Islets of Langerhans
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated
Drug Administration Schedule
Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins
Impact of insulin antibodies on insulin aspart pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after 12-week treatment with multiple daily injections of biphasic insulin aspart 30 in patients with type 1 diabetes. (1/17)OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of insulin antibodies on insulin aspart pharmaco-kinetics and pharmacodynamics after 12-week multiple daily injections of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (30% fast-acting and 70% protamine-crystallised insulin aspart, BIAsp30) in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Twenty-three patients (8 women, 15 men) aged 44.8 (20.6-62.5) years (median and range) with diabetes duration of 19.5 (1.6-44.6) years and haemoglobin (Hb)A(1C) of 9.2% (8.1-12.3%) participated in the study, which consisted of 12-week treatment with multiple injections of BIAsp30. At the end of the treatment period, all patients attended two 24-h profile days 1 week apart for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments. HbA(1C) and insulin antibodies were also determined. RESULTS: Patients were stratified into two groups depending on whether the level of insulin binding to insulin antibodies was below or above 75% (moderate vs high (%, median and range): 62 (15-74) vs 80 (75-89)). High levels of insulin antibodies resulted in about threefold increase in AUC((0 - 24 h)) (the area under the concentration-time curve during 24 h) for total insulin aspart (analysis of variance, P < 0.05). The differences in free insulin aspart pharmacokinetics, insulin pharmacodynamics and HbA(1C) were not statistically significant between patients with different levels of insulin antibodies. Total daily insulin dosage was significantly lower in patients with high than moderate levels of insulin antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: In type 1 diabetic patients, high levels of circulating insulin antibodies result in elevated total, but not free, insulin aspart profiles. Consistent with the finding of similar insulin pharmacodynamics, the long-term glycaemic control is not significantly different between patients with different levels of insulin antibodies. (+info)
When glycaemic targets can no longer be achieved with basal insulin in type 2 diabetes, can simple intensification with a modern premixed insulin help? Results from a subanalysis of the PRESENT study. (2/17)(+info)
Safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (NovoMix 30) when switching from human premix insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes: subgroup analysis from the 6-month IMPROVE observational study. (3/17)(+info)
Biphasic insulin aspart 30/70: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics compared with once-daily biphasic human insulin and Basal-bolus therapy. (4/17)(+info)
Intensification to biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (BIAsp 30, NovoMix 30) can improve glycaemic control in patients treated with basal insulins: a subgroup analysis of the IMPROVE observational study. (5/17)AIMS: The international IMPROVE observational study investigated the safety profile and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (BIAsp 30) in the routine treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. We present analyses for the subgroup of patients who switched from basal insulin to BIAsp 30. METHODS: Patients in routine care who started insulin therapy with or switched to BIAsp 30 from existing insulin regimens were eligible for this 26-week study. This analysis includes only patients previously treated with basal insulin. Outcomes including adverse events, hypoglycaemic events and glycaemic profile were recorded from patients' notes, recall and diaries. RESULTS: Of the 748 patients included (age 59.7+/-11.8 years, diabetes duration 11.4+/-7.3 years, baseline HbA1c 9.1+/-1.6%), 497 were previously using human neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin and 245 analogue basal insulin. Overall, major and minor hypoglycaemia rates decreased from baseline to final visit (major: 0.171 to 0.011; minor: 9.70 to 5.89 events/patient-year) and were similar between the subgroups. HbA1c and fasting blood glucose were significantly reduced from baseline (NPH prestudy: -1.6%, -2.4 mmol/l; analogue basal prestudy: -1.8%, -2.4 mmol/l), as was postprandial blood glucose, with 33.8% of patients achieving the HbA1c target < 7% without hypoglycaemia. Insulin dose increased slightly from prestudy (0.33+/-0.21 U/kg), baseline (0.40+/-0.20 U/kg) to final visit (0.52+/-0.26 U/kg); most patients (76%) followed a twice-daily regimen at final visit. Body weight did not change significantly and treatment satisfaction increased. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on basal insulins may improve their glycaemic control by intensification to BIAsp 30 therapy. (+info)
Practical guidance on intensification of insulin therapy with BIAsp 30: a consensus statement. (6/17)(+info)
Continuous glucose monitoring with Humalog Mix 25 versus Humalog Mix 50, twice daily: a comparative pilot study -results from the Jikei-EValuation of insulin Lispro mixture on pharmacodynamics and glycemic VariancE (J-EVOLVE) study. (7/17)(+info)
Switching from human insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30 treatment gets more patients with type 2 diabetes to reach target glycosylated hemoglobin < 7%: the results from the China cohort of the PRESENT study. (8/17)BACKGROUND: The clinical importance of glycaemic control in patients with diabetes has been well established. This study aimed to explore twice-daily biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) for insulin initiation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had poor glycaemic control with human insulins (HIs). We use data from a Chinese cohort of the PRESENT study. METHODS: In the 3-month study, Chinese subjects with T2DM started insulin therapy with BIAsp 30 in routine care. Glycaemic control was measured by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1C)), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and posting plasma glucose (PPG). The safety assessment included hypoglycaemia and other adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 1989 subjects previously treated with His were switched to BIAsp 30 for 3-month treatment. Mean HbA(1C), FPG and PPG were significantly improved after the therapy. The overall rate of hypoglycaemia decreased at the end of the trial except for the patients previously treated with long-acting insulin. Most of the events were minor and diurnal hypoglycaemia. Only one serious adverse drug reaction (SADR), a local hypersensitivity, was reported. The majority of the patients (> or = 96.7%) and physicians (> or = 84.7%) were either satisfied or very satisfied with the treatment using BIAsp 30 compared with previous HI therapy. CONCLUSION: The BIAsp 30 treatment improved both glycaemic control and patients' satisfaction without increasing hypoglycaemia in T2DM subjects inadequately controlled by His. (+info)
Biphasic insulins are a type of insulin that are used to manage blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. They are a combination of two different types of insulin, usually insulin lispro or insulin aspart, which are released at different rates to provide a more sustained and balanced effect on blood sugar levels. There are several different types of biphasic insulins available, including biphasic human insulin, biphasic insulin aspart, and biphasic insulin lispro. These insulins are typically taken once or twice a day, depending on the specific formulation and the individual's needs. Biphasic insulins are often used in combination with other diabetes medications, such as oral medications or long-acting insulin, to help manage blood sugar levels throughout the day and night. They are typically prescribed by a healthcare provider and should be used under their guidance.
Insulin Aspart is a type of insulin that is used to treat diabetes. It is a fast-acting insulin that is similar to the insulin that the body produces naturally. It is typically used to control blood sugar levels after meals, as it begins to work within 15 minutes of injection and peaks within 1 to 2 hours. Insulin Aspart is available in prefilled pens and cartridges, as well as in vials for injection. It is usually given by subcutaneous injection, which means it is injected just under the skin. Insulin Aspart is an important part of diabetes management and can help people with diabetes maintain healthy blood sugar levels.
Insulin, Isophane is a long-acting insulin that is used to treat diabetes mellitus. It is a suspension of insulin in a solution that contains protamine, which helps to slow down the absorption of insulin into the bloodstream. This allows for a more sustained release of insulin over a longer period of time, which can help to regulate blood sugar levels and prevent high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) episodes. Insulin, Isophane is typically given by injection and is often used in combination with other types of insulin to provide a more balanced insulin regimen. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when using insulin, Isophane and to monitor blood sugar levels regularly.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream. It helps the body's cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy or store it for later use. Insulin is essential for maintaining normal blood sugar levels and preventing conditions such as diabetes. In the medical field, insulin is used to treat diabetes and other conditions related to high blood sugar levels. It is typically administered through injections or an insulin pump.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.
In the medical field, a receptor, insulin refers to a protein molecule found on the surface of cells in the body that binds to the hormone insulin and allows it to exert its effects. Insulin receptors are primarily located on the liver, muscle, and adipose (fat) cells, and play a critical role in regulating glucose metabolism. When insulin binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling pathways that promote the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into the cells, where it can be used for energy production or stored as glycogen or fat. Insulin also stimulates the synthesis of proteins and lipids, and inhibits the breakdown of these molecules. Abnormalities in insulin receptor function can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by high blood glucose levels due to either insufficient insulin production or insulin resistance. In addition, mutations in the insulin receptor gene can cause rare genetic disorders such as Donohue syndrome and Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, which are characterized by insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities.
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. It is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for about 90-95% of all cases. In type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, the pancreas may not produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, leading to high blood sugar levels. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes may include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, slow-healing sores, and unexplained weight loss. If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, nerve damage, and vision loss. Treatment for type 2 diabetes typically involves lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medication to help regulate blood sugar levels. In some cases, insulin therapy may be necessary.
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated (HbA1c) is a type of hemoglobin that is produced when hemoglobin A (the most common form of hemoglobin in red blood cells) combines with glucose in the blood. HbA1c is a measure of a person's average blood glucose level over the past 2-3 months. It is often used as a diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus, as well as a way to monitor blood sugar control in people who have already been diagnosed with the condition. A high HbA1c level indicates poor blood sugar control, while a normal or low HbA1c level suggests good blood sugar control.
Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas and helps regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, the body needs to produce more insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels, which can lead to high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and eventually type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats. It can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome. Symptoms of insulin resistance may include fatigue, frequent urination, increased thirst, and blurred vision. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and may also include medication to help regulate blood sugar levels.
Insulin receptor substrate proteins (IRS proteins) are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in the insulin signaling pathway. They are intracellular proteins that are recruited to the insulin receptor upon binding of insulin to the receptor's extracellular domain. Once recruited, IRS proteins undergo a series of phosphorylation events that activate downstream signaling pathways, including the PI3K/Akt pathway and the Ras/MAPK pathway. These pathways regulate various cellular processes, such as glucose metabolism, cell growth, and survival. Mutations in IRS proteins have been implicated in several diseases, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of IRS proteins is important for developing new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.
Insulin, Long-Acting is a type of insulin medication that is used to treat diabetes. It is called "long-acting" because it works slowly and provides a steady supply of insulin to the body over a period of several hours to up to 24 hours. This helps to keep blood sugar levels stable and prevent high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) episodes. There are several types of long-acting insulin medications, including: * Insulin glargine (Lantus) * Insulin detemir (Levemir) * Insulin degludec (Tresiba) These medications are usually injected once or twice a day, depending on the type and the individual's needs. They are often used in combination with other types of insulin, such as rapid-acting insulin, to provide a more complete coverage of the daily insulin needs.
Insulin antibodies are proteins that are produced by the immune system in response to insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. These antibodies can interfere with the action of insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) and other complications of diabetes. Insulin antibodies can be detected in the blood through laboratory tests, and their presence can be a sign of type 1 diabetes, in which the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Insulin antibodies can also be present in people with type 2 diabetes, although they are less common in this condition. In some cases, the presence of insulin antibodies can be a sign of an autoimmune disorder, in which the immune system attacks the body's own tissues. Treatment for insulin antibodies may involve medications to suppress the immune system or to increase insulin production, as well as lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise to help manage blood sugar levels.
Insulin antagonists are drugs that block or reduce the effects of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. These drugs are used to treat type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the body becomes resistant to insulin and is unable to use it effectively. Insulin antagonists work by either inhibiting the production of insulin or blocking its receptors on cells, which prevents glucose from entering the cells and being used for energy. This leads to an increase in blood sugar levels, which can be harmful to the body if left untreated. Examples of insulin antagonists include sulfonylureas, meglitinides, and thiazolidinediones. These drugs are typically used in combination with other diabetes medications or lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, to help manage blood sugar levels and prevent complications associated with diabetes.
Sodium-hydrogen antiporter 3
Glossary of diabetes
List of drugs: Bi-Bo
Blood-injection-injury type phobia
Wnt signaling pathway
Regular insulin - Wikipedia
Biphasic insulin aspart 30 treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes poorly controlled on prior diabetes treatment: Results...
A 32-Week Randomized Comparison of Stepwise Insulin Intensification of Biphasic Insulin Aspart (BIAsp 30) Versus Basal-Bolus...
Effect of biotin on glucokinase activity, mRNA expression and insulin release in cultured beta-cells
Gαo Represses Insulin Secretion by Reducing Vesicular Docking in Pancreatic β-Cells | Diabetes | American Diabetes Association
WHO EMRO | Are insulin analogues an unavoidable necessity for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in developing countries? The...
Medicine Recommendations - Lancashire and South Cumbria Medicines Management Group
Cardichem 3.125mg Tab - Chemistonline.in
Temperature management - SPS - Specialist Pharmacy Service - The first stop for professional medicines advice
My Site - Appendix 6: Types of Insulin
The Relationship between Insulin Resistance and the Atherogenic Lipoprotein Phenotype - Enlighten Theses
Gigantism and Acromegaly - Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition
Insulin & oral treatment of Diabetes Mellitus (X) - Medatrio
Analgesic, Antipyretic, Muscle Relaxant - Janaushadhi Medicine's Reference
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Limited acute influences of electrical baroreceptor activation on insulin sensitivity and glucose delivery: a randomized,...
Search | African Index Medicus (AIM)
First Phase Insulin ~ Physiological Relevance?
BIG Search - National Genomics Data Center - BIG Search
Find Research outputs - Universitas Indonesia
The metabolic and psychological effects of an insulin regimen change - DiabetesontheNet
New York Drugs: Viagra effect registered shipping!
ophthalmic Tenders in Jharkhand
solid wire Tenders in Madhya Pradesh
US Patent Application for METHOD OF RESTORING THE INCRETIN EFFECT Patent Application (Application #20110034501 issued February...
The role of Chito-oligosaccharide in regulating ovarian germ stem cells function and restoring ovarian function in chemotherapy...
- Pertussis toxin uncoupling-based studies have shown that Gαi and Gαo can inhibit insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Yet it is unclear whether Gαi and Gαo operate through identical mechanisms and how these G-protein-mediated signals inhibit insulin secretion in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Our objective is to examine whether/how Gαo regulates islet development and insulin secretion in β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by pancreatic ß cells is biphasic. (bvsalud.org)
- Increased uncoupling protein-2 levels in beta-cells are associated with impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: mechanism of action. (shengsci.com)
- In pancreatic beta-cells, glucose metabolism signals insulin secretion by altering the cellular array of messenger molecules. (shengsci.com)
- First-phase insulin secretion: does it exist in real life? (blogspot.com)
- IN THE PAST THREE DECADES, the relevance of insulin secretion abnormalities in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus have been extensively debated, and a consensus has been reached that, to fulﬁll its pivotal role in regulating glucose metabolism, insulin secretion must not only be quantitatively appropriate, but also possess qualitative, dynamic features that optimize insulin action on target tissues. (blogspot.com)
- In particular, increasing emphasis has been placed on the importance of the so-called ﬁrst-phase insulin secretion to glucose homeostasis. (blogspot.com)
- Does a ﬁrst-phase insulin secretion really exist in in vivo physiology? (blogspot.com)
- The early surge in insulin concentration is capable of limiting the initial glucose excursion mainly through the prompt inhibition of endogenous glucose production, with the insulin mediated curtailment of glucagon secretion being particularly relevant. (blogspot.com)
- So let's put this together with the changes in insulin secretion and glucose levels in the progression of glucose intolerance through diabetes. (blogspot.com)
- Mostly I'm posting this because it is not always made clear that the FPIR is not physiologically relevant per se, but there seems to be a clear relationship between it's presence or absence in an intravenous glucose test and proper insulin secretion in response to a glucose load. (blogspot.com)
- The present invention also relates to methods of restoring the incretin effect, to restoring physiologic control of glucagon levels, to restoring first-phase insulin secretion, and to restoring the physiologic glucose-dependent insulin secretion. (justia.com)
- Insulin secretion is stimulated to greater extent by oral intake of glucose than by intravenous intake of glucose. (justia.com)
- This post-meal increase in insulin is referred to as first phase insulin secretion. (justia.com)
- A second phase of insulin secretion follows and is sustained until normal blood glucose levels are restored. (justia.com)
- Clinical observations reveal that patients with metabolic syndrome disorders such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and obesity are characterized by progressive reductions in the magnitude of first-phase insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and beta-cell dysfunction, creating a new pathogenic platform shared by all components of the metabolic syndrome. (justia.com)
- Joan Domingo-Espín J, Lindahl M, Nilsson-Wolanin O, Cushman S W, Stenkula K G, Lagerstedt J O. Dual Actions of Apolipoprotein A-I on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion and Insulin-Independent Peripheral Tissue Glucose Uptake Lead to Increased Heart and Skeletal Muscle Glucose Disposal. (lu.se)
- A recently completed study that compared two types of insulin for treating inadequately controlled type 2 patients showed that insulin degludec/insulin aspart produced fewer instances of hypoglycemia than biphasic insulin aspart 30. (diabeteshealth.com)
- The patients, divided into two groups, received twice-daily injections of either insulin degludec/insulin aspart or biphasic insulin aspart 30. (diabeteshealth.com)
- Novo Nordisk also manufactures biphasic insulin aspart 30, which it introduced in 2005. (diabeteshealth.com)
- Insulin degludec/insulin aspart users required smaller doses of their drug than the biphasic insulin aspart 30 users. (diabeteshealth.com)
- Are insulin analogues an unavoidable necessity for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in developing countries? (who.int)
- ABSTRACT Despite their reported benefits in terms of glycaemic control, insulin analogues are expensive for patients in developing countries. (who.int)
- RÉSUMÉ En dépit des avantages rapportés en termes de contrôle de la glycémie, les analogues de l'insuline sont coûteux pour les patients des pays en développement. (who.int)
- Among the new treatment regimens that have emerged, the development of rapid- and long-acting insulin analogues using recombinant DNA technology represents a major advance in the treatment of diabetes (Barrio Castellanos, 2005). (diabetesonthenet.com)
- In addition, the rapid-acting insulin analogues offer convenience as well as clinical benefits - they are injected immediately before a meal rather than 30-45 minutes in advance (Lepore et al, 2000). (diabetesonthenet.com)
- Modern pre-mixes manufactured using rapid-acting insulin analogues offer better postprandial control and are therefore replacing the traditional products (Garber, 2006). (diabetesonthenet.com)
- In addition, insulin glargine has a stable metabolic profile that more closely mimics the action of endogenous insulin (Naess et al, 2004). (diabetesonthenet.com)
- By Eli Lilly these include: Humulin R (REGULAR human insulin injection [rDNA origin]) is a short-acting insulin that has a relatively short duration of activity as compared with other insulins. (wikipedia.org)
- Humulin R Regular U-500 (Concentrated) insulin human injection, USP (rDNA Origin) is a stronger concentration (500 units/mL) of Humulin R. Humulin 70/30 (70% human insulin isophane suspension, 30% human insulin injection [rDNA origin]) is a mixture insulin. (wikipedia.org)
- It is an intermediate-acting insulin combined with the onset of action of Humulin Humulin 50/50 (50% human insulin isophane suspension, 50% human insulin injection [rDNA origin]) is a mixture insulin. (wikipedia.org)
- Manufactured by Novo Nordisk, insulin degludec/insulin aspart combines an ultra-long-lasting basal insulin with a rapid-acting insulin in a single injection. (diabeteshealth.com)
- It involves long-acting (basal) insulin, which is injected at night, and an additional bolus injection of short-acting insulin before each meal. (diabetesonthenet.com)
- its major disadvantage is that it causes a peak in plasma insulin concentration 1-2 hours after injection, unlike the short-lived prandial response seen in people without diabetes (Kumar and Clark, 1998). (diabetesonthenet.com)
- Like insulin degludec/insulin aspart, it is designed to perform as a long-lasting insulin that delivers good glycemic control while lowering the risk of hypoglycemic episodes. (diabeteshealth.com)
- Regular insulin, also known as neutral insulin and soluble insulin, is a type of short-acting medical insulin. (wikipedia.org)
- The interaction of the insulin into basal background insulin isophane with soluble insulin humulin m insuman comb biphasic analogue insulin is stable monitor closely. (familytreecounseling.com)
- However the first phase insulin response, hereinafter FPIR, is a non-physiologic phenomenon sometimes used to assess pancreatic function. (blogspot.com)
- Introduction: Intensive insulin therapy with multiple daily injections (MDI) gives better glycaemic control than conventional biphasic insulin regimen in children with type 1 Diabetes mellitus. (eurospe.org)
- Though MDI regimen is widely practiced in other countries, this is not so in Sri Lanka.Objective: Effect on glycaemic control and BMI of children with TIDM after the change of insulin regimen to MDI from twice daily insulin regime. (eurospe.org)
- In 2020, the combination of human insulin with insulin isophane was the 246th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 2 million prescriptions. (wikipedia.org)
- Insulin detemir is currently licensed as part of a basal-bolus insulin regimen only (Novo Nordisk, 2005). (diabetesonthenet.com)
- Humulin, one brand name for a group of biosynthetic human insulin products, is synthesized in a laboratory strain of Escherichia coli bacteria which has been genetically altered with recombinant DNA to produce biosynthetic human insulin. (wikipedia.org)
- Humulin R consists of zinc-insulin crystals dissolved in a clear fluid. (wikipedia.org)
- It is an intermediate-acting insulin combined with the onset of action of Humulin R. In UK these include: Actrapid Humulin S Insuman Rapid "insulin regular human (OTC) - Humulin R, Novolin R". Archived from the original on 16 December 2014. (wikipedia.org)
- Lipoatrophy in children, adolescents and adults with insulin pump treatment: Is there a beneficial effect of insulin glulisine? (auf-der-bult.de)
- McCormack and McElduff, 2004), such mixes do not closely match the profile of endogenous insulin and studies comparing them with a basal insulin and oral antidiabetic agent (OAD) combination have produced mixed findings (Janka et al, 2005). (diabetesonthenet.com)
- Non-insulin therapies are available to reduce endogenous gluconeogenesis or improve peripheral insulin sensitivity, e.g., metformin, sulfonylureas or thiazolidinediones (TZD). (justia.com)
- An alternative regimen to basal-bolus for people with type 2 diabetes is twice-daily pre-mixed insulin in which traditional short- or rapid-acting insulin and intermediate-acting basal insulin are combined in one syringe. (diabetesonthenet.com)
- The incretin effect is caused mainly by the two intestinal insulin-stimulating hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). (justia.com)
- We hypothesized that selective manipulation of baroreflex activity through electrical carotid sinus stimulation influences insulin sensitivity by changing muscular glucose delivery. (shengsci.com)
- In conclusion, acute changes in baroreceptor stimulation did not elicit significant changes in muscular glucose delivery and whole-body insulin sensitivity. (shengsci.com)
- This has led to the hypothesis that clustering of risk factors such as insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia, may be an indication of an underlying metabolic disorder which increases the risk for premature atherosclerosis. (gla.ac.uk)
- Other influences of the LDL subfraction profile were the activities of lipases and parameters indicative of the presence of insulin resistance. (gla.ac.uk)
- The CAD patients also demonstrated some features of insulin resistance, such as hyperinsulinaemic and hyperglycaemic response, both after the standardised fat meal as well as after a modified glucose meal carried in almost fat free yoghurt. (gla.ac.uk)
- Lipoprotein lipase activity is believed to be modulated by hormonal influence such as insulin and resistance of LPL to insulin may be responsible for the lower preheparin LPL documented in CAD patients. (gla.ac.uk)
- The prevalence of insulin resistance and the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype in Singapore may be higher than other population because of the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus. (gla.ac.uk)
- There were also ethnic differences in markers of insulin resistance such as fasting insulin and fasting glucose and these difference paralleled that seen in LDL-III concentration. (gla.ac.uk)
- Effects of pioglitazone on adipose tissue remodeling within the setting of obesity and insulin resistance. (shengsci.com)
- Obesity and dysfunctional energy partitioning can lead to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. (shengsci.com)
- It follows, that the metabolic disorders should be correctable by the treatment, or restoration, of the failing components of the underlying pathogenic platform of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. (justia.com)
- What is the relationship between the ﬁrst-phase insulin response to a brisk intravenous glucose challenge and the early insulin response following glucose ingestion? (blogspot.com)
- An increasing body of evidence indicates that the early insulin response following glucose ingestion plays a critical role in the maintenance of postprandial glucose homeostasis. (blogspot.com)
- Importantly, enhanced early insulin release is associated with improved overall glucose tolerance. (justia.com)
- First Phase Insulin ~ Physiological Relevance? (blogspot.com)
- This conﬁrms, under physiological conditions, the ﬁndings of the studies that assessed the metabolic relevance of the ﬁrst-phase insulin response to intravenous glucose. (blogspot.com)
- However, these therapies fail to restore first-phase insulin release or the incretin effect. (justia.com)
- The metabolic effects of GH are biphasic. (msdmanuals.com)
- Several hours later, more profound anti- insulin -like metabolic effects occur. (msdmanuals.com)
- Metabolic activity reaches a plateau 4 hours after its administration, remaining constant for 30 hours, whereas the time-action profile of traditional Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin shows a pronounced peak after 4-6 hours followed by a decline (Heinemann et al, 2000). (diabetesonthenet.com)
- The basal-bolus insulin regimen is the most common one for people with type 1 diabetes. (diabetesonthenet.com)
- Regular insulin is used for the long-term management of diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
- Although some of the patients in the study were already taking once or twice-daily injections of insulin, or were taking oral diabetes medications, the medications were failing to help them achieve adequate control over their blood sugars. (diabeteshealth.com)
- This study in Jordan aimed to compare the effectiveness and adverse events of premixed human insulin (BHI30) versus premixed insulin analogue (BIAsp30) in patients with type 2 diabetes. (who.int)
- However, the physiological significance of biphasic GSIS and its relationship to diabetes are not yet fully understood. (bvsalud.org)
- It is clear that even before diabetes, the acute insulin response is lacking which causes glucose levels to go higher prompting an increased but delayed insulin response. (blogspot.com)
- The last few years have seen several new developments in the treatment and management of diabetes, including new insulin formulations and delivery methods, simpler blood sugar tests and people with diabetes taking greater responsibility for the management of their condition (Naess and Eriksen, 2002). (diabetesonthenet.com)
- What are the effects of such insulin responses on glucose metabolism? (blogspot.com)
- In this article Phillip Pickstock describes a retrospective questionnaire analysis assessing the effect of an insulin regimen change on treatment satisfaction and general wellbeing. (diabetesonthenet.com)
- The incretin effect denominates the phenomenon that oral glucose elicits a higher insulin response than does intravenous glucose. (shengsci.com)
- This effect, which is called the incretin effect, is estimated to be responsible for more than half of the insulin response to glucose. (justia.com)
- The rapid and sizable increase in insulin release initiated by the incretin effect begins within two minutes of nutrient ingestion and continues for up to 15 minutes. (justia.com)
- GH initially exerts insulin -like effects, increasing glucose uptake in muscle and fat, stimulating amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in liver and muscle, and inhibiting lipolysis in adipose tissue. (msdmanuals.com)
- La présente étude en Jordanie visait à comparer l'efficacité de l'insuline humaine prémélangée (BHI30) à celle de l'analogue de l'insuline prémélangé (BIAsp30) ainsi que les événements indésirables pour deux substances chez des patients atteints de diabète de type 2. (who.int)
- In addition, insulin glargine's constant and peakless profile allows its flexible administration - whereas traditional insulins must be injected at bedtime - and it has a lower inter-subject variability than short-acting insulins, making accurate dosing and titration easier (Lepore et al, 2000). (diabetesonthenet.com)
- This is true, but even in the peer review literature that term seems to be misused to equate with the acute spike in insulin levels to a high oral glucose load. (blogspot.com)
- Risk Factors and Characteristics of Biphasic Anaphylaxis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 4]. (auf-der-bult.de)
- Given the very short time frames involved, and how there would be fewer complicating factors in assessing glucose and insulin levels, I'm surprised we don't hear more about this as a diagnostic measure. (blogspot.com)
- In a group of young Singaporean males, the relationship of plasma triglyceride with LDL-II failed to show a biphasic pattern but rather, increasing levels of plasma triglyceride was associated with decreasing levels of LDL-II. (gla.ac.uk)
- Beta-cell dysfunction is, in turn, characterized by its two contributing components: (1) the progressive impairment of insulin production, and (2) the progressive impairment of physiologic control of insulin release. (justia.com)
- However, both types of insulin were equally effective at controlling A1c's. (diabeteshealth.com)
- Diagnosis is clinical, by skull and hand x-rays, and by measurement of levels of growth hormone and insulin -like growth factor 1. (msdmanuals.com)
- You can click to enlarge but top to bottom are series of glucose, insulin and proinsulin responses to a standard OGTT, from left to right in normal, IGT, and four "stages" of T2 based on progressive fasting glucose levels. (blogspot.com)