Biphenyl CompoundsPolychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Polybrominated Biphenyls: Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.Aroclors: Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene: An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Burkholderiaceae: A family of gram negative, aerobic, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacteria.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Great Lakes Region: The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Hexachlorobenzene: An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers: Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Chlordan: A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedPesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Slovakia: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Milk, HumanEndocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.MichiganPrenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. All strains can utilize FRUCTOSE for energy. It is occasionally isolated from humans and some strains are pathogenic to WATERMELON.Phenyl Ethers: Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Pentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Armoracia: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for the root used in hot SPICES. It is also the source of HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE which is widely used in laboratories.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.ChlorobenzenesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane: An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Benzene DerivativesFurans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Safrole: A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Comamonas testosteroni: A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Chloroflexi: Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Organotin Compounds: Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Preconception Injuries: Damages to reproductive health prior to conception (FERTILIZATION), a legal term for torts liability concerning environmental safety issues. Preconception injuries may involve either the male or the female, such as chromosomal mutations in the OVA or the SPERMATOZOA.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Aniline CompoundsMicrosomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Toxaphene: A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Nikethamide: A central nervous system stimulant. It was formerly used in the treatment of barbiturate overdose but is now considered to be of no value for such purposes and may be dangerous. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1229)Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Nitroso CompoundsBenzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Organoselenium Compounds: Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship: A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.Bromine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.PhenanthrenesEnzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Chemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.Azo CompoundsTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.New YorkWater Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.

Irbesartan reduces QT dispersion in hypertensive individuals. (1/2256)

Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists have direct effects on the autonomic nervous system and myocardium. Because of this, we hypothesized that irbesartan would reduce QT dispersion to a greater degree than amlodipine, a highly selective vasodilator. To test this, we gathered electrocardiographic (ECG) data from a multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind parallel group study that compared the antihypertensive efficacy of irbesartan and amlodipine in elderly subjects with mild to moderate hypertension. Subjects were treated for 6 months with either drug. Hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol were added after 12 weeks if blood pressure (BP) remained uncontrolled. ECGs were obtained before randomization and at 6 months. A total of 188 subjects (118 with baseline ECGs) were randomized. We analyzed 104 subjects who had complete ECGs at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Baseline characteristics between treatments were similar, apart from a slight imbalance in diastolic BP (irbesartan [n=53] versus amlodipine [n=51], 99.2 [SD 3. 6] versus 100.8 [3.8] mm Hg; P=0.03). There were no significant differences in BP normalization (diastolic BP <90 mm Hg) between treatments at 6 months (irbesartan versus amlodipine, 80% versus 88%; P=0.378). We found a significant reduction in QT indexes in the irbesartan group (QTc dispersion mean, -11.4 [34.5] milliseconds, P=0.02; QTc max, -12.8 [35.5] milliseconds, P=0.01), and QTc dispersion did not correlate with the change in BP. The reduction in QT indexes with amlodipine (QTc dispersion, -9.7 [35.4] milliseconds, P=0.06; QTc max, -8.6 [33.2] milliseconds, P=0.07) did not quite reach statistical significance, but there was a correlation between the change in QT indexes and changes in systolic BP. In conclusion, irbesartan improved QT dispersion, and this effect may be important in preventing sudden cardiac death in at-risk hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation. (2/2256)

1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2.  (+info)

ACE inhibition and ANG II receptor blockade improve glomerular size-selectivity in IgA nephropathy. (3/2256)

Protein trafficking across the glomerular capillary has a pathogenic role in subsequent renal damage. Despite evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve glomerular size-selectivity, whether this effect is solely due to ANG II blocking or if other mediators also play a contributory role is not clear yet. We studied 20 proteinuric patients with IgA nephropathy, who received either enalapril (20 mg/day) or the ANG II receptor blocker irbesartan (100 mg/day) for 28 days in a randomized double-blind study. Measurements of blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, and fractional clearance of neutral dextran of graded sizes were performed before and after 28 days of treatment. Both enalapril and irbesartan significantly reduced blood pressure over baseline. This reduction reached the maximum effect 4-6 h after drug administration but did not last for the entire 24-h period. Despite transient antihypertensive effect, proteinuria was effectively reduced by both treatments to comparable extents. Neither enalapril nor irbesartan modified the sieving coefficients of small dextran molecules, but both effectively reduced transglomerular passage of large test macromolecules. Theoretical analysis of sieving coefficients showed that neither drug affected significantly the mean pore radius or the spread of the pore-size distribution, but both importantly and comparably reduced the importance of a nonselective shunt pathway. These data suggest that antagonism of ANG II is the key mechanism by which ACE inhibitors exert their beneficial effect on glomerular size-selective function and consequently on glomerular filtration and urinary output of plasma proteins.  (+info)

Neurotensin is a proinflammatory neuropeptide in colonic inflammation. (4/2256)

The neuropeptide neurotensin mediates several intestinal functions, including chloride secretion, motility, and cellular growth. However, whether this peptide participates in intestinal inflammation is not known. Toxin A, an enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, mediates pseudomembranous colitis in humans. In animal models, toxin A causes an acute inflammatory response characterized by activation of sensory neurons and intestinal nerves and immune cells of the lamina propria. Here we show that neurotensin and its receptor are elevated in the rat colonic mucosa following toxin A administration. Pretreatment of rats with the neurotensin receptor antagonist SR-48, 692 inhibits toxin A-induced changes in colonic secretion, mucosal permeability, and histologic damage. Exposure of colonic explants to toxin A or neurotensin causes mast cell degranulation, which is inhibited by SR-48,692. Because substance P was previously shown to mediate mast cell activation, we examined whether substance P is involved in neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation. Our results show that neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation in colonic explants is inhibited by the substance P (neurokinin-1) receptor antagonist CP-96,345, indicating that colonic mast activation in response to neurotensin involves release of substance P. We conclude that neurotensin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-induced colonic inflammation and mast cell activation.  (+info)

Angiotensin II receptor blockade in normotensive subjects: A direct comparison of three AT1 receptor antagonists. (5/2256)

Use of angiotensin (Ang) II AT1 receptor antagonists for treatment of hypertension is rapidly increasing, yet direct comparisons of the relative efficacy of antagonists to block the renin-angiotensin system in humans are lacking. In this study, the Ang II receptor blockade induced by the recommended starting dose of 3 antagonists was evaluated in normotensive subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, 4-way crossover study. At 1-week intervals, 12 subjects received a single dose of losartan (50 mg), valsartan (80 mg), irbesartan (150 mg), or placebo. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system was assessed before and 4, 24, and 30 hours after drug intake by 3 independent methods: inhibition of the blood pressure response to exogenous Ang II, in vitro Ang II receptor assay, and reactive changes in plasma Ang II levels. At 4 hours, losartan blocked 43% of the Ang II-induced systolic blood pressure increase; valsartan, 51%; and irbesartan, 88% (P<0.01 between drugs). The effect of each drug declined with time. At 24 hours, a residual effect was found with all 3 drugs, but at 30 hours, only irbesartan induced a marked, significant blockade versus placebo. Similar results were obtained when Ang II receptor blockade was assessed with an in vitro receptor assay and by the reactive rise in plasma Ang II levels. This study thus demonstrates that the first administration of the recommended starting dose of irbesartan induces a greater and longer lasting Ang II receptor blockade than that of valsartan and losartan in normotensive subjects.  (+info)

ESR study on the structure-antioxidant activity relationship of tea catechins and their epimers. (6/2256)

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the free radical scavenging activities and the chemical structures of tea catechins ((-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC)) and their corresponding epimers ((-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), (-)-gallocatechin (GC) and (+)-catechin ((+)-C)). With electron spin resonance (ESR) we investigated their scavenging effects on superoxide anions (O-.2) generated in the irradiated riboflavin system, singlet oxygen(1O2) generated in the photoradiation-hemoporphyrin system, the free radicals generated from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride (AAPH) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The results showed that the scavenging effects of galloylated catechins (EGCG and GCG) on the four free radicals were stronger than those of nongalloylated catechins (EGC, GC, EC, (+)-C), and the scavenging effects of EGC and GC were stronger than those of EC and (+)-C. Thus, it is suggested that the presence of the gallate group at the 3 position plays the most important role in their free radical-scavenging abilities and an additional insertion of the hydroxyl group at the 5' position in the B ring also contributes to their scavenging activities. Moreover, the corresponding phenoxyl radicals formed after the reaction with O-.2 were trapped by DMPO and the ESR spectra of DMPO/phenoxyl radical adducts were observed (aN=15.6 G and aHbeta=21.5 G). No significant differences were found between the scavenging effects of the catechins and their epimers when their concentrations were high. However, significant differences were observed at relatively low concentrations, and the lower their concentrations, the higher the differences. The scavenging abilities of GCG, GC and (+)-C were stronger than those of their corresponding epimers (EGCG, EGC and EC). The differences between their sterical structures played a more important role in their abilities to scavenge large free radicals, such as the free radicals generated from AAPH and the DPPH radical, than to scavenge small free radicals, such as O-.2 and 1O2, especially in the case with EGCG and GCG with more bulky steric hindrance.  (+info)

Serial changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum gene expression in volume-overloaded cardiac hypertrophy in the rat: effect of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. (7/2256)

This study was designed to clarify whether gene expression in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum [sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), phospholamban, ryanodine receptor and calsequestrin] changes in accordance with left ventricular functional alterations in the volume-overloaded heart. Further, the effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, TCV-116, on the expression of these genes was also evaluated. Left ventricular fractional shortening was significantly increased at 7 days, had returned to control levels at 21 days, and had significantly decreased at 35 days after the shunt operation, compared with sham-operated rats. The level of SERCA mRNA was significantly decreased at both 21 days and 35 days after the shunt operation. The levels of ryanodine receptor and phospholamban mRNAs were significantly decreased at 35 days in shunt-operated rats. The decrease in the SERCA mRNA level preceded the development of cardiac dysfunction. The levels of SERCA and ryanodine receptor mRNAs were correlated positively with left ventricular fractional shortening (r=0.73, P<0.0001 and r=0.61, P<0.01 respectively). Attenuation of the decrease in left ventricular fractional shortening occurred on treatment with TCV-116. After the treatment with TCV-116, the levels of SERCA and phospholamban mRNAs were restored to the respective values in sham-operated rats. Ryanodine receptor mRNA levels remained unchanged after treatment with TCV-116. These results indicate that the down-regulation of SERCA and ryanodine receptor mRNA levels may be related to cardiac dysfunction in the volume-overloaded heart. In addition, treatment with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist may restore the altered sarcoplasmic reticulum mRNA levels to control levels, and this may result in attenuation of the functional impairment in the volume-overloaded heart.  (+info)

Pharmacological diversity between native human 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors sited on different neurons and involved in different functions. (8/2256)

The releases of [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine ([3H]5-HT) and of endogenous glutamic acid and their modulation through presynaptic h5-HT1B autoreceptors and h5-HT1D heteroreceptors have been investigated in synaptosomal preparations from fresh neocortical samples obtained from patients undergoing neurosurgery. The inhibition by 5-HT of the K+ (15 mM)-evoked overflow of [3H]5-HT was antagonized by the 5-HT1B/5-HT1D receptor ligand GR 127935, which was ineffective on its own; this drug was previously found to behave as a full agonist at the h5-HT1D heteroreceptor regulating glutamate release. The recently proposed selective h5-HT1B receptor ligand SB-224289 also prevented the effect of 5-HT at the autoreceptor, being inactive on its own; in contrast, SB-224289, at 1 microM, was unable to interact with the h5-HT1D heteroreceptor. The inhibitory effect of 5-HT on the K+-evoked overflow of glutamate was antagonized by the h5-HT1D receptor ligand BRL-15572; added in the absence of 5-HT the compound was without effect. BRL-15572 (1 microM) was unable to modify the effect of 5-HT at the autoreceptor regulating [3H]5-HT release. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (+)-WAY 100135, previously found to be an agonist at the h5-HT1D heteroreceptor regulating glutamate release, could not interact with the h5-HT1B autoreceptor when added at 1 microM. It is concluded that native h5-HT1B and h5-HT1D receptors exhibit a hitherto unexpected pharmacological diversity.  (+info)

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b) THE ABOVE-MENTIONED WARRANTIES IN CLAUSE 8(A) ABOVE ARE GIVEN AND ACCEPTED IN SUBSTITUTION FOR, AND VWR HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES OR GUARANTEES WITH RESPECT TO THE SUBJECT MATTER OF THIS AGREEMENT, WHETHER STATUTORY, WRITTEN, ORAL, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, SUITABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU DO NOT RELY ON AND WAIVE ANY CLAIM FOR BREACH RELATING TO ANY ADVICE, REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY THAT IS NOT EXPRESSLY SET OUT HEREIN. IN PARTICULAR, WITHOUT LIMITING THE ABOVE, YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE PRODUCTS ARE NOT CUSTOMIZED FOR YOUR SPECIFIC USE OR ORDER AND VWR CANNOT AND DOES NOT MAKE ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY THAT THE PRODUCTS ARE FIT FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, EVEN WHERE SUCH PURPOSE WAS MADE KNOWN TO VWR, AND YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU DO NOT RELY ON ANY SUCH REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY.. (c) The liability of VWR under this limited warranty does not extend to any Products which are ...
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0101] In addition, particular compounds of formula I that are of interest include: [0102] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}ethyl)piper- idin-4-yl ester; [0103] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]ethylamino}ethyl)piperi- din-4-yl ester; [0104] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{methyl-[4-(4-methylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]amino}ethy- l)piperidin-4-yl ester; [0105] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-ethylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}ethyl)- piperidin-4-yl ester; [0106] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{methyl-[4-(4-propylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]amino}ethy- l)piperidin-4-yl ester; [0107] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-isopropylcarbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}et- hyl)piperidin-4-yl ester; [0108] biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-{2-[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)-2-fluorobenzoylamino]ethyl}pipe- ridin-4-yl ester; [0109] ...
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Background The Swedish irbesartan left ventricular hypertrophy investigation versus atenolol (SILVHIA). Objective Angiotensin II induces myocardial hypertrophy. We hypothesized that blockade of angiotensin II subtype 1 (AT1) receptors by the AT1-receptor antagonist irbesartan would reduce left ventricular mass (as measured by echocardiography) more than conventional treatment with a beta blocker. Design and methods This double-blind study randomized 115 hypertensive men and women with left ventricular hypertrophy to receive either irbesartan 150 mg q.d. or atenolol 50 mg q.d. for 48 weeks. If diastolic blood pressure remained above 90 mmHg, doses were doubled, and additional medications (hydrochlorothiazide and felodipine) were prescribed as needed. Echocardiography was performed at weeks 0, 12, 24 and 48. Results Baseline mean blood pressure was 162/104 mmHg, and mean left ventricular mass index was 157 g/m2 for men and 133 g/m2 for women. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure reductions were ...
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This page contains information on the chemical 2,2\-((3,3\-Dichloro(1,1\-Biphenyl)-4,4\-Diyl)Bis(Azo))Bis(N-(4-C-Horo-2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)-3-Oxobutyramide) including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
... paucimobilis is able to degrade lignin-related biphenyl chemical compounds. George M. Garrity, ed. (July 26, 2005) [1984( ... January 2009 Cloning of a Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 Gene Encoding a Novel Oxygenase That Cleaves Lignin-Related Biphenyl ...
... is an organophosphorus compound derived from biphenyl. Its palladium complexes exhibit high activity for Buchwald-Hartwig ... Both palladium and copper complexes of the compound exhibit high activity for the coupling of aryl halides and aryl tosylates ...
... is an organophosphorus compound derived from biphenyl. It is a white solid that is soluble in organic solvents. Its ...
... is an organophosphorus compound derived from biphenyl. Its palladium complexes exhibit high activity for Suzuki coupling ...
Fürst P. Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, trends and ... Nucleotides Nucleotides are compounds found naturally in human breast milk. They are involved in critical metabolic processes, ... Other studies have further found that the levels of most persistent organohalogen compounds in human milk decreased ... such as polychlorinated biphenyls, can bioaccumulate in the food chain and may be found in humans including mothers' breast ...
Masuda, Y (2003). "Health Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Related Compounds" (PDF). J Health Sci. 49 (5): 333-336. doi: ... Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are two groups of predominately man-made toxic chemicals which, when consumed, ... It was announced that "dioxins & dioxin like PCBs", a group of highly toxic synthetic halogenated organic compounds, had been ... 2006). Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (Report in Brief) (PDF). The National ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of chlorinated compounds used as industrial coolants and lubricants. PCBs are ... Fürst P (October 2006). "Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, ... Endocrine disrupting compounds encompass a variety of chemical classes, including drugs, pesticides, compounds used in the ... "Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and ...
Compounds such as biphenyl and naphthalene are reduced by the powder and form highly coloured radical anions. The powder can ... converts benzyl chloride to bibenzyl in a Wurtz coupling and in a similar fashion dibenzothiophene is reduced to biphenyl. ...
... is an organic compound which is a phenolic derivative of biphenyl. 4,4'-Biphenol is harmful in contact with skin ...
Ingested plastics release toxic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls, which may accumulate in internal tissues. Such ... An iron compound, magnetite, in their brains allows the turtles to perceive the Earth's magnetic field, for navigation. Many ... for loggerheads to reach sexual maturity and the high mortality rates of eggs and young turtles from natural phenomena compound ...
This compound and other long-lasting cyano-biphenyls made the twisted nematic display (LCD) popular. Gray wrote the first ...
... with the use of ultrasound the reaction can also be made useful for the production of biphenyl compounds. Wurtz reaction ... of aryl halides with alkyl halides and sodium metal in the presence of dry ether to give substituted aromatic compounds. The ...
Its type strain is JCM 7371 (= GIFU 9882). It is notable for degrading a variety of aromatic compounds including biphenyl, ...
It occurs as a late step in the meta-cleavage pathways of a variety of compounds, including catechol, biphenyl, toluene, ...
Heteroaromatic analogues of the biphenyl compounds also exist, where hindered rotation occurs about a carbon-nitrogen or a ... The use of axially chiral biaryl compounds such as BINAP, QUINAP and BINOL, have been found to be useful in the area of ... In the example shown, A has priority over B. One way to synthesize these axially chiral biaryl compounds is through a direct ... The atropisomer is an iodoaryl compound synthesised starting from (S)-valine and exists as the (M,S) isomer and the (P,S) ...
California's Air Toxics "Hot Spots" List (Assembly Bill). Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds Polychlorinated biphenyl " ... Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a family of organic compounds with one or several of the hydrogens in the ... Polychlorinated Dibenzofuran and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyl in Healthy Japanese Men. J Health Sci. VOL.47; NO.2; PAGE. ... Polychlorinated dibenzofurans are much more toxic than the parent compounds, with properties and chemical structures similar to ...
EPAL Apparatus for Screening Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and Other Chlorinated Compounds," US Patent 5,318,751 (1994). T ... T. Vo-Dinh, "Dosimeter for Monitoring Vapors and Aerosols of Organic Compounds," U.S. Patent No. 4,680,165 (1987). T. Vo-Dinh ... and Other Related Compounds," U.S. Patent 5,272,089 (1993). T. Vo-Dinh, "Raman-Based System for DNA Sequencing, Mapping and ... Chemical Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, Wiley, New York (1989). Vo-Dinh T. and Eastwood D.L., Editors, Laser-Based ...
Computational analysis of this compound suggests valence isomerization to biphenyl is very exothermic but also with a high ... 8]annulyne is known to exist but quickly dimerizes or trimerizes; the compound has been trapped as its radical anion and ... Soc., 1962, 84 (22), pp 4307-4312 doi:10.1021/ja00881a022 Unsaturated Macrocyclic Compounds. XXXVI.1 The Synthesis of Two ... Annulyne and their Reactive Relationships to Heptalene and Biphenyl Brad D. Rose, Richard C. Reiter, and Cheryl D. Stevenson ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds as well as cyanide and heavy metals ...
"Aryne coupling" reactions allow for generation of biphenyl compounds which are valuable in pharmaceutical industry, agriculture ... The main drawback of this method is the explosive nature of diazonium compounds. As an example, anthranilic acid can be ... The Bergman cyclization proved to be even more important with the discovery of enediyne "cytostatics", compounds able to cleave ... Georg Wittig and coworkers proposed that the formation of biphenyl via reactions of fluorobenzene and phenyllithium proceeded ...
However, it was later found that the correct structures were of sandwich compound type complexes and based on biphenyl not ... Hein created a mixture of compounds. He was able to produce what he called phenylmagnesium salts. Hein denoted them as: (C6H5) ...
"Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)". Toxtown.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 25 September 2017. "Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)". ... Volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, are organic compounds that can easily become vapors or gases. These compounds are released ... The contaminants include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semiVOCs and heavy ... Most compounds are hazardous air pollutants, so it is more common to be exposed by breathing in the air that is polluted. Some ...
In 1997, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), compounds common in transformers, hydraulic fluids, paint additives and ... Compounds from these pesticide residues find themselves in food items with metamidophos, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and diazinon ...
These chemicals included volatile organic compounds (VOCs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Trichloroethene and Vinyl ... A chemical that was improperly disposed of was polychlorinated biphenyls. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, or PCBs, are a liquid or ... such as volatile organic compounds or VOCs, which evaporate in the air. VOC's are organic compounds that become a gas ... toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/chemicals.php?id=31 "Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)"] Check ,url= value (help). Tox Town. ...
In sum, he isolated and studied 24 new chemical compounds, including toluene, biphenyl, nitrotoluene, cedrene, potassium ... hydroxide dihydrate, chromyl chloride, kumen, biphenyl, benzyl chloride, benzyl bromide, nitrotoluene, and menthene. In 1847 he ...
The compound is one of the benzopyrenes, formed by a benzene ring fused to pyrene, and is the result of incomplete combustion ... Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ... In 1933, BaP was determined to be the compound responsible for these cases, and its carcinogenicity was demonstrated when skin ... The ubiquitous compound can be found in coal tar, tobacco smoke and many foods, especially grilled meats. The substance with ...
Biphenyl, an aromatic hydrocarbon, used alone or with diphenyl ether as a heat-transfer fluid; chemical formula, C6H5C6H5. It ... polychlorinated biphenyl. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). , any of a class of organohalogen compounds prepared by the reaction ... simplest organic, aromatic hydrocarbon and parent compound of numerous important aromatic compounds. Benzene is a colourless ... Biphenyl, also called Diphenyl, an aromatic hydrocarbon, used alone or with diphenyl ether as a heat-transfer fluid; chemical ...
Structure-activity relationships of phenylcyclohexene and biphenyl antitubulin compounds against plant and mammalian cells.. [D ... Structure-activity relationships for PCHs and biphenyl AC-ring analogues of colchicine (e.g., 2,3,4,4-tetramethoxy-2-methyl-1 ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical ... In this paper we compare the elimination kinetics of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into ... Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and ... for many compounds as persistent hydrophilic compounds may be released into sweat while persistent lipophilic compounds may be ...
... processes and intermediates for preparing such compounds and methods of using such compounds to treat pulmonary disorders. ... The compounds of formula I are muscarinic receptor antagonists. The invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions ... This invention provides compounds of formula I: wherein a, b, c, d, m, n, p, s, t, Ar 1 , R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 6 , R 7 , R ... Biphenyl compounds useful as muscarinic receptor antagonists CN1930125B (en) 2004-03-11. 2010-07-21. 施万制药. Biphenyl compounds ...
Our ability to provide a voice for scientists and engineers and to advance science depends on the support from individuals like you.. Give. ...
... ... Organochlorine compounds in Lake Superior: Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation in the aquatic food web. ...
The compounds are useful in the treatment of hepatitis C virus. ... The invention provides compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 , R ... WO2010094977A1 - Novel biphenyl compounds useful for the treatment of hepatitis c - Google Patents. Novel biphenyl compounds ... 150000001875 compounds Chemical class 0.000 claims abstract description 169 * 238000003786 synthesis Methods 0.000 claims ... FQDIYLIZBIZMML-UHFFFAOYSA-N C(CC)S(=O)(=O)N1CCN(CC1)N=[N+]=[N-] Chemical compound data:image/svg+xml;base64, ...
Catecholamines, Serotonin, and Related Compounds on Raptor Biphenyl Catecholamines, Serotonin, and Related Compounds on Raptor ... raptor biphenyl. , catecholamine. , serotonin. , dopamine metabolite. , serotonin metabolite. , biogenic amine. , raptor. , ...
Compound I, biphenyl; compound II, 23DHBP; compound III, HPDA; compound IV, 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate; compound V, benzoic ... acid; compound VI, ethylbenzene (toluene); compound VII, 3-ethylcatechol (3-methylcatechol); compound VIII, HOHD; compound IX, ... the biphenyl dioxygenase gene encoding the first step in the biphenyl/PCB degradation pathway is induced by both biphenyl and ... The following compounds were used as inducers: sodium succinate (0.2%), sodium benzoate (0.2%), biphenyl (0.2%), benzene, ...
Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and ... Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and ... Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and ... Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Biphenyl, stilboestrol and phenolphthalein in the rat: molecular weight, polarity and ...
Rapid and Accurate LC-MS/MS Analysis of Nicotine and Related Compounds in Urine Using Raptor Biphenyl LC Columns and MS- ... Nicotine-Related Compounds in Urine on Raptor Biphenyl by LC-MS/MS. ... Nicotine-Related Compounds in Urine on Raptor Biphenyl by LC-MS/MS ... Raptor Biphenyl EXP cartridges 5 mm, 2.1 mm ID, 5 µm (cat.# 930950252). ...
Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are chemicals produced by human activity and are found in plastics used in many consumer ... PBBs are mixtures of brominated biphenyl compounds known as congeners.. In the United States, manufacturing of PBBs was stopped ... ToxFAQs™ for Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs). Spanish: Bifenilos Polibromados. PDF Versionpdf icon[54.6 KB] This fact sheet ... Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are chemicals produced by human activity and are found in plastics used in many consumer ...
PBBs are mixtures of brominated biphenyl compounds known as congeners. In the United States, manufacturing of PBBs was stopped ... Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are manufactured chemicals. They are added to the plastics used to make products like computer ... PBBs are mixtures of brominated biphenyl compounds known as congeners. In the United States, manufacturing of PBBs was stopped ... Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are manufactured chemicals. They are added to the plastics used to make products like computer ...
Patent application title: CRYSTALLINE FORM OF A BIPHENYL COMPOUND. Inventors: Pierre-Jean Colson Miroslav Rapta Robert S. Chao ... The resulting precipitate was dried to provide the title compound as a white solid (28.5 mg, 85% yield). Example 3 Biphenyl-2- ... Patent application title: CRYSTALLINE FORM OF A BIPHENYL COMPOUND. Inventors: Robert S. Chao (Santa Clara, CA, US) Robert S. ... Process for preparing biphenyl imidazole compounds. Top Inventors for class "Drug, bio-affecting and body treating compositions ...
... biphenyl compounds, processes and intermediates for preparing such biphenyl compounds and methods of using such biphenyl ... coupling a compound of formula IV with a compound of formula V; or [0040] (c) reacting a compound of formula VI with a compound ... 0178] Compounds of formula X can be prepared by reacting an isocyanate compound of formula XI: ##STR00015## with a compound of ... 0181] Compounds of formula IV can be prepared by reacting a compound of formula II with a compound of formula XIII: OHC(CH2)mCH ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls / this publication represents the views and expert opinions of two IARC ... Biphenyl. by Boehncke, A , Koennecker, G , Mangelsdorf, Inge , Wibbertmann, A , World Health Organization , International ... Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs : health and safety guide. by World Health Organization , International Programme on Chemical ...
Results of search for su:{Biphenyl compounds.} and available No results found! No results found for that in WHO HQ Library ...
Here, biphenyl compounds were conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to enhance the activity of small molecular inhibitors ... The increase in the number of conjugated biphenyl compounds resulted in increased inhibitory activity. The highest IC50 value ... Conjugation of biphenyl groups with poly(ethylene glycol) to enhance inhibitory effects on the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint ... Conjugation of biphenyl groups with poly(ethylene glycol) to enhance inhibitory effects on the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are serious environmental pollutants that threaten both the natural ecosystem and human health ... Gilbert ES, Crowley DE (1997) Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain ... Master ER, Mohn WW (2001) Induction of bphA, encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, in two polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacteria ... a key transcriptional regulator of bph genes involved in polychlorinated biphenyl/biphenyl degradation in Pseudomonas sp. ...
1997) Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1b. Appl. Environ. ... A total of 177 biphenyl-degrading strains were subsequently isolated and characterized by their ability to grow on biphenyl in ... Bacteria with the ability to mineralize biphenyl are widespread in soils and sediments. The enzymes involved in the biphenyl ... Evaporated water and consumed biphenyl were periodically replaced. As a control, biphenyl crystals were incubated in liquid ...
3. Chemical Compound - Polychlorinated Biphenyl. PCBs in addition took part in transformers and capacitors, oil-based paint, ...
METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured selected organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls ... Organic-compounds; Organo-chlorine-compounds; Polychlorinated-biphenyls; Agricultural-workers; Questionnaires ... METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured selected organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (p, p-DDE, p, p-DDT, o, p-DDT, beta- ...
Biphenyl Compounds. *Biphenyl Compounds: therapeutic use. *Carbolines. *Carbolines: therapeutic use. *Dose-Response ...
Biphenyl Compounds. *Cardiovascular Agents. *Cardiovascular System. *Chemical Actions and Uses. *Combined Inhibitors of CYP3A4 ... 2-Butyl-4-chloro-1-{[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl}-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methanol ... 2-N-Butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]imidazole ...
  • Many members of the sphingomonad genus isolated from different geological areas can degrade a wide variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. (nih.gov)
  • Halogenated hydrocarbons, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are removed from aqueous media including waste water from chemical manufacturing operations by contacting the aqueous media with an effective amount of a polyolefinic microporous. (google.es)
  • Halogenated hydrocarbons, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are removed from aqueous media including waste water from chemical manufacturing operations by contacting the aqueous media with an effective amount of a polyolefinic microporous adsorbent, preferably in the form of a filter or cartridge. (google.es)
  • TCDD binding to the AH receptor induces the cytochrome P450 1A class of enzymes which function to break down toxic compounds, e.g., carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons such as benzo (a) pyrene (but making many of them more toxic in the process). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrocarbons are those organic compounds that contribute in the photochemical production of the ozone (Hester & Harrison 1995). (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Through the program, many priority substances, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), other flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds (including PFOS and PFCAs), siloxanes, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA) and metals, have been measured to provide environmental data for risk assessment and risk management decision making. (gc.ca)
  • Fava F, Bertin L, Fedi S, Zannoni D (2003) Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin-enhanced solubilization and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in two aged contaminated soils. (springer.com)
  • Gilbert ES, Crowley DE (1997) Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. (springer.com)
  • Golyshin PM, Fredrickson HL, Giuliano L, Rothmel R, Timmis KN, Yakimov MM (1999) Effect of novel biosurfactants on biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by pure and mixed bacterial cultures. (springer.com)
  • The evidence in the literature suggests that PCDD/F compounds are subject to biodegradation in the environment as part of the natural chlorine cycle. (igem.org)
  • This diagram illustrates combination patterns of reaction modules for biodegradation of aromatic compounds, consisting of three main types of ring dihydroxylation modules, followed by meta- or ortho-cleavage modules, together with an optional preprocessing module for converting methyl group to carboxyl group on the aromatic ring. (genome.jp)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls / this publication represents the views and expert opinions of two IARC Working Groups on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, which met in Lyon, 10-15 October 1977 and 6-13 June 1978. (who.int)
  • A total of 177 biphenyl-degrading strains were subsequently isolated and characterized by their ability to grow on biphenyl in liquid culture and to accumulate a yellow meta cleavage product when they were sprayed with dihydroxybiphenyl. (asm.org)
  • In the forth step BphD, a hydrolase, hydrolyzes the ring meta-cleavage yellow compound(HOPDA) to chlorobenzoic acid and 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate. (igem.org)
  • Recognition of the ability of microorganisms to degrade these hazardous compounds opened up a new vista for the microbially mediated remediation of polluted environments. (wiley.com)
  • The invention provides a crystalline 1,2-ethanedisulfonic acid salt of biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-[2-(2-chloro-4-{[(R)-2-hydroxy-2-(8-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-5 -yl)ethylamino]methyl}-5-methoxyphenylcarbamoyl)ethyl]piperidin-4-yl ester or a solvate thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The invention provides crystalline forms of biphenyl-2-ylcarbamic acid 1-(2-{[4-(4-carbamoylpiperidin-1-ylmethyl)benzoyl]methylamino}ethyl)piper- idin-4-yl. (patents.com)
  • They have used it to destroy samples of trichloroethylene, a solvent that pollutes ground water, and salicylic acid, a harmless compound but one which is chemically similar to some pollutants. (newscientist.com)
  • Residues in livers of acid- 14 C-bifenthrin treated hens consisted mainly of hydroxymethyl-bifenthrin and fatty acid conjugates (palmitate, oleate), TFP acid 1 , hydroxymethyl TFP acid and the parent compound. (inchem.org)
  • Studies suggest that for many these compounds, low-level exposures in the womb disrupt development of the brain or reproductive systems. (sfgate.com)
  • This packing pattern is maintained when we extend the aromatic groups by attaching flexible aliphatic chains, which yields compounds with thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline properties. (nature.com)
  • However, associations with fetal motor activity measures were more consistent and robust: higher concentrations of 7 of 10 organochlorine compounds were positively associated with one of more measures of more frequent and more vigorous fetal motor activity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In this research study, a strain of Cunninghamella elegans (UCP 596) was isolated from mangrove sediments to metabolize an organosulfur dibenzothiophene (DBT) compound in the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mM and transform to DBT sulfone (DBT-5-dioxide), followed by dibenzothiophene 5,5-dioxide and 2-hydroxybiphenyl metabolites, thus suggesting the use of the "4S" metabolic pathway. (intechopen.com)
  • A microcosm enrichment approach was employed to isolate bacteria which are representative of long-term biphenyl-adapted microbial communities. (asm.org)
  • Microbial transformations of antitumor compounds. (straininfo.net)
  • Source: Kensuke Furukawa and Hidehiko Fujihara, Microbial Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Biochemical and Molecular Features , Journal of bioscience and bioengineering , Vol. 105, No. 5, 433-449. (igem.org)
  • In response, research is currently underway to determine methods to eliminate persistent compounds from the body in order to preclude and overcome health problems [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The present invention relates to methods for preventing damage to excitable cells following ischemic by administering to a patient who is undergoing or who has undergone an ischemic event an effective amount of a compound which increases a transient potassium (K+) conductance in the excitable cells of. (google.es)
  • A process of forming compounds of formula (I) comprising the steps of addition of an amino compound H2NR to a compound of formula (II) followed by cyclization, isomerization and hydrolysis. (sumobrain.com)
  • Growth of microorganisms was stimulated by incubating soil and sediment samples from polluted and nonpolluted sites with biphenyl crystals. (asm.org)
  • Here, biphenyl compounds were conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to enhance the activity of small molecular inhibitors. (rsc.org)
  • Ephedrine as a lead compound for the development of new DPP-IV inhibitors. (bireme.br)
  • Key enzymes of the biphenyl-PCB degradation pathway have been found to be ubiquitous in the environment ( 17 , 51 , 52 ). (asm.org)
  • In the second step of the upper pathway BphB enzymes catalyzes the conversion of dihidrodiol to dihydroxy compound. (igem.org)
  • We isolated a gram-positive biphenyl/PCB degrader, Rhodococcus sp. (asm.org)
  • This invention is directed to pyrrole, pyrazole, imidazole, triazole, and morpholine based selective androgen receptor degrader (SARD) compounds including heterocyclic anilide rings and their synthetic precursors, R-isomers, and non-hydr. (sumobrain.com)
  • There are provided Tissue Transglutaminase (TG2) inhibitor compounds, and compositions and methods of use thereof for the prevention or treatment of a cancer. (sumobrain.com)
  • It is chlorinated industrially to a mixture, polychlorinated biphenyl ( q.v. ), known as PCB, which is now much restricted because of its toxicity but formerly was used in paper coatings and as a lubricant and a heat-transfer fluid. (britannica.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls are a mixture of chlorinated compounds, often an oily liquid or solid. (csmonitor.com)