Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II
Carboxyl and Carbamoyl Transferases
Hoof and Claw
Multiple Carboxylase Deficiency
Vitamin B Deficiency
Holocarboxylase Synthetase Deficiency
Identification of three distinct receptor binding sites of murine interleukin-11. (1/2828)Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a member of the gp130 family of cytokines. These cytokines drive the assembly of multisubunit receptor complexes, all of which contain at least one molecule of the transmembrane signaling receptor gp130. A complex of IL-11 and the IL-11 receptor (IL-11R) has been shown to interact with gp130, with high affinity, and to induce gp130- dependent signaling. In this study, we have identified residues crucial for the binding of murine IL-11 (mIL-11) to both the IL-11R and gp130 by examining the activities of mIL-11 mutants in receptor binding and cell proliferation assays. The location of these residues, as predicted from structural studies and a model of IL-11, reveals that mIL-11 has three distinct receptor binding sites. These are structurally and functionally analogous to the previously defined receptor binding sites I, II, and III of interleukin-6 (IL-6). This supports the hypothesis that IL-11 signals via the formation of a hexameric receptor complex and indicates that site III is a generic feature of cytokines that signal via association with gp130. (+info)
Adhesion energy of receptor-mediated interaction measured by elastic deformation. (2/2828)We investigated the role of receptor binding affinity in surface adhesion. A sensitive technique was developed to measure the surface energy of receptor-mediated adhesion. The experimental system involved a functionalized elastic agarose bead resting on a functionalized glass coverslip. Attractive intersurface forces pulled the two surfaces together, deforming the bead to produce an enlarged contact area. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model was used to relate the surface energy of the interaction to the elasticity of the bead and the area of contact. The surface energies for different combinations of modified surfaces in solution were obtained from reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) measurements of the contact area formed by the bead and the coverslip. Studies with surfaces functionalized with ligand-receptor pairs showed that the relationship between surface energy and the association constant of the ligand binding has two regimes. At low binding affinity, surface energy increased linearly with the association constant, while surface energy increased logarithmically with the association constant in the high affinity regime. (+info)
Molecular biology of biotin attachment to proteins. (3/2828)Enzymatic attachment of biotin to proteins requires the interaction of a distinct domain of the acceptor protein (the "biotin domain") with the enzyme, biotin protein ligase, that catalyzes this essential and rare post-translational modification. Both biotin domains and biotin protein ligases are very strongly conserved throughout biology. This review concerns the protein structures and mechanisms involved in the covalent attachment of biotin to proteins. (+info)
Human biotinidase isn't just for recycling biotin. (4/2828)For years, the major role of biotin has been as the coenzyme for four carboxylases in humans. Although there has been evidence that biotin might have other functions, none has been firmly established. The discovery that human serum biotinidase has biotinyl-transferase activity, in addition to biotinidase hydrolase activity, presents new possibilities for the role of biotinidase in biotin metabolism. Specific transfer of biotin to histones by biotinidase provides a possible explanation for why biotin is found in the nucleus and the nature of its role in the regulation of protein transcription. Future studies will help to determine the functions of biotinidase in biotin metabolism and in disease states. (+info)
Cellular uptake of biotin: mechanisms and regulation. (5/2828)This review describes our knowledge of biotin transport in the small intestine of humans and other mammals and presents recent findings in the area. Previous studies have shown that biotin transport across the brush border membrane of the small intestinal absorptive cells occurs via a carrier-mediated, Na+ gradient-dependent, electroneutral mechanism. Exit of biotin out of the enterocyte, i.e., transport across the basolateral membrane, also occurs via a carrier-mediated process, but the process is Na+ independent and electrogenic. Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that the uptake process of biotin in Caco-2 cells, a human-derived cultured intestinal epithelial cell line, are under the cellular regulation of both a protein kinase C- and a Ca/calmodulin-mediated pathway. In addition, the uptake process is shared by another water-soluble vitamin, pantothenic acid. For the first time, other recent studies have detected the existence of a Na+-dependent, carrier-mediated mechanism for biotin uptake at the apical membrane of colonocytes, which could theoretically mediate absorption of the biotin synthesized by colonic microflora. This system was again found to be shared by pantothenic acid, which is also synthesized by the normal microflora of the large intestine. (+info)
Advanced analysis of biotin metabolites in body fluids allows a more accurate measurement of biotin bioavailability and metabolism in humans. (6/2828)In previous studies, the bioavailability of biotin in humans was estimated from the recovery of biotin in urine; urinary biotin was measured by microbial growth assays or assays of avidin-binding activity. These assays underestimate concentrations of biotin metabolites, which originate from beta-oxidation, sulfur oxidation or a combination. We have developed an HPLC/avidin-binding assay that is specific for biotin and its metabolites. With the use of the HPLC/avidin-binding assay, TLC and derivatization with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, we have identified and quantitated biotin and metabolites in urine from six healthy adults. Of that total, biotin accounted for 32+/-12%, bisnorbiotin for 52+/-15%, bisnorbiotin methyl ketone for 7.9+/-5.8%, biotin-d,l-sulfoxide for 4.0+/-3.2% and biotin sulfone for 3.6+/-1.9%. After intravenous administration of 18.4 micromol of biotin, the urinary excretion of biotin metabolites increased 21-130 times above baseline values. Because the biliary excretion of biotin is quantitatively minor (1.9+/-0.2% of an intravenous [14C]biotin dose in rats), intravenously administered biotin is not exposed to intestinal microorganisms. Thus we conclude that biotin metabolites in human urine originate from biotin catabolism in human tissues rather than biotin catabolism by intestinal microorganisms. With the use of the HPLC/avidin-binding assay, we estimated the bioavailability of biotin in adults from the urinary excretion of biotin and metabolites after ingestion of 2.1, 8.2 and 81.9 micromol of biotin. These data provide evidence that biotin is nearly completely absorbed. (+info)
Biotin status: which are valid indicators and how do we know? (7/2828)Although estimated average requirements for biotin have been proposed, the human requirements for biotin in specific populations and at various ages remain uncertain, in part because indicators of biotin status have not been validated. With the use of improved methods for measuring biotin and metabolites, a recent study indicated that decreased urinary excretion of biotin and bisnorbiotin is an early and sensitive indicator of biotin deficiency, but decreased serum concentration of biotin is not. Increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIA), a leucine metabolite that is excreted in increased quantities with deficiency of the biotin-dependent enzyme beta-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, is also an early and sensitive indicator of biotin deficiency. When these indicators were assessed longitudinally in 13 pregnant women, biotin excretion was not significantly decreased early in pregnancy but did decrease significantly from early to late pregnancy. Excretion of 3-HIA was abnormally increased in about three-fourths of the women studied in both early and late pregnancy. Thus, each indicator detected biotin deficiency late in pregnancy, but assessment of biotin status for the two indicators conflicted early in pregnancy. Preliminary results from a trial assessing response of 3-HIA excretion to biotin treatment indicate that biotin status is indeed impaired both early and late in pregnancy. (+info)
Mapping binding domains of kininogens on endothelial cell cytokeratin 1. (8/2828)Human cytokeratin 1 (CK1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) is expressed on their membranes and is able to bind high molecular weight kininogen (HK) (Hasan, A. A. K., Zisman, T., and Schmaier, A. H. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 95, 3615-3620). New investigations have been performed to demonstrate the HK binding domain on CK1. Four overlapping recombinant (r) CK1 proteins were produced in Escherichia coli by a glutathione S-transferase gene fusion system. Biotin-HK specifically bound to rCK128 and rCK131 in the presence of Zn2+ but not to Deleted1-6rCK131. Recombinant CK128 and rCK131 also inhibited biotin-HK binding to HUVEC with IC50 of 0.4 and 0.5 microM, respectively. Alternatively, rCK114 and Deleted1-6rCK131 did not inhibit binding at concentrations >/=1 microM. Seven sequential 20 amino acid peptides of CK1 were prepared to cover the protein coded by exons 1-3. Only the first peptide (GYG20) coded by exon 1 significantly inhibited HK binding to HUVEC with an IC50 of 35 microM. Fine mapping studies isolated two overlapping peptides also coded by exon 1 (GPV15 and PGG15) that inhibited binding to HUVEC with IC50 of 18 and 9 microM, respectively. A sequence scrambled peptide of PGG15 did not block binding to HUVEC and biotin-GPV20 specifically bound to HK. Peptides GPV15 and PGG15 also blocked prekallikrein activation on endothelial cells. However, inhibition of PK activation by peptide PGG15 occurred at 10-fold lower concentration (IC50 = 1 microM) than inhibition of biotin-HK binding to HUVEC (IC50 = 10 microM). These studies indicate that HK binds to a region of 20 amino acids coded by exon 1 on CK1 which is carboxyl-terminal to its glycine-rich amino-terminal globular domain. Furthermore, HK binding to CK1 modulates PK activation on HUVEC. (+info)
The citric acid cycle is a critical metabolic pathway that plays a central role in generating energy from nutrients and regulating cellular growth and proliferation. The enzymes encoded by the PDX1, PDX2, and CYTB genes are involved in different stages of the citric acid cycle and are essential for its proper functioning.
The symptoms of multiple carboxylase deficiency can vary depending on the specific mutations present and the severity of the condition. Affected individuals may experience developmental delays, intellectual disability, seizures, poor muscle tone, and a range of other health problems, including:
1. Seizures: Multiple carboxylase deficiency can cause seizures, which can be difficult to control with medication.
2. Developmental delays: Children with multiple carboxylase deficiency may experience delays in reaching developmental milestones, such as sitting, standing, and walking.
3. Intellectual disability: The condition can also cause intellectual disability, which can range from mild to severe.
4. Poor muscle tone: Affected individuals may have poor muscle tone, which can lead to weakness and fatigue.
5. Vision problems: Some people with multiple carboxylase deficiency may experience vision problems, such as blurred vision or blindness.
6. Hearing loss: The condition can also cause hearing loss, which can range from mild to severe.
7. Other health problems: Multiple carboxylase deficiency can also lead to other health problems, such as kidney disease, heart disease, and liver disease.
There is currently no cure for multiple carboxylase deficiency, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. These may include:
1. Dietary changes: Affected individuals may need to follow a special diet that includes specific nutrients and supplements to help manage their condition.
2. Medications: Various medications, such as anticonvulsants and vitamin supplements, may be prescribed to manage seizures, developmental delays, and other symptoms.
3. Physical therapy: Physical therapy may be helpful in improving muscle tone and reducing the risk of complications.
4. Speech therapy: Speech therapy may be necessary to help individuals with intellectual disability and communication difficulties.
5. Occupational therapy: Occupational therapy can help affected individuals develop skills and strategies to manage daily activities and improve their quality of life.
6. Enzyme replacement therapy: In some cases, enzyme replacement therapy may be necessary to replace the deficient enzymes.
It's important to note that early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms of multiple carboxylase deficiency and improve the quality of life for affected individuals. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is essential to monitor progress and make any necessary adjustments to treatment plans.
The primary symptoms of biotinidase deficiency are developmental delays, intellectual disability, seizures, and movement disorders such as tremors and rigidity. The condition can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis.
Treatment for biotinidase deficiency typically involves the use of high doses of biotin supplements, which can improve symptoms such as seizures and developmental delays. In some cases, thiamine (vitamin B1) supplementation may also be recommended.
The prognosis for individuals with biotinidase deficiency is generally poor, with many experiencing significant cognitive and motor impairments. However, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
Overall, biotinidase deficiency is a rare and complex genetic disorder that requires specialized medical care and ongoing management to address associated symptoms and improve quality of life for affected individuals.
1. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine): necessary for converting carbohydrates into energy
2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): important for vision health and immune system function
3. Vitamin B3 (Niacin): crucial for energy production and skin health
4. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid): involved in energy production, hormone production, and blood cell formation
5. Vitamin B6: essential for brain function, immune system function, and the synthesis of neurotransmitters
6. Vitamin B7 (Biotin): important for hair, skin, and nail health, as well as energy production
7. Vitamin B9 (Folic acid): crucial for fetal development during pregnancy
8. Vitamin B12: necessary for the production of red blood cells, nerve function, and DNA synthesis.
Vitamin B deficiencies can occur due to several factors, including:
* Poor diet or malnutrition
* Gastrointestinal disorders that impair nutrient absorption (e.g., celiac disease, Crohn's disease)
* Increased demand for vitamins during pregnancy and lactation
* Certain medications (e.g., antacids, proton pump inhibitors) that interfere with nutrient absorption
* Malabsorption due to pancreas or small intestine disorders
* Inherited disorders (e.g., vitamin B12 deficiency due to pernicious anemia)
Symptoms of vitamin B deficiencies can vary depending on the specific vitamin and the severity of the deficiency. Some common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, irritability, depression, skin problems, and impaired cognitive function. Treatment typically involves dietary modifications and supplementation with the appropriate vitamin. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to address any underlying conditions or complications.
The following are some of the most common vitamin B deficiencies:
1. Vitamin B12 deficiency: This is one of the most common vitamin B deficiencies and can cause fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and neurological problems such as numbness or tingling in the hands and feet.
2. Vitamin B6 deficiency: This can cause skin problems, such as acne-like rashes, and neurological symptoms like confusion, convulsions, and weakness in the arms and legs.
3. Folate deficiency: This can cause fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and neurological problems such as memory loss and confusion.
4. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) deficiency: This can cause cracked lips, skin around the mouth, and tongue, and eyes.
5. Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency: This can cause pellagra, a condition characterized by diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia.
6. Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) deficiency: This can cause fatigue, weakness, and neurological symptoms like headaches and dizziness.
7. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency: This can cause beriberi, a condition characterized by weakness, fatigue, and neurological problems such as confusion and memory loss.
8. Biotin deficiency: This is rare but can cause skin problems, such as seborrhea, and neurological symptoms like numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.
9. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency: This is common in vegetarians and vegans who do not consume enough animal products, and can cause fatigue, weakness, and neurological problems such as numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.
It's important to note that these deficiencies can have a significant impact on your overall health and well-being, so it's essential to be aware of the signs and symptoms and take steps to ensure you are getting enough of these vitamins in your diet.
The symptoms of HCS deficiency can vary in severity and may include:
* Developmental delays and intellectual disability
* Seizures and epilepsy
* Vision loss or blindness
* Hearing loss or deafness
* Ataxia (problems with coordination and balance)
* Muscle weakness or wasting
* Fatigue and lethargy
* Poor appetite or growth failure
* Increased risk of infections
HCS deficiency is caused by mutations in the HCS gene, which can be inherited from one or both parents. The disorder can affect individuals of all ages and ethnicities.
Diagnosis of HCS deficiency typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and correcting any underlying nutritional deficiencies. This may include supplementation with vitamin B6 and biotin, as well as other therapies to address specific symptoms such as seizures or vision loss.
The prognosis for individuals with HCS deficiency varies depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of any additional health issues. Some individuals may experience significant developmental delays and intellectual disability, while others may have milder symptoms. With appropriate treatment and support, many individuals with HCS deficiency can lead fulfilling lives.
Biotin attachment domain
Biotin PEG2 amine
Biotin-dependent malonate decarboxylase
Biotin carboxyl carrier protein
Biotin-independent malonate decarboxylase
Iodine (131 I) derlotuximab biotin
Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease
Moses Wolf Goldberg
Robert Hardin Williams
Biotin - Health Professional Fact Sheet
Pantothenic acid and biotin: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Biotin Deficiency: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Biotin For Horses - SmartPak
Biotin - Patrick Holford
Hairtamin Biotin Shampoo - Planet Beauty
DailyMed - BIONA-VIT CONTROLS AND PREVENTS HAIR LOSS- biotin liquid
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Goat Anti Human (IgG) secondary antibody preadsorbed Biotin (ab7152) | Abcam
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BUB1B Monoclonal Antibody (OTI5D9), Biotin (TA700521)
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IgG2a Mouse anti-Rat, Biotin, Clone: 2A8F4, Southern Biotech Biotin, 0.5mg:Antibodies, | Fisher Scientific
Biotin anti-human CD4 Antibody anti-CD4 - OKT4
The positive effects of Biotin -- what the science says
Biotin Anti-Rat IgG2c, 2C8F1 | SouthernBiotech
CD42b Antibody [MM2/174] (Biotin) - Cat. No. 99-518 | ProSci
biotin conjugated antibody - Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals Inc.
CD25 Mouse Monoclonal, biotin labeled [AB-18BT]
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- Dietary avidin, a glycoprotein in raw egg whites, binds tightly to dietary biotin and prevents biotin's absorption in the gastrointestinal tract [ 13 , 14 ]. (nih.gov)
- Avidin, a protein found in egg whites, binds strongly to biotin, impairing the absorption of the vitamin, leading to severe biotin deficiency in those who consume excessive amounts of raw eggs. (medscape.com)
- The biochemical basis for egg-white injury syndrome was quickly elucidated when raw egg whites were found to contain the glycoprotein avidin, which has a remarkable affinity for biotin. (medscape.com)
- as a result, biotin is not liberated from food, and the biotin-avidin complex is lost in the feces. (medscape.com)
- The final step in solving the mystery of egg-white injury syndrome was the demonstration that the syndrome could be prevented by heating the egg whites, a process that denatures avidin and destroys its affinity for biotin. (medscape.com)
- The ureido ring is involved in the high affinity binding of biotin to avidin, a glycoprotein found in egg-white. (medscape.com)
- Targeted labeling of cancer cells using biotin tagged avidin functionalized biocompatible fluorescent nanocrystals. (bvsalud.org)
- The present study details the development of biotin tagged avidin functionalized Zinc Sulphide [ZnS] nanocrystals through a simple aqueous chemistry route at room temperature for targeted imaging applications. (bvsalud.org)
- Further biotinylation of these particles through the strong non-covalent interaction between biotin and avidin enabled highly specific labeling of the biotin receptors on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells . (bvsalud.org)
- Cover each section with 0.05% avidin solution from a Biotin-blocking kit. (nih.gov)
- Avidin will bind endogenous biotin! (nih.gov)
Biotinylated MCC and pro1
- The most reliable individual markers of biotin status, including deficiency and sufficiency, are biotinylated MCC and propionyl-CoA carboxylase in white blood cells [ 7 ]. (nih.gov)
Amount of biotin2
- The FNB based its determination of AIs for all populations on the amount of biotin in human milk consumed by infants and then used body weight to extrapolate AIs for other groups [ 11 ]. (nih.gov)
- According to Equine Clinical and Applied Nutrition, the amount of biotin recommended for average-sized horses with poor quality horn is 15-20mg/day, while Nutrient Requirement for Horses suggests a higher intake of 30mg/day. (smartpakequine.com)
Benefits of biotin1
- 8 benefits of biotin. (mindbodygreen.com)
- Gastrointestinal proteases and peptidases break down the protein-bound forms of ingested biotin into biocytin and biotin-oligopeptides, which undergo further processing by biotinidase, an enzyme, in the intestinal lumen to release free biotin [ 6 ]. (nih.gov)
- The free biotin is then absorbed in the small intestine, and most biotin is stored in the liver [ 1 , 3 , 6 ]. (nih.gov)
- Effects of excess biotin have not been seen in the horse, and therefore an upper daily limit of biotin has not been set. (smartpakequine.com)
- Some researchers suggest that the excess biotin given along with thiamine as treatment for the disorder may increase the amount of thiamine transporter that is produced, partially compensating for the impaired efficiency of the abnormal protein. (nih.gov)
- It is important to be aware that intake of biotin supplements may lead to interference with certain laboratory tests leading to false positive or false negative results. (medscape.com)
- All the biotin supplements below have been vetted to ensure that they meet Healthline's medical and business standards. (healthline.com)
- This is a relatively low dose compared with most other biotin-only supplements. (healthline.com)
- One moderately-sized human study found that those who took biotin supplements had 25% thicker nail beds 12 than the placebo group. (mindbodygreen.com)
- Biotin, a B vitamin, is an essential nutrient that is naturally present in some foods and available as a dietary supplement. (nih.gov)
- Deficiency of biotin, a water-soluble B vitamin, may occur from nutritional causes, but more commonly results from deficiencies of enzymes involved in biotin homeostasis (e.g. biotinidase deficiency ). (medscape.com)
- Chronic alcoholics and those on long-term anticonvulsants could develop biotin deficiency because of impaired intestinal uptake of the vitamin. (medscape.com)
- Biotin is a B-vitamin that is made by the body. (epnet.com)
- Biotin is a member of the B-vitamin family and is essential for cell growth, serving as a sort of intercellular "glue. (smartpakequine.com)
- Biotin is a B vitamin that your body needs to help convert food breakdown products into useable energy ( 1 ). (healthline.com)
- Without early and lifelong vitamin treatment, people with biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease experience a variety of neurological problems that gradually get worse. (nih.gov)
- Biotin (vitamin B7) is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a vital part in healthy metabolism and helps create important enzymes. (naturalfactors.com)
- Biotin is a type of vitamin B, specifically B7. (mindbodygreen.com)
- In the laboratory, the blood will be mixed with a vitamin called biotin. (nih.gov)
- The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography, and conjugated with biotin under optimal conditions. (biolegend.com)
- How many biotin molecules are per antibody structure? (biolegend.com)
- We don't routinely measure the number of biotins with our antibody products but the number of biotin molecules range from 3-6 molecules per antibody. (biolegend.com)
- Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is a rare condition that affects the brain and other parts of the nervous system. (nih.gov)
- Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is caused by changes in the SLC19A3 gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. (nih.gov)
- When Do Symptoms of Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease Begin? (nih.gov)
- Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is a genetic disease, which means that it is caused by one or more genes not working correctly. (nih.gov)
- Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is a disorder that affects the nervous system, including a group of structures in the brain called the basal ganglia, which help control movement. (nih.gov)
- The signs and symptoms of biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease usually begin between the ages of 3 and 10, but the disorder can appear at any age. (nih.gov)
- Many of the neurological problems that can occur in biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease affect movement, and can include involuntary tensing of various muscles (dystonia), muscle rigidity, muscle weakness on one or both sides of the body (hemiparesis or quadriparesis), problems coordinating movements (ataxia), and exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia). (nih.gov)
- Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is caused by mutations in the SLC19A3 gene. (nih.gov)
- Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD) may present in childhood, early infancy, or adulthood. (nih.gov)
Dietary Reference Intakes1
- Intake recommendations for biotin and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine [ 1 ]. (nih.gov)
- Oral administration of large doses of biotin increases serum concentrations of biotin and its metabolites [ 1 , 9 ]. (nih.gov)
- Early detection and treatment with pharmacologic doses of biotin are important to prevent the development of irreversible complications. (medscape.com)
- There are no advised doses for biotin. (epnet.com)
- It is likely safe to take biotin orally in small doses for a short time. (epnet.com)
- Supplement manufacturers have capitalized on this by including high doses of biotin in "hair, skin, and nails" formulations. (healthline.com)
- Through this carboxyl group, biotin is linked covalently to the β-amino group of lysine in 5 carboxylases that play critical roles in intermediary metabolism. (medscape.com)
- There are 5 biotin-dependent carboxylases each of which exists as an inactive apoform. (medscape.com)
- Biotin, as a cofactor for four essential carboxylases, might support myelin repair by enhancing fatty acid synthesis and protect against hypoxia-driven axonal degeneration by augmenting energy production in neurons," they wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
- Biotin-dependent carboxylase deficiencies (propionyl-CoA and pyruvate carboxylases). (nih.gov)
- Biotin's role in energy production is perhaps its most important: Biotin is considered a coenzyme for carboxylases 1 , which are the enzymes that assist in metabolizing fats, carbohydrates, and proteins, turning these macronutrients into your body's fuel. (mindbodygreen.com)
- Clinical and biochemical findings on a child with multiple biotin-responsive carboxylase deficiencies. (nih.gov)
- The major role of biotin is to help metabolize the fatty acids, proteins, and sugars from food into a form that your body can use for energy ( 1 ). (healthline.com)
- Others propose that biotin transporter proteins may interact with thiamine transporters in such a way that biotin levels influence the course of the disease. (nih.gov)
- Signs of biotin deficiency include skin rashes, hair loss, and brittle nails. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some of the major symptoms of biotin deficiency include brittle nails and hair, alongside skin concerns, which has led many people to believe that biotin can help improve these areas in anyone. (healthline.com)
- 10,000 times higher than the recommended level for adequate biotin intake of 30 mcg/day) from February 2017 to June 2018. (medpagetoday.com)
- As its name suggests, the condition may improve if the vitamins biotin and thiamine are given as treatment. (nih.gov)
- Prompt administration of biotin and thiamine early in the disease course results in partial or complete improvement within days in the childhood and adult presentations, but most with the infantile presentation have had poor outcome even after supplementation with biotin and thiamine. (nih.gov)
- Biotin (5-10 mg/kg/day) and thiamine (up to 40 mg/kg/day with a maximum of 1500 mg daily) are given orally as early in the disease course as possible and are continued lifelong. (nih.gov)
- Prompt administration of biotin and thiamine early in the disease course. (nih.gov)
- It is appropriate to clarify the genetic status of apparently asymptomatic older and younger at-risk relatives (e.g., sibs ) of an affected individual in order to identify as early as possible those who would benefit from prompt initiation of treatment with biotin and thiamine and preventive measures (avoidance of stress and trauma). (nih.gov)
- However, you may be at increased risk of biotin deficiency if you're pregnant or breastfeeding, have alcohol use disorder, or have a condition called biotinidase deficiency ( 1 ). (healthline.com)
- However, serum concentrations of biotin and its catabolites are not good indicators of marginal biotin deficiency because they do not decrease sufficiently in people with marginal biotin deficiency for these changes to be detectable with existing tests [ 3 , 10 ]. (nih.gov)
- High biotin serum concentrations can falsely alter laboratory tests that, if misinterpreted, could result in iatrogenic harm. (medpagetoday.com)
- The clinical presentation of biotin deficiency involves abnormalities of the hair, skin, nails and the central nervous system. (medscape.com)
- It has been used to prevent and treat biotin deficiency, help control blood glucose and to strength hair and nails. (epnet.com)
- Biotin is often used to increase the health of skin, hair, and nails. (naturalfactors.com)
- In particular, biotin stands apart from the rest with its role in keeping skin, hair, and nails healthy and looking vibrant. (mindbodygreen.com)
- Biotin has been shown to support thickness and firmness of nails 11 in several human studies. (mindbodygreen.com)
- Biotin (B7) is important for the processing of sugars, fats and amino acids. (bewellbuzz.com)
- In healthy adults, the concentration of biotin is 133-329 pmol/L in serum and 18-127 nmol/24 hours in urine [ 2 ]. (nih.gov)
- Streptavidin is an M r 60 000 protein from Streptomyces avidinii, and is a tetramer containing four biotin binding sites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Since the afﬁnity between streptavidin and biotin is exceptionally high, harsh conditions are required for disruption, such as the use of SDS in the sample buffer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The streptavidin-biotin interaction, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of ~10 -14 mol/L, is one of the strongest non-covalent biological interactions typically occurring between a protein and a ligand. (eurogentec.com)
- The streptavidin-biotin complex is resistant to pH, organic solvents and other denaturing agents making this interaction very stable and particularly adapted to a number of biological applications including Western blotting, IHC, ELISA and FACS. (eurogentec.com)
- To circumvent this issue, nucleic acid probes are used with a biotin-streptavidin system to have a two-step hybridization-capture where a biotinylated free probe hybridizes to a target nucleic acid and is then captured on a streptavidin coated bead. (nih.gov)
- Marginal biotin deficiency has been demonstrated in pregnancy and lactation, but the clinical significance is uncertain. (medscape.com)
- For best results, follow with Hairtamin Biotin Conditioner. (planetbeauty.com)
- Supplementation with biotin leads to clinical improvement in most cases. (medscape.com)
- Biotin or B7, one of the B vitamins, is an essential nutrient that plays key roles in the metabolism of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids. (medscape.com)
- B vitamins, like biotin, play a crucial role in fuel conversion, which keeps the machine going. (mindbodygreen.com)
- Biotin is part of the B-complex vitamins. (vitasprings.com)
- Biotin functions as a coenzyme in carboxylation reactions involving lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. (medscape.com)
- Patients affected by certain genetic defects affecting biotin metabolism present with a clinical picture of biotin deficiency. (medscape.com)
Hair and nail health1
- Still, despite anecdotal reports, keep in mind that there's minimal evidence to support the effectiveness of biotin for hair and nail health. (healthline.com)
- IgG fraction Monoclonal Mouse Anti-Biotin may be used either as direct conjugates, or for more sensitivity, they can be used unconjugated followed by a conjugated anti-mouse IgG (H+L) for signal enhancement . (jacksonimmuno.com)
- Since hooves may benefit from additional nutrients, methionine, an amino acid, and the trace minerals zinc and copper are often paired with biotin. (smartpakequine.com)
- Biotin is naturally found in the horse's diet, with alfalfa hay, oats, barley, and soybean meal providing moderate amounts and corn very little. (smartpakequine.com)
- Additionally, biotin is believed to naturally promote healthy hair growth because it is involved in the production of keratin, the main component of hair. (mindbodygreen.com)
- Biotin is a bicyclic molecule composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring. (medscape.com)
- About 12% of patients treated with biotin compared with 9% of patients who received placebo met the study's primary outcome of improvement in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) or the Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25-FW) test (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.81-2.26), reported Bruce Cree, MD, of the University of California San Francisco, and co-authors. (medpagetoday.com)
- Specifically, the short follow-up of the placebo-controlled phase and the very small placebo effect in MS-SPI (none of the placebo-treated patients achieved the primary endpoint) favored significant differences between biotin-treated and placebo-treated patients," they pointed out. (medpagetoday.com)
- Criteria for EDSS improvement were met by 7% in the biotin group and 6% in the placebo group (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.57-2.02). (medpagetoday.com)
- In one small study, women with thinning hair reported significant regrowth when supplementing with biotin as compared to those given a placebo. (mindbodygreen.com)
- Per serving, this supplement from Life Extension provides 2,000% of the DV for biotin. (healthline.com)
- Biotin can also be found in food products such as egg yolks, whole grains, and nuts. (epnet.com)
- Recent studies support a role for biotin in cell proliferation, DNA repair, epigenetic gene regulation as well as normal immune function. (medscape.com)
- A search for this protective factor led to the discovery in 1936 of biotin. (medscape.com)
- Biotin also plays key roles in histone modifications, gene regulation (by modifying the activity of transcription factors), and cell signaling [ 3 ]. (nih.gov)
- A limited number of reliable indicators of biotin status is available [ 7 ]. (nih.gov)
- However, there is evidence that supplementing with additional biotin may be helpful in certain horses to address issues of hoof quality such as hardness, integrity, strength, and even growth rate. (smartpakequine.com)
- As a result, supplementing with biotin is a smart choice for owners who want to support their horse's hoof health. (smartpakequine.com)