pharmacology*. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Decerebrate State / physiopathology. Electrocardiography. ... 0/Biphenyl Compounds; 0/Receptors, Neurokinin-1; 0/Receptors, Neurotransmitter; 132746-60-2/CP 96345; 33507-63-0/Substance P ... It was concluded that these cardiac effects of CP-96,345 were not caused by an action of the compound on substance P receptors. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/CP-96345-non-peptide-antagonist/1383836.html

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Biphenyl Compounds); 0 (Lignans); 0 (Picrates); 0 (Tetrahydronaphthalenes); 0 (hydroxymatairesinol); 518- ... Compounds 1-5 exhibited potent antioxidant properties in the same range as the standards ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol (IC = ... It is believed that all the stilbenes are the derivatives of resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) or compounds close ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=B01.650.940.800.575.156.100.666.755

3-hydroxy-5,5-dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybiphenyl
     Summary Report | CureHunter3'-hydroxy-5,5'-dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybiphenyl Summary Report | CureHunter

3-hydroxy-5,5-dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybiphenyl: structure given in first source; a component of a dichloromethane extract of the roots of Monnina emarginata; displaysactivity against the plant fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC070241-3--hydroxy-5-5--dimethoxy-3-4-methylenedioxybiphenyl.do

Patente US4276179 - Removing halogenated hydrocarbons from aqueous media by utilizing a ... - Google PatentesPatente US4276179 - Removing halogenated hydrocarbons from aqueous media by utilizing a ... - Google Patentes

... and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are removed from aqueous media including waste water from chemical manufacturing ... Method for removing polychlorinated biphenyl compounds from water. US4764282 *. 26 Sep 1986. 16 Ago 1988. The Uniroyal Goodrich ... Although the use of many of these compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2,-bis(chlorophenyl) ... based on the gram molecular weight of the compound or mixture of compounds. For a further discussion of the properties of these ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US4276179?dq=flatulence

LABORATORY TERMS PLABORATORY TERMS P

Chlorine-substituted biphenyl compounds. PCB stands for polychlorinated biphe.... Find the meaning of the term: PCB Congeners ... Organic compounds that are byproducts of petroleum refining, tanning, and tex.... Find the meaning of the term: Phenols.... ... In photochemistry, a compound antecedent to a pollutant. For example, volatil.... Find the meaning of the term: Precursor.... ... Complex nitrogenous organic compounds of high molecular weight made of amino .... Find the meaning of the term: Proteins.... ...
more infohttp://www.caslab.com/Laboratory-Terms-P/

Nutrient deprivation decreased cell viability when Bcl- | Open-iNutrient deprivation decreased cell viability when Bcl- | Open-i

Biphenyl Compounds/pharmacology. *Cathepsin D/genetics/metabolism. *Cell Line, Tumor. *Cell Survival/genetics ... The treatment of these two compounds did not significantly change cell viability in control and DMSO groups during growth in ... The treatment of these two compounds did not significantly change cell viability in control and DMSO groups during growth in ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3643928_pone.0063232.g003&req=4

ALDEHYDE OXIDATION PROCESSES - EASTMAN CHEMICAL COMPANYALDEHYDE OXIDATION PROCESSES - EASTMAN CHEMICAL COMPANY

Biphenyl compound selective agonists of gamma RAR receptors. February, 2009. Biadatti et al. ... The carbonyl compound may be obtained from any source, including carbonyl compounds available for purchase, carbonyl compounds ... Other compounds and compositions may also be fed to or present in the reaction zone. Any other acceptable compounds and ... Embodiments also exist in which the carbonyl compound is not reused or in which the carbonyl compound used in the process is a ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2015/0166451.html

Volatile Organic Compounds - Read a Free Environment  Essay at ExclusivePapers.comVolatile Organic Compounds - Read a Free Environment Essay at ExclusivePapers.com

Volatile Organic Compounds». If you need an original Environment essay written from scratch, place your order at ... polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs); polynuclear aromatic carbons-potential for lung cancer (Miller and Spoolman 2007). ... Effects of Volatile Organic Compounds. Though VOCs are not acutely toxic, they have compounding long term health effects. ... Volatile Organic Compounds are a major contributor of the ground level pollution. They are widely used in a broad range of ...
more infohttps://exclusivepapers.com/essays/environment/volatile-organic-compounds.php

Acyclic or Carbocyclic CompoundsAcyclic or Carbocyclic Compounds

PRODUCTION OF METHYL-SUBSTITUTED BIPHENYL COMPOUNDS. In a process for producing a methyl-substituted biphenyl compound, at ... reacting a phenolic compound or an arene compound or an aromatic ketone compound or an aromatic ether compound with a be... ... least one methyl-substituted cyclohexylbenzene compound of the formula: wherein each of m and n is independently 1, 2, or 3, is ...
more infohttp://www.sumobrain.com/ICL-C07C5.html
  • Halogenated hydrocarbons, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are removed from aqueous media including waste water from chemical manufacturing operations by contacting the aqueous media with an effective amount of a polyolefinic microporous. (google.es)
  • Halogenated hydrocarbons, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are removed from aqueous media including waste water from chemical manufacturing operations by contacting the aqueous media with an effective amount of a polyolefinic microporous adsorbent, preferably in the form of a filter or cartridge. (google.es)
  • It is chlorinated industrially to a mixture, polychlorinated biphenyl ( q.v. ), known as PCB, which is now much restricted because of its toxicity but formerly was used in paper coatings and as a lubricant and a heat-transfer fluid. (britannica.com)
  • 2. Biphenyl and its 4-hydroxy and 4,4′-dihydroxy derivatives are extensively excreted in the bile as glucuronides in amounts increasing in order of molecular weight. (biochemj.org)
  • It is believed that all the stilbenes are the derivatives of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) or compounds close to it (pinosylvin or piceatannol). (bireme.br)