Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
A family of gram negative, aerobic, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacteria.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. All strains can utilize FRUCTOSE for energy. It is occasionally isolated from humans and some strains are pathogenic to WATERMELON.
Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for the root used in hot SPICES. It is also the source of HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE which is widely used in laboratories.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A widely used industrial solvent.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Damages to reproductive health prior to conception (FERTILIZATION), a legal term for torts liability concerning environmental safety issues. Preconception injuries may involve either the male or the female, such as chromosomal mutations in the OVA or the SPERMATOZOA.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A central nervous system stimulant. It was formerly used in the treatment of barbiturate overdose but is now considered to be of no value for such purposes and may be dangerous. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1229)
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.

Irbesartan reduces QT dispersion in hypertensive individuals. (1/2256)

Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists have direct effects on the autonomic nervous system and myocardium. Because of this, we hypothesized that irbesartan would reduce QT dispersion to a greater degree than amlodipine, a highly selective vasodilator. To test this, we gathered electrocardiographic (ECG) data from a multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind parallel group study that compared the antihypertensive efficacy of irbesartan and amlodipine in elderly subjects with mild to moderate hypertension. Subjects were treated for 6 months with either drug. Hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol were added after 12 weeks if blood pressure (BP) remained uncontrolled. ECGs were obtained before randomization and at 6 months. A total of 188 subjects (118 with baseline ECGs) were randomized. We analyzed 104 subjects who had complete ECGs at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Baseline characteristics between treatments were similar, apart from a slight imbalance in diastolic BP (irbesartan [n=53] versus amlodipine [n=51], 99.2 [SD 3. 6] versus 100.8 [3.8] mm Hg; P=0.03). There were no significant differences in BP normalization (diastolic BP <90 mm Hg) between treatments at 6 months (irbesartan versus amlodipine, 80% versus 88%; P=0.378). We found a significant reduction in QT indexes in the irbesartan group (QTc dispersion mean, -11.4 [34.5] milliseconds, P=0.02; QTc max, -12.8 [35.5] milliseconds, P=0.01), and QTc dispersion did not correlate with the change in BP. The reduction in QT indexes with amlodipine (QTc dispersion, -9.7 [35.4] milliseconds, P=0.06; QTc max, -8.6 [33.2] milliseconds, P=0.07) did not quite reach statistical significance, but there was a correlation between the change in QT indexes and changes in systolic BP. In conclusion, irbesartan improved QT dispersion, and this effect may be important in preventing sudden cardiac death in at-risk hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation. (2/2256)

1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2.  (+info)

ACE inhibition and ANG II receptor blockade improve glomerular size-selectivity in IgA nephropathy. (3/2256)

Protein trafficking across the glomerular capillary has a pathogenic role in subsequent renal damage. Despite evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve glomerular size-selectivity, whether this effect is solely due to ANG II blocking or if other mediators also play a contributory role is not clear yet. We studied 20 proteinuric patients with IgA nephropathy, who received either enalapril (20 mg/day) or the ANG II receptor blocker irbesartan (100 mg/day) for 28 days in a randomized double-blind study. Measurements of blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, and fractional clearance of neutral dextran of graded sizes were performed before and after 28 days of treatment. Both enalapril and irbesartan significantly reduced blood pressure over baseline. This reduction reached the maximum effect 4-6 h after drug administration but did not last for the entire 24-h period. Despite transient antihypertensive effect, proteinuria was effectively reduced by both treatments to comparable extents. Neither enalapril nor irbesartan modified the sieving coefficients of small dextran molecules, but both effectively reduced transglomerular passage of large test macromolecules. Theoretical analysis of sieving coefficients showed that neither drug affected significantly the mean pore radius or the spread of the pore-size distribution, but both importantly and comparably reduced the importance of a nonselective shunt pathway. These data suggest that antagonism of ANG II is the key mechanism by which ACE inhibitors exert their beneficial effect on glomerular size-selective function and consequently on glomerular filtration and urinary output of plasma proteins.  (+info)

Neurotensin is a proinflammatory neuropeptide in colonic inflammation. (4/2256)

The neuropeptide neurotensin mediates several intestinal functions, including chloride secretion, motility, and cellular growth. However, whether this peptide participates in intestinal inflammation is not known. Toxin A, an enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, mediates pseudomembranous colitis in humans. In animal models, toxin A causes an acute inflammatory response characterized by activation of sensory neurons and intestinal nerves and immune cells of the lamina propria. Here we show that neurotensin and its receptor are elevated in the rat colonic mucosa following toxin A administration. Pretreatment of rats with the neurotensin receptor antagonist SR-48, 692 inhibits toxin A-induced changes in colonic secretion, mucosal permeability, and histologic damage. Exposure of colonic explants to toxin A or neurotensin causes mast cell degranulation, which is inhibited by SR-48,692. Because substance P was previously shown to mediate mast cell activation, we examined whether substance P is involved in neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation. Our results show that neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation in colonic explants is inhibited by the substance P (neurokinin-1) receptor antagonist CP-96,345, indicating that colonic mast activation in response to neurotensin involves release of substance P. We conclude that neurotensin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-induced colonic inflammation and mast cell activation.  (+info)

Angiotensin II receptor blockade in normotensive subjects: A direct comparison of three AT1 receptor antagonists. (5/2256)

Use of angiotensin (Ang) II AT1 receptor antagonists for treatment of hypertension is rapidly increasing, yet direct comparisons of the relative efficacy of antagonists to block the renin-angiotensin system in humans are lacking. In this study, the Ang II receptor blockade induced by the recommended starting dose of 3 antagonists was evaluated in normotensive subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, 4-way crossover study. At 1-week intervals, 12 subjects received a single dose of losartan (50 mg), valsartan (80 mg), irbesartan (150 mg), or placebo. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system was assessed before and 4, 24, and 30 hours after drug intake by 3 independent methods: inhibition of the blood pressure response to exogenous Ang II, in vitro Ang II receptor assay, and reactive changes in plasma Ang II levels. At 4 hours, losartan blocked 43% of the Ang II-induced systolic blood pressure increase; valsartan, 51%; and irbesartan, 88% (P<0.01 between drugs). The effect of each drug declined with time. At 24 hours, a residual effect was found with all 3 drugs, but at 30 hours, only irbesartan induced a marked, significant blockade versus placebo. Similar results were obtained when Ang II receptor blockade was assessed with an in vitro receptor assay and by the reactive rise in plasma Ang II levels. This study thus demonstrates that the first administration of the recommended starting dose of irbesartan induces a greater and longer lasting Ang II receptor blockade than that of valsartan and losartan in normotensive subjects.  (+info)

ESR study on the structure-antioxidant activity relationship of tea catechins and their epimers. (6/2256)

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the free radical scavenging activities and the chemical structures of tea catechins ((-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC)) and their corresponding epimers ((-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), (-)-gallocatechin (GC) and (+)-catechin ((+)-C)). With electron spin resonance (ESR) we investigated their scavenging effects on superoxide anions (O-.2) generated in the irradiated riboflavin system, singlet oxygen(1O2) generated in the photoradiation-hemoporphyrin system, the free radicals generated from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride (AAPH) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The results showed that the scavenging effects of galloylated catechins (EGCG and GCG) on the four free radicals were stronger than those of nongalloylated catechins (EGC, GC, EC, (+)-C), and the scavenging effects of EGC and GC were stronger than those of EC and (+)-C. Thus, it is suggested that the presence of the gallate group at the 3 position plays the most important role in their free radical-scavenging abilities and an additional insertion of the hydroxyl group at the 5' position in the B ring also contributes to their scavenging activities. Moreover, the corresponding phenoxyl radicals formed after the reaction with O-.2 were trapped by DMPO and the ESR spectra of DMPO/phenoxyl radical adducts were observed (aN=15.6 G and aHbeta=21.5 G). No significant differences were found between the scavenging effects of the catechins and their epimers when their concentrations were high. However, significant differences were observed at relatively low concentrations, and the lower their concentrations, the higher the differences. The scavenging abilities of GCG, GC and (+)-C were stronger than those of their corresponding epimers (EGCG, EGC and EC). The differences between their sterical structures played a more important role in their abilities to scavenge large free radicals, such as the free radicals generated from AAPH and the DPPH radical, than to scavenge small free radicals, such as O-.2 and 1O2, especially in the case with EGCG and GCG with more bulky steric hindrance.  (+info)

Serial changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum gene expression in volume-overloaded cardiac hypertrophy in the rat: effect of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. (7/2256)

This study was designed to clarify whether gene expression in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum [sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), phospholamban, ryanodine receptor and calsequestrin] changes in accordance with left ventricular functional alterations in the volume-overloaded heart. Further, the effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, TCV-116, on the expression of these genes was also evaluated. Left ventricular fractional shortening was significantly increased at 7 days, had returned to control levels at 21 days, and had significantly decreased at 35 days after the shunt operation, compared with sham-operated rats. The level of SERCA mRNA was significantly decreased at both 21 days and 35 days after the shunt operation. The levels of ryanodine receptor and phospholamban mRNAs were significantly decreased at 35 days in shunt-operated rats. The decrease in the SERCA mRNA level preceded the development of cardiac dysfunction. The levels of SERCA and ryanodine receptor mRNAs were correlated positively with left ventricular fractional shortening (r=0.73, P<0.0001 and r=0.61, P<0.01 respectively). Attenuation of the decrease in left ventricular fractional shortening occurred on treatment with TCV-116. After the treatment with TCV-116, the levels of SERCA and phospholamban mRNAs were restored to the respective values in sham-operated rats. Ryanodine receptor mRNA levels remained unchanged after treatment with TCV-116. These results indicate that the down-regulation of SERCA and ryanodine receptor mRNA levels may be related to cardiac dysfunction in the volume-overloaded heart. In addition, treatment with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist may restore the altered sarcoplasmic reticulum mRNA levels to control levels, and this may result in attenuation of the functional impairment in the volume-overloaded heart.  (+info)

Pharmacological diversity between native human 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors sited on different neurons and involved in different functions. (8/2256)

The releases of [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine ([3H]5-HT) and of endogenous glutamic acid and their modulation through presynaptic h5-HT1B autoreceptors and h5-HT1D heteroreceptors have been investigated in synaptosomal preparations from fresh neocortical samples obtained from patients undergoing neurosurgery. The inhibition by 5-HT of the K+ (15 mM)-evoked overflow of [3H]5-HT was antagonized by the 5-HT1B/5-HT1D receptor ligand GR 127935, which was ineffective on its own; this drug was previously found to behave as a full agonist at the h5-HT1D heteroreceptor regulating glutamate release. The recently proposed selective h5-HT1B receptor ligand SB-224289 also prevented the effect of 5-HT at the autoreceptor, being inactive on its own; in contrast, SB-224289, at 1 microM, was unable to interact with the h5-HT1D heteroreceptor. The inhibitory effect of 5-HT on the K+-evoked overflow of glutamate was antagonized by the h5-HT1D receptor ligand BRL-15572; added in the absence of 5-HT the compound was without effect. BRL-15572 (1 microM) was unable to modify the effect of 5-HT at the autoreceptor regulating [3H]5-HT release. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (+)-WAY 100135, previously found to be an agonist at the h5-HT1D heteroreceptor regulating glutamate release, could not interact with the h5-HT1B autoreceptor when added at 1 microM. It is concluded that native h5-HT1B and h5-HT1D receptors exhibit a hitherto unexpected pharmacological diversity.  (+info)

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0101] In addition, particular compounds of formula I that are of interest include: [0102] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}ethyl)piper- idin-4-yl ester; [0103] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]ethylamino}ethyl)piperi- din-4-yl ester; [0104] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{methyl-[4-(4-methylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]amino}ethy- l)piperidin-4-yl ester; [0105] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-ethylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}ethyl)- piperidin-4-yl ester; [0106] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{methyl-[4-(4-propylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]amino}ethy- l)piperidin-4-yl ester; [0107] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-isopropylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}et- hyl)piperidin-4-yl ester; [0108] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-{2-[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)-2-fluorobenzoylamino]ethyl}pipe- ridin-4-yl ester; [0109] ...
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Background The Swedish irbesartan left ventricular hypertrophy investigation versus atenolol (SILVHIA). Objective Angiotensin II induces myocardial hypertrophy. We hypothesized that blockade of angiotensin II subtype 1 (AT1) receptors by the AT1-receptor antagonist irbesartan would reduce left ventricular mass (as measured by echocardiography) more than conventional treatment with a beta blocker. Design and methods This double-blind study randomized 115 hypertensive men and women with left ventricular hypertrophy to receive either irbesartan 150 mg q.d. or atenolol 50 mg q.d. for 48 weeks. If diastolic blood pressure remained above 90 mmHg, doses were doubled, and additional medications (hydrochlorothiazide and felodipine) were prescribed as needed. Echocardiography was performed at weeks 0, 12, 24 and 48. Results Baseline mean blood pressure was 162/104 mmHg, and mean left ventricular mass index was 157 g/m2 for men and 133 g/m2 for women. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure reductions were ...
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Fimasartan is a newly developed angiotensin receptor blocker, which may have protective effects during myocardial infarction or atherosclerosis. In this context, we investigated the effects of long-term treatment with low-dose fimasartan on focal ischemia in rat brain. We induced focal ischemia in brain by transient intraluminal occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA) and administered low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) or regular doses (1 or 3 mg/kg) of fimasartan via intravenous routes. After the administration of low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) fimasartan, blood pressure did not decrease compared to the phosphate-buffered saline- (PBS-) control with MCA occlusion (MCAO) group. The infarct volume and ischemic cell death were reduced in the low-dose fimasartan-treated group (46 ± 41 mm|sup |3|/sup| for 0.5 mg/kg and 153 ± 47 mm|sup |3|/sup| for PBS-control with MCAO; |svg xmlns:xlink= xmlns=http:/
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This page contains information on the chemical 2,2\-((3,3\-Dichloro(1,1\-Biphenyl)-4,4\-Diyl)Bis(Azo))Bis(N-(4-C-Horo-2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)-3-Oxobutyramide) including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
Irbesartan 300 mg-hydrochlorothiazide 12. Visit cvs. AVAPRO is available for oral administration in unscored tablets containing 75 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg of irbesartan. Dosage may be increased after 1-2 weeks of therapy to a maximum of irbesartan 300 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg once daily Irbesartan oral tablet is a prescription medication used to treat high blood pressure and diabetic nephropathy caused by type 2 diabetes. If you contact our Customer Support by one of the methods below, we will be able to assist you in locating the product you are looking for AVAPRO is available for oral administration in unscored tablets containing 75 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg of irbesartan. About this Medication . Having trouble finding an item? Irbesartan (Avapro) is a drug prescribed to treat high blood pressure and diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease). 02328461 Sandoz Irbesartan 75 mg Tablet 02328488 Sandoz Irbesartan 150 mg Tablet 02328496 Sandoz Irbesartan 300 mg Tablet. Angiotensin-II is a substance ...
Irbesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Irbesartan keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow
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When pregnant rats were treated with irbesartan from Day 0 to Day 20 of gestation (oral doses of 50 mg/kg/day, 180 mg/kg/day, and 650 mg/kg/day), increased incidences of renal pelvic cavitation, hydroureter and/or absence of renal papilla were observed in fetuses at dosages ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD], 300 mg/day, on a body surface area basis). Subcutaneous edema was observed in fetuses at dosages ≥180 mg/kg/day (about 4 times the MRHD on a body surface area basis). As these anomalies were not observed in rats in which irbesartan exposure (oral doses of 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day) was limited to gestation days 6 to 15, they appear to reflect late gestational effects of the drug. In pregnant rabbits, oral doses of 30 mg irbesartan/kg/day were associated with maternal mortality and abortion. Surviving females receiving this dose (about 1.5 times the MRHD on a body surface area basis) had a slight increase in early resorptions and a ...
When pregnant rats were treated with irbesartan from Day 0 to Day 20 of gestation (oral doses of 50 mg/kg/day, 180 mg/kg/day, and 650 mg/kg/day), increased incidences of renal pelvic cavitation, hydroureter and/or absence of renal papilla were observed in fetuses at dosages ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD], 300 mg/day, on a body surface area basis). Subcutaneous edema was observed in fetuses at dosages ≥180 mg/kg/day (about 4 times the MRHD on a body surface area basis). As these anomalies were not observed in rats in which irbesartan exposure (oral doses of 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day) was limited to gestation days 6 to 15, they appear to reflect late gestational effects of the drug. In pregnant rabbits, oral doses of 30 mg irbesartan/kg/day were associated with maternal mortality and abortion. Surviving females receiving this dose (about 1.5 times the MRHD on a body surface area basis) had a slight increase in early resorptions and a ...
Genetic structures of the genes encoding 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase and 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid hydrolase from biphenyl- and 4-chlorobiphenyl-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain DJ-12
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Drowsiness/reduced alertness: Irbesartan, like other medications for blood pressure may cause dizziness and lightheadedness, especially if you have been taking a diuretic (water pill). This may affect your ability to drive or operate machinery. Avoid these and other activities until you have determined that this medication does not affect you in this way.. Heart disease: If you have a history of heart problems, such as a recent heart attack or stroke, narrowing of the heart valves (valvular stenosis) or other heart disease, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.. Kidney function: Irbesartan may affect the function of the kidneys, especially for people who already have kidney problems. If you have reduced kidney function or kidney disease, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how ...
Pharmacists are exempted also in a mathematically unique position to help designers select products for pediatric asthma patients, because children are aged 2 years and younger should not use antihistamine products, such as irbesartan and acetaminophen. Further analysis it showed that combined with administration of irbesartan and vardenafil axetil had additive effect in prolonging t
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Cozaar (losartan) can be used in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. Only a qualified health care professional can make such a decision - to combine this medication with other drugs for best effects. This medicine belongs to the class of angiotensin II receptor antagonists and provides for a better blood flow.
The Dropship Medicines is a high quality exporter and supplier of Pharmcy Medicines.We are provided generic pharmacy wholesale, Medicine Dropshipper.Generic Avapro (Irbesartan)Antihypertensive drug, antagonist of angiotensin receptors II. It specifically and irreversibly blocks receptors of angiotensin which leads to diminishing of biological effects of angiotensin II.
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Learn about the potential side effects of hydrochlorothiazide/irbesartan. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
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In type 2 diabetics with microalbuminuria, irbesartan reduces albumin excretion independent of its antihypertensive effect. That, according to the results of a randomized controlled trial reported in the November issue of Diabetes Care. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors delay the progression from
On this page about Irbesartan HCT 300/25 (GH) you will find information relating to side effects, age restrictions, food interactions, whether the medicine is available at a government subsidised price on the pharmaceutical benefits scheme (PBS) as well as other useful information.
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... polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs), DDT compounds, and TCDD. These toxins can be, and often are, passed on to the ... These issues are compounded by the lack of research of maternal and child health effects caused by the demise of the Aral Sea. ...
"New biphenyl compounds with DNA strand-scission activity from Clusia paralicola". Journal of Natural Products. 62 (11): 1484- ...
S. paucimobilis is able to degrade lignin-related biphenyl chemical compounds. Yabuuchi, Eiko; Yano, Ikuya; Oyaizu, Hiroshi; ... "Cloning of a Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 gene encoding a novel oxygenase that cleaves lignin-related biphenyl and ...
Masuda, Y (2003). "Health Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Related Compounds". J Health Sci. 49 (5): 333-336. doi: ... Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are two groups of predominately man-made toxic chemicals which, when consumed, ... It was announced that "dioxins & dioxin like PCBs", a group of highly toxic synthetic halogenated organic compounds, had been ... 2006). Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (Report in Brief) (PDF). The National ...
Steric effects from the biphenyl substituents also contribute to the compound's stability. BDPA and closely related compounds ... The compound was first synthesized by C. Frederick Koelsch while he was a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University in the ... He attempted to publish a paper describing the compound, but the paper was rejected on the grounds that the described ... BDPA is an unusually stable radical compound due to the extent to which its electrons are delocalized through resonance ...
Novel biphenyl tricyclic quinazoline compounds and aryloxy quinolone derivatives are multiple kinase inhibitors. They are less ... Another compound with sunitinib heterocyclic moiety and a pyrrole side chain has very good VEGFR-2 potency, with an IC50 of 65 ... Compounds with thieno [3,2-b] pyridine urea moiety are inhibitory for VEGF receptor signaling and HGF receptor signaling. HGF ... For R2, two groups can show this effect on the compound, an ether group on one, and on the other a chloride group. When ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of chlorinated compounds used as industrial coolants and lubricants. PCBs are ... Fürst P (October 2006). "Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, ... Endocrine disrupting compounds encompass a variety of chemical classes, including drugs, pesticides, compounds used in the ... "Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and ...
Brominated dioxins and biphenyls have similar properties, but they have been studied much less. Many natural compounds have ... Fürst P (October 2006). "Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, ... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), derived from biphenyl, of which 12 are "dioxin-like". Under certain conditions PCBs may form ... Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are a group of chemical compounds that are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the ...
2,2′-Bis(2-indenyl) biphenyl is an organic compound with the formula [C6H4C9H7]2. The compound is the precursor, upon ... Indenyl Compounds for the Polymerization of Olefins US Patent 6,342,622; Jan. 29, 2002. E. G. Ijpeij; F. H. Beijer; H. J. Arts ... Metals studied with 2,2′-bis(2-indenyl) biphenyl include titanium, zirconium, and hafnium.[citation needed] The ligand and its ... compounds with carbon-carbon double bonds-namely, ethylene and propylene.[citation needed] The use of such complexes in the ...
4,4′-Biphenol is an organic compound which is a phenolic derivative of biphenyl. It is a colorless solid. 4,4′-Biphenol is ... "Dimerization of Aromatic Compounds Using Palladium-Carbon-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling by One-Pot Synthesis ( ...
... as well as human-induced cycles for synthetic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). In some cycles there are ... human-induced cycles for synthetic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). Biogeochemical Cycles, OpenStax, 9 May ... and phosphorus is returned to the soil where a large part of the phosphorus is transformed into insoluble compounds. Runoff may ... and it is transformed into organic compounds. The plants may then be consumed by herbivores and the phosphorus is either ...
... and at 1 mg/kg for the individual PFOA-related compounds or a combination of those compounds. They also included some specific ... Polychlorinated Biphenyl, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas". Environ. ... The compound is also used in "insulators for electric wires, planar etching of fused silica", fire fighting foam, and outdoor ... Butt CM, Berger U, Bossi R, Tomy GT (May 2010). "Levels and trends of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in the arctic ...
Fürst P. Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, trends and ... Nucleotides Nucleotides are compounds found naturally in human breast milk. They are involved in critical metabolic processes, ... "Bioactive compounds in infant formula and their effects on infant nutrition and health: a systematic literature review." ... Other studies have further found that the levels of most persistent organohalogen compounds in human milk decreased ...
Compounds such as biphenyl and naphthalene are reduced by the powder and form highly coloured radical anions. The powder can ... converts benzyl chloride to bibenzyl in a Wurtz coupling and in a similar fashion dibenzothiophene is reduced to biphenyl. ...
Ingested plastics release toxic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls, which may accumulate in internal tissues. Such ... An iron compound, magnetite, in their brains allows the turtles to perceive the Earth's magnetic field, for navigation. Many ... for loggerheads to reach sexual maturity and the high mortality rates of eggs and young turtles from natural phenomena compound ...
This compound and other long-lasting cyano-biphenyls made the twisted nematic display (LCD) popular. Gray wrote the first ...
... , also known as biphenyl-4-ol and 4-hydroxybiphenyl is an organic compound. It is a phenol analog of biphenyl. 4- ... Biphenyls, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
... with the use of ultrasound the reaction can also be made useful for the production of biphenyl compounds. There are two ... The Direct Preparation of an Organosodium (Potassium) Compound from an RX Compound". Journal of the American Chemical Society. ... The alkyl and aryl radicals then combine to form a substituted aromatic compound. The second approach involves the formation of ... Organosilicon compounds successfully synthesized using the Wurtz-Fittig reaction include silylated calixarenes, t-butylsilicon ...
Its type strain is JCM 7371 (= GIFU 9882). It is notable for degrading a variety of aromatic compounds including biphenyl, ... Not only this, but S. yanoikuyae has also been found in a few locations contaminated by toxic compounds, such as ... More so, the bacteria obtains energy from sources like Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), biphenyl, naphthalene, phenanthrene, toluene, ... the bacteria's ability to grow and survive under low-nutrient conditions as it can utilize a broad range of organic compounds. ...
Bay mud Organochlorine compound Polybrominated biphenyl Zodiac, a novel by Neal Stephenson which involves PCBs and their impact ... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly carcinogenic chemical compounds, formerly used in industrial and consumer products ... Safe S (1984). "Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): biochemistry, toxicology, and mechanism ... April 2013). "Carcinogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls" (PDF). The Lancet. Oncology. 14 (4): ...
Computational analysis of this compound suggests valence isomerization to biphenyl is very exothermic but also with a high ... 8]annulyne is known to exist but quickly dimerizes or trimerizes; the compound has been trapped as its radical anion and ... Soc., 1962, 84 (22), pp 4307-4312 doi:10.1021/ja00881a022 Unsaturated Macrocyclic Compounds. XXXVI.1 The Synthesis of Two ... Annulyne and their Reactive Relationships to Heptalene and Biphenyl Brad D. Rose, Richard C. Reiter, and Cheryl D. Stevenson ...
It occurs as a late step in the meta-cleavage pathways of a variety of compounds, including catechol, biphenyl, toluene, ...
PCB, or polychlorinated biphenyl, is a chlorine compound that was once widely found in dielectric and coolant fluids used in ... Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Hites, Ronald A. (May 1988). "Occurrence and bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in fishes from ... "Learn about Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) , US EPA". US EPA. Retrieved 2018-10-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: ... "persistent organic compounds." Her research more specifically centered on PCBs, dioxins, and pesticides in the Great Lakes ...
Heteroaromatic analogues of the biphenyl compounds also exist, where hindered rotation occurs about a carbon-nitrogen or a ... The use of axially chiral biaryl compounds such as BINAP, QUINAP and BINOL, have been found to be useful in the area of ... Axially chiral biaryl compounds are prepared by coupling reactions, e.g., Ullmann coupling, Suzuki-Miyaura reaction, or ... The atropisomer is an iodoaryl compound synthesised starting from (S)-valine and exists as the (M,S) isomer and the (P,S) ...
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds Polychlorinated biphenyl "Proceedings of the Subregional Awareness Raising Workshop on ... For general population the most important source is food of animal origin like with other dioxin-like compounds. The most ... doi: 10.1136/oem.59.6.362 Tuomisto J (2019). Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds: toxicity in humans and animals, sources, and ... Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a family of organic compounds with one or several of the hydrogens in the ...
However, it was later found that the correct structures were of sandwich compound type complexes and based on biphenyl not ... Hein created a mixture of compounds. He was able to produce what he called phenylmagnesium salts. Hein denoted them as: (C6H5) ...
EPAL Apparatus for Screening Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and Other Chlorinated Compounds," US Patent 5,318,751 (1994). T ... and Other Related Compounds," U.S. Patent 5,272,089 (1993). T. Vo-Dinh, "Raman-Based System for DNA Sequencing, Mapping and ... Chemical Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, Wiley, New York (1989). Vo-Dinh T. and Eastwood D.L., Editors, Laser-Based ... "Dosimeter for Monitoring Vapors and Aerosols of Organic Compounds," U.S. Patent No. 4,680,165 (1987). T. Vo-Dinh, "Practical ...
Synthetic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls are found in many pesticides and pollute the green tree frog's aquatic ... Because the frog's skin is thin and permeable, synthetic compounds absorb easily upon contact, making the species a viable ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds as well as cyanide and heavy metals ...
In 1991, the Navy discovered nine metals, two semi-volatile organic compounds and a polychlorinated biphenyl in Ford Island's ...
... polar hydrophilic organic compounds (HpOCs) to replace them. These compounds generally have lower bioconcentration factors. ... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides, dioxins, and furans. The ... Any compound with a log Kow of less than or equal to 3 can concentrate in a POCIS sampler. Applicable classes of contaminants ... and biologically active compounds can be effectively monitored. It can also be argued that the use of POCIS is a more relevant ...
The capacitor was originally known as a condenser, a term still encountered in a few compound names, such as the condenser ... Some old, large oil-filled paper or plastic film capacitors contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). It is known that waste ...
D 971 Furanic compounds; e.g., ASTM D5837 Karl Fischer moisture; e.g., ASTM D1533 Liquid power factor; e.g., ASTM D924 ... Neutralization number; e.g., ASTM D974 Oxidation inhibitor content; e.g., ASTM D2668 Polychlorinated biphenyls content; e.g., ...
The compound Pd2(dba)3 is a source of Pd(0), which is the catalytically active source of palladium used for many reactions, ... Nanoparticle catalysts are active for the hydrogenolysis of C-Cl bonds such as polychlorinated biphenyls. Another reaction is ... These nanoparticles catalyzed the dehalogenation of aromatic compounds as well as the hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane. ... "Dehalogenation and Hydrogenation of Aromatic Compounds Catalyzed by Nanoparticles Generated from Rhodium Bis(imino)pyridine ...
Reif, A., Sloto, R. Metals, Pesticides, and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Sediment in Valley Forge National Historic Park ... and total Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Importantly, one hundred percent effects were seen in concentrations above the ERM ... During a study involving the concentration of heavy metals, pesticides, and semi-volatile organic compounds in stream sediments ...
Selenium compounds together with copper chelators appear to play a role in delaying the progression of Alzheimer's disease, ... mercurials and some pesticides including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organophosphates. Mercury is a neurotoxicant and ... Aaseth has studies the effects of disease-modifying agents including anti-TNF-alpha drugs and also selenium compounds. Some of ... In series of experiments, Aaseth has studied the protective effect of selenium compounds toward the toxicity of mercury. ...
Biphenyl, consisting of two phenyl groups. The two rings tend not to be coplanar. Chlorobenzene (or phenyl chloride), a solvent ... Representative compounds containing phenyl groups Atorvastatin (Lipitor), a blockbuster drug featuring two phenyl and one p- ... One of the simplest phenyl-containing compounds is phenol, C6H5OH. It is often said the resonance stability of phenol makes it ... Many or even most phenyl compounds are not described with the term "phenyl". For example, the chloro derivative C6H5Cl is ...
For example, if a drug compound showed lower-than-expected oral bioavailability, various model structures (i.e., hypotheses) ... "Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of several polychlorinated biphenyls in mouse, rat, dog, and monkey by means of a ... such as when the compound is toxic without therapeutic benefit Individuals: e.g., from males to females, from adults to ... enterohepatic recirculation of the parent compound, extra-hepatic/extra-gut elimination; higher in vivo solubility than ...
... "exposure to industrial pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds and heavy metals but also to pesticides." ...
From a mechanical point of view, scientists were able to manipulate the compound in such a way that it could be used in place ... and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). "21CFR172.867: Olestra". Code of Federal Regulations. U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...
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... is an organic compound, the sodium salt of 3,3′-([1,1′-biphenyl]-4,4′-diyl)bis(4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid). ...
His discovery of sodium sulfate in 1625 led to the compound being named after him: "Glauber's salt". Fritz Haber: German ... Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig: He discovered the pinacol coupling reaction, mesitylene, diacetyl and biphenyl. Irmgard Flügge-Lotz: ... Otto Wallach: Chemist who researched, amongst others, alicyclic compounds. Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910. Hellmuth Walter: ... Synthesized indigo, discovered the phthalein dyes, and investigated polyacetylenes, oxonium salts, nitroso compounds (1869) and ...
Both palladium and copper complexes of the compound exhibit high activity for the coupling of aryl halides and aryl tosylates ... XPhos is a phosphine ligand derived from biphenyl. Its palladium complexes exhibit high activity for Buchwald-Hartwig amination ...
Heterocyclic compounds with 3 rings, Insulin receptor agonists, 3-Hydroxypropenals, Resorcinols, Biphenyls). ... Chaetochromin A and B are stereoisomers of this structure, while chaetochromin C and D are related but different compounds. It ...
After General Electric dumped polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River from 1947 through 1976, tomcod living in the ... river were found to have developed an increased resistance to the compound's toxic effects. Scientists identified the genetic ...
Biphenyls, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... Dictionary of Food Compounds with CD-ROM. CRC Press. p. 1877. ... Hashimoto, Fumio; Nonaka, Gen-Ichiro; Nishioka, Itsuo (1988-05-25). "Tannins and Related Compounds. LXIX. : Isolation and ...
In 1997, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, compounds common in transformers, hydraulic fluids, paint additives and pesticides ... Compounds from these pesticide residues find themselves in food items with metamidophos, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and diazinon ...
This compound and related compounds are studied in the laboratory because they are often displaying unusual conformations and ... Biphenyl Triphenyl Terpyridine Terthiophene Naphthalene where the rings are fused Tricyclobutabenzene Wutichai Nutakul, ... The parent tricyclobutabenzene (C12H12) was first synthesised in 1979 by the following sequence: This compound is stable up to ...
VOC-volatile organic compound VPP-Variable peak pricing (electricity) VSA-Voltage stability analysis W-Watt WACOG-weighted ... Performance-based regulation PCB-polychlorinated biphenyl PCM-Project Cycle Management PCS-Power conversion system, electric ...
These compounds are used in the electrolysis of aluminium by the Hall-Héroult process. About 23 kg (51 lb) are required for ... Many alternatives to oil-filled switchgear, contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Sulfur hexafluoride is also used in ... The compound can be made without using fluorine gas, but the reaction between sulfur and fluorine gas, first developed by Henri ... These compounds are also used as a flux for glass. Fluorosilicates are the next most significant inorganic fluorides formed ...
2015 Rubber compounding ingredients - Carbon black - Determination of ash ISO 1126:2015 Rubber compounding ingredients - Carbon ... Determination of total content of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by dissolution, cleanup and GC-MS ISO 788:2021 Ultramarine ... 2016 Rubber compounding ingredients - Carbon black - Determination of iodine adsorption number ISO 1306:1995 Rubber compounding ... Application to plasticized compounds of homopolymers and copolymers of vinyl chloride ISO/R 459:1962 Narrow V-belts - Grooved ...
21.3.4 Compounds with oxoanions Nathaniel Howell Furman; R. J. Mundy; G. H. Morrison (1955). The Distribution of Uranyl Nitrate ... Titanium nitrate also reacts with n-dodecane, p-dichlorobenzene, anisole, biphenyl, It decomposes thermally to titanium dioxide ... Titanium nitrate is the inorganic compound with formula Ti(NO3)4. It is a colorless, diamagnetic solid that sublimes readily. ... Coombes, Robert G.; Leslie W. Russell (1974). "Nitration of aromatic compounds by tetranitratotitanium(IV) in carbon ...
Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide is an organic compound with molecular formula C20H14O3. It is a metabolite and ... This process is similar to induction of CYP1A1 by certain polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins. Seemingly, CYP1A1 activity in ... Seager, S. L.; Slabaugh, M. R. (2013). "Properties and Uses of Aromatic Compounds". Organic and Biochemistry for Today (8th ed ... The carcinogenic properties of tobacco smoking are attributed in part to this compound binding and inactivating the tumor ...
He gave the compound the name benzin. In 1836, the French chemist Auguste Laurent named the substance "phène"; this word has ... Linking benzene rings gives biphenyl, C6H5-C6H5. Further loss of hydrogen gives "fused" aromatic hydrocarbons, such as ... Many important chemical compounds are derived from benzene by replacing one or more of its hydrogen atoms with another ... The aromatic compounds. Benzene.), pp. 125-129. Archived 2020-03-10 at the Wayback Machine See further: Thiele (1901) "Zur ...
Prominent sterically hindered compounds Tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphite, a widely used stabilizer in polymers. ... disubstituted biphenyl and binaphthyl derivatives. Because steric effects have profound impact on properties, the steric ... The difference reflects the inhibition of attack on the compound with the sterically bulky (CH3)3C group. A values provide ... Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds, Wiley, New York (1994). ISBN 81-224-0570-3 Eliel, E.L.; Allinger, N.L.; Angyal, S.J.; G.A ...
Recycled pulp, or paper made from it, is known as PCF (process chlorine free) if no chlorine-containing compounds were used in ... Furthermore, groups of chemicals as phthalates, phenols, mineral oils, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxic metals have ...
Irradiation of a solution at pH 2.7 forms a mixture of the colloid and the soluble Tc(IV) compounds. Gamma irradiation has been ... are dechlorinated in the same way as PCBs can be converted to biphenyl and inorganic chloride. This is because the solvated ... In addition to the work on the destruction of aryl chlorides, it has been shown that aliphatic chlorine and bromine compounds ... In addition to the work on the reduction of organic compounds by irradiation, some work on the radiation induced oxidation of ...
Biphenyl  Boehncke, A; Koennecker, G; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Wibbertmann, A; World Health Organization; International Programme on ... Polybrominated biphenyls (‎PBBs : health and safety guide  World Health Organization; International Programme on Chemical ...
The invention provides a crystalline freebase form of biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl) ... Crystalline freebase forms of a biphenyl compound - Google Patents. Crystalline freebase forms of a biphenyl compound Download ... 150000001875 compounds Chemical class 0.000 claims description 101 * 239000000203 mixture Substances 0.000 claims description ... 239000004305 biphenyl Substances 0.000 title description 2 * 239000008194 pharmaceutical composition Substances 0.000 claims ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls / this publication represents the views and expert opinions of two IARC ... Biphenyl. by Boehncke, A , Koennecker, G , Mangelsdorf, Inge , Wibbertmann, A , World Health Organization , International ... Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs : health and safety guide. by World Health Organization , International Programme on Chemical ...
2-Biphenyl)Triazolylhexahydroxamic Acid,canSAR1709837 , Compound overview, Drug targets, Compound forms, Similar compounds , ...
The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol (1), a new biphenyl compound, namely, 4-ethyl-4- ... This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of compound 2 and discloses activity of compounds 1 and 2 against several ... methyl-2,2,6,6-tetrahydroxy[1,1-biphenyl]-4,4-dicarboxylate (2), quercetin (3), and kaempferol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 were ... The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were not able to inhibit cell wall synthesis or assembly using the sorbitol ...
Biphenyl Compounds / chemical synthesis * Biphenyl Compounds / pharmacokinetics * Biphenyl Compounds / pharmacology* * Fimbriae ... Lead optimization studies on FimH antagonists: discovery of potent and orally bioavailable ortho-substituted biphenyl ...
Biphenyl Compounds [‎2]‎. Bipolar Disorder [‎2]‎. Bird Diseases [‎2]‎. Birds [‎5]‎. Birth Certificates [‎1]‎. ...
Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are chemicals produced by human activity and are found in plastics used in many consumer ... PBBs are mixtures of brominated biphenyl compounds known as congeners.. In the United States, manufacturing of PBBs was stopped ... ToxFAQs™ for Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs). Spanish: Bifenilos Polibromados. PDF Versionpdf icon[54.6 KB] This fact sheet ... Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are chemicals produced by human activity and are found in plastics used in many consumer ...
... biphenyl compounds; follicular phase; luteal phase; menstrual cycle; polybrominated biphenyls; organic chemicals ... BACKGROUND: Brominated flame retardants, including polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), are persistent compounds reported to affect ... Polychlorinated biphenyls; PCBs; Exposure levels; Risk factors; Humans; Women; Menstrual disorders; Sexual reproduction; ...
Biphenyl Compounds. Trumbull KA, McAllister D, Gandelman MM, Fung WY, Lew T, Brennan L, Lopez N, Morré J, Kalyanaraman B, ...
Categories: Biphenyl Compounds Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
A field screening method for polychlorinated biphenyl compounds in water /. 1994. 2. Addendum to the Method 1668A ... Method 1668C Chlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Water, Soil, Sediment, Biosolids, and Tissue by HRGC/HRMS, April 2010.. 2010. ... 2. Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls.. 1994. 4. Chemical contaminants in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents /. ... Method 1668B Chlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Water, Soil, Sediment, Biosolids, and Tissue By HRGC/HRMS.. 2008. ...
One example would be PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyl compounds. PCBs, once a common component of coolant fluids, were ... PCBs are very similar to compounds known as dixoins, toxic substances that also contain some organochloride element and result ... The process is basically dechlorinating the toxic compounds. This is their own special variety of anaerobic respiration, known ... which can pack the most toxic punch once organized into the right compound and/or delivered in large enough quantities. They& ...
... and radioactive compounds can induce autoimmune disease in humans. ... These compounds include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and bisphenol A ( ... "A whole range of compounds are being increasingly recognized that are associated with the impairment of thyroid hormone action ... Some evidence exists for industrial exposure to other compounds, but these lack dose-response data. ...
Polyepoxidized biphenyl compounds, preparation and uses. Polymers, Polymer chemistry, Polymerization reactions, Adhesives, ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine compounds in brain, liver and muscle of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from ...
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) - organochlorine compounds of a pesticidal nature which are usually used for industrial ... Both chlorinated hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCS) were found rather consistently. Significant amounts ... Deicing compounds often contain special additives with severe latent toxic properties. Complex cyanides and chromate compounds ... Highway deicing compounds were discussed as a source of urban runoff pol~ 13 lution in an EPA report prepared by Edison Water ...
Filters: Keyword is Biphenyl Compounds and Author is Bao, Erjaing [Clear All Filters] ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of compounds produced commercially by the direct chlorination of biphenyl using ... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of compounds produced commercially by the direct chlorination of biphenyl using ... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of compounds produced commercially by the direct chlorination of biphenyl using ... 1 BphA: biphenyl dioxygenase Biphenyl dioxygenase is a Riesketype three-component enzyme, comprising a terminal dioxygenase ...
2,4-Dichloro-biphenyl-4-yl-hydroxyketones and related compounds and their use as therapeutic agents. Greig, I. R., Van T Hof ...
Urase, T.; Okumura, H.; Panyosaranya, S.; Inamura, A. Emission of volatile organic compounds from solid waste disposal sites ... Toxic chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), nonylphenol (NP), organic pesticides, such as ... Schecter, A.; Colacino, J.; Haffner, D.; Patel, K.; Opel, M.; Päpke, O.; Birnbaum, L. Perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated ... This is compounded by the slow degradability of most plastics, as this means the occupied land is unavailable for long periods ...
Abstract: Biphenyl compounds having the formula (I): are useful for preventing/treating pathologies linked to a deficiency of ... Abstract: Biphenyl compounds having the formula (I): are useful for preventing/treating pathologies linked to a deficiency of ... Justia Patents Organic Compounds -- Part Of The Class 532-570 Series Patents Organic Compounds (class 532, Subclass 1) ... The compounds of the formula I are valuable pharmaceutical active compounds which inhibit ATP-sensitive potassium channels in ...
The possible exposures to polychlorinated-biphenyls (1336363) (PCBs) from ballast burnout were discussed, based on surveys ... Organo-chlorine-compounds; Fluorescent-lighting ...
Persistent Organic Pollutants (e.g. organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluorinated compounds). *Other ...
The Kinetex Biphenyl phase demonstrated significant polar compound retention and selectivity. ... and detection of 7 polar Neonicotinoids and 4 deuterated-internal standards by LC-MS/MS and with a Kinetex 2.6 Biphenyl HPLC ... Rapid Analysis of Neonicotinoids by LC-MS/MS using a Kinetex 2.6 µm Biphenyl Core-Shell LC. ... and detection of 7 polar Neonicotinoids and 4 deuterated-internal standards by LC-MS/MS and with a Kinetex 2.6 Biphenyl HPLC ...
... their bodies carried high amounts of industrial compounds, especially polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs. ... Similar studies show that a compound named tributyltin, used to kill barnacles on ship hulls, could explain the oyster epidemic ... Quebecs aluminum plants also release mercury and other immune-suppressing compounds into the estuary. ... Anderson of University of Marylands Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies exposed oysters to amounts of the compound ...
  • But the soil on the site was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, oil, volatile organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (
  • The most commonly occurring contaminants of concern at these sites were chlorinated volatile organic compounds, which were present at 26 of the 30 sites. (
  • The less frequently occurring contaminants included metals, non-chlorinated volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with dioxins or pesticides only present at one site. (
  • Common contaminants at these sites include heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. (
  • His scientific research work concerns mainly persistent organic pollutants and other highly toxic compounds, including dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds and pesticides. (
  • Nanotechnology can play a role in the remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). (
  • This application note investigates the ability of Markes' thermal desorption systems to monitor semi-volatile organic compounds, using a wide range of n-alkanes (n-C 16 to n-C 44 ) as a model. (
  • Acremonium is a common allergen, can produce a trichothecene mycotoxin, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). (
  • One example would be PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyl compounds. (
  • PCBs are very similar to compounds known as dixoins, toxic substances that also contain some organochloride element and result in effects ranging from immunotoxicity to endocrine effects to the promotion of tumors. (
  • These compounds include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and bisphenol A (BPA). (
  • We are aiming to create some magic intelligent bacteria to track and 'eat' pollutants PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) and dioxins efficiently, based on the methods of synthetic biology. (
  • The total amount of PCBs produced in the world is estimated 1.2 million tons.Because PCBs have been released into the environment in many countries over decades, these compounds have become serious and global environmental contaminants.PCBs tend to accumulate in biota owing to their lypophilic property. (
  • The aerobes attack PCBs oxidatively , breaking open the carbon ring and destroying the compounds. (
  • The possible exposures to polychlorinated-biphenyls (1336363) (PCBs) from ballast burnout were discussed, based on surveys carried out in schools in Ohio, Washington, Virginia, Delaware, and Michigan. (
  • Scientists found that the dead animals shared a common bond beyond the virus--their bodies carried high amounts of industrial compounds, especially polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs. (
  • 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and similar compounds are toxic to animals and humans. (
  • A California lawsuit is accusing several fish oil supplement manufacturers of selling fish oils that contain unsafe levels of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, also known as PCBs. (
  • Troy, N.Y. -- Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have discovered a tiny bacterium that could one day transform the way we remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from our environment. (
  • In order to detoxify PCBs the strong bonds between the chlorine atoms and the biphenyl compounds that make up the PCB atomic structure need to be broken, a process known as dechlorination. (
  • A literature review was conducted on the physical and chemical properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS), their concentrations in the marine environment, their fate and persistence, their bioaccumulation, and their toxicity to marine biota. (
  • The lawsuit claimed that the fish oil products failed to include label warnings for levels of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyl compounds) in the products. (
  • 2000. Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (
  • GE claims to have spent almost $2 billion thus far in its continuing cleanup of polychlorinated biphenyl, highly carcinogenic chemical compounds known as PCBs, that the company discharged into the river for more than 30 years. (
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are a class of organic compounds that are highly toxic. (
  • Then four groups of organic contaminants were analyzed: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs), polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alkylphenols (APs). (
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are hazardous organic compounds best known for their use in transformers and electrical capacitors because of their non-combustibility and flexibility. (
  • I was introduced to the topic of polychlorinated biphenyls during a summer internship when a client did not want to re-point within six inches of the windows on their historic building for fear of PCBs in the caulk. (
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic, organochlorine compounds previously used in industrial processes. (
  • Since, however, the numbers were small, dose-response relationships could not be evaluated, and the role of compounds other than PCBs could not be excluded, the evidence was considered to be limited. (
  • Nanotechnology can be used to extract heavy metals and organic compounds from soil and can clean groundwater by removing pollutants such as pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (
  • Many SVOCs - including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), flame retardants, and some phthalate esters - are considered to be hazardous to human health, and may also be persistent environmental pollutants. (
  • The monitoring programme includes measurements of: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), some pesticides (HCH, DDT) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE). (
  • 2. Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls. (
  • He noted that among the more common agents that affect thyroid metabolism are perchlorates (a rocket fuel additive), thiocyanates (a compound in cigarettes), and dioxins (a class of pesticides). (
  • He is currently conducting an NIH-funded study on the effects of endocrine disruptors, including persistent chlorinated compounds (i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT/DDE), pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A, on male and female reproductive health endpoints. (
  • Marine turtles of all species, particularly hawksbill turtles ( Figure 1 ), can contain a variety of toxins including heavy metals (e.g. cadmium and mercury), organic compounds (e.g. pesticides such as chlordane and polychlorinated biphenyls) and biotoxins such as those produced by various blue-green algae on which turtles feed (e.g. lyngbyatoxin A from Lyngbya majuscula ). (
  • Infections (bacterial or chronic viral infections or intestinal dysbiosis) and toxins (heavy metals and chemical compounds found in pesticides, herbicides, plastics and other products) can influence, trigger or aggravate an autoimmune diseases. (
  • Comparative Molecular Field Analysis of Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls. (
  • Kinetex phenylhexyl is best suited to the separation of aromatic compounds which are relatively hydrophobic. (
  • Kinetex biphenyl is more applicable to polar aromatic compounds, and will also offer a good degree of shape selectivity. (
  • Microorganisms are known to be capable of degrading diverse chemical substances including man-made chemicals in the environment that are mostly aromatic compounds. (
  • This diagram illustrates combination patterns of reaction modules for biodegradation of aromatic compounds, consisting of three main types of ring dihydroxylation modules, followed by meta- or ortho-cleavage modules, together with an optional preprocessing module for converting methyl group to carboxyl group on the aromatic ring. (
  • A preliminary evaluation of Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) was performed in the atmosphere of Santiago de Cali, Colombia, using passive air samplers based polyurethane foam (PAS-PUF) disks. (
  • Fluorine and fluorides are used in an enormous number of industrial operations and products ranging from Teflon to refrigerants (chlorofluorocarbons) to new, safer dielectric compounds (replacing polychlorinated biphenyl). (
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls / this publication represents the views and expert opinions of two IARC Working Groups on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, which met in Lyon, 10-15 October 1977 and 6-13 June 1978. (
  • HIGHLIGHTS: Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are chemicals produced by human activity and are found in plastics used in many consumer products to make them difficult to burn. (
  • The present Rule ensures that every producer of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and their components or consumables or parts or spares shall ensure that new EEE and their components or consumables or parts or spares do not contain pollutants such as lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers beyond a maximum concentration value. (
  • 1995. Organochlorine compounds and estrogen-related cancers in women. (
  • Interaction of organochlorine compounds with thyroid receptor, transthyretin, and thyroid-binding globulin. (
  • Since PBBs are no longer produced or used, the risk of Studies in animals exposed to large amounts of PBBs for a exposure to these compounds is low. (
  • PBBs are mixtures of brominated biphenyl compounds known as congeners. (
  • Molecular Basis of Biodegradation of Chloroaromatic Compounds. (
  • Rainwater is analyzed for acidifying compounds, nutrients, POPs and metals. (
  • These are organic compounds containing at least two chlorine atoms attached to either benzene ring of the biphenyl moiety. (
  • Whitish aromatic crystalline organic compounds made up of two conjoined BENZENE rings. (
  • To process this chemical, we use finest quality compounds, sourced from trusted and reliable vendors. (
  • This method presents the reversed-phase retention and detection of 7 polar Neonicotinoids and 4 deuterated-internal standards by LC-MS/MS and with a Kinetex 2.6 Biphenyl HPLC column. (
  • The Kinetex Biphenyl phase demonstrated significant polar compound retention and selectivity. (
  • What should I consider when chosing between Kinetex phenylhexyl, biphenyl and F5? (
  • Kinetex F5 is the most polar phenyl phase, due to it's highly polar nature and the interactions it can undergo with analytes it is the best option for analyzing highly polar analytes, and those compounds which differ in terms of pi electron structure. (
  • Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents release complex mixtures of organic and inorganic micropollutants, including endocrine disrupting compounds, into receiving water bodies. (
  • The compounds are mixtures of 70-90 different molecular forms that vary in the number and positions of chlorine atoms, making them difficult to degrade. (
  • abstract = "Single and double cyclophenylene-ethynylenes (CPEs) with axial and helical chirality have been synthesized by the Sonogashira cross-coupling of di- and tetraethynyl biphenyls with a U-shaped prearomatic diiodoparaphenylene followed by reductive aromatization. (
  • Polybrominated biphenyl exposure and menstrual cycle function. (
  • Some evidence exists for industrial exposure to other compounds, but these lack dose-response data. (
  • An article "Use of mechanistic data in the IARC evaluations of the carcinogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds" has also been published in Environmental Science and Pollution Research International . (
  • We demonstrate how modern TD technology delivers robust and repeatable results for compounds across this wide boiling range and can be used to enhance GC-MS analysis of trace SVOCs in air and other matrices. (
  • Nitrile rubber compounds perform especially well in petroleum based fuels and oils, aliphatic hydrocarbons, vegetable oils, silicone oils and greases, ethylene glycol, dilute acids, and water below 100°C (212°F). (
  • The biphenyl molecule is made up of two connected rings of six carbon atoms each, and a PCB is any molecule having multiple chlorines attached to the biphenyl nucleus. (
  • It can also be used as an alternate selectivity to a C8 or C18, retaining compounds to a similar extend compared to a C8, but with the additional pi-pi interations allowing for aromatic positional isomers to be separated. (
  • PCB methyl sulphones and related compounds: Identification of target cells and tissues in different species. (
  • 1994. Polychlorinated biphenyls, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2 bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) in human plasma related to fish consumption. (
  • 1997. Inhibition of L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase by polychlorinated biphenyls. (
  • 1973. Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicityin rats by pretreatment with polychlorinated biphenyls. (
  • Triazenes are a class of compounds characterized by the presence of a diazoamino functional group (N=N N) showing remarkable ability to support the stereochemical requisites of a wide variety of metal transition complexes. (
  • It is based on supercritical water oxidation, which has been used since the 1980s to destroy difficult-to-treat and dangerous compounds like polychlorinated biphenyls. (
  • Air-liquid partition coefficient for a diverse set of organic compounds: Henry's law constant in water and hexadecane , Environ. (
  • These results justify further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds. (
  • The organism could be the key to developing methods that help detoxify commercial PCB compounds on site - without the need for dredging. (
  • Qualitative study about this failure mechanism was carried out by a finite element analysis, and it was found that, due to the higher flexural modulus and CTE of the biphenyl epoxy, the thermally induced stresses developed in the chip encapsulated by this epoxy during reliability tests were more likely to cause the crack propagation in the silicon chip than those induced by using EOCN type epoxy. (
  • Such cis-trans isomerization may serve to reduce membrane fluidity and permeability, as a protective mechanism against phenolic compounds. (