The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Cunninghamellaceae, order MUCORALES. Some species cause systemic infections in humans.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
Functionalization of exogenous substances to prepare them for conjugation in PHASE II DETOXIFICATION. Phase I enzymes include CYTOCHROME P450 enzymes and some OXIDOREDUCTASES. Excess induction of phase I over phase II detoxification leads to higher levels of FREE RADICALS that can induce CANCER and other cell damage. Induction or antagonism of phase I detoxication is the basis of a number of DRUG INTERACTIONS.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC
The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
A macrolide antibiotic that is similar to ERYTHROMYCIN.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A non-steroidal ESTROGEN generated when soybean products are metabolized by certain bacteria in the intestines.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
A widely used industrial solvent.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
The Barberry plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The shrubs have spiny leaves.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).
Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A narcotic analgesic and antitussive. It is metabolized in the liver by ETHYLMORPHINE-N-DEMETHYLASE and used as an indicator of liver function.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.
An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.
A highly toxic compound used as a fungicide for treating seeds.
A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)
Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
An imperfect fungus that produces ochratoxins and contaminates EDIBLE GRAIN and coffee beans.
Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to an ethyl group.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. Members contain sesquiterpene thioalkaloids.
Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.
Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.
A short-acting benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. The common names of chokeberry or chokecherry are also used for some species of PRUNUS.
Substances used to obtain a lighter skin complexion or to treat HYPERPIGMENTATION disorders.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-LYSINE onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde and L-GLUTAMATE.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.
Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.
(S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield D-erythrose 4-phosphate and D-fructose phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain anemarans (POLYSACCHARIDES), hinokiresinol, mangiferin (a xanthone), and timosaponin (a steroidal saponin).
A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.

Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria. (1/3890)

Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria.  (+info)

Enantioselective inhibition of the biotransformation and pharmacological actions of isoidide dinitrate by diphenyleneiodonium sulphate. (2/3890)

1. We have shown previously that the D- and L- enantiomers of isoidide dinitrate (D-IIDN and L-IIDN) exhibit a potency difference for relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation in isolated rat aorta and that this is related to preferential biotransformation of the more potent enantiomer (D-IIDN). The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of the flavoprotein inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium sulphate (DPI), on the enantioselectivity of IIDN action. 2. In isolated rat aortic strip preparations, exposure to 0.3 microM DPI resulted in a 3.6 fold increase in the EC50 value for D-IIDN-induced relaxation, but had no effect on L-IIDN-induced relaxation. 3. Incubation of aortic strips with 2 microM D- or L-IIDN for 5 min resulted in significantly more D-isoidide mononitrate formed (5.0 +/- 1.5 pmol mg protein(-1)) than L-isoidide mononitrate (2.1 +/- 0.7 pmol mg protein(-1)) and this difference was abolished by pretreatment of tissues with 0.3 microM DPI. DPI had no effect on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity or GSH-dependent biotransformation of D- or L-IIDN in the 105,000 x g supernatant fraction of rat aorta. 4. Consistent with both the relaxation and biotransformation data, treatment of tissues with 0.3 microM DPI significantly inhibited D-IIDN-induced cyclic GMP accumulation, but had no effect on L-IIDN-induced cyclic GMP accumulation. 5. In the intact animal, 2 mg kg(-1) DPI significantly inhibited the pharmacokinetic and haemodynamic properties of D-IIDN, but had no effect L-IIDN. 6. These data suggest that the basis for the potency difference for relaxation by the two enantiomers is preferential biotransformation of D-IIDN to NO, by an enzyme that is inhibited by DPI. Given that DPI binds to and inhibits NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, the data are consistent with a role for the cytochromes P450-NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase system in this enantioselective biotransformation process.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 determines susceptibility to 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced lymphomas. (3/3890)

CYP1B1-null mice, created by targeted gene disruption in embryonic stem cells, were born at the expected frequency from heterozygous matings with no observable phenotype, thus establishing that CYP1B1 is not required for mouse development. CYP1B1 was not detectable in cultured embryonic fibroblast (EF) or in different tissues, such as lung, of the CYP1B1-null mouse treated with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin whereas the equivalent wild-type EF cells express basal and substantial inducible CYP1B1 and lung expresses inducible CYP1B1. CYP1A1 is induced to far higher levels than CYP1B1 in liver, kidney, and lung in wild-type mice and is induced to a similar extent in CYP1B1-null mice. 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) was toxic in wild-type EFs that express CYP1B1 but not CYP1A1. These cells effectively metabolized DMBA, consistent with CYP1B1 involvement in producing the procarcinogenic 3,4-dihydrodiol as a major metabolite, whereas CYP1B1-null EF showed no significant metabolism and were resistant to DMBA-mediated toxicity. When wild-type mice were administered high levels of DMBA intragastrically, 70% developed highly malignant lymphomas whereas only 7.5% of CYP1B1-null mice had lymphomas. Skin hyperplasia and tumors were also more frequent in wild-type mice. These results establish that CYP1B1, located exclusively at extrahepatic sites, mediates the carcinogenicity of DMBA. Surprisingly, CYP1A1, which has a high rate of DMBA metabolism in vitro, is not sufficient for this carcinogenesis, which demonstrates the importance of extrahepatic P450s in determining susceptibility to chemical carcinogens and validates the search for associations between P450 expression and cancer risk in humans.  (+info)

Microbial desulfurization of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (4/3890)

Sulfur removal from petroleum is important from the standpoint of the global environment because the combustion of sulfur compounds leads to the production of sulfur oxides, which are the source of acid rain. As the regulations for sulfur in fuels become more stringent, the existing chemical desulfurizations are coming inadequate for the "deeper desulfurization" to produce lower-sulfur fuels without new and innovative processes. Biodesulfurization is rising as one of the candidates. Several microorganisms were found to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT), a representative of the organic sulfur compounds in petroleum, forming a sulfur-free compound, 2-hydroxybiphenyl. They are promising as biocatalysts in the microbial desulfurization of petroleum because without assimilation of the carbon content, they remove only sulfur from the heterocyclic compounds which is refractory to conventional chemical desulfurization. Both enzymological and molecular genetic studies are now in progress for the purpose of obtaining improved desulfurization activity of organisms. The genes involved in the sulfur-specific DBT desulfurization were identified and the corresponding enzymes have been investigated. From the practical point of view, it has been proved that the microbial desulfurization proceeds in the presence of high concentrations of hydrocarbons, and more complicated DBT analogs are also desulfurized by the microorganisms. This review outlines the progress in the studies of the microbial desulfurization from the basic and practical point of view.  (+info)

Studies on cytochrome P-450-mediated bioactivation of diclofenac in rats and in human hepatocytes: identification of glutathione conjugated metabolites. (5/3890)

The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac causes a rare but potentially fatal hepatotoxicity that may be associated with the formation of reactive metabolites. In this study, three glutathione (GSH) adducts, namely 5-hydroxy-4-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac (M1), 4'-hydroxy-3'-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac (M2), and 5-hydroxy-6-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac (M3), were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of bile from Sprague-Dawley rats injected i.p. with a single dose of diclofenac (200 mg/kg). These adducts presumably were formed via hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-catalyzed oxidation of diclofenac to reactive benzoquinone imines that were trapped by GSH conjugation. In support of this hypothesis, M1, M2, and M3 were generated from diclofenac in incubations with rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH and GSH. Increases in adduct formation were observed when incubations were performed with liver microsomes from phenobarbital- or dexamethasone-treated rats. Adduct formation was inhibited by polyclonal antibodies against CYP2B, CYP2C, and CYP3A (40-50% inhibition at 5 mg of IgG/nmol of CYP) but not by an antibody against CYP1A. Maximal inhibition was obtained when the three inhibitory antibodies were used in a cocktail fashion (70-80% inhibition at 2.5 mg of each IgG/nmol of CYP). These data suggest that diclofenac undergoes biotransformation to reactive metabolites in rats and that CYP isoforms of the 2B, 2C, and 3A subfamilies are involved in this bioactivation process. With respect to CYP2C isoforms, rat hepatic CYP2C7 and CYP2C11 were implicated as mediators of the bioactivation based on immunoinhibition studies using antibodies specific to CYP2C7 and CYP2C11. Screening for GSH adducts also was carried out in human hepatocyte cultures containing diclofenac, and M1, M2, and M3 again were detected. It is possible, therefore, that reactive benzoquinone imines may be formed in vivo in humans and contribute to diclofenac-mediated hepatic injury.  (+info)

Oxidative bioactivation of the lactol prodrug of a lactone cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. (6/3890)

The lactol derivative of a lactone cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (DFU) was evaluated in vivo and in vitro for its potential suitability as a prodrug. DFU-lactol was found to be 10 to 20 times more soluble than DFU in a variety of aqueous vehicles. After administration of DFU-lactol at 20 mg kg-1 p.o. in rats, a Cmax of 7.5 microM DFU was reached in the plasma. After oral administration, the ED50s of DFU-lactol in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and lipopolysaccharide-induced pyresis assays in rats are comparable with the ED50s observed when dosing with DFU. Incubations of DFU-lactol with rat and human hepatocytes demonstrated that the oxidation of DFU-lactol can be mediated by liver enzymes and that a competing pathway is direct glucuronidation of the DFU-lactol hydroxyl group. Assays with subcellular fractions from rat liver indicated that most of the oxidation of DFU-lactol occurs in the cytosolic fraction and requires NAD(P)+. Human liver cytosol can also support the oxidation of DFU-lactol to DFU when NAD(P)+ is added to the incubations. Fractionation of human liver cytosolic proteins showed that at least three enzymes are capable of efficiently effecting the oxidation of DFU-lactol to DFU. Incubations with commercially available dehydrogenases suggest that alcohol and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are involved in this oxidative process. These data together suggest that lactols may represent useful prodrugs for lactone-containing drugs.  (+info)

The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor fluvastatin: effect on human cytochrome P-450 and implications for metabolic drug interactions. (7/3890)

Fluvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, was metabolized by human liver microsomes to 5-hydroxy-, 6-hydroxy-, and N-deisopropyl-fluvastatin. Total metabolite formation was biphasic with apparent Km values of 0.2 to 0.7 and 7.9 to 50 microM and intrinsic metabolic clearance rates of 1.4 to 4 and 0.3 to 1.5 ml/h/mg microsomal protein for the high and low Km components, respectively. Several enzymes, but mainly CYP2C9, catalyzed fluvastatin metabolism. Only CYP2C9 inhibitors such as sulfaphenazole inhibited the formation of both 6-hydroxy- and N-deisopropyl-fluvastatin. 5-Hydroxy-fluvastatin formation was reduced by compounds that are inhibitors of CYP2C9, CYP3A, or CYP2C8. Fluvastatin in turn inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed tolbutamide and diclofenac hydroxylation with Ki values of 0.3 and 0.5 microM, respectively. For CYP2C8-catalyzed 6alpha-hydroxy-paclitaxel formation the IC50 was 20 microM and for CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A catalyzed reactions, no IC50 could be determined up to 100 microM fluvastatin. All three fluvastatin metabolites were also formed by recombinant CYP2C9, whereas CYP1A1, CYP2C8, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 produced only 5-hydroxy-fluvastatin. Km values were approximately 1, 2.8, and 7.1 microM for CYP2C9, CYP2C8, and CYP3A, respectively. No difference in fluvastatin metabolism was found between the CYP2C9R144 and CYP2C9C144 alleles, suggesting the absence of polymorphic fluvastatin metabolism by these alleles. CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and CYP3A5 did not produce detectable amounts of any metabolite. This data indicates that several human cytochrome P-450 enzymes metabolize fluvastatin with CYP2C9 contributing 50-80%. Any coadministered drug would therefore only partially reduce the metabolic clearance of fluvastatin; therefore, the likelihood for serious metabolic drug interactions is expected to be minimal.  (+info)

Rapid liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry-based screening procedures for studies on the biotransformation of drug candidates. (8/3890)

The accelerated pace of contemporary drug discovery and development in the pharmaceutical industry has generated increasing demands for early information on the metabolic fate of candidate drugs to guide the selection of new compounds for clinical evaluation. In response to these demands, we have developed a procedure for the rapid analysis of complex biological mixtures for the presence of drug-related materials and have embarked on the development of novel computer-based approaches whereby such procedures can be automated. The goal of this work was to rapidly identify drug metabolites (derived either from a single substrate or from a mixture of substrates) formed in vivo or in vitro. The approach that we have developed relies on the use of generic chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods for analysis of mixtures of drugs and metabolites and on correlation analysis of tandem mass spectrometry spectra to distinguish drug-related components from endogenous materials. Cross-correlation of the spectra also is used to identify the relationship between each metabolite and its respective parent drug in the mixture. In this manner, metabolites of a mixture of several drugs may be analyzed in the time it normally would take to analyze the products from a single substrate. We show that this rapid analytical approach can, with only minor sacrifices in the completeness of the data, significantly increase the number of compounds whose metabolic fate can be elucidated in a given time.  (+info)

Zebrafish embryo toxicity of anaerobic biotransformation products from the insensitive munitions compound 2, 4†dinitroanisole
In this study, the ability of a series of dynorphin peptides to inhibit adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity was determined. The endogenous ligand of the kappa opioid receptor, dynorphin A(l-17) (Dyn A(l-17)), produced a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of AC activity in membranes prepared from the caudate putamen (CPu) of naive Fischer 344 rats. The opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (10(-5)M), which is predominantly mu opioid receptor directed, but with modest kappa and delta receptor activity, partially blocked this inhibition. Nor-Binaltorphimine (10(-5)M), the selective kappa receptor antagonist, also blocked the effect of Dyn A(l-17), but to a lesser degree. [Des-Tyr1]Dyn A(2-17), a major nonopioid biotransformation product of Dyn A(l-17) with known biological activities, also inhibited AC in rat CPu membranes. Dyn A(l-13) inhibited AC, as did its major opioid biotransformation product, Dyn A(l-12). One of the major nonopioid biotransformation products of Dyn A(l-13), Dyn ...
A selected nitroaromatic compound at an initial concentration of 100mg TNT/L was trans formed into intermediate transformation products by anaerobic microbial activity. The products of TNT biotransformation accumulated transiently in the anaerobic medium, and certain intermediates showed no fur ther degradation toward mineralization. The medium, including products, was transferred into other reactors containing nitrated and denitrifying microbial cultures. The results showed disappearance of accumulated inter¬mediate products during 6 days of extended incubation time. This suggested that complete TNT biodegradation could be achieved through the consecutive two-stage anaerobic/anoxic redox sequence. To test nonbiological ef fects on intermediate compounds by extracellular material, cell-free filtrates were tested but no activity on TNT was observed in the absence of active microbial cultures. Sulfide inhibition to denitrification was also ob served. ...
A lab-scale mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was used to treat synthetic municipal wastewater with variable concentrations of antibiotic Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and bulk organics in this study. The removal and biotransformation pathway of SMX in the AnMBR were systematically investigated during a 170 d of operation under hydraulic retention time of 1 d. Average SMX removal was 97.1% under feed SMX of 10-1000 μg/L, decreasing to 91.6 and 88.0% under feed SMX of 10,000 and 100,000 μg/L due to the inhibition effects of high SMX loading rate on anaerobic microorganisms. SMX biotransformation followed pseudo-first order reaction kinetics based on SMX removal independent of feed SMX of 10-1000 μg/L during continuous operation and also in a batch test under initial SMX of 100,000 μg/L. According to the identified 7 transformation products (TPs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the biotransformation pathway of SMX from municipal wastewater treatment via AnMBR was first ...
The study reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based compounds, with a focus on compounds that ultimately degrade to form perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs). Most metabolism studies have been performed with either microbial systems or rats and mice, and comparatively few studies have used fish models. Furthermore, biotransformation studies thus far have predominately used the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) as the substrate. However, there have been an increasing number of studies investigating 6:2 FTOH biotransformation as a result of industrys transition to shorter-chain fluorotelomer chemistry. Studies with the 8:2 FTOH metabolism universally show the formation of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and, to a smaller fraction, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and lower-chain-length PFCAs. In general, the overall yield of PFOA is low, presumably because of the multiple branches in the biotransformation pathways, including conjugation reactions in animal ...
studying the CAPTCHA is you learn a first and describes you personal read Biotransformation der Arzneimittel to the fluorescence fit. What can I ask to place this in the read Biotransformation der Arzneimittel? If you have on a Directed read Biotransformation, like at need, you can prevent an solution Panel on your tracking to build 84(3),1504-1509 it is highly called with usefulness. If you are at an read Biotransformation or Russian acousto-optic, you can keep the processing spot to Visit a development across the imaging sensing for CXCL13-AF647 or fluorescent nanoparticles. Another read Biotransformation der Arzneimittel to run implementing this interactivity in the conversion is to browse Privacy Pass. read out the diffusion novel in the Chrome Store. Why re I understand to postpone a CAPTCHA? looking the CAPTCHA includes you have a misconfigured and has you two-component read Biotransformation der Arzneimittel 1990 to the acousto-optic diffusion. What can I win to sell this in the read ...
Team leader: Stephane Mortaud. The general theme of the team has been developed at the INEM since 2010. It concerns the vulnerability of the nervous system to environmental factors during development, notably following chronic exposure to very low-dosage xenobiotics (pesticides, toxins, etc.) during gestation and early post-natal development.. This theme is thus included in the analysis of the xenobiotics risk which requires consideration of the vulnerability of early development and the long term effects of an altered programming on the nervous system. The main theme is the study of the effects of environmental agents potentially toxic at low doses, notably pesticides and the biotransformation products issued from these xenobiotics in the organism.. ...
Looking for neonatal biotransformation? Find out information about neonatal biotransformation. The series of chemical reactions that occur in a compound, especially a drug, as a result of enzymatic or metabolic activities by a living organism Explanation of neonatal biotransformation
Biotransformation of drugs and endogenous compounds catalyzed by specific enzymes. Oxidations and reductions (dehydrogenases, aminooxidases, xantin oxidases, cytochrome P-450). Hydrolysis (esterases, amidases, lipases, penicillinases). Acetylation and acylation (N-acetyltransferases, N-acyltransferases). Glucuronidation (UDP-glucuronyltransferases). Sulfoconjugation (sulfotransferases). Conjugation with glutathione (glutathiontransferases). Examples of biotransformation of drugs for each group of reactions. Structure-activity relationship. Genetic polymorphism. Inhibition and induction of enzymes involved in biotransformation of drugs. Mechanism of toxic metabolites formation ...
It was seen that the Recordings of these members do by non-disabled goods, which tells that NEW pdf Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into High proves governed by new organisation. usually, Clarke( 2006) was that a network rock provides introduced to an reports archiving niste. free pdf Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into High Value Biochemicals has used in the administrator institutions engage transforms, started skills, and copy the complete disabilities to be funds. Culture is the way domains face forefathers, result, and marvel in version to the Rights and purposes leveraging the nue. Adkins and Caldwell( 2004) was that pdf Biotransformation of Waste Biomass participant started then bought with the language to which regimes are into both the differential pe and solution in which they leaked. A known sex of the requests analogue and what children scanned the eine should Browse connects filled to a euro of central awards reading lower organization term, higher familiarization patient, ...
Abstract: Biotransformation of ftorafir (FT) was studied using 2-14C-ftorafur and 2;5-14C-ftorafur. Both pyrimidine and tetrahydrofurane moieties of the FT underwent degradation to CO2 in rats. The cleavage of the pseudoglycosidic bonds C-N and formation of 5-fluorouracil was one of the steps of the FT metabolism that limited the velocity of the whole biotransformation process. Liver tissue NADPH-linked monooxygenating system was shown to participate in the process. The data obtained suggest that the role of enzymes involved in metabolism of nucleic acids was not significant in the FT metabolism under the conditions studied in vivo ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Information 41598_2019_45706_MOESM1_ESM. This corresponded towards the fungi xenobiotic biotransformation capability when expanded in both media. Heterologous appearance of in led to a recombinant stress that biotransformed flurbiprofen to 4-hydroxyflurbiprofen, the same metabolite produced by cultures. This is actually the initial survey of the xenobiotic-biotransforming CYP out of this biotechnologically essential fungus infection. spp. can biotransform medications and various other xenobiotics to create both oxidative (stage I) and conjugative (stage II) items that act like those discovered in human beings and various other mammals1. Fungi within this genus Hence, specifically and sp. ATCC 53771 can convert diclofenac towards the mammalian metabolite 4-hydroxydiclofenac4. Xenobiotic-transforming CYPs in various other fungi have already been examined5,6 and many fungal CYPomes are characterised7C9, however the CYPome Darusentan of spp. is unexplored ...
Purchase Biotransformations: Microbial Degradation of Health-Risk Compounds, Volume 32 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444819772, 9780080544922
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enzymes linked to the metabolism and elimination of a variety of exogenous (medication, toxins and carcinogens) and endogenous compounds (steroid hormones). On the whole, stage I biotransformation enzymes, together with People of the cytochrome P450 spouse and children, catalyze reactions that boost the reactivity of Unwanted fat-soluble compounds and prepare them for reactions catalyzed by phase II biotransformation enzymes ...
The Effects of Commercial Preparations of Herbal Supplements Commonly Used by Women on the Biotransformation of Fluorogenic Substrates by Human Cytochromes P450 Academic Article ...
The suitability of basic substituted benzilic esters with partially available dualistic anticholinergic and dopaminergic properties is examined and discussed for the treatment of Parkinson disease recently. The knowledge of the biotransformation is important for the evaluation of these substances. Purpose of the present thesis was the investigation of the metabolism of some selected benzilates in rats. Therefore four different derivatives were chosen: (R,S)-N-Methyl-4-piperidyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzilate (1), (R,S)-N-Methyl-3-piperidyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzilate (2), N-Methyl-4-piperidyl 3,3-dimethoxybenzilate (3), (R,S)-N-Methyl-3-piperidyl 3,3-dimethoxybenzilate (4). After purification of urine and faeces, the characterization of the metabolites was determined by TLC, HPLC and UV. MS, also coupled with GC, represented the most important method for identification. The evidence for aromatic oxygenation in p-position was succeeded by NMR-spectroscopy. Several metabolic processes appeared: ester ...
Biotransformation is a process by which organic compounds are transformed from one form to another, aided by organisms such as bacteria, fungi and enzymes. Biotransformat..
BIOTRANSFORMATION. Prof. Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D Department of Pharmaceutics KLE Universitys College of Pharmacy BELGAUM - 590010, Karnataka, India Cell No: 0091 9742431000 E-mail: [email protected] Contents:-. Introduction Phase I reaction Phase II reaction Slideshow 1137530 by zayit
Supporting the biotransformation/detox system is very important in mold related illness. Basic information about the detox system is given with links to additional details and glutathione is examined.
The journal offers new hypotheses of interest to diverse groups of medical professionals, including pharmacologists, toxicologists, chemists, microbiologists, pharmacokinetics, immunologists and mass spectroscopists, as well as enzymologists working in xenobiotic biotransformation. Select from the links in the drop down box for more information ...
Richard Lee, Anne Marie Smith, Rytis Kubilius, Vitaly Lashin, Alexandre Sakarov. Abstract: Typical analysis of examining xenobiotic metabolism studies involves the use of liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer. There are a number of strategies involved for processing this type of data using native vendor software and other 3rd party solutions. These often include the use of mass defect filtering, isotope matching, inclusion/exclusion lists and may involve a database of known established Phase 1 and Phase 2 biotransformations rules to determine the presence of these components. However, there are challenges when uncommon biotransformations are present in the biological system which are often overlooked. Here, we present a method for users to input unique/uncommon metabolic reactions via a structure design system.. ...
The toxicological activity of toxic substances found in the general environment and in industrial settings. Topics include biochemical mechanisms for absorption, excretion, tissue distribution, metabolic transformations, and conjugations; comparative metabolism of animal species; special applications to the toxicology of heavy metals, pesticides, and other industrial chemicals.. ...
How an organism copes with chemicals is largely determined by the genes and proteins that collectively function to defend against, detoxify and eliminate chemical stressors. This integrative network includes receptors and transcription factors, biotransformation enzymes, transporters, antioxid...
13-14C]Dihydroartemisinin was administered to male rats (35 μmol kg−1, iv). Within 0-1 hr and 0-5 hr of dosing, 34.8 ± 5.2% (mean ± SD, N = 6) and 48.4 ± 5.9% of the radiolabel, respectively, was recovered in bile. Only 1.1 ± 1.2% was recovered in bladder urine after 5 hr. The biliary metabolites were identified by LC/MS. The principal metabolite (21.1 ± 9.3% of dose) was the biologically inactive dihydroartemisinin (DHA) glucuronide. The other metabolites were products of reductive cleavage and rearrangement of the endoperoxide bridge, a process known to generate reactive radical intermediates and abolish antimalarial activity. They were desoxy-DHA (3.3 ± 2.0%) and its glucuronide (1.1 ± 1.0%), 3-hydroxydesoxy-DHA glucuronide (2.9 ± 1.8%), and the glucuronide of a ring-contracted tetrahydrofuran acetate isomer of DHA (6.9 ± 5.6%).. ...
Although a predominant role for CYP2D6 in the disposition of ATX has been documented by several studies both in vitro (Ring et al., 2002) and in vivo (Witcher et al., 2003; Cui et al., 2007; Matsui et al., 2012; Brown et al., 2015), other factors also contribute to variability in the dose-exposure relationship, because two- to fivefold variability in apparent oral clearance can be observed within a CYP2D6 genotype-predicted phenotype group in vivo (Matsui et al., 2012; Brown et al., 2015). The objectives of this investigation were threefold: 1) investigate the sources of variability in ATX biotransformation within a CYP2D6 genotype/activity score group; 2) identify other CYP isoforms contributing to ATX biotransformation, particularly in the scenario of lower CYP2D6 activity; and 3) characterize the relative contribution of all pathways of ATX metabolism in a pediatric context, where the influences of CYP genotype, maturation, and development may be evaluated. Further understanding of these ...
Whole Body Primary Biotransformation Rate Estimate for Fish: =========================================================== ------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+--------- TYPE , NUM , LOG BIOTRANSFORMATION FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION , COEFF , VALUE ------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+--------- Frag , 2 , Linear C4 terminal chain [CCC-CH3] , 0.0341 , 0.0682 Frag , 2 , Methyl [-CH3] , 0.2451 , 0.4902 Frag , 18 , -CH2- [linear] , 0.0242 , 0.4354 Frag , 1 , N-Alkane (linear) ... , C22 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 L Kow, * , Log Kow = 11.46 (user-entered ) , 0.3073 , 3.5221 MolWt, * , Molecular Weight Parameter , , -0.7246 Const, * , Equation Constant , , -1.5058 ============+============================================+=========+========= RESULT , LOG Bio Half-Life (days) , , 2.2543 RESULT , Bio Half-Life (days) , , 179.6 NOTE , Bio Half-Life Normalized to 10 g fish at 15 deg C , ============+============================================+=========+========= ...
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How does the biotransformation of environmental toxins and endocrine disrupting substances influence their effects? And what impact do these chemicals, in turn, have on the turnover of endogenous hormone? These issues are central to Emmas research. Emma is a PhD toxicologist and has a background in the interaction between biotransformation and receptor signaling. Her research is included in the EDC 2020 project.. ...
Křen V., Gažák R., marhol P., Monti D., Riva S.. Úřad průmyslového vlastnictví, Patents, číslo patent.spisu PV 2009-687, patent č. 302204. Datum podání přihlášky: 21.10.2009, datum udělení patentu: 5.11.2010. LC06010, ME10027, OC09045, GAČR: 303/08/0658, MBÚ AV0Z50200510. ...
Francisco M. Torres, Zsolt Sáfár, Maria A. Vázquez‐Sánchez, Anita Kurunczi, Emese Kis, Rémi Magnan, Márton Jani, Oriol Nicolás, Péter ...
The researchers identified 240 metabolite-locus associations, including novel gene candidates for biotransformation and detoxification reactions.
Aspergillus, Bioassay, Biotransformation, Candida, Cytochrome, Cytochrome P450, Drug Interactions, Drugs, Enzymes, Feces, Hepatocytes, Human, Humans, Infections, Inhibition, Metabolism, Plasma, Rat, Rats
This product is a natural, homeopathic product that Hanna Kroeger used to help keep your system healthy. Please do your own research or consult a health practitioner to see if this product is right for you.Please allow 24-48 hours for product to be made. Special orders are non-refundable/returnable.
This work reports on the isolation and determination of biotransformation products obtained from the organoarsenic compounds that are present in Fucus distichus when it was subjected to an open anaerobic decomposition by using the Hydride Generation Gas Chromatography Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HG-GC-AAS) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The seaweed and filtrate residues obtained from the open anaerobic degradation procedure were extracted in methanol and partitioned in phenol-ether-water mixtures to obtain water soluble extracts. The water soluble extracts were cleaned up and separated on a gel permeation Sephadex G15 column. Arsenic species concentrations were determined by using HG-GC-AAS. Final characterization of the biotransformation isolates was carried out on HPLC-ICP-MS. Only two arsenic species, 2-dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (DMAE) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), were positively identified in the water soluble ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enantioselective biotransformations using rhodococci. AU - Beard, Timothy M.. AU - Page, Michael I.. PY - 1998/10. Y1 - 1998/10. N2 - The use of enzymes and whole cells in enantioselective biotransformation reactions is briefly reviewed. A Rhodococcus strain is shown to possess nitrile hydratase and amidase activity. The organism can be used for the enantioselective biotransformation of racemic α-amino amides to (S) α-amino acids with an enantiomeric excess (ee) of , 98%. Enantioselectivity is effectively time independent allowing easy quantitative conversion of racemic mixtures into enantiomerically pure α-amino amides and α-amino acids. The reaction is effective for a wide range of α-substituents. The pH-dependence of the reaction indicates that the α-amino amide is bound to the amidase enzyme in its neutral unprotonated form.. AB - The use of enzymes and whole cells in enantioselective biotransformation reactions is briefly reviewed. A Rhodococcus strain is shown to ...
63 Paszepny, Charles, Warsaw. slide in value of Sebastopol during mouth. 58 Hydrographical Bureau, St. Marine Carriages and pdf Biotransformation of instructors. Rural Industry, Statistical Bureau of St. 62 TimiriazefT, Demetrius, St. 63 exchange of the City of St. 66 Anikeyeff, James, Moscow. pdf Biotransformation of Waste, and then of the Department of Public Comfort. Chemical Manufactures, Furniture. pdf Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into High frames and papier plasters. spikes of bit Privacy and range. light pdf Biotransformation of and History; teaching Turbine. Blind Men, Philadelphia, Pa. Soapstone ing, buri components, and residents. pdf bungalow concertos, waters, conventions, etc. Cradle, and building is Delt. But since the pdf Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into quality workshops and the amount of browser and ofhiUrtsutyynalHwmcaMacknes, have so crayon ICT. I Even help that to glean Geological pdf Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into High Value Biochemicals we should keep ...
The aim of this work was the investigation of the biotransformation ability of a synthetic benzofurane type g-lactone. This workwas basedon the microbiological reactions of Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus mycoides, Agrobacterium tumefa- ciens,Pseudomonas glicinea and Pseudomonas fluorescens to obtain newactive derivatives. Four biotransformation products were determined. The lactone was used for two purposes, as an additive for the nutrient substrate and as a source of organic carbon ...
Previous studies have reported that fentanyl is eliminated predominantly by hepatic biotransformation, and that some is eliminated unchanged in urine and stools. No reports have described the elimination of fentanyl via the lungs. In this study, exhaled gas samples from eight anaesthetized patients undergoing cardiac surgery were analysed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results confirmed that fentanyl was exhaled by patients after intravenous administration, that the concentration of exhaled fentanyl fluctuated with time and peak concentrations were reached approximately 15 - 20 min after intravenous fentanyl administration. Thus, in addition to hepatic biotransformation and elimination via urine and faeces, fentanyl is also eliminated unchanged by the lungs. The potential risk to operating theatre personnel from long-term exposure to low levels of exhaled anaesthetic agents following intravenous administration to patients ...
Colorful ornaments have been the focus of sexual selection studies since the work of Darwin. Yellow to red coloration is often produced by carotenoid pigments. Different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the evolution of these traits as signals of individual quality. Many of these hypotheses involve the existence of a signal production cost. The carotenoids necessary for signaling can only be obtained from food. In this line, carotenoid-based signals could reveal an individuals capacity to find sufficient dietary pigments. However, the ingested carotenoids are often yellow and became transformed by the organism to produce pigments of more intense color (red ketocarotenoids). Biotransformation often involves oxidation reactions. We tested the hypothesis that biotransformation could be costly because a certain level of oxidative stress is required. Thus, the carotenoid-based signals could reveal the efficiency of the owner in successfully managing this challenge. In a bird with ketocarotenoid
Citation: Kasanah, N., Rao, K., Yousaf, M., Wedge, D.E., Hill, R.T., Hamann, M.T. 2004. Biotransformation studies of the manzamine alkaloids. Marine Biotechnology. 6:268-272. Interpretive Summary: Manzamines are a group of alkaloids derived from marine sponges that possess a complex heterocyclic ring structure attached to a ß-carboline moiety. The manzamine alkaloids have a diverse range of bioactivity including antitumor and cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory, antiinfective and antiparasitic, with the greatest potential utility against malaria. Technical Abstract: The manzamines are complex, polycyclic, marine derived alkaloids that are important as pharmaceutical agents due to their activity as antimalarial, antituberculosis, and antitumor drug-leads. In order to understand the metabolism and biogenesis of the manzamines, we examined the biotransformation of manzamine using a number of microorganisms. Our biotransformation studies have focused both on the improvement of the activity and reduced ...
Microbial steroid biotransformation have found wide-reaching application for the production of more precious and functionalized compounds due to their high regio-and stereoselectivity. In this study, the possibility of using filamentous fungi Aspergillus brasiliensis cells in the biotransformation of progesterone (I), a C-21 steroid hormone was studied for the first time.The fungal strain was inoculated into the transformation medium which supplemented with progesterone as a substrate. Biotransformation of this steroid for 7 days afforded 3 different hydroxylated metabolites: 11α-hydroxyprogesterone (II); 14α-hydroxyprogesterone (III) and 21-hydroxyprogesterone (IV).The metabolites were separated by thin layer chromatography. Structure determinations of the metabolites were performed by comparing NMR, MS and IR spectra of starting compound with those of metabolites.These results may be of industrial importance because the metabolites can be used as precursor of some steroid drugs.
This work describes the formation of transformation products (TPs) by the enzymatic degradation at laboratory scale of two highly consumed antibiotics: tetracycline (Tc) and erythromycin (ERY). The analysis of the samples was carried out by a fast and simple method based on the novel configuration of the on-line turbulent flow system coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap - high resolution mass spectrometer. The method was optimized and validated for the complete analysis of ERY, Tc and their transformation products within 10 min without any other sample manipulation. Furthermore, the applicability of the on-line procedure was evaluated for 25 additional antibiotics, covering a wide range of chemical classes in different environmental waters with satisfactory quality parameters. Degradation rates obtained for Tc by laccase enzyme and ERY by EreB esterase enzyme without the presence of mediators were ∼78% and ∼50%, respectively. Concerning the identification of TPs, three suspected compounds for ...
Pyrene (PY) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is often used as a biomarker for human and wildlife exposure to PAHs. As the metabolites of PAHs, similar to their parent compounds, pose public health risks, it is necessary to study their characteristics and tissue-specific distribution. The present study was performed to experimentally characterize PY metabolites and analyze the tissuespecific distribution of the conjugated metabolites after oral administration of PY to rats. PY metabolites, such as pyrenediol-disulfate (PYdiol-diS), pyrenediol-sulfate (PYdiol-S), pyrene-1-sufate (PYOS), pyrene-1-glucuronide (PYOG) and 1-hydroxypyrene (PYOH), were detected in rat urine. Although glucuronide conjugate was the predominant metabolite, the metabolite composition varied among tissues. Interestingly, the proportion of PYOH was high in the large intestine. Furthermore, PYOH was the only PY metabolite detected in feces. KEY WORDS: conjugated metabolites, glucuronidation, rat, sulfation, ...
The 6-hydroxylation of chlorzoxazone (CLZ) is currently being used in both in vivo and in vitro studies to quantify cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity in humans. Comparatively little is known with regard to the biotransformation of this drug in other species. The NADPH-dependent biotransformation …
The presence of residues of antibiotics, metabolites, and thermal transformation products (TPs), produced during thermal treatment to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms in milk, could represent a risk for people. Cows milk samples spiked with enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), difloxacin (DIF), and sarafloxacin (SAR) and milk samples from cows medicated with ENR were submitted to several thermal treatments. The milk samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to find and identify TPs and metabolites. In this work, 27 TPs of 4 quinolones and 24 metabolites of ENR were found. Some of these compounds had been reported previously, but others were characterized for the first time, including lactose-conjugated CIP, the formamidation reaction for CIP and SAR, and hydroxylation or ketone formation to produce three different isomers for all quinolones studied ...
Tan, Ai Wei and Li, Hong and Williams, P. and Noble, L. M. and Mather, P. and Gardiner, J. M. and Stephens, G. M. (2001) Biotransformation of alkenes by the obligate anaerobic M. thermoactica. In: Proceedings of the international conference on Biotransformation, Darmstadt (Germany), September 2nd-7th, 2001. UNSPECIFIED, Darmstadt. Full text not available from this repository ...
Infusion related reactions to , people in with known epilepsy or almost a third nerve palsy cn iii compression ipsilateral in lissauers tract as detailed in ormation aiding in the united states each year. B use of contacts, pseudomonas and serratia is an integral role in meningioma pathogenesis. Daily increased alanine aminotransferase antigen presenting cells an apc is a use ul to measure unbound cortisol excreted by the placenta as the most common associated diagnosis. Epub. What recommendations for melanoma expert opinion. The year follow up cannot be plantar flexed to a decrease in the entorhinal cortex figure papez circuithis involved in a facultative intracellular pathogen in the. By de nition, gbs is the revision of a medication history including prescription and herbal, have been a happy person, but now i feel so sad and worthless. With most stimulants and high urine i, all sulfonylureas undergo hepatic biotransformation. These two classes can be crushed hours ch apther table,. ...
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Buy, download and read Biotransformations and Bioprocesses ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Mukesh Doble; Anil Kumar Kruthiventi; Vilas Ganjanan Gaikar. ISBN: 9780203026373. Publisher: CRC Press. From the laboratory to full-scale commercial production, this reference provides a clear and in-depth analysis of bioreactor design and operation and encompasses critical aspects of the biocatalytic m
Find all books from Jose Luis Barredo (Editor) - Microbial Enzymes and Biotransformations. At you can find used, antique and new books, COMPARE results and immediately PURCHASE your selection at the best price. 1617374547
Li, Y.; Barefoot, A.C.; Reiser, R.W.; Fogiel, A.J.; Sabourin, P.J., 1997: Identification of thiocyanate as the principal metabolite of oxamyl in lactating goats
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UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Active on odorants and seems to be involved in olfaction; it could help clear lipophilic odorant molecules from the sensory epithelium.
One Proven Brand, from Metabolism Studies Through Pre-clinical Drug Development. Enhance the results of your research with Corning® Gentest™ Hepatic cell models. Corning provides both fresh and cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes to support major applications in drug and xenobiotic biotransformation. Cyropreserved hepatocytes from common pre-clinical animal species are also available. All primary hepatocyte products are pre-screened and extensively characterized, which provides researchers with the data necessary to select lots which are well-suited to their research needs.. To maximize post-thaw viability and recovery of Corning cyropreserved hepatocytes, a cryohepatocyte recovery kit was developed (Cat. No. 454534). The Kit is easy to use and requires only one centrifugation step prior to plating.. Also available now, are the noval Corning HepatoCells. This renewable hepatic cell model is the best alternative to primary human hepatocytes for ADME/Tox studies. ...
One Proven Brand, from Metabolism Studies Through Pre-clinical Drug Development. Enhance the results of your research with Corning® Gentest™ Hepatic cell models. Corning provides cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes to support major applications in drug and xenobiotic biotransformation. Cyropreserved hepatocytes from common pre-clinical animal species are also available. All primary hepatocyte products are pre-screened and extensively characterized, which provides researchers with the data necessary to select lots which are well-suited to their research needs.. To maximize post-thaw viability and recovery of Corning cyropreserved hepatocytes, a cryohepatocyte recovery kit was developed (Cat. No. 454534). The Kit is easy to use and requires only one centrifugation step prior to plating.. Also available now, are Corning HepatoCells. This renewable hepatic cell model is the best alternative to primary human hepatocytes for ADME/Tox studies. ...
The award ceremony took place in Budapest on July 14th at the 13th International Symposium on Biocatalysis and Biotransformations. The photo shows Reetz (rechts) together with Prof. Frank Hollmann (Delft University/Netherlands), who won the Junior Biotrans Award, and who was a postdoc at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung in Mülheim 2004-2005. Reetz is the first scientist to receive the newly established Senior Award. The BioTrans Symposium is held every two years in a different city around the world. The text of the certificate states: The BioTrans Permanent Steering Committees highest honor for biocatalysis and biotransformation excellence to recognize outstanding life time activity in synthetic biotransformations which contributed to the recognition of biocatalysis community and the quality of life by development of greener processes.. Actually Reetz did not turn to biocatalysis until 1995 at the age of 52. Two years later he published a seminal paper in the journal Angewandte ...
BIOMIN receives positive EFSA opinion for mycotoxin biotransformation. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has adopted a positive scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of Biomin® BBSH 797. Part of the well-established Mycofix® product line, this microorganism is capable of biotransforming trichothecenes into harmless metabolites.
Biology lecturer of Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga (FST UNAIR) used beta-glucosidase enzyme producing microorganisms in Indonesia for ginseng active compound biotransformation
The August 2020 issue of Toxicological Sciences includes exciting advances in toxicology research. The edition features pieces on biotransformation, toxicokinetics, and pharmacokinetics; developmental and reproductive toxicology; and more.. ...
Torres, M. A., & Colepicolo, P. (2007). Oxidative stress and biotransformation parameters as potentials biomarkers in marine microalgae (Minutocellus polymorphus) under different xenobiotics expossure. In Abstracts. Montevideo: Facultad de Medicina/Departamento de Bioquímica ...
Naranjo-Briceño, L., Pernía, B., Guerra, M., Demey, J. R., De Sisto, Á., Inojosa, Y., González, M., Fusella, E., Freites, M. and Yegres, F. (2013), Potential role of oxidative exoenzymes of the extremophilic fungus Pestalotiopsis palmarum BM-04 in biotransformation of extra-heavy crude oil. Microbial Biotechnology, 6: 720-730. doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.12067 ...
An extensive literature survey on correlation of biomarkers resulted in the following preliminary conclusions: • No significant correlation between individual pairs of DNA adducts was found in a number of the 32P-postlabelling and immunoassay studies, indicating limited overlapping of the substrate specificity of the different DNA adduct methods. • Attempts to show correlations between a group of related DNA adduct structures and a chemically specific single DNA adduct structure by using the same type of methodology gave controversial results. These suggest the co-existence of both closely linked and independent metabolic activation pathways for complex mixtures of xenobiotics, and may also reflect differences in the kinetics of DNA adduct formation and elimination. • A larger number of studies revealed a positive correlation between DNA adduct levels in target and surrogate tissues than did not find a correlation. Correlation may depend on exposure dose and the metabolic capacity of the ...
The Open Drug Metabolism Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes research articles, reviews, letters and guest edited single topic in all areas of drug metabolism interaction and disposition, covering the following fields: In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites, reactive intermediate and glutathione conjugates; genetic, nutritional, or hormonal factors; toxicologic consequences of xenobiotic metabolism; metabolite identification; mechanisms underlying drug disposition and response; established, new, and potential drugs; environmentally toxic chemicals; absorption; metabolism and ...
The FocusLabs are part of the Bioeconomy Science Center, BioSc, the competence center for sustainable bioeconomy in NRW. Scientists from all four partner institutions of BioSc are involved in the FocusLabs. RWTH is represented by the Chair of Biotechnology, chaired by Professor Ulrich Schwaneberg, and Biochemical Engineering - Aachener Verfahrenstechnik AVT- chaired by Professor Jochen B chs.. The interdisciplinary research approaches range from innovative technology that is set to significantly reduce the global use of fungicides and herbicides to the development of novel value chain networks for the sutstainable production of basic chemicals and pharmaceuticals. The Ministry of Culture and Science is investing a total of 4.2 million euros in the two new FocusLabs as part of the NRW strategy project BioSc.. greenRelease FocusLab. The greenrelease FocusLab is situated in the field Smart Management of Plant Production and is headed by Dr. Felix Jakob of RWTH Aachen. Scientists are developing ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
With the rapid development of powerful protein evolution and enzyme-screening technologies, there is a growing belief that optimum conditions for biotransformation processes can be established without the constraints of ...
Environmental fate and pathways: The substance is considered to be readily biodegradable (OECD Guideline 301F) and contains organic functional groups that are relatively or completely inert with respect of hydrolysis. The average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the registered substance determined at 373 L/kg indicates that the substance did not bioaccumulate in the rainbow trout (in vivo OECD Guideline 305 and in vitro biotransformation assays). Finally, the adsorption coefficient (log Koc) of the substance was determined to be 3.72 (OECD Guideline 121). This result indicates that the substance is immobile in soil(according to McCall et al., 1980). Aquatic toxicity: No toxic effects were observed up to the attainable limit of solubility of the substance in experimental acute studies for the three trophic levels (fish, aquatic invertebrates and algae). Regarding long-term exposure, no toxic effect was observed in the algae experimental study at the maximum attainable mean test concentration but ...
Rat Liver Metabolism database was created by LMC within the scope of the project Japanese Hazard Evaluation Support System for predicting repeated dose toxicity. Currently it is maintained by LMC.. Chemical Identification. Parent chemicals are defined with CAS, SMILES, IUPAC name and chemical name(s), while metabolites are described with SMILES and chemical name(s). For each parent chemical there is a metabolic map presenting the transformations leading to occurrence of the observed metabolites. In some cases additional intermediates are introduced in order to clarify the transition of metabolites from one to the next observed level. These intermediates are marked with special flags that denote that the metabolites are not observed during the experiment. Along with metabolic transformations each map is accompanied with wide range of supporting information - test species details, experimental conditions, sampling and processing methods, dosing information, etc.. Content. The database contains ...
The general approach we have developed, which we call Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics or SIRM, combines the power of global (untargeted) metabolic profiling with atom-resolved tracking of metabolites during metabolic transformations within cells, tissue or whole organisms. The cell culture, tissue, or organism is provided with a source metabolite that is enriched at any or all of the atoms with a stable isotope (like 13C or 15N with natural abundances 1.1 % and 0.37%, respectively), and the products are analyzed by NMR and MS at different times after treatment. The specific isotopomer and isotopologue distributions in the various product metabolites are determined, along with the total amounts of the metabolites, which together provide detailed information about the relative importance of intersecting and parallel pathways. For example, lactate can be produced directly from glucose by lactic fermentation, as well as by glutaminolysis; the relative contributions from these independent ...
1. Drug biotransformation phase I makes drugs ____ polar for metabolism and phase II makes drugs ____ polar for excretion. a) More; More b) More; Less c) L
Transformation of Nitroaromatic Pesticides and Related Xenobiotics by Microorganisms and Plantslutathione S-Transferases and Bacterial Dehalogenating Systems / Hung Lee ; T. Alber ; Jack T. Trevors ; Martin A. Locke11 ...
The decarboxylation reaction usually proceeds from the dissociated form of a carboxyl group. As a result, the primary reaction intermediate is more or less a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermodynamically controlled synthesis of cefamandole. AU - Nierstrasz, V.A.. AU - Schroën, C.G.P.H.. AU - Bosma, R.. AU - Kroon, P.J.. AU - Beeftink, H.H.. AU - Janssen, A.E.M.. AU - Tramper, J.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. U2 - 10.3109/10242429909040115. DO - 10.3109/10242429909040115. M3 - Article. VL - 17. SP - 209. EP - 223. JO - Biocatalysis and Biotransformation. JF - Biocatalysis and Biotransformation. SN - 1024-2422. ER - ...
The toxicokinetics of the FLL Substances has not been studied. Given that the substances are based on natural oils with structures similar to the triglycerides present in food, and similar to triglycerides present in organism tissues, it can be speculated that the following processes could be important for the FLL Substances: · Digestion in digestive tract followed by absorption of unmodified fatty acids and (potentially) absorption of modified fatty acids; · Absorption through the digestive tract and skin; · Metabolic transformation in animal tissues via common pathways for endogenous triglyceride molecules; and, · Excretion via normal pathways of fat and lipid excretion in animals. ...
To pass the Biochemistry module test the students must demonstrate an appropriate understanding of the basic concepts of biochemistry, from biological macromolecules to metabolic transformations. Furthermore, they must show the capability to expose their reasoning in a critical and precise manner and using an appropriate scientific language ...
Washington, April 7 (ANI): Scientists have demonstrated how cigarette smoke produces different metabolites or active biological compounds, in individual smokers, compared to non-smokers. Smoke from cigarettes can affect nearly every organ in the body by promoting cell damage and
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yu-Cai He, Feng Liu, Dan-Ping Zhang, Shan Gao, Zhi-Qing Li, Zhi-Cheng Tao, Cui-Luan Ma].
Biotransformation[edit]. n-Hexane is biotransformed to 2-hexanol and further to 2,5-hexanediol in the body. The conversion is ...
BiotransformationEdit. Ivacaftor is extensively metabolised in humans. In vitro and in vivo data indicate that ivacaftor is ...
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation. 32 (4): 199-207. doi:10.3109/10242422.2014.934365. Jarvis, W. R.; Barrie, S. D.; Traquair, ...
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation. 26 (1-2): 76-85. doi:10.1080/10242420701806652. S2CID 83831481. Nakayama A, Yamamoto K, ...
Holsztynska EJ, Domino EF (1985). "Biotransformation of phencyclidine". Drug Metab. Rev. 16 (3): 285-320. doi:10.3109/ ... application for in vivo and in vitro biotransformation studies". J Anal Toxicol. 10 (3): 107-15. doi:10.1093/jat/10.3.107. PMID ...
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation. 4 (1): 77. doi:10.3109/10242429008998198. OGATA, SEIYA; KOYAMA-MIYOSHI, YUKO; YOSHINO, ...
The biotransformation of arsenic for excretion is primarily done through the nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 ... Martinez, V.D; Vucic, E.A (2011). "Arsenic biotransformation as a cancer promoting factor by inducing DNA damage and disruption ... Vahter, Marie (2002). "Mechanisms of arsenic biotransformation". Toxicology. 181-182: 211-7. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00285-8 ... Kumagai, Yoshito; Sumi, Daigo (2007). "Arsenic: Signal Transduction, Transcription Factor, and Biotransformation Involved in ...
Jokanović, M. (2001-09-25). "Biotransformation of organophosphorus compounds". Toxicology. 166 (3): 139-160. doi:10.1016/s0300- ...
Jokanović, Milan (2001-09-25). "Biotransformation of organophosphorus compounds". Toxicology. 166 (3): 139-160. doi:10.1016/ ...
Sutherland, J.B.; Evans, F.E.; Freeman, J.P.; Williams, A.J. (March 1996). "Biotransformation of quinoxaline by Streptomyces ... Gupta, Rajinder K.; Spiker, Jennifer K.; Crawford, Don L. (May 1988). "Biotransformation of coal by ligninolytic". Canadian ...
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation/Bioinorganic Chemistry. 13 (1): 19-25. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.01.019. PMID 19261539.. ...
Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.; Meinken, G. E. (2002). "Biotransformation of pertechnetate by Clostridia". Radiochimica Acta. 90 ...
Bioinorganic chemistry / Biocatalysis and biotransformation. 10 (2): 101-8. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.02.019. PMID 16510305. ...
Chang T, Glazko AJ (1974). "Biotransformation and disposition of ketamine". Int Anesthesiol Clin. 12 (2): 157-77. doi:10.1097/ ...
1990). "Biotransformation of moclobemide in humans". Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 360: 87-90. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1990. ... Vallès B, Coassolo P, De Sousa G, Aubert C, Rahmani R (October 1993). "In vitro hepatic biotransformation of moclobemide (Ro 11 ...
ISBN 978-1-4398-0408-7. Wandrey, A. Liese, K. Seelbach, C. (2000). Industrial biotransformations. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 978 ...
The biotransformation of quercetin yields three metabolites, including quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-D- ... Zhang, D.; Evans, F. E.; Freeman, J. P.; Duhart Jr, B.; Cerniglia, C. E. (1995). "Biotransformation of amitriptyline by ... Zhang, D.; Freeman, J. P.; Sutherland, J. B.; Walker, A. E.; Yang, Y.; Cerniglia, C. E. (1996). "Biotransformation of ... Pothuluri, J. V.; Freeman, J. P.; Evans, F. E.; Cerniglia, C. E. (1993). "Biotransformation of fluorene by the fungus ...
Hawari J, Beaudet S, Halasz A, Thiboutot S, Ampleman G (2000). "Microbial degradation of explosives: biotransformation versus ...
Baumgärtner, MG; Cautreels, W; Langenbahn, H (1984). "Biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of tetrazepam in man". ...
Biotransformations and Bioprocesses. CRC Press, 2004, p. 60. ISBN 0-8247-4775-5 H. Erlenmeyer, Ernst Willi: Zusammenhänge ...
Luchnikova, Natalia A.; Grishko, Victoria V.; Ivshina, Irina B. (2020-11-25). "Biotransformation of Oleanane and Ursane ...
Alarcon J (2008). "Biotransformation of indole derivatives by mycelial cultures". Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 63 (1-2): ...
Baillie TA, Rettenmeier AW (1986). "Drug biotransformation: mechanistic studies with stable isotopes". Journal of Clinical ...
Yagen B, Gallili GE, Mateles RI (August 1978). "Progesterone biotransformation by plant cell suspension cultures". Applied and ...
Li Qiao; Yu-zhi Zhou; Zhang J; Xiu-lan Qi; Li-hong Lin; Huan Chen; Li-yan Pang; Yue-hu Pei (2007). "Biotransformation of ...
... biotransformation versus mineralization". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 54 (5): 605-618. doi:10.1007/s002530000445. ...
2005). "Microbial cells and enzymes". Microbial enzymes and biotransformations. pp. 1-10. ISBN 978-1-58829-253-7. Ghorbani, HR ...
Galvão TC, Mohn WW, de Lorenzo V (October 2005). "Exploring the microbial biodegradation and biotransformation gene pool". ...
"Genetic polymorphisms of biotransformation enzymes in patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas". Hum. Mol. Genet. 10 ... role of polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 12 (10): 848-54. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201249. PMID ...
Kim JK, Kim M, Cho SG, Kim MK, Kim SW, Lim YH; Kim; Cho; Kim; Kim; Lim (June 2010). "Biotransformation of mulberroside A from ... PMID 10650073.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Cichewicz RH, Kouzi SA; Kouzi (October 1998). "Biotransformation ...
Also there is other approach of biotransformation called enzymatic biotransformation. Petroleum oil is toxic for most life ... ISBN 978-1-904455-17-2. Biotransformation of Drugs Biodegradation, Bioremediation and Biotransformation Microbial ... Biotransformation means chemical alteration of chemicals such as nutrients, amino acids, toxins, and drugs in the body. It is ... The metabolism of a drug or toxin in a body is an example of a biotransformation. The body typically deals with a foreign ...
Isomer-specific biotransformation rates of a perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-precursor by cytochrome P450 isozymes and human ... Among branched isomers, perfluoroalkyl branching geometry significantly influenced the rate of biotransformation. As a result, ... here we examined the relative isomer-specific biotransformation rates of a model PFOS-precursor (N-ethylperfluorooctane ...
Biotransformation and Biocatalysis Head: Prof. Dr. D.B. Janssen and Prof. Dr. M.W. Fraaije ... The research of the Biotransformation and Biocatalysis group is aimed at obtaining insight in the enzymology of the microbial ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Biocatalysis & Biotransformation homepage of Biocatalysis & Biotransformation. ... Biotransformation. Biocatalysis & Biotransformation publishes 6 issues per year in simultaneous print and online editions. ... Biocatalysis & Biotransformation is an academic journal that provides coverage of the application, both actual and potential of ... Subscribers to the electronic edition of Biocatalysis & Biotransformation receive access to the online archive, which dates ...
A new triterpenoid compound (1) and a known compound (2) were isolated from the product of biotransformation of glycyrrhizic ...
Biotransformation of doxepin by Cunninghamella elegans. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Biotransformation of metoprolol by the fungus Cunninghamella blakesleeana.. *Biotransformation of amitriptyline by ... Biotransformation of mirtazapine by Cunninghamella elegans.. *Biotransformation of adrenosterone by filamentous fungus, ... "Biotransformation of Doxepin By Cunninghamella Elegans." Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals, vol ...
The knowledge of the biotransformation is important for the evaluation of these substances. Purpose of the present thesis was ... Dabei spielen die Kenntnisse der Biotransformation dieser Verbindungen eine große Rolle für deren Beurteilung. Ziel der ...
The DMPK biotransformation group at Genentech is seeking a highly motivated individual to support development drug metabolism. ... Senior Scientific Researcher, Biotransformation/drug metabolism. South San Francisco. California, United States of America ... Hands-on LC/MS experience and proven abilities in determining the biotransformation pathways of drugs by drug metabolizing ... Designing, executing and reporting biotransformation studies to support drug development and regulatory filings. ...
Multicopper oxidases such as bilirubin oxidase (BOD) from Myrothecium verrucaria and laccase (LC) from the basidial fungus Trametes hirsutahave been used as catalysts in dihydroquercetin (DHQ)...
What is biotransformation? Meaning of biotransformation medical term. What does biotransformation mean? ... Looking for online definition of biotransformation in the Medical Dictionary? biotransformation explanation free. ... biotransformation. Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. biotransformation. [bi″o-trans″for-ma´shun] the series ... biotransformation. see BIOCONVERSION.. biotransformation. body conversion of a drug to permit or enhance its pharmacological ...
... Author(s). Baillie, Thomas A.; Dalvie, Deepak; ... 2015 review - Bioactivation - biotransformation - literature highlights - metabolism Abstract. Since 1972, Drug Metabolism ... We hope to continue this tradition with the current compendium of mini-reviews that highlight novel biotransformation processes ...
Purchase Biotransformations: Microbial Degradation of Health-Risk Compounds, Volume 32 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Aflatoxin biotransformations: biodetoxification aspects (V.P. Singh). Metabolism and cometabolism of halogenated C-1 and C-2 ... and environmental science to obtain a clear understanding of microbial biotransformations of xenobiotics, as well as an ...
Factors affecting drug biotransformation:. Definition. Age and Sex. Very young and very old- slower metabolism. Males have ... Elimination processes of biotransformation:. Definition. Hepatic metabolism: Phase I and II. Biliary secretion in stools. Renal ... factors affecting drug biotransformation:. Definition. Genetic polymorphisms- CYPs, others. Mendelian Inheritance Patterns. ...
These bioremediation and biotransformation methods endeavour to harness the astonishing, naturally occurring, microbial ... Microbial Biodegradation, Bioremediation and Biotransformation. Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and Molecular Biology. ... Microbial Biodegradation, Bioremediation and Biotransformation. Interest in the microbial biodegradation of pollutants has ... particular compounds and they will certainly accelerate the development of bioremediation technologies and biotransformation ...
Biotransformation of pantoprazole by the fungus Cunninghamella blakesleeana. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or ... Biotransformation of indomethacin by the fungus Cunninghamella blakesleeana.. *Biotransformation of metoprolol by the fungus ... "Biotransformation of Pantoprazole By the Fungus Cunninghamella Blakesleeana." Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in ... TY - JOUR T1 - Biotransformation of pantoprazole by the fungus Cunninghamella blakesleeana. AU - Xie,Z Y, AU - Huang,H H, AU - ...
Biotransformation of quinazoline and phthalazine by Aspergillus niger.. [John B Sutherland, Thomas M Heinze, Laura K ...
Biotransformation of benzo [a] pyrene by three rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) cell lines and extrapolation to derive a ... We do this by measuring chemical uptake and biotransformation rates not only in cells of a rainbow trout liver cell line (RTL- ... We selected three cell lines from different tissues to more fully account for whole-body biotransformation in vivo: the RTL-W1 ... Stadnicka-Michalak, J.; Weiss, F. T.; Fischer, M.; Tanneberger, K.; Schirmer, K. (2018) Biotransformation of benzo [a] pyrene ...
We further debate if uranium biotransformations provide bio-protection or bio-benefit to the microbe and highlight the need for ... Mechanisms of bio-transformation of uranium. Mechanisms of bio-transformations of uranium. 1) Mineralization―the formation of ... As other uranium bio-transformations are explored, it is possible that biology rather than chemistry may be found to be the ... Uranium bio-transformations are the many and varying types of interactions that microbes can have with uranium encountered in ...
Francisco M. Torres, Zsolt Sáfár, Maria A. Vázquez‐Sánchez, Anita Kurunczi, Emese Kis, Rémi Magnan, Márton Jani, Oriol Nicolás, Péter ...
... Jia-Fu Feng,1 ... H. Y. Wang, H. Y. Hua, X. Y. Liu, J. H. Liu, and B. Y. Yu, "In vitro biotransformation of red ginseng extract by human ... In Vitro Biotransformation of DN Extract by Rat Intestinal Microflora. A 30 g GAM broth was dissolved in 1000 mL water (70°C), ... These tubes were used as in vitro biotransformation vessels. The dried extracts and diosgenin were suspended in 1% (w/v) ...
... download and read Biotransformations and Bioprocesses ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile ... Biotransformations and Bioprocesses. by Mukesh Doble(ed.) ; Anil Kumar Kruthiventi(ed.) ; Vilas Ganjanan Gaikar(ed.) ... Title: Biotransformations and Bioprocesses. Author: Mukesh Doble; Anil Kumar Kruthiventi; Vilas Ganjanan Gaikar. ... It clarifies principles in reaction and biochemical engineering, synthetic and biotransformation chemistry, and biocell and ...
9781118158753 Our cheapest price for Ionic Liquids in Biotransformations and Organocatalysis Solvents and is $143.95. Free ... PART II IONIC LIQUIDS IN BIOTRANSFORMATIONS 73. 3 IONIC LIQUIDS IN BIOTRANSFORMATIONS: MOTIVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 75. Christina ... 3.2 Motivation to Use IL in Biotransformations 80. 3.3 Challenges for the Use of IL in Biotransformations 91. 4 IONIC LIQUIDS ... 4.5 Multiphase Biotransformations 124. 4.6 Prospects 140. 5 IONIC LIQUIDS AS (CO-)SOLVENTS FOR HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES 151. Hua Zhao ...
This partnership entails bringing Polymaterias Biotransformation technology to market in India through Clariants ... With new innovations such as Biotransformation emerging, we can work with the industry to address these issues.". Niall Dunne, ... Clariant partners to bring new Biotransformation technology to India Additive Masterbatches India Masterbatches Plastics and ... For more information: Clariant And Polymateria Launch Partnership To Bring New Biotransformation Technology To Market In South ...
Microbial biotransformation of phytosterol to produce AD is a well-researched area. However, low substrate solubility of ... Factors affecting the effective biotransformation process to obtain AD are discussed and limitations are highlighted. The main ... This review examines the microbial biotransformation process and limitations for enhanced AD production. ... or 9-hydroxy-AD are the major obstacles for AD production leading to detailed research for optimization of biotransformation ...
By using either 25S-antcin K 26-O-β-glucoside or 25R-antcin K 26-O-β-glucoside as the biotransformation precursor, it was ... Four metabolites from the biotransformation were isolated with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and ... The biotransformation of antcin K, a major ergostane triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea, by Bacillus ... Sequential Biotransformation of Antcin K by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 Te-Sheng Chang 1. , Chien-Min Chiang 2, Yi-Yun Siao 1 ...
... in the 4F Economy: The Food, Feed, Fiber, Fuel (4F) Economy presents an ... Biotransformation of Agricultural Waste and By-Products in the 4F Economy: The Food, Feed, Fiber, Fuel (4F) Economy presents an ...
In contrast to adsorption of mycotoxins by clays, microbial and/or enzymatic biotransformation is highly specific and ... a process called biotransformation. This microbial and/ or enzymatic biotransformation, in contrast to mycotoxin adsorption by ... In contrast to adsorption of mycotoxins by clays, microbial and/or enzymatic biotransformation is highly specific and ...
Faculty / Chemistry / Department of Biochemistry / Hodek Petr / Modulation of key biotransformation enzymes by xenobiotics ...
List of yeasts that do biotransformation Any one know a list of ale yeast that can do biotransformation of hop oils?, i know ... My theory and experience with Biotransformation of dry hops in a NEIPA. Hello everyone, Allow me to share some thoughts and ...
  • Biocatalysis & Biotransformation is an academic journal that provides coverage of the application, both actual and potential of biological catalysts, including whole cells or isolated components thereof, natural and modified enzymes and catalytic antibodies for the synthesis, interconversion or degradation of chemical species. (
  • Hands-on LC/MS experience and proven abilities in determining the biotransformation pathways of drugs by drug metabolizing enzymes. (
  • Biotransformation is a process by which organic compounds are transformed from one form to another, aided by organisms such as bacteria, fungi and enzymes. (
  • Biotransformation of green tea catechins mediated by microbes and/or enzymes could increase their bioavailability and improve their health benefits, but the regulatory mechanism remains unclear. (
  • 3-aminobenzanthrone, a human metabolite of the carcinogenic environmental pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone, induces biotransformation enzymes in rat k. (
  • It assumes that only chemicals freely dissolved in the body fluid may bind with enzymes and subsequently undergo biotransformation reactions. (
  • An overview of the combined quantum mechanical / molecular mechanical (QM / MM) approach and its application to studies of biotransformation enzymes and drug metabolism is given. (
  • Such information is essential in the development of methods to predict metabolism of drugs and to understand metabolic effects of genetic polymorphism in biotransformation enzymes. (
  • Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) are responsible for the biotransformation of a vast range of compounds. (
  • Biotransformation enzymes in human intestine: critical low levels in the colon? (
  • In conclusion, migrating Swedish Atlantic salmon carry higher concentrations of PCBs in their lipids compared to salmon in the Baltic Sea, but have lower activation of biotransformation genes and enzymes. (
  • the pathways of drug metabolism can be divided into: phase І phase II Drugs can undergo one of four potential biotransformations: Active Drug to Inactive Metabolite, Active Drug to Active Metabolite, Inactive Drug to Active Metabolite, Active Drug to Toxic Metabolite (biotoxification). (
  • Major methodological breakthroughs in recent years have enabled detailed genomic, metagenomic, proteomic, bioinformatic and other high-throughput analyses of environmentally relevant microorganisms providing unprecedented insights into biotransformation and biodegradative pathways and the ability of organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. (
  • In the field of Environmental Microbiology, genome-based global studies open a new era providing unprecedented in silico views of metabolic and regulatory networks, as well as clues to the evolution of biochemical pathways relevant to biotransformation and to the molecular adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions. (
  • Functional genomic and metagenomic approaches are increasing our understanding of the relative importance of different pathways and regulatory networks to carbon flux in particular environments and for particular compounds and they are accelerating the development of bioremediation technologies and biotransformation processes. (
  • An effective way to counteract them is through biodegradation by natural metabolic pathways, a process called biotransformation. (
  • The samples were also measured for As speciation using HPLC-ICP-MS to investigate potential As biotransformation pathways. (
  • This study proposes that fungal pathways must be considered for the biotransformation of potential PFAS precursors, such as 6:2 FTOH, and suggests the basis for selecting proper microorganisms for remediation of fluoroalkyl‐contaminated sites. (
  • However, very little is known regarding the interactions between PBDEs and the gut microbiome, and how such interactions modify the hepatic xenobiotic biotransformation and intermediary metabolism pathways. (
  • Taken together, the present study revealed for the first time that there is a novel interaction between the gut microbiome and PBDEs, and this markedly impacts both xenobiotic biotransformation and intermediary metabolism pathways in the host liver. (
  • The focus of his research group is elucidating novel biotransformation products and pathways of emerging contaminants to inform improved design of engineered natural treatment systems for non-point pollutants. (
  • The terms metabolism and biotransformation are used interchangeably in this book. (
  • The metabolism of a drug or toxin in a body is an example of a biotransformation. (
  • The DMPK biotransformation group at Genentech is seeking a highly motivated individual to support development drug metabolism. (
  • To investigate the biotransformation of pantoprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, by filamentous fungus and further to compare the similarities between microbial transformation and mammalian metabolism of pantoprazole, four strains of Cunninghamella (C. blakesleeana AS 3.153, C. echinulata AS 3.2004, C. elegans AS 3.156, and AS 3.2028) were screened for the ability to catalyze the biotransformation of pantoprazole. (
  • Our findings indicate that As(V) accumulation and its subsequent biotransformation were enhanced by organic P forms, which provides new insight into how DOP modulates As metabolism in algae. (
  • If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO2, NH4+, or H2O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation. (
  • Biotransformation of xenobiotics can dominate toxicokinetics and the metabolites may reach higher concentrations in organisms than their parent compounds. (
  • These bioremediation and biotransformation methods harness the naturally occurring, microbial catabolic diversity to degrade, transform or accumulate a huge range of compounds including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals. (
  • The research of the Biotransformation and Biocatalysis group is aimed at obtaining insight in the enzymology of the microbial transformation of synthetic compounds, and the development of improved biocatalysts for such transformations. (
  • The liver is the predominant organ in which biotransformation of foreign compounds takes place, although other organs may also be involved in drug biotransformation. (
  • Biotransformations can also be used to synthesize compounds or materials, if synthetic approaches are challenging. (
  • Biotransformation approaches and synthetic methods in tandem provide a source for generating compounds around core structures, which can be screened for various biological activity studies. (
  • Hence, biotransformation experiments can be effectively utilized to synthesize more compounds. (
  • Biotransformation is one of the important experimental methods to identify compounds, whose structure and properties resembles the parent compound. (
  • This project aims to exploit engineered biofilms as biocatalysts in the biotransformations of enantiomerically pure compounds for fine chemical and pharmaceutical industry. (
  • In this work an overview of recent and important findings related to patents and various microbial biotransformations of steroidal compounds including dehydrogenation/reduction, hydroxylation, esterification, methylation, halogenation and methoxylation is presented. (
  • The term 'biotransformation' may be unfamiliar to some in the industry, but it refers to fermentation and other natural processing methods that involve transforming compounds within a living system," said Marc Philouze, general manager of Gnosis by Lesaffre, in a press release. (
  • We developed a unified model that was able to simulate four experimental types (two variants of OECD 308 and two variants of OECD 309) for three compounds by using a biomass corrected, generalized aerobic biotransformation parameter (k'bio). (
  • Aspergillus niger is a well-known fungus that has been used for many different biotransformations of organic compounds. (
  • Coverage includes: Mechanistic, principles, kinetics and thermodynamics of biocatalytic processes The chemical or genetic modification of biocatalysts Metabolic engineering Activity and stability of biocatalysts in non-aqueous and multi-phasic environments Environmental applications of biocatalysis David Leak is the Editor-in-Chief of Biocatalysis & Biotransformation. (
  • We hope to continue this tradition with the current compendium of mini-reviews that highlight novel biotransformation processes that were published during the past year. (
  • Bioaccumulation occurs when uptake processes outcompete those of elimination and biotransformation. (
  • The PBTK model described here can account for respiratory and dietary uptake routes and for chemical biotransformation processes. (
  • Gnosis by Lesaffre has unveiled a new business strategy which is the continued focus on microorganisms and biotransformation processes such as fermentation to cultivate nutritional actives, probiotics, and yeasts that will target five key market segments. (
  • This study highlights the potential of chiral analysis to study biotransformation processes in food webs. (
  • Little is known about the bioaccumulation dynamics, biotransformation processes, or subsequent toxicity to consumers of dissolved selenite (SeO 3 ) versus selenate (SeO 4 ) uptake into aquatic primary producer communities. (
  • We hypothesize that migrating salmons' biotransformation processes are affected by the high levels of built-up PCBs compared to salmon that in a pre-migrational stage. (
  • Our results indicate that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea are deactivated inside the migrating salmon's lipid tissues and increase in concentration when migration is initiated thereby limiting their impact on biotransformation processes. (
  • The use of glycosyltransferases (GT) for biotransformation reactions on natural and synthetic aglycones is a non-developed field. (
  • Other biotransformation reactions involve demethylation, oxidative cleavage of amine, cleavage of C-N bond, aldehyde to carboxylate transformation and hydroxylation. (
  • Biotransformation reactions, which yield products having a higher toxicity than the parent compound, are referred to as BIOACTIVATION reactions. (
  • A novel series of biotransformation reactions is implicated in the conversion of the ethoxycoumarin substrate to these products, including O -deethylation, 6-hydroxylation to form a 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin catechol, and subsequent O -methylation. (
  • The mechanisms are quite well understood, but there is still a tremendous variation in reactions that lead to biotransformations. (
  • Biotransformation reactions were performed for 48 h using baker s yeast with M. oleifera or C. lanatus seed oil (experimental) and without yeast (control) in nutrient broth medium. (
  • Another method uses historic metabolic biotransformation data from the literature exclusively [ 3 ]. (
  • The book will provide an opportunity for scientists in the areas of microbiology, biochemistry, engineering, food science, biotechnology, and environmental science to obtain a clear understanding of microbial biotransformations of xenobiotics, as well as an interface between industry and the academic world. (
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Biodegradation, Bioremediation and Biotransformation. (
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Biodegradation, Bioremediation and Biotransformation are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (
  • ICBBB 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Biodegradation, Bioremediation and Biotransformation . (
  • The NADPH-dependent biotransformation of CLZ was therefore studied using hepatic microsomes derived from humans and ten other mammalian species. (
  • An update on in vitro test methods in human hepatic drug biotransformation research: pros and cons. (
  • However, very little evidences on fungal degradation or biotransformation of EHCO have been reported, which contain high amounts of asphaltenes and its biodegradation rate is very limited. (
  • We selected three cell lines from different tissues to more fully account for whole-body biotransformation in vivo: the RTL-W1 cell line, representing the liver as major site of biotransformation, and the RTgill-W1 (gill) and RTgutGC (intestine) cell lines, as important environment-organism interfaces, which likely influence chemical uptake. (
  • Consequently, the whole body biotransformation rate of a chemical is retarded by the extent of its distribution in different biological compartments. (
  • Using a randomly generated training set (n = 64), the biotransformation model is found to be: log(HLφfish) = 2.2(± 0.3)B − 2.1(± 0.2)V − 0.6(± 0.3) (RMSE = 0.71), where HL is the whole body biotransformation half‐life in days, φfish is the freely dissolved fraction in body fluid, and B and V are the chemical's H‐bond acceptance capacity and molecular volume. (
  • Fragmentation pattern obtained from the mass spectrum is utilized to identify the biotransformation site in the molecule, which is the metabolic soft spot. (
  • Minimum biotransformation rates, calculated from enantiomer mass balances between predators and prey, suggest metabolic half-lives on the order of 8 yr for CB 136 in lake trout and 2.6 yr for CB 95 in sculpins. (
  • We do this by measuring chemical uptake and biotransformation rates not only in cells of a rainbow trout liver cell line (RTL-W1), but also an intestinal (RTgutGC) as well as a gill (RTgill-W1) cell line to account for possible sites of biotransformation other than the liver. (
  • Together with previously analysed levels of these contaminants in plasma of the same mother-pup pairs, these results put together were used to examine in detail the maternal transfer (placental/lactational) and uptake and biotransformation in the pups. (
  • Widely nonracemic PCB residues in forage fish (lake herring, rainbow smelt, and slimy sculpin) and lake trout suggest a combination of both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from prey for these species. (
  • thus, here we examined the relative isomer-specific biotransformation rates of a model PFOS-precursor (N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide, NEtFOSA) with human microsomes and recombinant human cytochrome P450s (CYPs) 2C9 and 2C19. (
  • In liver, which is the major organ for xenobiotic biotransformation and nutrient homeostasis, certain PBDE congeners are oxidized by cytochrome P450s (Cyps) to form more toxic metabolites. (
  • Ideally, an in vitro model for drug biotransformation should accurately resemble biotransformation in vivo in the liver. (
  • Also there is other approach of biotransformation called enzymatic biotransformation. (
  • In contrast to adsorption of mycotoxins by clays, microbial and/or enzymatic biotransformation is highly specific and irreversible. (
  • Biocatalysis & Biotransformation publishes 6 issues per year in simultaneous print and online editions. (
  • Subscribers to the electronic edition of Biocatalysis & Biotransformation receive access to the online archive, which dates back to 1987, as part of their subscription. (
  • It clarifies principles in reaction and biochemical engineering, synthetic and biotransformation chemistry, and biocell and enzyme kinetics for successful applications of biocatalysis and bioprocess technologies in the food, chiral drug, vitamin, pharmaceutical, and animal feed industries. (
  • However, low substrate solubility of phytosterol in aqueous media and nucleus degradation of AD to androstadienedione (ADD) or 9-hydroxy-AD are the major obstacles for AD production leading to detailed research for optimization of biotransformation process. (
  • Four metabolites from the biotransformation were isolated with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as 25 S -antcin K 26- O -β-glucoside, 25 R -antcin K 26- O -β-glucoside, 25 S -antcin K 26- O -β-(6′- O -succinyl)-glucoside, and 25 R -antcin K 26- O -β-(6′- O -succinyl)-glucoside with mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. (
  • Microbial biotransformations or microbial biotechnology are extensively used to generate metabolites in bulk amounts. (
  • During biotransformation, a particular drug is treated with microsomal proteins and screened for possible metabolites [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • The objective of this study was to examine levels and patterns of POPs and their metabolites in mother-pup pairs with respect to maternal transfer and biotransformation. (
  • Thus, a placental transfer is suggested by the current study to be the major source of OH-metabolites found in the pups, but endogenous biotransformation in the pups may also contribute to these levels. (
  • Biotransformation of 7-ethoxycoumarin by Streptomyces griseus resulted in the accumulation of two metabolites which were isolated and identified as 7-hydroxycoumarin and 7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin. (
  • Biotransformation of Cranberry Proanthocyanidins to Probiotic Metabolites by Lactobacillus rhamnosus Enhances Their Anticancer Activity in HepG2 Cells In Vitro. (
  • A model for whole body in vivo biotransformation of neutral and weakly polar organic chemicals in fish is presented. (
  • In contrast, aerobic biotransformation half-lives should be easier to extract from OECD 309 experiments with suspended sediments. (
  • Overall, k'bio has the potential to serve as a system-independent descriptor of aerobic biotransformation at the water-sediment interface that is equally and consistently applicable for both persistence and exposure assessment purposes. (
  • The overall TMP removal efficiency for the pilot BNR process was 64 ± 14% while the TMP biotransformation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones were 22 ± 20%, 27 ± 8% and 36 ± 5% respectively. (
  • Our aim was to find a way to extract biotransformation rate constants that are universally valid across variants of water-sediment systems and, hence, provide a more general description of the compound's behavior in the environment. (
  • Several studies have been conducted on the biotransformation and degradation of chlorophenols from the water-soil environment. (
  • Dissolved organic phosphorus enhances arsenate bioaccumulation and biotransformation in Microcystis aeruginosa. (
  • Only limited information is available on the effects of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) on arsenate (As(V)) bioaccumulation and biotransformation in organisms. (
  • Wang Z, Gui H, Luo Z, Zhen Z, Yan C, Xing B. Dissolved organic phosphorus enhances arsenate bioaccumulation and biotransformation in Microcystis aeruginosa. (
  • Biotransformation occur between absorption and elimination from kidneys. (
  • Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-" by Moira A. McKernan, Barnett A. Rattner et al. (
  • Further, we explored periphyton biotransformation of Se species using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis and changes in the periphyton associated microbial consortium using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). (
  • Biotransformation of Agricultural Waste and By-Products in the 4F Economy: The Food, Feed, Fiber, Fuel (4F) Economy presents an evaluation of plant species better exploitable for a particular transformation. (
  • Comparatively little is known with regard to the biotransformation of this drug in other species. (
  • These data indicate a species-conserved mechanism for the oxidative biotransformation of chlorzoxazone. (
  • These results suggest that the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic to organic species does not contribute to As resistance in the sampled earthworm populations. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Biotransformation of pantoprazole by the fungus Cunninghamella blakesleeana. (
  • Biotransformation of alpha-cedrol and caryophyllene oxide by the fungus Neurospora crassa. (
  • Biotransformation of alpha- and 6beta-santonin by fungus and plant cell cultures. (
  • Prior to this study, one report demonstrated that the 6:2 FTOH biotransformation by the wood‐decaying fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, generated more polyfluoroalkyl substances, such as 5:3 acid (F(CF2)5CH2CH2COOH), and diverted away from producing the highly stable perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). (
  • PCB atropisomers were racemic in phytoplankton and zooplankton, suggesting no biotransformation potential toward PCBs for these low trophic level organisms. (
  • Biotransformation means chemical alteration of chemicals such as nutrients, amino acids, toxins, and drugs in the body. (
  • Furthermore, the model adequately captures variation in biotransformation rate between chemicals with varying logKOW, B, and V, and exhibits high degree of independence from the choice of training chemicals. (
  • The OECD guidelines 308 and 309 define simulation tests aimed at assessing biotransformation of chemicals in water-sediment systems. (
  • Biotransformation of various pollutants is a sustainable way to clean up contaminated environments. (
  • Our research focuses on the fundamental mechanisms related to the microbial and vegetative biotransformation of emerging contaminants in aquatic environments. (
  • 2018. "Sequential Biotransformation of Antcin K by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. (
  • This dissertation investigates the impact of stereoselective biotransformation and particle size on the persistence of steroid hormones, one of the most potent category of EDCs, in aquatic sediment. (
  • Alternatively, macrozooplankton obtained nonracemic residues from feeding on organic-rich suspended particles and sediments, which would imply that stereoselective microbial PCB biotransformation may be occurring in Lake Superior sediments at PCB concentrations far lower than that previously associated with such activity. (
  • Co-exposures with α-naphthoflavone as potent inhibitor of biotransformation, assessment of CYP1A catalytic activity, and the progression of cellular toxicity upon prolonged BaP exposure revealed that BaP is handled differently in the RTgill-W1 compared to the other two cell lines. (
  • In this study, we examined the influence of three different DOP forms (β-sodium glycerophosphate (βP), adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), and D-Glucose-6-phosphate disodium (GP) salts) and inorganic phosphate (IP) on As(V) toxicity, accumulation, and biotransformation in Microcystis aeruginosa. (
  • This includes enzyme identification and characterization, genetic engineering and expression of GT genes, optimization of GT production and biotransformation conditions, and development of tools to identify further GT genes and activities (analytical procedures). (
  • In this study, preliminary investigations on biotransformation of under utilized Moringa oleifera and Citrullus lanatus seed oils were carried out using baker s yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). (
  • The use of Streptomycete glycosyltransferases (GT) for biotransformations of natural and synthetic aglycones should be explored. (
  • Lilly, MD. / Production of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase for synthetic biotransformation . (
  • Its susceptibility to microbiological breakdown was studied in a batch biotransformation system, in presence or absence of carbon source and at two activated sludge concentrations. (
  • A pilot scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) process, batch experiments and modeling exercises were employed to investigate the removal and biotransformation of trimethoprim (TMP) in a BNR activated sludge process. (
  • Batch tests with and without nitrification inhibition showed that AOB played a role in the biotransformation of TMP in BNR activated sludge. (
  • 0.01) indicating that the same enzyme(s) mediated these biotransformations. (
  • Liquid chromatography-multistage mass spectrometry (LC-MS n ) studies determined that collision-induced dissociation, and not biotransformation or enzyme catalysis, produced the unique mass spectral rearrangement. (
  • Although much progress in microbial biotransformation on steroid drugs is well-achieved, many efforts are ongoing in order to improve the efficiency of steroidal drug production as well as to degrade their derivatives. (
  • Co-occurrence of α- and β-isomers decreases the biotransformation rates of both isomers in a sandy sediment indicating carbon source and/or nutrient limited condition may enhance the competition between stereoisomers. (
  • These results provide a global insight into the roles of A. niger RAF106 and different nutrient sources in mediating the biotransformation of green tea catechins and modifying the radical-scavenging activity of biotransformed catechins. (
  • The first book of its kind, it will open new vistas of research in the field of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology in general, and Biotransformations in particular. (
  • For the drug to get excreted into urine or bile it has to undergo a series of transformation which is called biotransformation. (
  • use in toxicology and xenobiotic biotransformations in REPE, which takes the administration of being air and body. (
  • use in toxicology and xenobiotic biotransformations solution mali come thick and persons are the formations semper, image-based opinion, relations, same map and see of viewing mistake in same hours, according individuals, enquiries, and presently1 remoteness. (
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  • Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound. (
  • A new triterpenoid compound (1) and a known compound (2) were isolated from the product of biotransformation of glycyrrhizic acid by Aspergillus niger. (
  • Although dissipation half-lives of the parent compound are directly extractable from OECD 308 data, they are system-specific and mix up phase transfer with biotransformation. (
  • The enantiomeric composition of seven chiral PCB congeners was measured in the Lake Superior aquatic food web sampled in 1998, to determine the extent of enantioselective biotransformation in aquatic biota. (
  • This result suggests that significant biotransformation may occur for metaboliz able PCB congeners over the lifespan of these biota. (
  • Biotransformation of some pyrazole derivatives to glutathione conjugates in rat liver subcellular fractions. (
  • One new triterpenoid from biotransformation product of glycyrrhiz. (
  • The biotransformation of antcin K, a major ergostane triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea , by Bacillus subtilis ( B. subtilis ) ATCC 6633 was studied. (
  • However, the premise of these benefits has been dampened since RES shows a poor oral bioavailability due to its rapid and extensive biotransformation after oral consumption. (
  • Overall, our results provided a solid scientific basis for understanding the chemopreventative mechanisms of RES from the perspective of biotransformation and gut microbiota and are of great value for future research on RES in prevention and treatment of colonic diseases in humans. (