Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Cunninghamella: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Cunninghamellaceae, order MUCORALES. Some species cause systemic infections in humans.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Dealkylation: The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Metabolic Detoxication, Phase I: Functionalization of exogenous substances to prepare them for conjugation in PHASE II DETOXIFICATION. Phase I enzymes include CYTOCHROME P450 enzymes and some OXIDOREDUCTASES. Excess induction of phase I over phase II detoxification leads to higher levels of FREE RADICALS that can induce CANCER and other cell damage. Induction or antagonism of phase I detoxication is the basis of a number of DRUG INTERACTIONS.Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Metabolic Detoxication, Phase II: The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Trinitrotoluene: A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Gordonia Bacterium: A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Oxidoreductases, N-DemethylatingTroleandomycin: A macrolide antibiotic that is similar to ERYTHROMYCIN.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Oncorhynchus kisutch: An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Equol: A non-steroidal ESTROGEN generated when soybean products are metabolized by certain bacteria in the intestines.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Berberidaceae: The Barberry plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The shrubs have spiny leaves.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Fenthion: Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6: A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Hepatophyta: A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).Norisoprenoids: Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Ethylmorphine: A narcotic analgesic and antitussive. It is metabolized in the liver by ETHYLMORPHINE-N-DEMETHYLASE and used as an indicator of liver function.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.BenzaldehydesTandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B1: A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.Mucorales: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase: A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.Ethylmercuric Chloride: A highly toxic compound used as a fungicide for treating seeds.Eugenol: A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Ethyl EthersSoil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Alprazolam: A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)Ethoxyquin: Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Atrazine: A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Aspergillus ochraceus: An imperfect fungus that produces ochratoxins and contaminates EDIBLE GRAIN and coffee beans.Ethylmercury Compounds: Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to an ethyl group.Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.Parathion: A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Nuphar: A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. Members contain sesquiterpene thioalkaloids.Batch Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.tert-Butyl AlcoholCatechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Lactobacillus brevis: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.Triazolam: A short-acting benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acrylonitrile: A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.Rats, Inbred F344Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Pyrazolones: Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Photinia: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. The common names of chokeberry or chokecherry are also used for some species of PRUNUS.Skin Lightening Preparations: Substances used to obtain a lighter skin complexion or to treat HYPERPIGMENTATION disorders.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Umbelliferones: 7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.L-Lysine 6-Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-LYSINE onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde and L-GLUTAMATE.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Micromonospora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.Dichloroethylenes: Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Carboxylesterase: Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Butylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Mercury Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Aminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Dichloroacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Chlorella: Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.NorbornanesPyrrolizidine Alkaloids: A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.Epoxide Hydrolases: Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Pseudomonas mendocina: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Estrogens, Non-Steroidal: Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antimitotic Agents: Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Transaldolase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield D-erythrose 4-phosphate and D-fructose phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.2.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals: Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.Anemarrhena: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain anemarans (POLYSACCHARIDES), hinokiresinol, mangiferin (a xanthone), and timosaponin (a steroidal saponin).Safrole: A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedPolychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.

Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria. (1/3890)

Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria.  (+info)

Enantioselective inhibition of the biotransformation and pharmacological actions of isoidide dinitrate by diphenyleneiodonium sulphate. (2/3890)

1. We have shown previously that the D- and L- enantiomers of isoidide dinitrate (D-IIDN and L-IIDN) exhibit a potency difference for relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation in isolated rat aorta and that this is related to preferential biotransformation of the more potent enantiomer (D-IIDN). The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of the flavoprotein inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium sulphate (DPI), on the enantioselectivity of IIDN action. 2. In isolated rat aortic strip preparations, exposure to 0.3 microM DPI resulted in a 3.6 fold increase in the EC50 value for D-IIDN-induced relaxation, but had no effect on L-IIDN-induced relaxation. 3. Incubation of aortic strips with 2 microM D- or L-IIDN for 5 min resulted in significantly more D-isoidide mononitrate formed (5.0 +/- 1.5 pmol mg protein(-1)) than L-isoidide mononitrate (2.1 +/- 0.7 pmol mg protein(-1)) and this difference was abolished by pretreatment of tissues with 0.3 microM DPI. DPI had no effect on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity or GSH-dependent biotransformation of D- or L-IIDN in the 105,000 x g supernatant fraction of rat aorta. 4. Consistent with both the relaxation and biotransformation data, treatment of tissues with 0.3 microM DPI significantly inhibited D-IIDN-induced cyclic GMP accumulation, but had no effect on L-IIDN-induced cyclic GMP accumulation. 5. In the intact animal, 2 mg kg(-1) DPI significantly inhibited the pharmacokinetic and haemodynamic properties of D-IIDN, but had no effect L-IIDN. 6. These data suggest that the basis for the potency difference for relaxation by the two enantiomers is preferential biotransformation of D-IIDN to NO, by an enzyme that is inhibited by DPI. Given that DPI binds to and inhibits NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, the data are consistent with a role for the cytochromes P450-NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase system in this enantioselective biotransformation process.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 determines susceptibility to 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced lymphomas. (3/3890)

CYP1B1-null mice, created by targeted gene disruption in embryonic stem cells, were born at the expected frequency from heterozygous matings with no observable phenotype, thus establishing that CYP1B1 is not required for mouse development. CYP1B1 was not detectable in cultured embryonic fibroblast (EF) or in different tissues, such as lung, of the CYP1B1-null mouse treated with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin whereas the equivalent wild-type EF cells express basal and substantial inducible CYP1B1 and lung expresses inducible CYP1B1. CYP1A1 is induced to far higher levels than CYP1B1 in liver, kidney, and lung in wild-type mice and is induced to a similar extent in CYP1B1-null mice. 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) was toxic in wild-type EFs that express CYP1B1 but not CYP1A1. These cells effectively metabolized DMBA, consistent with CYP1B1 involvement in producing the procarcinogenic 3,4-dihydrodiol as a major metabolite, whereas CYP1B1-null EF showed no significant metabolism and were resistant to DMBA-mediated toxicity. When wild-type mice were administered high levels of DMBA intragastrically, 70% developed highly malignant lymphomas whereas only 7.5% of CYP1B1-null mice had lymphomas. Skin hyperplasia and tumors were also more frequent in wild-type mice. These results establish that CYP1B1, located exclusively at extrahepatic sites, mediates the carcinogenicity of DMBA. Surprisingly, CYP1A1, which has a high rate of DMBA metabolism in vitro, is not sufficient for this carcinogenesis, which demonstrates the importance of extrahepatic P450s in determining susceptibility to chemical carcinogens and validates the search for associations between P450 expression and cancer risk in humans.  (+info)

Microbial desulfurization of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (4/3890)

Sulfur removal from petroleum is important from the standpoint of the global environment because the combustion of sulfur compounds leads to the production of sulfur oxides, which are the source of acid rain. As the regulations for sulfur in fuels become more stringent, the existing chemical desulfurizations are coming inadequate for the "deeper desulfurization" to produce lower-sulfur fuels without new and innovative processes. Biodesulfurization is rising as one of the candidates. Several microorganisms were found to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT), a representative of the organic sulfur compounds in petroleum, forming a sulfur-free compound, 2-hydroxybiphenyl. They are promising as biocatalysts in the microbial desulfurization of petroleum because without assimilation of the carbon content, they remove only sulfur from the heterocyclic compounds which is refractory to conventional chemical desulfurization. Both enzymological and molecular genetic studies are now in progress for the purpose of obtaining improved desulfurization activity of organisms. The genes involved in the sulfur-specific DBT desulfurization were identified and the corresponding enzymes have been investigated. From the practical point of view, it has been proved that the microbial desulfurization proceeds in the presence of high concentrations of hydrocarbons, and more complicated DBT analogs are also desulfurized by the microorganisms. This review outlines the progress in the studies of the microbial desulfurization from the basic and practical point of view.  (+info)

Studies on cytochrome P-450-mediated bioactivation of diclofenac in rats and in human hepatocytes: identification of glutathione conjugated metabolites. (5/3890)

The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac causes a rare but potentially fatal hepatotoxicity that may be associated with the formation of reactive metabolites. In this study, three glutathione (GSH) adducts, namely 5-hydroxy-4-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac (M1), 4'-hydroxy-3'-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac (M2), and 5-hydroxy-6-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac (M3), were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of bile from Sprague-Dawley rats injected i.p. with a single dose of diclofenac (200 mg/kg). These adducts presumably were formed via hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-catalyzed oxidation of diclofenac to reactive benzoquinone imines that were trapped by GSH conjugation. In support of this hypothesis, M1, M2, and M3 were generated from diclofenac in incubations with rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH and GSH. Increases in adduct formation were observed when incubations were performed with liver microsomes from phenobarbital- or dexamethasone-treated rats. Adduct formation was inhibited by polyclonal antibodies against CYP2B, CYP2C, and CYP3A (40-50% inhibition at 5 mg of IgG/nmol of CYP) but not by an antibody against CYP1A. Maximal inhibition was obtained when the three inhibitory antibodies were used in a cocktail fashion (70-80% inhibition at 2.5 mg of each IgG/nmol of CYP). These data suggest that diclofenac undergoes biotransformation to reactive metabolites in rats and that CYP isoforms of the 2B, 2C, and 3A subfamilies are involved in this bioactivation process. With respect to CYP2C isoforms, rat hepatic CYP2C7 and CYP2C11 were implicated as mediators of the bioactivation based on immunoinhibition studies using antibodies specific to CYP2C7 and CYP2C11. Screening for GSH adducts also was carried out in human hepatocyte cultures containing diclofenac, and M1, M2, and M3 again were detected. It is possible, therefore, that reactive benzoquinone imines may be formed in vivo in humans and contribute to diclofenac-mediated hepatic injury.  (+info)

Oxidative bioactivation of the lactol prodrug of a lactone cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. (6/3890)

The lactol derivative of a lactone cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (DFU) was evaluated in vivo and in vitro for its potential suitability as a prodrug. DFU-lactol was found to be 10 to 20 times more soluble than DFU in a variety of aqueous vehicles. After administration of DFU-lactol at 20 mg kg-1 p.o. in rats, a Cmax of 7.5 microM DFU was reached in the plasma. After oral administration, the ED50s of DFU-lactol in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and lipopolysaccharide-induced pyresis assays in rats are comparable with the ED50s observed when dosing with DFU. Incubations of DFU-lactol with rat and human hepatocytes demonstrated that the oxidation of DFU-lactol can be mediated by liver enzymes and that a competing pathway is direct glucuronidation of the DFU-lactol hydroxyl group. Assays with subcellular fractions from rat liver indicated that most of the oxidation of DFU-lactol occurs in the cytosolic fraction and requires NAD(P)+. Human liver cytosol can also support the oxidation of DFU-lactol to DFU when NAD(P)+ is added to the incubations. Fractionation of human liver cytosolic proteins showed that at least three enzymes are capable of efficiently effecting the oxidation of DFU-lactol to DFU. Incubations with commercially available dehydrogenases suggest that alcohol and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are involved in this oxidative process. These data together suggest that lactols may represent useful prodrugs for lactone-containing drugs.  (+info)

The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor fluvastatin: effect on human cytochrome P-450 and implications for metabolic drug interactions. (7/3890)

Fluvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, was metabolized by human liver microsomes to 5-hydroxy-, 6-hydroxy-, and N-deisopropyl-fluvastatin. Total metabolite formation was biphasic with apparent Km values of 0.2 to 0.7 and 7.9 to 50 microM and intrinsic metabolic clearance rates of 1.4 to 4 and 0.3 to 1.5 ml/h/mg microsomal protein for the high and low Km components, respectively. Several enzymes, but mainly CYP2C9, catalyzed fluvastatin metabolism. Only CYP2C9 inhibitors such as sulfaphenazole inhibited the formation of both 6-hydroxy- and N-deisopropyl-fluvastatin. 5-Hydroxy-fluvastatin formation was reduced by compounds that are inhibitors of CYP2C9, CYP3A, or CYP2C8. Fluvastatin in turn inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed tolbutamide and diclofenac hydroxylation with Ki values of 0.3 and 0.5 microM, respectively. For CYP2C8-catalyzed 6alpha-hydroxy-paclitaxel formation the IC50 was 20 microM and for CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A catalyzed reactions, no IC50 could be determined up to 100 microM fluvastatin. All three fluvastatin metabolites were also formed by recombinant CYP2C9, whereas CYP1A1, CYP2C8, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 produced only 5-hydroxy-fluvastatin. Km values were approximately 1, 2.8, and 7.1 microM for CYP2C9, CYP2C8, and CYP3A, respectively. No difference in fluvastatin metabolism was found between the CYP2C9R144 and CYP2C9C144 alleles, suggesting the absence of polymorphic fluvastatin metabolism by these alleles. CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and CYP3A5 did not produce detectable amounts of any metabolite. This data indicates that several human cytochrome P-450 enzymes metabolize fluvastatin with CYP2C9 contributing 50-80%. Any coadministered drug would therefore only partially reduce the metabolic clearance of fluvastatin; therefore, the likelihood for serious metabolic drug interactions is expected to be minimal.  (+info)

Rapid liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry-based screening procedures for studies on the biotransformation of drug candidates. (8/3890)

The accelerated pace of contemporary drug discovery and development in the pharmaceutical industry has generated increasing demands for early information on the metabolic fate of candidate drugs to guide the selection of new compounds for clinical evaluation. In response to these demands, we have developed a procedure for the rapid analysis of complex biological mixtures for the presence of drug-related materials and have embarked on the development of novel computer-based approaches whereby such procedures can be automated. The goal of this work was to rapidly identify drug metabolites (derived either from a single substrate or from a mixture of substrates) formed in vivo or in vitro. The approach that we have developed relies on the use of generic chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods for analysis of mixtures of drugs and metabolites and on correlation analysis of tandem mass spectrometry spectra to distinguish drug-related components from endogenous materials. Cross-correlation of the spectra also is used to identify the relationship between each metabolite and its respective parent drug in the mixture. In this manner, metabolites of a mixture of several drugs may be analyzed in the time it normally would take to analyze the products from a single substrate. We show that this rapid analytical approach can, with only minor sacrifices in the completeness of the data, significantly increase the number of compounds whose metabolic fate can be elucidated in a given time.  (+info)

*Bacterial glutathione transferase

In bacteria, GSTs are involved in a variety of distinct processes such as biotransformation of toxic compounds, protection ...

*Biotransformation

Also there is other approach of biotransformation called enzymatic biotransformation. Petroleum oil is toxic for most life ... ISBN 978-1-904455-17-2. Biotransformation of Drugs Biodegradation, Bioremediation and Biotransformation Microbial ... Biotransformation means chemical alteration of chemicals such as nutrients, amino acids, toxins, and drugs in the body. It is ... The metabolism of a drug or toxin in a body is an example of a biotransformation. The body typically deals with a foreign ...

*Biocatalysis & Biotransformation

Biotransformation. Biocatalysis & Biotransformation publishes 6 issues per year in simultaneous print and online editions. ... Biocatalysis & Biotransformation is an academic journal that provides coverage of the application, both actual and potential of ... Subscribers to the electronic edition of Biocatalysis & Biotransformation receive access to the online archive, which dates ...

*Penicillium oxalicum

Biocatalysis and Biotransformation. 32 (4): 199-207. doi:10.3109/10242422.2014.934365. Jarvis, W. R.; Barrie, S. D.; Traquair, ...

*Glycogen debranching enzyme

Biocatalysis and Biotransformation. 26: 76-85. doi:10.1080/10242420701806652. Nakayama A, Yamamoto K, Tabata S (August 2001). " ...

*3-HO-PCP

Holsztynska EJ, Domino EF (1985). "Biotransformation of phencyclidine". Drug Metab. Rev. 16 (3): 285-320. doi:10.3109/ ... application for in vivo and in vitro biotransformation studies". J Anal Toxicol. 10 (3): 107-15. PMID 3724069. "(ACMD) ...

*Streptomyces endus

Biocatalysis and Biotransformation. 4 (1): 77-77. doi:10.3109/10242429008998198. OGATA, SEIYA; KOYAMA-MIYOSHI, YUKO; YOSHINO, ...

*Arsenic biochemistry

The biotransformation of arsenic for excretion is primarily done through the nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 ... doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90089-Z. Martinez, V.D; Vucic, E.A (2011). "Arsenic biotransformation as a cancer promoting factor by ... Vahter, Marie (2002). "Mechanisms of arsenic biotransformation". Toxicology. 181-182: 211-7. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00285-8 ... Kumagai, Yoshito; Sumi, Daigo (2007). "Arsenic: Signal Transduction, Transcription Factor, and Biotransformation Involved in ...

*Soman

Jokanovic, M., (2001). Biotransformation of organophosphorus compounds. In Toxicology 166, pp. 139-160 Jokanovic, M., (2009). ...

*Tetraethyl pyrophosphate

doi:10.1016/S0378-4274(01)00543-4. Jokanović, Milan (2001-09-25). "Biotransformation of organophosphorus compounds". Toxicology ...

*Streptomyces badius

Gupta, Rajinder K.; Spiker, Jennifer K.; Crawford, Don L. (May 1988). "Biotransformation of coal by ligninolytic". Canadian ... "Biotransformation of quinoxaline by Streptomyces badius". Letters in Applied Microbiology. 22 (3): 199-201. doi:10.1111/j.1472- ...

*Saturation mutagenesis

Biocatalysis and Biotransformation/Bioinorganic Chemistry. 13 (1): 19-25. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.01.019. ...

*Technetium

Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.; Meinken, G. E. (2002). "Biotransformation of pertechnetate by Clostridia". Radiochimica Acta. 90 ...

*Nitrogenase

Bioinorganic chemistry / Biocatalysis and biotransformation. 10 (2): 101-8. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.02.019. PMID 16510305. ...

*Arthrobacter viscosus

ISBN 1-4398-0408-7. Wandrey, A. Liese, K. Seelbach, C. (2000). Industrial biotransformations. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527- ...

*Cunninghamella elegans

The biotransformation of quercetin yields three metabolites, including quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-D- ... Zhang, D.; Evans, F. E.; Freeman, J. P.; Duhart Jr, B.; Cerniglia, C. E. (1995). "Biotransformation of amitriptyline by ... Zhang, D.; Freeman, J. P.; Sutherland, J. B.; Walker, A. E.; Yang, Y.; Cerniglia, C. E. (1996). "Biotransformation of ... Pothuluri, J. V.; Freeman, J. P.; Evans, F. E.; Cerniglia, C. E. (1993). "Biotransformation of fluorene by the fungus ...

*Isostere

Biotransformations and Bioprocesses. CRC Press, 2004, p. 60. ISBN 0-8247-4775-5 H. Erlenmeyer, Ernst Willi: Zusammenhänge ...

*Serotonin

Alarcon, J (2008). "Biotransformation of indole derivatives by mycelial cultures". Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 63: 82. ...

*Enzyme kinetics

Baillie T, Rettenmeier A (1986). "Drug biotransformation: mechanistic studies with stable isotopes". Journal of clinical ...

*Cinobufagin

Li Qiao; Yu-zhi Zhou; Zhang J; Xiu-lan Qi; Li-hong Lin; Huan Chen; Li-yan Pang; Yue-hu Pei (2007). "Biotransformation of ...

*TNT

... biotransformation versus mineralization". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54 (5): 605-18. doi:10.1007/s002530000445. PMID 11131384 ...

*H. Vasken Aposhian

This has included enzymology of arsenic biotransformation; the study of human populations in Chile, Inner Mongolia, Romania, ...

*Tetrazepam

Baumgärtner, MG; Cautreels, W; Langenbahn, H (1984). "Biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of tetrazepam in man". ...

*Synthesis of nanoparticles by fungi

2005). "Microbial cells and enzymes". Microbial enzymes and biotransformations. pp. 1-10. ISBN 1-58829-253-3. Ghorbani, HR; ...

*Metabolism

Galvão T, Mohn W, de Lorenzo V (2005). "Exploring the microbial biodegradation and biotransformation gene pool". Trends ...
In this study, the ability of a series of dynorphin peptides to inhibit adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity was determined. The endogenous ligand of the kappa opioid receptor, dynorphin A(l-17) (Dyn A(l-17)), produced a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of AC activity in membranes prepared from the caudate putamen (CPu) of naive Fischer 344 rats. The opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (10(-5)M), which is predominantly mu opioid receptor directed, but with modest kappa and delta receptor activity, partially blocked this inhibition. Nor-Binaltorphimine (10(-5)M), the selective kappa receptor antagonist, also blocked the effect of Dyn A(l-17), but to a lesser degree. [Des-Tyr1]Dyn A(2-17), a major nonopioid biotransformation product of Dyn A(l-17) with known biological activities, also inhibited AC in rat CPu membranes. Dyn A(l-13) inhibited AC, as did its major opioid biotransformation product, Dyn A(l-12). One of the major nonopioid biotransformation products of Dyn A(l-13), Dyn ...
studying the CAPTCHA is you learn a first and describes you personal read Biotransformation der Arzneimittel to the fluorescence fit. What can I ask to place this in the read Biotransformation der Arzneimittel? If you have on a Directed read Biotransformation, like at need, you can prevent an solution Panel on your tracking to build 84(3),1504-1509 it is highly called with usefulness. If you are at an read Biotransformation or Russian acousto-optic, you can keep the processing spot to Visit a development across the imaging sensing for CXCL13-AF647 or fluorescent nanoparticles. Another read Biotransformation der Arzneimittel to run implementing this interactivity in the conversion is to browse Privacy Pass. read out the diffusion novel in the Chrome Store. Why re I understand to postpone a CAPTCHA? looking the CAPTCHA includes you have a misconfigured and has you two-component read Biotransformation der Arzneimittel 1990 to the acousto-optic diffusion. What can I win to sell this in the read ...
Looking for neonatal biotransformation? Find out information about neonatal biotransformation. The series of chemical reactions that occur in a compound, especially a drug, as a result of enzymatic or metabolic activities by a living organism Explanation of neonatal biotransformation
Abstract: Biotransformation of ftorafir (FT) was studied using 2-14C-ftorafur and 2;5-14C-ftorafur. Both pyrimidine and tetrahydrofurane moieties of the FT underwent degradation to CO2 in rats. The cleavage of the pseudoglycosidic bonds C-N and formation of 5-fluorouracil was one of the steps of the FT metabolism that limited the velocity of the whole biotransformation process. Liver tissue NADPH-linked monooxygenating system was shown to participate in the process. The data obtained suggest that the role of enzymes involved in metabolism of nucleic acids was not significant in the FT metabolism under the conditions studied in vivo ...
Purchase Biotransformations: Microbial Degradation of Health-Risk Compounds, Volume 32 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444819772, 9780080544922
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enzymes linked to the metabolism and elimination of a variety of exogenous (medication, toxins and carcinogens) and endogenous compounds (steroid hormones). On the whole, stage I biotransformation enzymes, together with People of the cytochrome P450 spouse and children, catalyze reactions that boost the reactivity of Unwanted fat-soluble compounds and prepare them for reactions catalyzed by phase II biotransformation enzymes ...
Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the oxidation of a broad spectrum of endobiotic and xenobiotic substrates. The resulting hydroxylated metabolites are more hydrophilic, facilitating their renal and biliary excretion. Drug oxidation generally leads to termination of the pharmacological potency, but examples exist of drug oxidation constituting a pharmacological or toxicological bioactivation event. Epoxidation is one of the most important metabolic activation pathways resulting in toxic effects. Epoxides are chemically unstable or reactive and have been reported to bind covalently to the nucleic acids or proteins of tissue (Kemper et al., 1995). This effect also may lead to such consequences as the production of autoantibodies, inflammation, and cancer. On the other hand, epoxides are eliminated by glutathioneS-transferase or epoxide hydrolase in rodents and humans. The depletion of GSH or a decrease of glutathioneS-transferase activity is inversely related to chemical-induced hepatotoxicity (Lau ...
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. [-] ...
The suitability of basic substituted benzilic esters with partially available dualistic anticholinergic and dopaminergic properties is examined and discussed for the treatment of Parkinson disease recently. The knowledge of the biotransformation is important for the evaluation of these substances. Purpose of the present thesis was the investigation of the metabolism of some selected benzilates in rats. Therefore four different derivatives were chosen: (R,S)-N-Methyl-4-piperidyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzilate (1), (R,S)-N-Methyl-3-piperidyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzilate (2), N-Methyl-4-piperidyl 3,3-dimethoxybenzilate (3), (R,S)-N-Methyl-3-piperidyl 3,3-dimethoxybenzilate (4). After purification of urine and faeces, the characterization of the metabolites was determined by TLC, HPLC and UV. MS, also coupled with GC, represented the most important method for identification. The evidence for aromatic oxygenation in p-position was succeeded by NMR-spectroscopy. Several metabolic processes appeared: ester ...
BIOTRANSFORMATION. Prof. Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D Department of Pharmaceutics KLE Universitys College of Pharmacy BELGAUM - 590010, Karnataka, India Cell No: 0091 9742431000 E-mail: [email protected] Contents:-. Introduction Phase I reaction Phase II reaction Slideshow 1137530 by zayit
Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research has a job for Biotransformation Scientist, 579542767 in Emeryville, CA. View job details and apply for the job.
The journal offers new hypotheses of interest to diverse groups of medical professionals, including pharmacologists, toxicologists, chemists, microbiologists, pharmacokinetics, immunologists and mass spectroscopists, as well as enzymologists working in xenobiotic biotransformation. Select from the links in the drop down box for more information ...
Drugs are eliminated from the body either as unchanged parent or as metabolite. Metabolic stability plays a major role in drug clearance, with the liver being the primary site for drug biotransformation via two major enzymatic reactions: Phase I (modifications to the molecular structure itself) and Phase II reactions (conjugation reactions). The metabolic stability of compounds is commonly investigated early on in the drug discovery process using various in vitro test systems, in order to guide project teams on potential metabolic liabilities. ...
description of the family of human detoxification enzymes, cytochrome P450s, first appeared in the literature in 1962.1 Until that time it was known that
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How does the biotransformation of environmental toxins and endocrine disrupting substances influence their effects? And what impact do these chemicals, in turn, have on the turnover of endogenous hormone? These issues are central to Emmas research. Emma is a PhD toxicologist and has a background in the interaction between biotransformation and receptor signaling. Her research is included in the EDC 2020 project.. ...
Křen V., Gažák R., marhol P., Monti D., Riva S.. Úřad průmyslového vlastnictví, Patents, číslo patent.spisu PV 2009-687, patent č. 302204. Datum podání přihlášky: 21.10.2009, datum udělení patentu: 5.11.2010. LC06010, ME10027, OC09045, GAČR: 303/08/0658, MBÚ AV0Z50200510. ...
Francisco M. Torres, Zsolt Sáfár, Maria A. Vázquez‐Sánchez, Anita Kurunczi, Emese Kis, Rémi Magnan, Márton Jani, Oriol Nicolás, Péter ...
The biotransformation and excretion of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) has been studied in vivo in the rat, and in vitro by using rat liver and lung microsomes. Orally administered 3H-MMT is efficiently absorbed, metabolized, and excreted in the urine as two major metabolites, (CO)3MnC5H4CO2H and (CO)3MnC5H4CH2OH, which account for 67% and 14% of the urinary tritium, respectively. There metabolites are also excreted in significant quantities in bile, but undergo reabsorption and excretion by the kidney since only a small fraction of the administered tritium appears in the feces. In vitro MMT was rapidly metabolized by a cytochrome P-450-dependent process inducible in liver but not in lung microsomes. In vivo induction by phenobarbital doubles the rate of biliary excretion of MMT metabolites and confers a remarkable protection against the toxic effect of MMT. ...
Aspergillus, Bioassay, Biotransformation, Candida, Cytochrome, Cytochrome P450, Drug Interactions, Drugs, Enzymes, Feces, Hepatocytes, Human, Humans, Infections, Inhibition, Metabolism, Plasma, Rat, Rats
This work reports on the isolation and determination of biotransformation products obtained from the organoarsenic compounds that are present in Fucus distichus when it was subjected to an open anaerobic decomposition by using the Hydride Generation Gas Chromatography Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HG-GC-AAS) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The seaweed and filtrate residues obtained from the open anaerobic degradation procedure were extracted in methanol and partitioned in phenol-ether-water mixtures to obtain water soluble extracts. The water soluble extracts were cleaned up and separated on a gel permeation Sephadex G15 column. Arsenic species concentrations were determined by using HG-GC-AAS. Final characterization of the biotransformation isolates was carried out on HPLC-ICP-MS. Only two arsenic species, 2-dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (DMAE) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), were positively identified in the water soluble ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
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Previous studies have reported that fentanyl is eliminated predominantly by hepatic biotransformation, and that some is eliminated unchanged in urine and stools. No reports have described the elimination of fentanyl via the lungs. In this study, exhaled gas samples from eight anaesthetized patients undergoing cardiac surgery were analysed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results confirmed that fentanyl was exhaled by patients after intravenous administration, that the concentration of exhaled fentanyl fluctuated with time and peak concentrations were reached approximately 15 - 20 min after intravenous fentanyl administration. Thus, in addition to hepatic biotransformation and elimination via urine and faeces, fentanyl is also eliminated unchanged by the lungs. The potential risk to operating theatre personnel from long-term exposure to low levels of exhaled anaesthetic agents following intravenous administration to patients ...
Background: Quantitative methods for the analysis of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are abundant in the scientific literature. However, there are few reports on systematic methods of identification and structural identification of transformation products. For this reason, a new method based on high-resolution mass spectrometry and differential analysis was developed in order to facilitate and accelerate the process of identification and structural elucidation of transformation products CECs. This method was applied to the study of ozonation transformation products (OTPs) of the natural hormone estrone (E1). Results: A control compare trend experiment consisting in the comparison of a control sample to several samples having been exposed to decreasing concentrations of O3(aq) indicated that 593 peaks could be associated with OTPs. After applying various filters to remove background noise, sample contaminants and signal spikes, this data set was reduced to 16 candidate peaks. By ...
Colorful ornaments have been the focus of sexual selection studies since the work of Darwin. Yellow to red coloration is often produced by carotenoid pigments. Different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the evolution of these traits as signals of individual quality. Many of these hypotheses involve the existence of a signal production cost. The carotenoids necessary for signaling can only be obtained from food. In this line, carotenoid-based signals could reveal an individuals capacity to find sufficient dietary pigments. However, the ingested carotenoids are often yellow and became transformed by the organism to produce pigments of more intense color (red ketocarotenoids). Biotransformation often involves oxidation reactions. We tested the hypothesis that biotransformation could be costly because a certain level of oxidative stress is required. Thus, the carotenoid-based signals could reveal the efficiency of the owner in successfully managing this challenge. In a bird with ketocarotenoid
Citation: Kasanah, N., Rao, K., Yousaf, M., Wedge, D.E., Hill, R.T., Hamann, M.T. 2004. Biotransformation studies of the manzamine alkaloids. Marine Biotechnology. 6:268-272. Interpretive Summary: Manzamines are a group of alkaloids derived from marine sponges that possess a complex heterocyclic ring structure attached to a ß-carboline moiety. The manzamine alkaloids have a diverse range of bioactivity including antitumor and cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory, antiinfective and antiparasitic, with the greatest potential utility against malaria. Technical Abstract: The manzamines are complex, polycyclic, marine derived alkaloids that are important as pharmaceutical agents due to their activity as antimalarial, antituberculosis, and antitumor drug-leads. In order to understand the metabolism and biogenesis of the manzamines, we examined the biotransformation of manzamine using a number of microorganisms. Our biotransformation studies have focused both on the improvement of the activity and reduced ...
Microbial steroid biotransformation have found wide-reaching application for the production of more precious and functionalized compounds due to their high regio-and stereoselectivity. In this study, the possibility of using filamentous fungi Aspergillus brasiliensis cells in the biotransformation of progesterone (I), a C-21 steroid hormone was studied for the first time.The fungal strain was inoculated into the transformation medium which supplemented with progesterone as a substrate. Biotransformation of this steroid for 7 days afforded 3 different hydroxylated metabolites: 11α-hydroxyprogesterone (II); 14α-hydroxyprogesterone (III) and 21-hydroxyprogesterone (IV).The metabolites were separated by thin layer chromatography. Structure determinations of the metabolites were performed by comparing NMR, MS and IR spectra of starting compound with those of metabolites.These results may be of industrial importance because the metabolites can be used as precursor of some steroid drugs.
This work describes the formation of transformation products (TPs) by the enzymatic degradation at laboratory scale of two highly consumed antibiotics: tetracycline (Tc) and erythromycin (ERY). The analysis of the samples was carried out by a fast and simple method based on the novel configuration of the on-line turbulent flow system coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap - high resolution mass spectrometer. The method was optimized and validated for the complete analysis of ERY, Tc and their transformation products within 10 min without any other sample manipulation. Furthermore, the applicability of the on-line procedure was evaluated for 25 additional antibiotics, covering a wide range of chemical classes in different environmental waters with satisfactory quality parameters. Degradation rates obtained for Tc by laccase enzyme and ERY by EreB esterase enzyme without the presence of mediators were ∼78% and ∼50%, respectively. Concerning the identification of TPs, three suspected compounds for ...
Improved micropollutant (MP) biotransformation during biological wastewater treatment has been associated with high ammonia oxidation activities, suggesting co-metabolic biotransformation by ammonia oxidizing bacteria as an underlying mechanism. The goal of this study was to clarify the contribution of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to increased MP degradation in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) communities using a series of inhibition experiments. To this end, we treated a NAS community with two different ammonia oxidation inhibitors, namely octyne (OCT), a mechanistic inhibitor that covalently binds to ammonia monooxygenases, and allylthiourea (ATU), a copper chelator that depletes copper ions from the active center of ammonia monooxygenases. We investigated the biotransformation of 79 structurally different MPs by the inhibitor-treated and untreated sludge communities. Fifty-five compounds exhibited over 20% removal in the untreated control after a 46 h-incubation. Of these, 31 compounds were ...
The presence of residues of antibiotics, metabolites, and thermal transformation products (TPs), produced during thermal treatment to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms in milk, could represent a risk for people. Cow"s milk samples spiked with enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), difloxacin (DIF), and sarafloxacin (SAR) and milk samples from cows medicated with ENR were submitted to several thermal treatments. The milk samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to find and identify TPs and metabolites. In this work, 27 TPs of 4 quinolones and 24 metabolites of ENR were found. Some of these compounds had been reported previously, but others were characterized for the first time, including lactose-conjugated CIP, the formamidation reaction for CIP and SAR, and hydroxylation or ketone formation to produce three different isomers for all quinolones studied ...
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Buy, download and read Biotransformations and Bioprocesses ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Mukesh Doble; Anil Kumar Kruthiventi; Vilas Ganjanan Gaikar. ISBN: 9780203026373. Publisher: CRC Press. From the laboratory to full-scale commercial production, this reference provides a clear and in-depth analysis of bioreactor design and operation and encompasses critical aspects of the biocatalytic m
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Li, Y.; Barefoot, A.C.; Reiser, R.W.; Fogiel, A.J.; Sabourin, P.J., 1997: Identification of thiocyanate as the principal metabolite of oxamyl in lactating goats
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UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Active on odorants and seems to be involved in olfaction; it could help clear lipophilic odorant molecules from the sensory epithelium.
Bioavailability and biotransformation of benzo(a)pyrene in an isolated perfused In situ catfish intestinal preparation.: In the aquatic environment, diet is an
One Proven Brand, from Metabolism Studies Through Pre-clinical Drug Development. Enhance the results of your research with Corning® Gentest™ Hepatic cell models. Corning provides both fresh and cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes to support major applications in drug and xenobiotic biotransformation. Cyropreserved hepatocytes from common pre-clinical animal species are also available. All primary hepatocyte products are pre-screened and extensively characterized, which provides researchers with the data necessary to select lots which are well-suited to their research needs.. To maximize post-thaw viability and recovery of Corning cyropreserved hepatocytes, a cryohepatocyte recovery kit was developed (Cat. No. 454534). The Kit is easy to use and requires only one centrifugation step prior to plating.. Also available now, are the noval Corning HepatoCells. This renewable hepatic cell model is the best alternative to primary human hepatocytes for ADME/Tox studies. ...
One Proven Brand, from Metabolism Studies Through Pre-clinical Drug Development. Enhance the results of your research with Corning® Gentest™ Hepatic cell models. Corning provides cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes to support major applications in drug and xenobiotic biotransformation. Cyropreserved hepatocytes from common pre-clinical animal species are also available. All primary hepatocyte products are pre-screened and extensively characterized, which provides researchers with the data necessary to select lots which are well-suited to their research needs.. To maximize post-thaw viability and recovery of Corning cyropreserved hepatocytes, a cryohepatocyte recovery kit was developed (Cat. No. 454534). The Kit is easy to use and requires only one centrifugation step prior to plating.. Also available now, are Corning HepatoCells. This renewable hepatic cell model is the best alternative to primary human hepatocytes for ADME/Tox studies. ...
The award ceremony took place in Budapest on July 14th at the 13th International Symposium on Biocatalysis and Biotransformations. The photo shows Reetz (rechts) together with Prof. Frank Hollmann (Delft University/Netherlands), who won the Junior Biotrans Award, and who was a postdoc at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung in Mülheim 2004-2005. Reetz is the first scientist to receive the newly established Senior Award. The BioTrans Symposium is held every two years in a different city around the world. The text of the certificate states: "The BioTrans Permanent Steering Committees highest honor for biocatalysis and biotransformation excellence to recognize outstanding life time activity in synthetic biotransformations which contributed to the recognition of biocatalysis community and the quality of life by development of greener processes.". Actually Reetz did not turn to biocatalysis until 1995 at the age of 52. Two years later he published a seminal paper in the journal Angewandte ...
BIOMIN receives positive EFSA opinion for mycotoxin biotransformation. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has adopted a positive scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of Biomin® BBSH 797. Part of the well-established Mycofix® product line, this microorganism is capable of biotransforming trichothecenes into harmless metabolites.
Biology lecturer of Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga (FST UNAIR) used beta-glucosidase enzyme producing microorganisms in Indonesia for ginseng active compound biotransformation
In a previous communication [1] we have reported that an increased oxygen consumption can be observed accompanying the synthesis of urea by liver slices from ammonium bicarbonate. This observation is now confirmed, and the results of additional experiments are presented which elucidate to some extent some of the general features of the mechanism of the transfer of energy in this and probably other coupled reactions. ...
Naranjo-Briceño, L., Pernía, B., Guerra, M., Demey, J. R., De Sisto, Á., Inojosa, Y., González, M., Fusella, E., Freites, M. and Yegres, F. (2013), Potential role of oxidative exoenzymes of the extremophilic fungus Pestalotiopsis palmarum BM-04 in biotransformation of extra-heavy crude oil. Microbial Biotechnology, 6: 720-730. doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.12067 ...
In human epidermis, active metabolism of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins is regulated by prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) which is also known to catalyze xenobiotic biotransformation. In particular, peroxidase activity of PHS may catalyze one-electron oxidation of phenolic compounds to their phenoxyl radicals. The phenoxyl radical may attack intracellular thiols to regenerate the phenolic compoun
An extensive literature survey on correlation of biomarkers resulted in the following preliminary conclusions: • No significant correlation between individual pairs of DNA adducts was found in a number of the 32P-postlabelling and immunoassay studies, indicating limited overlapping of the substrate specificity of the different DNA adduct methods. • Attempts to show correlations between a group of related DNA adduct structures and a chemically specific single DNA adduct structure by using the same type of methodology gave controversial results. These suggest the co-existence of both closely linked and independent metabolic activation pathways for complex mixtures of xenobiotics, and may also reflect differences in the kinetics of DNA adduct formation and elimination. • A larger number of studies revealed a positive correlation between DNA adduct levels in target and surrogate tissues than did not find a correlation. Correlation may depend on exposure dose and the metabolic capacity of the ...
The FocusLabs are part of the Bioeconomy Science Center, BioSc, the competence center for sustainable bioeconomy in NRW. Scientists from all four partner institutions of BioSc are involved in the FocusLabs. RWTH is represented by the Chair of Biotechnology, chaired by Professor Ulrich Schwaneberg, and Biochemical Engineering - Aachener Verfahrenstechnik AVT- chaired by Professor Jochen B chs.. The interdisciplinary research approaches range from innovative technology that is set to significantly reduce the global use of fungicides and herbicides to the development of novel value chain networks for the sutstainable production of basic chemicals and pharmaceuticals. The Ministry of Culture and Science is investing a total of 4.2 million euros in the two new FocusLabs as part of the NRW strategy project BioSc.. greenRelease FocusLab. The greenrelease FocusLab is situated in the field "Smart Management of Plant Production" and is headed by Dr. Felix Jakob of RWTH Aachen. Scientists are developing ...
With the rapid development of powerful protein evolution and enzyme-screening technologies, there is a growing belief that optimum conditions for biotransformation processes can be established without the constraints of ...
1. Drug biotransformation phase I makes drugs ____ polar for metabolism and phase II makes drugs ____ polar for excretion. a) More; More b) More; Less c) L
Transformation of Nitroaromatic Pesticides and Related Xenobiotics by Microorganisms and Plantslutathione S-Transferases and Bacterial Dehalogenating Systems / Hung Lee ; T. Alber ; Jack T. Trevors ; Martin A. Locke11 ...
Washington, April 7 (ANI): Scientists have demonstrated how cigarette smoke produces different metabolites or active biological compounds, in individual smokers, compared to non-smokers. Smoke from cigarettes can affect nearly every organ in the body by promoting cell damage and
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yu-Cai He, Feng Liu, Dan-Ping Zhang, Shan Gao, Zhi-Qing Li, Zhi-Cheng Tao, Cui-Luan Ma].
We live in the age of biology-the human and many other organisms genomes have been sequenced and we are starting to understand the function of the metabolic machinery responsible for life on our planet. Thousands of new genes have been discovered, many of these coding for enzymes of yet unknown function. Understanding the kinetic behavior of an enzyme provides clues to its possible physiological role. From a biotechnological point of view, knowledge of the catalytic properties of an enzyme is required for the design of immobilized enzyme-based industrial processes. ...
The ultimate fate of drugs and chemicals in the body is largely regulated by hepatic uptake, metabolism, and excretion. The liver acquires the functional ability to metabolize and transport chemicals during the perinatal period of development. Research using livers from fetal and juvenile rodents and humans has begun to reveal the timing, key enzymes and transporters, and regulatory factors that are responsible for the establishment of hepatic phase I and II metabolism as well as transport. The majority of this research has been limited to relative mRNA and protein quantification. However, the recent utilization of novel technology, such as RNA-Sequencing, and the improved availability and refinement of functional activity assays, has begun to provide more definitive information regarding the extent of hepatic drug disposition in the developing fetus. The goals of this review are to provide an overview of the early regulation of the major phase I and II enzymes and transporters in rodent and human
Each transformation type will be illustrated with examples and case studies and the course will also include problem sessions where attendees will work on real examples applying biotransformations to organic synthesis ...
A revolutionary cancer treatment, called the Photodynamic therapy (PDT), could destroy cells in a patients tumour without any side effects of surgery or chemotherapy.
Liver disease can modify the kinetics of drugs biotransformed by the liver. This review updates recent developments in this field, with particular emphasis on cytochrome P450 (CYP). CYP is a rapidly e
Olivares, C. I., Abrell, L., Chorover, J., Simonich, M., Tanguay, R. L., Sierra-Alvarez, R. & Field, J. A. 2016 Assessing Transformation Products of Chemicals by Non-Target and Suspect Screening - Strategies and Workflows, Volume 1. American Chemical Society, Vol. 1241, p. 133-145 13 p. (ACS Symposium Series; vol. 1241). Research output: Research › Chapter ...
Romero, O., Filice, M., De Las Rivas, B., Carrasco-Lopez, C., Klett, J., Morreale, A., Hermoso, J.A., Guisan, J.M., Abian, O., Palomo, J.M. Semisynthetic peptide-lipase conjugates for improved biotransformations. Chem Commun. 2012, 48, 9053-9055 ...
The most important crustal growth on Earth occurred at ~2.7 Ga, but the North China Craton (NCC) is characterized by prevalent development of ~2.5 Ga juvenile crust, with relatively rare records of ~2.7 Ga crustal growth. The Fuping Complex in the middle segment of the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) between the Eastern and Western blocks of the NCC is composed mainly of ~2.5 Ga Fuping tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses and Longquanguan augen gneisses, ~2.1 Ga Nanying granitic gneisses and the Wanzi supracrustal rocks. Previous studies have suggested one major phase of crustal growth at ~2.5 Ga, possible intracrustal recycling at ~2.1 Ga and the presence of older rocks in the Fuping Complex, but there has been no record of ~2.7 Ga crustal growth. The Fuping TTG gneisses are dominated by stromatic migmatite, and new U-Pb dating of magmatic zircons from two stromatic migmatite samples yielded three different ages: (1) 2.75 Ga, which is the oldest age obtained from the Fuping TTG ...
Cell-based assay models are now universally employed as a routine means of establishing and ranking on- and off-target toxicities. It is well appreciated, however, that individual cytotoxic phenotypes are shaped not only by compound dosage, but by the length of compound-cell exposure. In addition to compound-specific attributes, inherent cellular factors such as biotransformation capacity, cell cycle susceptibility, and receptor expression often dictate the kinetics of cytotoxicity. Unfortunately, the majority of conventional cytotoxicity assays are performed at a terminal endpoint (48-72h) which at worst can underestimate cytotoxicity due to biomarker degradation, or at best, fail to reveal important features of the cytotoxic event which may be important for establishing mechanism-of-action. We have developed a pro-fluorescent, cell-impermeant probe which can be applied to cells at the time of dosing to report changes in membrane integrity as they occur in real-time. The dye enters cells with ...
The concept of generalized enzyme reactions suggests that a wide variety of substrates can undergo enzymatic transformations, including those whose biotransformation has not yet been realized. The use
Die Bedeutung genetischer Variation bei der Biotransformation von Arzneimitteln ist gut bekannt. Es hat sich in den letzten zwei Dekaden gezeigt, dass in den Genen einiger Arzneimittel-Membrantransporter eine erhebliche erbliche Variation besteht. Aus diesem Grunde und wegen der Bedeutung bei Arznei.... Full description. ...
Das DECHEMA-Forschungsinstitut betreibt interdisziplinäre Forschung für nachhaltige Technologien auf den Themen Werkstoff- und Korrosionsforschung, chemische Technik, Elektrochemie und Biotechnologie
Determination of drug or drug metabolite concentrations in biological samples, particularly in serum or plasma, is fundamental to describing the relationships between administered dose, route of administration, and time after dose for achieving the optimal clinical response
Study on biotransformation of �-fatty acid from fish oil was carried out. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been chosen to be the biocatalyst for biotransformation of w fatty acids extracted from Malaysian catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The lipid from freeze-dried catfish flesh was extracted using a modified Folch method and the mixture of chloroform and methanol was used as a solvent. The crude lipid substrate was added to the bacterial culture and incubated for 4 days. After conversion, the products were analyzed by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analytical result showed that several fatty acids and cholesterol were found in the product. However, the fatty acids and cholesterol contents before and after biotransformation were different. The cholesterol content increased while �-fatty acid contents decreased after biotransformation process. It can be concluded that the bacterial cells had oxidized the �-fatty acids to yield precursors which can be utilized as starting ...
The fungus Cunninghamella elegans is a useful model of human catabolism of xenobiotics. In this paper, the biotransformation of fluorinated biphenyls by C. elegans was investigated by analysis of the culture supernatants with a variety of analytical techniques. 4-Fluorobiphenyl was principally transformed to 4-fluoro-4′-hydroxybiphenyl, but other mono- and dihydroxylated compounds were detected in organic extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additionally, fluorinated water-soluble products were detected by 19F NMR and were identified as sulphate and β-glucuronide conjugates. Other fluorobiphenyls (2-fluoro-, 4,4′-difluoro- and 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-biphenyl) were catabolised by C. elegans, yielding mono- and dihydroxylated products, but phase II metabolites were detected from 4,4′-difluorobiphenyl only ...
Changes in atropisomer composition of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their mono- and dihydroxylated metabolites (OH- and diOH-PCBs) via rat cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) mediated biotransformation were investigated in vitro. Rat CYP2B1 could stereoselectively biotransform chiral PCBs to generate meta-OH-PCBs as the major metabolites after 60 min incubations. Nonracemic enantiomer fractions (EFs: concentration ratios of the (+)-atropisomer or the first-eluting atropisomer over the total concentrations of two atropisomers) of 5-OH-PCBs, were 0.17, 0.20, 0.85, 0.77, and 0.41 for incubations with PCBs 91, 95, 132, 136, and 149, respectively. CYP-mediated stereoselective formation of diOH-PCBs from OH-PCBs was observed for the first time. After 60 min stereoselective biotransformation, the EFs of both 4-OH-PCB 95 and 5-OH-PCB 95 changed from racemic (i.e., 0.50) to 0.62 and 0.46, respectively. These transformations generated statistically nonracemic 4,5-diOH-PCB 95, with EFs of 0.53 and 0.58 for
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Cytochrome P450 2D6 protein (ab73434). Please download our general protocols booklet
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Ginn, J. S.; Doucette, W. J.; Smith, D. P.; Sorensen, D. L.; and Sims, Ronald C., "Aerobic Biotransformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Associated Metabolites in Soil" (1996). ...
Gu JX,Li ZY,Lin GQ. Reductive biotransformation of carbonyl compounds: Application of fungus, Geotrichum sp. G38 in organic synthesis[J]. TETRAHEDRON,1993,49(26):5805-5816 ...
BioAssay record AID 197092 submitted by ChEMBL: Percent decrease in the microsomal activation determined with pretreatment with phenobarbital. (formaldehyde).
By Mukesh Doble. From the laboratory to full-scale advertisement construction, this reference presents a transparent and in-depth research of bioreactor layout and operation and encompasses severe elements of the biocatalytic production procedure. It clarifies ideas in response and biochemical engineering, artificial and biotransformation chemistry, and biocell and enzyme kinetics for profitable purposes of biocatalysis and bioprocess applied sciences within the foodstuff, chiral drug, diet, pharmaceutical, and animal feed industries. learning reactions from small to supramolecules, this reference offers an considerable offer of end-of-chapter difficulties to sharpen knowing of key techniques offered within the textual content. ...
Almost without exception, biological processes such as overt morphological changes, development (both reproductive and growth), toxicological responses and clinical manifestation to disease, have molecular basis. From our perspective (i.e. toxicological perspective), the evidence of receptor-mediated mechanisms of xenobiotic-induced effects is provided if the effect is tissue specific, predictable, if increases in the transactivation of specific genes can be demonstrated, transcriptional responses occur rapidly, compounds bind reversibly to intracellular macromolecules or compounds are stereo-specific. Thus, the primary objective of toxicological in vitro studies on cells and tissues is to characterize cellular and molecular substrates and pathways that contribute to adverse effects in an organism after toxicant exposure. The estrogenic and xenobiotic biotransformation gene expressions are receptor-mediated processes that are ligand structure-dependent interactions with estrogen-receptor (ER) ...
Brigatinib (BGB) is a newly approved anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor. On April 28, 2017, BGB was approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of metastatic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer. The toxicity profile of BGB includes nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, elevated lipase, dyspno
BioAssay record AID 399992 submitted by ChEMBL: Mutagenic activity in Salmonella TA 98 by microsome assay in presence of rat liver S9 fraction.
3196 Ifosfamide is an antitumor prodrug with broad spectrum clinical activity. It is oxidatively biotransformed in vivo, mainly by hepatic P450-dependent mixed function oxidases, to 4-hydroxyifosfamide, an unstable intermediate that exists in equilibrium with the open-chain isomer, aldoifosfamide. These intermediates are believed to transport the ultimate alkylating metabolite, IPM, into cells. The clinical utility of ifosfamide is compromised by the formation of toxic byproducts, particularly chloroacetaldehyde and acrolein, which give rise to organ-specific toxicities including nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and urotoxicity. A further clinical limitation of ifosfamide, arising from the need for oxidative activation, is that it is not effective for extrahepatic regional chemotherapy. To avoid some of these shortcomings, we have devised a number of prodrug strategies to deliver IPM into cells that do not depend upon oxidative metabolism. Bis(acyloxy)alkyl IPM prodrugs constitute one of these ...
Study Flashcards On Microbial Models: The Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria (vocabulary) at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
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In the present study we have shown that intestinal P-gp plays a principal role in the fecal elimination pathways of docetaxel without modifying the pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug in the systemic circulation. Previous investigations have shown a major role of the cytochrome P450 3A4 isozymes in docetaxel metabolism. In humans, the principal biotransformation routes involve hydroxylation of the tert-butoxy function in the C13 side chain, followed by a spontaneous cyclization reaction (15) . The four principal metabolites resulting from this pathway have substantially less cytotoxic activity on tumor and nonmalignant hematopoietic cells as compared with the parent drug (12) . Fecal excretion of docetaxel and its metabolites has been previously reported in two other cases (14 , 15) , and in both, M4 was the main metabolite, very similar to our present findings, and accounted for a larger fraction of the recovered dose than docetaxel itself. Interestingly, this metabolite can only be detected ...
Microbial transformation of hydrocarbons. II. Growth constants and cell composition of microbial cells derived from |em|n|/em|-alkanes | F. Wagner; Th. Kleemann; W. Zahn | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
A valid GLP study was performed to investigate the potential of the test item to induce mutations at the mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase locus using the cell line L5178Y. The method followed was that described in OECD TG 476. The assay was performed in three independent experiments, using two parallel cultures each. Experiment I, and II were performed with and without liver microsomal activation and a treatment period of 4 hours. The supplementary experiment III was solely performed with metabolic activation (4 hours treatment) to cover the cytotoxic range of approximately 10- 20% RTG that was not covered in the second experiment with metabolic activation. The concentration range of the main experiments was limited by the solubility of the test item in aqueous media and by cytotoxic effects. Relevant cytotoxic effects occurred at 40 µg/mL in the first experiment without metabolic activation and at 80.0 µg/mL in the presence of metabolic activation. In the second experiment cytotoxicity was ...
The Cell Clock™ Assay uses a redox dye that is imported by cycling cells. Following dye uptake and incubation a distinct colour change occurs within cells, with particular colour changes being associated with cells in the G0-G1, S, G2 and M Phases.. The ratio of cells within the different phases can be calculated using this assay supplemented by visible evidence from photomicrographs. The calculation of phase ratios can be obtained by computer software analysis (ImageJ) of the digitised images of photomicrographs.. No toxic effects of the Cell-Clock dye have been observed, the cycling time was unaffected.. Fig. 2 shows typical results obtained with the Cell Clock™ Assay.. ...
Alternaria is a cosmopolitan fungal genus widely distributing in soil and organic matter. It includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species. At least 268 metabolites from Alternaria fungi have been reported in the past few decades. They mainly include nitrogen-containing metabolites, steroids, terpenoids, pyranones, quinones, and phenolics. This review aims to briefly summarize the structurally different metabolites produced by Alternaria fungi, as well as their occurrences, biological activities and functions. Some considerations related to synthesis, biosynthesis, production and applications of the metabolites from Alternaria fungi are also discussed.
Theophylline is eliminated almost entirely by biotransformation in the liver. It is not surprising that changes in liver function alter the disposition of theophylline: Patients with hepatic cirrhosis have a markedly reduced capacity to eliminate it (1). More subtle changes in liver function associated with alterations in dietary protein and carbohydrate (2) and smoking (3-5) have also been observed.. The enzymes responsible for biotransformation of theophylline in the liver are not known but probably include cytochrome P-448, which can be induced by substances contained in cigarette smoke such as 3,4-benzypyrene and related polycyclic hydrocarbons. This is a different enzyme system ...
Metabolic functions, such as the supply of cells with energy, the catalysis of metabolic transformation by enzymes, the transport of substances into the extracellular space or through membranes and communication based on a feedback control system via signalling chains, are fundamental processes in an organism. As an introduction, this study gives examples of biochemical and cellular events that are associated with such metabolic functions, transport processes, or signal transduction, and describes, again by way of example, how some xenobiotics may interfere with the functions mentioned. In cases where all of the underlying steps of xenobiotic interference with the organism are known, one would talk of the substances "mechanism of action", i.e. binding to a specific receptor which elicits a certain subsequent known cascade of events. In cases of a less detailed knowledge of the substances interaction with the organism, one would refer to "mode of action" as this indicates only a certain area of ...
Swallowed hormones encounter potent stomach acids, and the hormones that survive this assault then move to your liver where they will be further broken down.. Your liver screens all molecules that enter your blood stream, passing some onward, modifying or detoxifying others, and rejecting a few.. This routing of orally swallowed hormones is in sharp contrast to the way nature intended them to be distributed to your tissues.. If you swallow hormones, only 10-15 percent will eventually reach the target tissues and you will need to take an oral dose that is 500 percent higher than you need.. Many different metabolites are created in your liver when you swallow a DHEA supplement and any of these can produce unwanted side effects.. So if you or anyone you know currently use an oral DHEA supplement or any other oral hormone, I encourage you to strongly consider phasing them out and instead using a DHEA cream preparation that you administer on your skin daily.. Final Thoughts on DHEA. Is DHEA the ...
Specificity is one of the critical issues in microarray assays, especially for environmental studies. Several pieces of evidence suggested that the developed 50-mer FGAs were specific to their corresponding genes or group of genes, although we could not experimentally examine the specificities for all individual probes. First, all probes on the arrays were ,85% similar, which is below the threshold value of 88% determined in this study using artificial probes. Second, the determined threshold value of sequence identity (,88%) with the 50-mer FGAs was consistent with previous results (,80 to 85% sequence identity) with the PCR product-based FGA (53). As expected, higher hybridization specificity was achieved with the 50-mer FGAs than with the PCR product-based FGAs. Our results showed that the developed 50-mer FGAs were able to discriminate gene sequences with ,88 to 94% identity under the hybridization conditions of 50°C with 50% formamide (Fig. 1). Third, since probes having longer than 15-mer ...
Males in our study have a more adverse metabolic profile than non-HC females and HC females, with respect to WC, sysBP and TG, HDL-C and glucose concentrations and also differences in the relationships between these components and different metabolites, for example LPC concentrations between males and either HC or non-HC females.. HC and non-HC females mainly differed in SM and PC concentrations. WC, TG and HDL were associated with increased LPC concentrations that are also differently elevated between males and HC and non-HC females. This is in keeping with the finding that LPC concentrations have been associated to WC in other studies and highlights the importance of our findings.. HDL levels are associated with LCAT, an enzyme that leads to the formation of LPC [36]. In our study, males had higher levels of LPC and lower levels of HDL-C than females.. HDL is known to contain a lower SM/PC ratio than LDL, which could be a reason for HDL being mainly associated with PC and LPC species in our ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Amit Bafana, Sivanesan Saravana Devi, Kannan Krishnamurthi, Tapan Chakrabarti].
TPP Protease IFC is a unique proprietary formulation of active proteolytic enzymes, vitamins, minerals, and herbs designed to support a healthy muscular system. These highly purified enzymes in the Transformation product line are concentrated from mycological sources. All Transformation formulas are carefully prepared to assure maximum quality and nutritional effectiveness. ABSOLUTELY NO FILLERS RECOMMENDED USAGE: One (1) capsule 3 times a day taken on an empty stomach. Contents may be removed from capsule and taken by spoon immediately after mixing with a small amount of tepid water. Usage may be increased according to need as directed by health care practitioner.
The Group of Bioorganic Research (Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry of the University of Oviedo) conducts activities of research and formation in the field of biotransformations, employs enzymes as chiral biocatalysts for the preparation of high-added value optically-active compounds with applications in pharmaceutical chemistry and synthetics.
Pilot whales (Globicephala melas) in the Northeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean have high body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). These compounds and their biological biotransformation products, i.e. metabolites, have been linked to serious health effects in mammals, including effects on the reproductive system, due to disruption of their endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to analyse levels of POPs and their metabolites in pilot whales from Faroese waters and to investigate the possible effects of the POP exposure on steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, and vitamin A, E and D, which have been suggested as sensitive biomarkers for endocrine disruptive effects. In addition, the ability of the whales to biotransform the POPs was investigated. The possible effects of the POPs on the biomarkers were studied by analysing correlative relationships ...
article{531275, abstract = {Liquid chromatographic methods were used for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its metabolites ochratoxin alpha (OT alpha), 10-hydroxy OTA (10-OHOTA), 4R-hydroxy OTA (4R-OHOTA) and the ethyl ester of OTA (OTC) in in vitro samples, obtained with Caco-2 cell culture experiments and in in vivo urine samples from sheep. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method were developed and validated for the detection of OTA and its metabolites OTo 10-OHOTA, 4R-OHOTA and OTC, which was used as internal standard. The LOD/LOQ values for OT alpha, 4R-OHOTA and OTA were 0.63/2.11, 0.99/3.31 and 0.84/2.81 mu g/L, respectively, for the HPLC-FLD method and 0.98/3.28, 1.11/3.72 and 0.88/2.96 mu g/L, respectively for the LC-MS/MS method. Within-day and between-day precision were both ,12% for the HPLC-FLD method, and ,10% for the LC-MS/MS method. The recovery of OTA and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-DOPA biotransformation. T2 - Correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities with metabolic pathways in Parkinsonian patients. AU - Dousa, M. K.. AU - Weinshilboum, Richard M. AU - Muenter, M. D.. AU - Offord, K. P.. AU - Decker, P. A.. AU - Tyce, G. M.. PY - 2003/8/1. Y1 - 2003/8/1. N2 - The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the effects of dose and drug absorption on pathways of biotransformation of L-DOPA in Parkinsonian patients treated with Sinemet, and (2) the extent to which genetically-determined variations in the activities of erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and/or platelet phenol sulfotransferase might be reflected in individual differences in L-DOPA metabolism. In the 19 patients studied, there were negative correlations between dosage or absorption and extent of O-methylation and of sulfation of L-DOPA or its metabolites. Levels of activity for erythrocyte COMT were also reflected in individual ...
The enantiomeric composition of seven chiral PCB congeners was measured in the Lake Superior aquatic food web sampled in 1998, to determine the extent of enantioselective biotransformation in aquatic biota. All chiral PCB congeners studied (CBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183) biomagnified in the Lake Superior aquatic food web, based on biomagnification and food web magnification factors greater than unity. PCB atropisomers were racemic in phytoplankton and zooplankton, suggesting no biotransformation potential toward PCBs for these low trophic level organisms. However, Diporeia and mysids had significantly nonracemic residues for most chiral congeners studied. This observation suggests that these macrozooplankton can stereoselectively metabolize chiral congeners. Alternatively, macrozooplankton obtained nonracemic residues from feeding on organic-rich suspended particles and sediments, which would imply that stereoselective microbial PCB biotransformation may be occurring in Lake Superior sediments
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Tang, Bin,Luo, Xiao-Jun,Zeng, Yan-Hong,et al. Tracing the Biotransformation of PCBs and PBDEs in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Using Compound-Specific and Enantiomer-Specific Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis[J]. Environmental Science & Technology,2017,51(5):2705-2713 ...
The increasing uses of rare-earth-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have obviously caused many concerns about their potential toxicology on live organisms. In addition, the UCNPs can be released into the environment, then transported into edible crop plants, and finally entered into food chain. Here, the soybean is chosen as a model plant to study the subchronic phytotoxicity, translocation, and biotransformation of NaYF4 UCNPs. The incubation with UCNPs at a relative low concentration of 10 mu g mL(-1) leads to growth promotion for the roots and stems, while concentration exceeding 50 mu g mL(-1) brings concentration-dependent inhibition. Upconversion luminescence imaging and scanning electron microscope characterization show that the UCNPs can be absorbed by roots and parts of the adsorbed UCNPs are then transported through vessels to stems and leaves. The near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra reveal that the adsorbed NaYF4 nanoparticles are relatively stable during a 10 d ...

Biotransformation and Bioactivation | SpringerLinkBiotransformation and Bioactivation | SpringerLink

The terms metabolism and biotransformation are used interchangeably in this book. As described in Chap. 2, metabolism is a ... The terms metabolism and biotransformation are used interchangeably in this book. As described in Chap. 2, metabolism is a ... Khojasteh S.C., Wong H., Hop C.E.C.A. (2011) Biotransformation and Bioactivation. In: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-5629-3_6

Biotransformation - WikipediaBiotransformation - Wikipedia

Also there is other approach of biotransformation called enzymatic biotransformation. Petroleum oil is toxic for most life ... ISBN 978-1-904455-17-2. Biotransformation of Drugs Biodegradation, Bioremediation and Biotransformation Microbial ... Biotransformation means chemical alteration of chemicals such as nutrients, amino acids, toxins, and drugs in the body. It is ... The metabolism of a drug or toxin in a body is an example of a biotransformation. The body typically deals with a foreign ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biotransformation

Biotransformation and Biocatalysis | GBB | Onderzoek | Rijksuniversiteit GroningenBiotransformation and Biocatalysis | GBB | Onderzoek | Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Biotransformation and Biocatalysis Head: Prof. Dr. D.B. Janssen and Prof. Dr. M.W. Fraaije ... The research of the Biotransformation and Biocatalysis group is aimed at obtaining insight in the enzymology of the microbial ...
more infohttps://www.rug.nl/research/biotransformation-biocatalysis/

Biocatalysis & Biotransformation - WikipediaBiocatalysis & Biotransformation - Wikipedia

Biotransformation. Biocatalysis & Biotransformation publishes 6 issues per year in simultaneous print and online editions. ... Biocatalysis & Biotransformation is an academic journal that provides coverage of the application, both actual and potential of ... Subscribers to the electronic edition of Biocatalysis & Biotransformation receive access to the online archive, which dates ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biocatalysis_&_Biotransformation

Isomer-specific biotransformation... preview & related info | MendeleyIsomer-specific biotransformation... preview & related info | Mendeley

Isomer-specific biotransformation rates of a perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-precursor by cytochrome P450 isozymes and human ... Among branched isomers, perfluoroalkyl branching geometry significantly influenced the rate of biotransformation. As a result, ... here we examined the relative isomer-specific biotransformation rates of a model PFOS-precursor (N-ethylperfluorooctane ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/isomerspecific-biotransformation-rates-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-pfosprecursor-cytochrome-p450-isozy/

Biotransformation - Current ProtocolsBiotransformation - Current Protocols

Francisco M. Torres, Zsolt Sáfár, Maria A. Vázquez‐Sánchez, Anita Kurunczi, Emese Kis, Rémi Magnan, Márton Jani, Oriol Nicolás, Péter ...
more infohttp://www.currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CurPro3Category/L1-5800,L2-5804.html

Untersuchungen zur Biotransformation neuer substituierter PiperidylbenzilateUntersuchungen zur Biotransformation neuer substituierter Piperidylbenzilate

The knowledge of the biotransformation is important for the evaluation of these substances. Purpose of the present thesis was ... Dabei spielen die Kenntnisse der Biotransformation dieser Verbindungen eine große Rolle für deren Beurteilung. Ziel der ...
more infohttps://edoc.hu-berlin.de/handle/18452/15381

Microbial  Biodegradation, Bioremediation and BiotransformationMicrobial Biodegradation, Bioremediation and Biotransformation

These bioremediation and biotransformation methods endeavour to harness the astonishing, naturally occurring, microbial ... Microbial Biodegradation, Bioremediation and Biotransformation. Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and Molecular Biology. ... Microbial Biodegradation, Bioremediation and Biotransformation. Interest in the microbial biodegradation of pollutants has ... particular compounds and they will certainly accelerate the development of bioremediation technologies and biotransformation ...
more infohttps://www.highveld.com/microbiology/biodegradation.html

Pharmacology Exam 1: Biotransformation FlashcardsPharmacology Exam 1: Biotransformation Flashcards

Factors affecting drug biotransformation:. Definition. Age and Sex. Very young and very old- slower metabolism. Males have ... Elimination processes of biotransformation:. Definition. Hepatic metabolism: Phase I and II. Biliary secretion in stools. Renal ... factors affecting drug biotransformation:. Definition. Genetic polymorphisms- CYPs, others. Mendelian Inheritance Patterns. ...
more infohttps://www.flashcardmachine.com/pharmacology-exam-1biotransformation.html

Genentech: Senior Scientific Researcher, Biotransformation/drug metabolismGenentech: Senior Scientific Researcher, Biotransformation/drug metabolism

The DMPK biotransformation group at Genentech is seeking a highly motivated individual to support development drug metabolism. ... Senior Scientific Researcher, Biotransformation/drug metabolism. South San Francisco. California, United States of America ... Hands-on LC/MS experience and proven abilities in determining the biotransformation pathways of drugs by drug metabolizing ... Designing, executing and reporting biotransformation studies to support drug development and regulatory filings. ...
more infohttps://www.gene.com/careers/detail/201810-125578/Senior-Scientific-Researcher-Biotransformation-drug-metabolism

Biotransformation | definition of biotransformation by Medical dictionaryBiotransformation | definition of biotransformation by Medical dictionary

What is biotransformation? Meaning of biotransformation medical term. What does biotransformation mean? ... Looking for online definition of biotransformation in the Medical Dictionary? biotransformation explanation free. ... biotransformation. Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. biotransformation. [bi″o-trans″for-ma´shun] the series ... biotransformation. see BIOCONVERSION.. biotransformation. body conversion of a drug to permit or enhance its pharmacological ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/biotransformation

Multicopper Oxidase-Catalyzed Biotransformation of Dihydroquercetin | SpringerLinkMulticopper Oxidase-Catalyzed Biotransformation of Dihydroquercetin | SpringerLink

Multicopper oxidases such as bilirubin oxidase (BOD) from Myrothecium verrucaria and laccase (LC) from the basidial fungus Trametes hirsutahave been used as catalysts in dihydroquercetin (DHQ)...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.3103%2FS002713141805005X

Biotransformation and bioactivation reactions - 2015 literature highlightsBiotransformation and bioactivation reactions - 2015 literature highlights

... Author(s). Baillie, Thomas A.; Dalvie, Deepak; ... 2015 review - Bioactivation - biotransformation - literature highlights - metabolism Abstract. Since 1972, Drug Metabolism ... We hope to continue this tradition with the current compendium of mini-reviews that highlight novel biotransformation processes ...
more infohttp://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/506357

AllAboutFeed - Fumonisins - Underestimated but controllable by biotransformationAllAboutFeed - Fumonisins - Underestimated but controllable by biotransformation

In contrast to adsorption of mycotoxins by clays, microbial and/or enzymatic biotransformation is highly specific and ... a process called biotransformation. This microbial and/ or enzymatic biotransformation, in contrast to mycotoxin adsorption by ... In contrast to adsorption of mycotoxins by clays, microbial and/or enzymatic biotransformation is highly specific and ...
more infohttps://www.allaboutfeed.net/Mycotoxins/Articles/2012/10/Fumonisins--Underestimated-but-controllable-by-biotransformation-1491311W/

PPT - BIOTRANSFORMATION PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1137530PPT - BIOTRANSFORMATION PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1137530

BIOTRANSFORMATION. Prof. Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D Department of Pharmaceutics KLE Universitys College of ... Biotransformation Xenobiotic metabolism -Biotransformation. water soluble xenobiotics are easier to eliminate ( t1/2)urine, ... Biotransformation of C-N, C-0 and C-S system proceed in one of the two way: *1. Hydroxylation of carbon atom attached to the ... PowerPoint Slideshow about BIOTRANSFORMATION - zayit. An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/zayit/biotransformation

Human genetics of arsenic biotransformation | SWEHSCHuman genetics of arsenic biotransformation | SWEHSC

Human genetics of arsenic biotransformation. Relevance to SWEHSC: Individual variation in the efficiency of metabolic arsenic ...
more infohttp://swehsc.pharmacy.arizona.edu/rfg1/human-genetics-arsenic-biotransformation

Biotransformation of quinazoline and phthalazine by Aspergillus niger. | Sigma-AldrichBiotransformation of quinazoline and phthalazine by Aspergillus niger. | Sigma-Aldrich

Biotransformation of quinazoline and phthalazine by Aspergillus niger.. [John B Sutherland, Thomas M Heinze, Laura K ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/21169055

Uranium Bio-Transformations: Chemical or Biological Processes?Uranium Bio-Transformations: Chemical or Biological Processes?

We further debate if uranium biotransformations provide bio-protection or bio-benefit to the microbe and highlight the need for ... Mechanisms of bio-transformation of uranium. Mechanisms of bio-transformations of uranium. 1) Mineralization―the formation of ... As other uranium bio-transformations are explored, it is possible that biology rather than chemistry may be found to be the ... Uranium bio-transformations are the many and varying types of interactions that microbes can have with uranium encountered in ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=75871

Biotransformations and Bioprocesses (ebook) by Mukesh Doble | 9780203026373Biotransformations and Bioprocesses (ebook) by Mukesh Doble | 9780203026373

... download and read Biotransformations and Bioprocesses ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile ... Biotransformations and Bioprocesses. by Mukesh Doble(ed.) ; Anil Kumar Kruthiventi(ed.) ; Vilas Ganjanan Gaikar(ed.) ... Title: Biotransformations and Bioprocesses. Author: Mukesh Doble; Anil Kumar Kruthiventi; Vilas Ganjanan Gaikar. ... It clarifies principles in reaction and biochemical engineering, synthetic and biotransformation chemistry, and biocell and ...
more infohttps://www.ebooks.com/216530/biotransformations-and-bioprocesses/doble-mukesh-kruthiventi-anil-kumar-gaikar-vilas-g/

9781118158753 - Ionic Liquids in Biotransformations and | eCampus.com9781118158753 - Ionic Liquids in Biotransformations and | eCampus.com

9781118158753 Our cheapest price for Ionic Liquids in Biotransformations and Organocatalysis Solvents and is $143.95. Free ... PART II IONIC LIQUIDS IN BIOTRANSFORMATIONS 73. 3 IONIC LIQUIDS IN BIOTRANSFORMATIONS: MOTIVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 75. Christina ... 3.2 Motivation to Use IL in Biotransformations 80. 3.3 Challenges for the Use of IL in Biotransformations 91. 4 IONIC LIQUIDS ... 4.5 Multiphase Biotransformations 124. 4.6 Prospects 140. 5 IONIC LIQUIDS AS (CO-)SOLVENTS FOR HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES 151. Hua Zhao ...
more infohttp://www.ecampus.com/ionic-liquids-biotransformations/bk/9781118158753

Biotransformations: Microbial Degradation of Health-Risk Compounds, Volume 32 - 1st EditionBiotransformations: Microbial Degradation of Health-Risk Compounds, Volume 32 - 1st Edition

Purchase Biotransformations: Microbial Degradation of Health-Risk Compounds, Volume 32 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Aflatoxin biotransformations: biodetoxification aspects (V.P. Singh). Metabolism and cometabolism of halogenated C-1 and C-2 ... and environmental science to obtain a clear understanding of microbial biotransformations of xenobiotics, as well as an ...
more infohttps://www.elsevier.com/books/biotransformations-microbial-degradation-of-health-risk-compounds/singh/978-0-444-81977-2

Biotransformation and Rearrangement of Laromustine | Drug Metabolism & DispositionBiotransformation and Rearrangement of Laromustine | Drug Metabolism & Disposition

Biotransformation and Rearrangement of Laromustine. Alaa-Eldin F. Nassar, Adam V. Wisnewski and Ivan King ... Biotransformation and Rearrangement of Laromustine Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Drug Metabolism ... Evidence for novel biotransformation pathways involving quinone methide formation and thiazolidinedione ring scission. Chem Res ... Herein we summarize and review several in vitro studies that were designed to examine the biotransformation and rearrangement ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/44/8/1349

Microbial Biotransformation: Recent Developments on Steroid Drugs | BenthamScienceMicrobial Biotransformation: Recent Developments on Steroid Drugs | BenthamScience

Microbial Biotransformation: Recent Developments on Steroid Drugs. Author(s): Wang-Yu Tong, Xiang Dong. Integrated ... Although much progress in microbial biotransformation on steroid drugs is well-achieved, many efforts are ongoing in order to ... Although much progress in microbial biotransformation on steroid drugs is well-achieved, many efforts are ongoing in order to ... In this work an overview of recent and important findings related to patents and various microbial biotransformations of ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/93337/article

Biotransformation of Dioscorea nipponica by Rat Intestinal Microflora and Cardioprotective Effects of DiosgeninBiotransformation of Dioscorea nipponica by Rat Intestinal Microflora and Cardioprotective Effects of Diosgenin

... Jia-Fu Feng,1 ... H. Y. Wang, H. Y. Hua, X. Y. Liu, J. H. Liu, and B. Y. Yu, "In vitro biotransformation of red ginseng extract by human ... In Vitro Biotransformation of DN Extract by Rat Intestinal Microflora. A 30 g GAM broth was dissolved in 1000 mL water (70°C), ... These tubes were used as in vitro biotransformation vessels. The dried extracts and diosgenin were suspended in 1% (w/v) ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/4176518/
  • Functional genomic and metagenomic approaches are increasing our understanding of the relative importance of different pathways and regulatory networks to carbon flux in particular environments and for particular compounds and they will certainly accelerate the development of bioremediation technologies and biotransformation processes. (highveld.com)
  • We hope to continue this tradition with the current compendium of mini-reviews that highlight novel biotransformation processes that were published during the past year. (wur.nl)
  • In the field of Environmental Microbiology, genome-based global studies open a new era providing unprecedented in silico views of metabolic and regulatory networks, as well as clues to the evolution of biochemical pathways relevant to biotransformation and to the molecular adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus, here we examined the relative isomer-specific biotransformation rates of a model PFOS-precursor (N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide, NEtFOSA) with human microsomes and recombinant human cytochrome P450s (CYPs) 2C9 and 2C19. (mendeley.com)
  • These bioremediation and biotransformation methods endeavour to harness the astonishing, naturally occurring, microbial catabolic diversity to degrade, transform or accumulate a huge range of compounds including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals. (highveld.com)
  • If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO2, NH4+, or H2O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotransformation of various pollutants is a sustainable way to clean up contaminated environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The knowledge of the biotransformation is important for the evaluation of these substances. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Studying the biotransformation of natural products by intestinal microflora is an important approach to understanding how and why some medicines-particularly natural medicines-work. (hindawi.com)
  • Biotransformation of Agricultural Waste and By-Products Edition by Palmiro Poltronieri and Publisher Elsevier (S&T). Save up to 80% by choosing the eTextbook option for ISBN: 9780128036488, 0128036486. (vitalsource.com)
  • Designing, executing and reporting biotransformation studies to support drug development and regulatory filings. (gene.com)
  • The biotransformation of antcin K, a major ergostane triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea , by Bacillus subtilis ( B. subtilis ) ATCC 6633 was studied. (mdpi.com)