Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A mitochondrial enzyme found in a wide variety of cells and tissues. It is the final enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Ferrochelatase catalyzes ferrous insertion into protoporphyrin IX to form protoheme or heme. Deficiency in this enzyme results in ERYTHROPOIETIC PROTOPORPHYRIA.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
A membrane-bound flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent aromatization of protoporphyrinogen IX (Protogen) to protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX). It is the last enzyme of the common branch of the HEME and CHLOROPHYLL pathways in plants, and is the molecular target of diphenyl ether-type herbicides. VARIEGATE PORPHYRIA is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde, orthophosphate, and NADP+ to yield L-4-aspartyl phosphate and NADPH. EC
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
Compounds derived from TYROSINE via betalamic acid, including BETAXANTHINS and BETACYANINS. They are found in the Caryophyllales order of PLANTS and some BASIDIOMYCETES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A class of phosphotransferases that catalyzes the transfer of diphosphate-containing groups. EC 2.7.6.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
Porphyrinogens which are intermediates in the heme biosynthesis. They have four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Coproporphyrinogens I and III are formed in the presence of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase from the corresponding uroporphyrinogen. They can yield coproporphyrins by autooxidation or protoporphyrin by oxidative decarboxylation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PORPHOBILINOGEN into the hydroxymethylbilane preuroporphyrinogen (UROPORPHYRINOGENS) in several discrete steps. It is the third enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. In humans, deficiency in this enzyme encoded by HMBS (or PBGD) gene results in a form of neurological porphyria (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.
A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate to 2,3-dihydrodipicolinate using NAD(P)+ as a cofactor. It is found in BACTERIA and higher plants involved in the biosynthesis of DIAMINOPIMELIC ACID and LYSINE.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Cholestadiene derivatives containing a hydroxy group anywhere in the molecule.
An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
3-Chloro-4-(3-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)pyrrole. Antifungal antibiotic isolated from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia. It is effective mainly against Trichophyton, Microsporium, Epidermophyton, and Penicillium.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway to LEUCINE, forming isopropyl malate from acetyl-CoA and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used for flavoring food.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC, EC, EC, and EC
A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.
The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the pathway for histidine biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. ATP reacts reversibly with 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to yield N-1-(5'-phosphoribosyl)-ATP and pyrophosphate. EC
Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A mitosporic fungal species used in the production of penicillin.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of glutamine-derived ammonia and another molecule. The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.5.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
An actinomycete from which the antibiotic OLEANDOMYCIN is obtained.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Sugar analogs in which the ring oxygen is replaced by a sulfur.
An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
Compounds formed by condensation of secologanin with tryptamine resulting in a tetrahydro-beta-carboline which is processed further to a number of bioactive compounds. These are especially found in plants of the APOCYNACEAE; LOGANIACEAE; and RUBIACEAE families.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC
The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
An NADP+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde to L-glutamyl 5-phosphate. It plays a role in the urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A tricyclic pentaglycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces strains that inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by adhering to DNA. It is used as a fluorescent dye and as an antineoplastic agent, especially in bone and testicular tumors. Plicamycin is also used to reduce hypercalcemia, especially that due to malignancies.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The second enzyme in the committed pathway for CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxygenation step in the biosynthesis of STEROLS and is thought to be a rate limiting enzyme in this pathway. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of SQUALENE to (S)-squalene-2,3-epoxide.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Compounds with triple bonds to each side of a double bond. Many of these are CYTOTOXINS and are researched for use as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the deamination of THREONINE to 2-ketobutyrate and AMMONIA. The role of this enzyme can be biosynthetic or biodegradative. In the former role it supplies 2-ketobutyrate required for ISOLEUCINE biosynthesis, while in the latter it is only involved in the breakdown of threonine to supply energy. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the cyclization of hydroxymethylbilane to yield UROPORPHYRINOGEN III and water. It is the fourth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by UROS gene. Mutations of UROS gene result in CONGENITAL ERYTHROPOIETIC PORPHYRIA.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.

High shikimate production from quinate with two enzymatic systems of acetic acid bacteria. (1/980)

3-Dehydroshikimate was formed with a yield of 57-77% from quinate via 3-dehydroquinate by two successive enzyme reactions, quinoprotein quinate dehydrogenase (QDH) and 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, in the cytoplasmic membranes of acetic acid bacteria. 3-Dehydroshikimate was then reduced to shikimate (SKA) with NADP-dependent SKA dehydrogenase (SKDH) from the same organism. When SKDH was coupled with NADP-dependent D-glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in the presence of excess D-glucose as an NADPH re-generating system, SKDH continued to produce SKA until 3-dehydroshikimate added initially in the reaction mixture was completely converted to SKA. Based on the data presented, a strategy for high SKA production was proposed.  (+info)

Association of warfarin dose with genes involved in its action and metabolism. (2/980)

We report an extensive study of variability in genes encoding proteins that are believed to be involved in the action and biotransformation of warfarin. Warfarin is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant that is difficult to use because of the wide interindividual variation in dose requirements, the narrow therapeutic range and the risk of serious bleeding. We genotyped 201 patients for polymorphisms in 29 genes in the warfarin interactive pathways and tested them for association with dose requirement. In our study, polymorphisms in or flanking the genes VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, PROC, APOE, EPHX1, CALU, GGCX and ORM1-ORM2 and haplotypes of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, PROC, F7, GGCX, PROZ, F9, NR1I2 and ORM1-ORM2 were associated with dose (P < 0.05). VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 were significant after experiment-wise correction for multiple testing (P < 0.000175), however, the association of CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 was fully explained by linkage disequilibrium with CYP2C9*2 and/or *3. PROC and APOE were both significantly associated with dose after correction within each gene. A multiple regression model with VKORC1, CYP2C9, PROC and the non-genetic predictors age, bodyweight, drug interactions and indication for treatment jointly accounted for 62% of variance in warfarin dose. Weaker associations observed for other genes could explain up to approximately 10% additional dose variance, but require testing and validation in an independent and larger data set. Translation of this knowledge into clinical guidelines for warfarin prescription will be likely to have a major impact on the safety and efficacy of warfarin.  (+info)

Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells. (3/980)

BACKGROUND: Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. METHODS: This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). RESULTS: Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. CONCLUSION: Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Signaling pathways involved in adhesion and communication of cultured cancer cells were downregulated. The three way pathways comparison presented in this study brings light into the differences in the use of cellular pathways by tumor cells and cancer cell lines.  (+info)

Generation of new landomycins with altered saccharide patterns through over-expression of the glycosyltransferase gene lanGT3 in the biosynthetic gene cluster of landomycin A in Streptomyces cyanogenus S-136. (4/980)

Two novel landomycin compounds, landomycins I and J, were generated with a new mutant strain of Streptomyces cyanogenus in which the glycosyltransferase that is encoded by lanGT3 was over-expressed. This mutant also produced the known landomycins A, B, and D. All these compounds consist of the same polyketide-derived aglycon but differ in their sugar moieties, which are chains of different lengths. The major new metabolite, landomycin J, was found to consist of landomycinone with a tetrasaccharide chain attached. Combined with previous results of the production of landomycin E (which contains three sugars) by the LanGT3- mutant strain (obtained by targeted gene deletion of lanGT3), it was verified that LanGT3 is a D-olivosyltransferase responsible for the transfer of the fourth sugar required for landomycin A biosynthesis. The experiments also showed that gene over-expression is a powerful method for unbalancing biosynthetic pathways in order to generate new metabolites. The cytotoxicity of the new landomycins--compared to known ones--was assessed by using three different tumor cell lines, and their structure-activity relationship (SAR) with respect to the length of the deoxysugar side chain was deduced from the results.  (+info)

Nonsynonymous polymorphisms in genes in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and associations with colorectal cancer. (5/980)

The Ala(222)Val single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene for 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in one-carbon metabolism, has been associated with colorectal cancer risk. Many enzymes are involved in one-carbon metabolism, and SNPs in the corresponding genes may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined 24 nonsynonymous SNPs in 13 genes involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway in relation to the risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts. Among 376 men and women with colorectal cancer and 849 controls, a reduced risk of colorectal cancer was observed for Val/Val versus Ala carriers of MTHFR Ala(222)Val [odds ratio (OR), 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-1.00]. An increased risk was suggested for the variant carrier genotypes versus homozygous wild-type for betaine hydroxymethyltransferase Arg(239)Gln (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.07-1.83) and two linked SNPs in methionine synthase reductase, Ser(284)Thr (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.05-3.27) and Arg(415)Cys (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.15-3.56). The other SNPs were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Also, none of the SNPs were associated with risk in subgroups of dietary methyl status or were jointly associated with colorectal cancer risk in combination with another SNP, except possibly SNPs in methionine synthase and transcobalamin II. However, these analyses of gene-diet interactions were limited in statistical power. Our results corroborate previous findings for MTHFR Ala(222)Val and suggest that other genes involved in one-carbon metabolism, particularly those that affect DNA methylation, may be associated with colorectal cancer risk.  (+info)

The ISC [corrected] proteins Isa1 and Isa2 are required for the function but not for the de novo synthesis of the Fe/S clusters of biotin synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/980)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to use some biotin precursors for biotin biosynthesis. Insertion of a sulfur atom into desthiobiotin, the final step in the biosynthetic pathway, is catalyzed by biotin synthase (Bio2). This mitochondrial protein contains two iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters that catalyze the reaction and are thought to act as a sulfur donor. To identify new components of biotin metabolism, we performed a genetic screen and found that Isa2, a mitochondrial protein involved in the formation of Fe/S proteins, is necessary for the conversion of desthiobiotin to biotin. Depletion of Isa2 or the related Isa1, however, did not prevent the de novo synthesis of any of the two Fe/S centers of Bio2. In contrast, Fe/S cluster assembly on Bio2 strongly depended on the Isu1 and Isu2 proteins. Both isa mutants contained low levels of Bio2. This phenotype was also found in other mutants impaired in mitochondrial Fe/S protein assembly and in wild-type cells grown under iron limitation. Low Bio2 levels, however, did not cause the inability of isa mutants to utilize desthiobiotin, since this defect was not cured by overexpression of BIO2. Thus, the Isa proteins are crucial for the in vivo function of biotin synthase but not for the de novo synthesis of its Fe/S clusters. Our data demonstrate that the Isa proteins are essential for the catalytic activity of Bio2 in vivo.  (+info)

Regulation of yeast oscillatory dynamics. (7/980)

When yeast cells are grown continuously at high cell density, a respiratory oscillation percolates throughout the population. Many essential cellular functions have been shown to be separated temporally during each cycle; however, the regulatory mechanisms involved in oscillatory dynamics remain to be elucidated. Through GC-MS analysis we found that the majority of metabolites show oscillatory dynamics, with 70% of the identified metabolite concentrations peaking in conjunction with NAD(P)H. Through statistical analyses of microarray data, we identified that biosynthetic events have a defined order, and this program is initiated when respiration rates are increasing. We then combined metabolic, transcriptional data and statistical analyses of transcription factor activity, identified the top oscillatory parameters, and filtered a large-scale yeast interaction network according to these parameters. The analyses and controlled experimental perturbation provided evidence that a transcriptional complex formed part of the timing circuit for biosynthetic, reductive, and cell cycle programs in the cell. This circuitry does not act in isolation because both have strong translational, proteomic, and metabolic regulatory mechanisms. Our data lead us to conclude that the regulation of the respiratory oscillation revolves around coupled subgraphs containing large numbers of proteins and metabolites, with a potential to oscillate, and no definable hierarchy, i.e., heterarchical control.  (+info)

Redirection of sphingolipid metabolism toward de novo synthesis of ethanolamine in Leishmania. (8/980)

In most eukaryotes, sphingolipids (SLs) are critical membrane components and signaling molecules. However, mutants of the trypanosomatid protozoan Leishmania lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (spt2-) and SLs grow well, although they are defective in stationary phase differentiation and virulence. Similar phenotypes were observed in sphingolipid (SL) mutant lacking the degradatory enzyme sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (spl-). This epistatic interaction suggested that a metabolite downstream of SLs was responsible. Here we show that unlike other organisms, the Leishmania SL pathway has evolved to be the major route for ethanolamine (EtN) synthesis, as EtN supplementation completely reversed the viability and differentiation defects of both mutants. Thus Leishmania has undergone two major metabolic shifts: first in de-emphasizing the metabolic roles of SLs themselves in growth, signaling, and maintenance of membrane microdomains, which may arise from the unique combination of abundant parasite lipids; Second, freed of typical SL functional constraints and a lack of alternative routes to produce EtN, Leishmania redirected SL metabolism toward bulk EtN synthesis. Our results thus reveal a striking example of remodeling of the SL metabolic pathway in Leishmania.  (+info)

The antiSMASH database is a comprehensive resource on secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. It contains gene clusters identified with the current version of antiSMASH on more than 3000 finished bacterial genomes. The antiSMASH database provides a web-interface which allows simple queries as well as a query builder for complex queries. Results can be exported as lists or (if applicaple) protein or nucleotide FASTA files. In addition, there are links to the antiSMASH output page for all identified gene clusters. References:. ...
The rice pathogenic fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Besides the gibberellins, causing the bakanae effect in infected rice seedlings, the fungus produces several mycotoxins and pigments. Among the 47 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters identified in the genome of F. fujikuroi, the fumonisin gene cluster (FUM) shows very high homology t ...
The rice pathogenic fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Besides the gibberellins, causing the bakanae effect in infected rice seedlings, the fungus produces several mycotoxins and pigments. Among the 47 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters identified in the genome of F. fujikuroi, the fumonisin gene cluster (FUM) shows very high homology t ...
Zuther, K., Mayser, P., Hettwer, U., Wu, W., Spiteller, P., Kindler, B. L. J., Karlovsky, P., Basse, C. W., and Schirawski, J. 2008. The tryptophan aminotransferase Tam1 catalyses the single biosynthetic step for tryptophan-dependent pigment synthesis in Ustilago maydis. Molecular microbiology. 68 (1):152-172. ...
Pesquisadores Participantes Roberto G. S. Berlinck David H. Sherman - Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan One of the most underexplored classes of natural products from a metabolic pathway perspective includes complex alkaloids derived from terrestrial and marine sources. In addition to the fascinating genetic and biochemical mechanisms involved in construction of these secondary metabolites,…
το κείμενο με τίτλο Elucidating and exploiting microbial bioactive product biosynthesis σχετίζετε με Βιοτεχνολογία
Srinivas, N; Jetter, P; Ueberbacher, B J; Werneburg, M; Zerbe, K; Steinmann, J; VanderMeijden, B; Bernardini, F; Lederer, A; Dias, R L A; Misson, P E; Henze, H; Zumbrunn, J; Gombert, F O; Obrecht, D; Hunziker, P; Schauer, S; Ziegler, U; Käch, A; Eberl, L; Riedel, K; DeMarco, S J; Robinson, J A (2010). Peptidomimetic antibiotics target outer membrane biogenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Science, 327(5968):1010-1013.. Geib, N; Weber, T; Wörtz, T; Zerbe, K; Wohlleben, W; Robinson, J A (2010). Genome mining in amycolatopsis balhimycina for ferredoxins capable of supporting cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 306(1):45-53.. Li, D B; Woithe, K; Geib, N; Abou-Hadeed, K; Zerbe, K; Robinson, J A (2009). Chapter 19. In vitro studies of phenol coupling enzymes involved in vancomycin biosynthesis. In: Hopwood, D A. Complex Enzymes in Microbial Natural Product Biosynthesis, Part A: Overview Articles and Peptides. Amsterdam: Elsevier, ...
Extending the database of microbial sequence space is a central measure for improving the discovery of novel antibiotics in DZIF. We apply high-throughput next generation genome sequencing of potential microbial producers and systematic microbial genome analyses for genome mining, to identify new types of natural producers outside of common bacterial groups. We integrate genome and transcriptome sequence analyses with metabolomics to investigate the genetic regulation of bacterial natural product biosynthesis, with the goal to discover novel antibiotic compounds and specifically induce and control their production. Presently, we focus on the biosynthetic potential of myxobacteria, in close collaboration with the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (Prof. Dr. Rolf Müller, Prof. Dr. Joachim Wink).. DZIF is funded by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung ...
Time and place: Seminar: Capturing transient interactions of proteins involved in natural product biosynthesis Aug. 19, 2019 11:15 AM-12:00 PM, Berzelius, Department of chemistry ...
Bacteria - Biosynthetic pathways of bacteria: Many prokaryotes are able to convert any given carbon source into biosynthetic building blocks-e.g., amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, lipids, sugars, and enzyme cofactors. The amount and activity of each enzyme in these biosynthetic pathways are carefully regulated so that the cell produces only as much of any compound as is needed at any time. During the process of evolution, some bacteria have lost genes that encode certain biosynthetic reactions and are hence likely to require nutritional supplements. For example, Mycoplasma, whose DNA content is about one-quarter the size of that of E. coli, has many nutritional requirements and has even
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Drivers of metabolic diversification: how dynamic genomic neighbourhoods generate new biosynthetic pathways in the Brassicaceae. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Link for Professor OConnor. Abstract: Plants, which make thousands of complex natural products, are outstanding chemists. Through the concerted action of enzymes that are assembled into metabolic pathways, nature creates chemical complexity from simple starting materials. I will highlight some of the unusual enzymatic transformations that plants use to make complex, bioactive natural products, and will also discuss methods by which these pathways can be harnessed for metabolic engineering. The focus is on the biosynthesis of the monoterpenes called iridoids, and the alkaloids derived from iridoids, known as the monoterpene indole alkaloids. The discovery, functional characterization and mechanistic study of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these important compounds in several medicinal plant species will be discussed.. ...
Our goal is to develop the yeast host and tools for natural product (NP) expression, using novel genomic and synthetic biology technologies. We will showcase these tools through heterologous expression of 600 natural product gene clusters from 10 filamentous fungi of diverse ecological origin. Our project will address all aspects of the genome to natural product process, including high-throughput and cost-effective gene cluster DNA synthesis, gene transcription and protein expression in yeast, through natural product biosynthesis.
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Discussions of therapeutic suppression of hedgehog (Hh) signaling almost exclusively focus on receptor antagonism; however, hedgehogs biosynthesis represents a unique and potentially targetable aspect of this oncogenic signaling pathway. Here, we review a key biosynthetic step called cholesterolysis from the perspectives of structure/function and small molecule inhibition. Cholesterolysis, also called cholesteroylation, generates cholesterol-modified Hh ligand via autoprocessing of a hedgehog precursor protein. Post-translational modification by cholesterol appears to be restricted to proteins in the hedgehog family. The transformation is essential for Hh biological activity and upstream of signaling events. Despite its decisive role in generating ligand, cholesterolysis remains conspicuously unexplored as a therapeutic target.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism. Unlike primary metabolites, absence of secondary metabolites does not result in immediate death, but rather in long-term impairment of the organisms survivability, fecundity, or aesthetics, or perhaps in no significant change at all. Secondary metabolites are often restricted to a narrow set of species within a phylogenetic group. Secondary metabolites often play an important role in plant defense against herbivory and other interspecies defenses. Humans use secondary metabolites as medicines, flavorings, and recreational drugs. Secondary metabolites aid a plant in important functions such as protection, competition, and species interactions, but are not necessary for survival. One important defining quality of secondary metabolites is their specificity. Usually, secondary metabolites are specific to an individual species. Research also shows that ...
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Despite remarkable medical advances, including improved sanitation, effective vaccines, and antibiotics, bacterial infections remain a serious threat to human health. Annually, over 17 million people succumb to bacterial infections, with an increasing proportion due to antibiotic resistance. Therefore, there is urgent and continuous need for new antibiotics. Small molecule metabolites from microbes have been a highly productive source of chemical matter that ultimately led to most of todays clinically used antibiotics. Many of these natural products are derived from polyketide synthase (PKS) or non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) families, including well-known antibiotics such as the beta-lactams, tetracyclines, macrolides, and glycopeptides. With the rising resistance to these proven antibiotic classes, alternative sources of antibiotics must be discovered. The ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) have been attracting interest as one such source of ...
To the best of our knowledge, we have described the following for the first time: 1) A relationship between severe insulin resistance and elevated levels of circulating FASN. 2) Circulating FASN was inversely associated with adipose tissue FASN expression. This supports the hypothesis that circulating extracellular FASN levels increase in parallel with the metabolic stress of the cells, as indicated by their decreased amounts of intracellular FASN levels. 3) Decreased concentration of circulating FASN is a good correlate of improvement in insulin action and metabolic control, as evidenced during subtle lifestyle interventions or surgery-induced weight loss. And 4) FASN plasma levels work as a marker of insulin sensitivity only in the context of metabolic stress, given that rosiglitazone, which promotes lipid biosynthesis and storage, did not lead to changes in circulating FASN.. We cannot exclude the possibility that the liver could also contribute to circulating FASN. In fact, weight loss ...
The 5-methyl-2-pyrrolylcarbonyl moiety of the aminocoumarin antibiotics clorobiocin and coumermycin A1 is the key pharmacophore for targeting the ATP-binding site of GyrB for inhibition of the bacterial type-II topoisomerase DNA gyrase. During the late stage of clorobiocin and coumermycin A1 biosynthesis, the pyrrolyl-2-carboxyl group is transferred from the peptidyl carrier proteins Clo/CouN1 to the 3-hydroxyl of the 4-methoxy-L-noviosyl scaffold by the action of the acyltransferases Clo/CouN7. CouN1 and CouN7 have now been heterologously expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. The apo form of CouN1 is converted to the acyl-holo form by loading with pyrrolyl-2-carboxyl-S-pantetheinyl moieties from synthetic pyrrolyl- and 5-methylpyrrolyl-CoAs by the action of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase Sfp. CouN7 acts as an acyltransferase, moving the pyrrole acyl moieties from CouN1 to the noviose sugar of descarbamoylnovobiocin. When the 5-methylpyrrolyl-2-carboxyl-thioester of CouN1 is the
Highlights DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803868 Biosynthesis Extending the Biosynthetic Repertoire in Ribosomal Peptide Assembly Bradley S. Moore* bacteriocins · biosynthesis · enzymes · natural products · ribosomal peptides Natural products are quite inspiring. To chemists, they inspire the development of new synthetic methods and the creation of ever more sensitive analytical techniques. Biologists, on the other hand, exploit natural products in the discovery of new molecular targets and drugs, as well as to learn more about the way cells or whole organisms communicate with each other. Natural products also motivate biochemists to explore new ways in which nature assembles complex organic molecules. Such products, in one form or another, have helped transform modern science. In this post-genomic era, the scientific field of natural product biosynthesis has witnessed a constant flow of fascinating discoveries outlining new biochemical transformations in secondary metabolism. Most recently, cyclic ...
Figure: Structure of rishirilid A and organization of the rishirilid biosynthetic gene cluster. Although structures of several ABC transporters have been reported (cited in 3) not much is known about substrate binding domains of these transporters and about the mechanisms how ABC transporters select and translocate their substrates. Aside the ABC transporter system the rishirilid gene cluster contains rslT4 which most probably is involved in the export of rishirilid into the extracellular space. RslT4 belongs to the EmrB/QacA transporter family which is known to be drug:H+ antiporter with 12 transmembrane domains sharing conserved sequence motifs.. The main focus of the proposed project is to understand the exact function of RslT1, RslT2, RslT3 and RslT4 by structural and functional studies.. The specific aims of the proposal are:. ...
The synthesis and excretion of bile acids comprise the major pathway of cholesterol catabolism in mammals. Synthesis provides a direct means of converting cholesterol, which is both hydrophobic and insoluble, into a water-soluble and readily excreted molecule, the bile acid. The biosynthetic steps t …
contributors:[{last:Sorokin,middle:I,first:I︠U︡,function:author},{last:Kadota,first:Hajime,function:author},{last:International Biological Programme. Section PM.,function:author},{last:Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR.,function:author}],title:Techniques for the assessment of microbial production and decomposition in fresh waters,style:apa,source:conference,isbn:null,title2:,oclc:2967066,pubnonperiodical:{year:1972,volume:,publisher:Blackwell Scientific [for] International Biological Programme,city:Oxford,title:Techniques for the assessment of microbial production and decomposition in fresh waters},conference:{:},datasource:http:\/\/,pubtype:{main:pubnonperiodical ...
Biosynthesis of PAM after Dox induction. Identical wells of iPAM cells were treated with 0.25 or 2.0 μg/ml Dox for 48 h and then incubated with [35S]Met for
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a fast-track mechanism that allows genetically unrelated organisms to exchange genes for rapid environmental adaptation. We developed a new phyletic distribution-based software, HGT-Finder, which implements a novel bioinformatics algorithm to calculate a horizontal transfer index and a probability value for each query gene. Applying this new tool to the Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus nidulans genomes, we found 273, 542, and 715 transferred genes (HTGs), respectively. HTGs have shorter length, higher guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and relaxed selection pressure. Metabolic process and secondary metabolism functions are significantly enriched in HTGs. Gene clustering analysis showed that 61%, 41% and 74% of HTGs in the three genomes form physically linked gene clusters (HTGCs). Overlapping manually curated, secondary metabolite gene clusters (SMGCs) with HTGCs found that 9 of the 33 A. fumigatus SMGCs and 31 of the 65 A. nidulans SMGCs share
The adipocyte plays a crucial role in metabolic regulation, serving as a storage depot for fatty acids and as an endocrine cell to manage energy utilization and feeding behavior [1, 2]. The mass of adipose tissue is maintained by a well-controlled balance of cell proliferation (hyperplasia) and increase in fat cell size (hypertrophy). Increases in adipocyte hypertrophy result from the uptake and assimilation of extracellular fatty acids into cytosolic triacylglycerol-rich lipid droplets. The primary sources of these extracellular fatty acids are those that are 1) associated with circulating albumin or 2) hydrolyzed from triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein particles such as chylomicrons or very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Since chylomicrons are short-lived fatty acid carriers present only during the post-prandial period, it is accepted that VLDL particles represent the major source of circulating fatty acids in the form of triacylglycerols. Triacylglycerols are the major component of VLDL and ...
Natural product biosynthesis; non-ribosomal peptides; bioinorganic and biophysical chemistry; oxygen activation; sustainable chemistry; biofuels My laboratory is interested in the chemical biology of enzymes involved in pharmaceutical biosynthesis and bioenergy production. We are interested in developing tools to understand the detailed molecular mechanisms of these potent catalysts, and ultimately leverage them for the synthesis of natural products of pharmacological or industrial importance. As a result, we utilize a large spectrum of techniques in our studies, ranging from genome mining, molecular biology, metabolic engineering, enzymology, transient kinetics, and biophysical spectroscopy. Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis. There is growing interest in developing biochemical strategies to produce compounds with similar properties to petroleum-derived fuels. We are exploring enzymatic routes to produce hydrocarbons from biologically-derived fatty acid precursors, with the ultimate goal of preparing a ...
Teredinidae are a family of highly adapted wood-feeding and wood-boring bivalves, commonly known as shipworms, whose evolution is linked to the acquisition of cellulolytic gammaproteobacterial symbionts harbored in bacteriocytes within the gills. In the present work we applied metagenomics to charac …
In the present study we addressed the question of whether the biosynthesis of secondary carotenoids in H. pluvialisproceeds via an independent second pathway that operates outside the chloroplast, as the accumulation of the astaxanthin esters in cytosolic lipid vesicles might indicate. According to our data for PDS, we conclude that, at least for this relatively early biosynthetic step of carotenogenesis, no second cytosolic pathway exists and that higher biosynthetic activity is coupled to higher amounts of enzyme. Up-regulation on both the mRNA and protein levels was observed upon induction of SC synthesis. Because of slight variability in the extent of SC accumulation between parallels (Grünewald, 1997), we do not interpret the small difference between the maxima in PDS mRNA and protein levels as a sign for post-translational regulation events-at least the main part of up-regulation takes place at the mRNA level.. Bouvier et al. (1998) showed that pepper PDS mRNA increased under different ...
Release of neurotransmitters:. - Usually follows arrival of an action potential at the synapse - whereby the voltage across the cell membrane (membrane potential) of a cell (in this case a presynaptic neuron) rapidly rises and falls. Myelin sheath - consists of Schwann cells that encircle axon like a jelly roll, act as insulators and are separated by gaps of unsheathed axon called Nodes of Ranvier. Instead of a continuous traveling down the axon, the action potential jumps from node to node (called saltatory conduction), thereby speeding up propagation of impulse.. ✐ Follows a graded electrical potential.. ✐ Occurs without electrical stimulation as a low level baselinerelease. Neurotransmitter synthesis - made via just a few biosynthetic steps, from simple precursors, such as amino acids readily available from diet. Have excitory or inhibitory effect (or both), depending only on the type of receptors they activate - an excitory effect increases the probability that the target cell will ...
THE eating quality of Australian beef continues to rise, with the national average MSA Index reaching 57.56 points in 2015-17 - thats a large rise of 0.84 index points since the 2010-11 grading year, a newly released report has shown. The post MSA eating quality performance continues to rise appeared first on Beef Central ...
Yamada K.; Morisaki M.; Kumaoka H., 1983: Different biosynthetic pathways of the pyrimidine moiety of thiamin in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
17693715] The border sequence of the balhimycin biosynthesis gene cluster from Amycolatopsis balhimycina contains bbr, encoding a StrR-like pathway-specific regulator. (J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. , 2007 ...
Sú to anadromné (t.j. sťahovavé) alebo sladkovodné ryby severnej pologule. Posteriórny myodóm je hlboký, pričom okohybné svaly, ktoré ním prechádzajú sa pripájajú na svalstvo trupu. Brušné plutvy sú v abdominálnom postavení. Tuková plutnička je vždy prítomná. Žiabrové blany siahajú ďaleko dopredu, sú neprirastené k hrádzi. Kostných lúčov je 7 - 20 kostných lúčov. Stavcov je 50-75, posledné 3 sú otočené nahor. Pelvický axilárny výbežok je prítomný. Pylorických príveskov je 11-210. Maximálna dĺžka tela je 1,5 m. Vajcovody chýbajú, zastupujú ich peritoneálne záhyby. [1][2]. Pozri aj charakteristiku v článku lososotvaré. ...
This enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway for UDP-alpha-D-ManNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-mannuronic acid), an important precursor of B-band lipopolysaccharide ...
Data Availability StatementThe revised coding sequences of are deposited in GenBank under accession quantities KX281943, KX281944, and KX281945, respectively. variety of supplementary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes, including 12 sesquiterpene synthases (STSs), one non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), and a polyketide synthase (PKS) [6]. These enzymes are necessary for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes, non-ribosomal peptides, and polyketides, respectively. Included in this, six supplementary metabolite gene clusters harbouring genes encoding four STS genes and one each of NRPS and PKS had been also found expressing at notable amounts in the sclerotium [7]. Genome mining provides emerged being a potential avenue to gain access to the chemical variety encoded in basidiomycete fungal genomes [10]. The large numbers of STS genes in the genome features the potential of in making diverse sesquiterpenoids. Many sesquiterpenoids possess powerful antibiotic and cytotoxic actions because of their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic thiolation-thioesterase structure of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. AU - Frueh, Dominique P.. AU - Arthanari, Haribabu. AU - Koglin, Alexander. AU - Vosburg, David A.. AU - Bennett, Andrew E.. AU - Walsh, Christopher T.. AU - Wagner, Gerhard. PY - 2008/8/14. Y1 - 2008/8/14. N2 - Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS) produce numerous secondary metabolites with various therapeutic/antibiotic properties. Like fatty acid synthases (FAS), these enzymes are organized in modular assembly lines in which each module, made of conserved domains, incorporates a given monomer unit into the growing chain. Knowledge about domain or module interactions may enable reengineering of this assembly line enzymatic organization and open avenues for the design of new bioactive compounds with improved therapeutic properties. So far, little structural information has been available on how the domains interact and communicate. This may be because of inherent ...
Read A Rice Semi-Dwarf Gene, Tan-Ginbozu (D35), Encodes the Gibberellin Biosynthesis Enzyme, ent-Kaurene Oxidase, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
12855716] Cloning, sequencing and heterologous expression of the medermycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. AM-7161: towards comparative analysis of the benzoisochromanequinone gene clusters. (Microbiology. , 2003 ...
Medical Xpress is a web-based medical and health news service that features the most comprehensive coverage in the fields of neuroscience, cardiology, cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more.
Tiny Earth plans to sequence hundreds of genomes from antimicrobial-producing soil microbes and identify novel biosynthetic gene clusters.
Medema, M. H., Kottmann, R., Yilmaz, P., Cummings, M., Biggins, J. B., Blin, K., de Bruijn, I., Chooi, Y. H., Claesen, J., Coates, R. C., Cruz-Morales, P., Duddela, S., et al. Minimum information about a biosynthetic gene cluster Nature Chemical Biology 2015 11:625-631 PMID:26284661 ...
Some are organized by biosynthetic pathway (terpenes) and some are by apparent structure without regard to pathway (pyrrolizidines). A couple are named after plant nomenclature where they are found (berberines). ...
Third edition of this authoritative work on microbial biochemistry Describes a multitude of biosynthetic pathways in great detail Provides the reader with
The product of the reaction, alpha-ribazole 5-phosphate, forms part of the corrin biosynthesis pathway and is a substrate for EC ...
Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was ...
Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation and characterization of low-indole-3-acetic acid-producing mutants from bradyrhizobium elkanii. AU - Yagi, Ken. AU - Matsumoto, Taku. AU - Chujo, Tetsuya. AU - Nojiri, Hideaki. AU - Omori, Toshio. AU - Minamisawa, Kiwamu. AU - Nishiyama, Makoto. AU - Yamane, Hisakazu. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - We isolated 11 low-indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing mutants of Bradyrhizobium elkanii by Tn5 mutagenesis. The amount of IAA produced by each mutant was 2.2-13.6% of that of the wild-type. It was found by resting cell reactions that the biosynthetic step to convert indole-3-pyruvic acid to indole-3-acetaldehyde was blocked in all the mutants.. AB - We isolated 11 low-indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing mutants of Bradyrhizobium elkanii by Tn5 mutagenesis. The amount of IAA produced by each mutant was 2.2-13.6% of that of the wild-type. It was found by resting cell reactions that the biosynthetic step to convert indole-3-pyruvic acid to indole-3-acetaldehyde was ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An essential role for de novo biosynthesis of L-serine in CNS development. AU - Furuya, Shigeki. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - L-Serine plays a versatile role in intermediary metabolism in eukaryotic cells. The physiological significance of its de novo biosynthesis, however, remains largely unexplored. We demonstrated previously that neurons lose the ability to synthesize L-serine after their final differentiation and thus depend on astrocytes to supply this amino acid. This is due to a lack of neuronal expression of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh), which initiates de novo L-serine synthesis via the phosphorylated pathway from the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate. In rodent brain, Phgdh is expressed exclusively by the neuroepithelium/radial glia/astrocyte lineage. In humans, serine deficiency disorders can result from a deficiency of Phgdh or other enzymes involved in serine biosynthesis in the phosphorylated pathway. Patients with such disorders have ...
Sea buckthorn has been the secret medicine that ancient Tibetan people have used for thousands of years.... The Tibetans used sea buckthorn oil for skin ailments of all kinds. From eczema to deep burns, sea buckthorn
Aspergillus fumigatus is a major human pathogen that causes hundreds of thousands of infections yearly with high mortality rates. In contrast, Aspergillus fischeri and the recently described Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis, the two species most closely related to A. fumigatus, are not known to be pathogenic. Some of the cards of virulence that A. fumigatus possesses are secondary metabolites that impair the host immune system, protect from host immune cell attacks, or acquire key nutrients. Secondary metabolites and the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that typically encode them often vary within and between fungal species. To gain insight into whether secondary metabolism-associated cards of virulence vary between A. fumigatus, A. oerlinghausenensis, and A. fischeri, we conducted extensive genomic and secondary metabolite profiling analyses. By analyzing multiple A. fumigatus, one A. oerlinghausenensis, and multiple A. fischeri strains, we identified both conserved and diverged secondary ...
Sea buckthorn oil or Omega 7 is naturally derived from the berries of the sea buckthorn plant and can support a healthy immune system.
Latin Name Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R. Br.Chinese Name 博落回Family PapaveraceaePart of the Plant Used Fruit/SeedActive Ingredients Alkaloids, Sanguinari
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides. The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes (e.g.NADH, NADPH). These elements create monomers, the building blocks for macromolecules. Some important biological macromolecules include: proteins, which are composed of amino acid monomers joined via peptide bonds, and DNA molecules, which are ...
PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS- Nourishes dry skin, lastingly preserves its maisture content- Ideal after wearing your compression stockingsContents: 200 mlAvailabl
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Biosynthetic Pathway, Fruit, Fruits, Genes, Goal, Identification, Set, Transcription Factors, Transcriptome, Transcriptome Analysis, Watermelon
Das DECHEMA-Forschungsinstitut betreibt interdisziplinäre Forschung für nachhaltige Technologien auf den Themen Werkstoff- und Korrosionsforschung, chemische Technik, Elektrochemie und Biotechnologie
"Biosynthetic Pathways". Archived from the original on 2011-06-26. Retrieved 24 November 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ...
Gerhards, Nina; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Li, Shu-Ming (2014-12-10). "Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids". Toxins ...
Gomollon-Bel, Fernando; Delso, Ignacio; Tejero, Tomas; Merino, Pedro (2014-11-12). "Biosynthetic Pathways to Glycosidase ... In the Streptomyces subrutilus species, a secondary pathway branching from the manojirimycin precursor results in 1- ...
The biosynthetic pathway to ergine starts like most other ergoline alkaloid- with the formation of the ergoline scaffold. This ... "Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids". Toxins. 6 (12): 3281-3295. doi:10.3390/toxins6123281. ISSN 2072-6651. PMC 4280535. ...
The biosynthetic pathways to ergocryptine starts with the prenylation of L-tryptophan in an SN1 fashion with ... Gerhards N, Neubauer L, Tudzynski P, Li SM (December 2014). "Biosynthetic pathways of ergot alkaloids". Toxins. 6 (12): 3281-95 ... Mutation experiments altering these enzymes independently stopped the pathway at abrine. This indicates that cooperation ... old yellow enzyme gene controls the branch point between Aspergillus fumigatus and Claviceps purpurea ergot alkaloid pathways ...
Complex biosynthetic pathways for glycans. Usually glycans are found either bound to protein (glycoprotein) or conjugated with ... They affect the pathway and fate of glycoproteins. There are many glycan-specific diseases, often hereditary diseases. There ... They are involved in cellular signaling pathways and modulate cell function. They are important in innate immunity. They ...
Liu B, Raeth T, Beuerle T, Beerhues L (January 2010). "A novel 4-hydroxycoumarin biosynthetic pathway". Plant Molecular Biology ...
In addition to evolving individual molecules, Arnold has used directed evolution to co-evolve enzymes in biosynthetic pathways ... Schmidt-Dannert, C.; Umeno, D.; Arnold, F. H. (July 1, 2000). "Molecular breeding of carotenoid biosynthetic pathways". Nature ... To circumvent this problem, Arnold evolved the enzymes in the pathway to use NADH instead of NADPH, allowing for the production ... metabolic pathways, genetic regulatory circuits, and organisms. In nature, evolution by natural selection can lead to proteins ...
... biosynthetic pathway determination; protein engineering; drug delivery; molecular biology; structural biology; cell biology; ...
"Glycerophospholipid Biosynthetic Pathway". WikiPathways. 2019-11-01. "Uniprot". UniProt. 2019-11-01. "Uniprot". UniProt. 2019- ... The later pathways in human is part of the WikiPathways machine readable pathway collection. As of late 2007, two structures ...
An enzyme in the biotin biosynthetic pathway". J. Biol. Chem. 250: 4029-4036. Biology portal v t e. ...
The biosynthetic pathways are regulated by riboswitches. If there is sufficient thiamine present in the cell then the thiamine ... The biosynthetic pathways may differ among organisms. In E. coli and other enterobacteriaceae, ThMP may be phosphorylated to ... "Elucidating biosynthetic pathways for vitamins and cofactors". Natural Product Reports. 24 (5): 988-1008. doi:10.1039/b703105j ... The cytosolic enzyme transketolase is a key player in the pentose phosphate pathway, a major route for the biosynthesis of the ...
... and other cell biosynthetic and metabolic pathways. Genera at the base of each clade are amoeboid and phagotrophic. The close ... on the basis of the presence of ergosterol in their membranes and being capable of synthesis of lysine via the AAA pathway. The ...
Whereas the α-aminoadipate (AAA) pathway is part of the glutamate biosynthetic family. The DAP pathway is found in both ... In organisms that synthesise lysine, it has two main biosynthetic pathways, the diaminopimelate and α-aminoadipate pathways, ... the aminotransferase pathway uses two enzymes, and the dehydrogenase pathway uses a single enzyme. These four variant pathways ... The diaminopimelate (DAP) pathway belongs to the aspartate derived biosynthetic family, which is also involved in the synthesis ...
Its exact synthesis pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate is still unknown. Bilobalide and ginkgolide have similar biosynthetic ... Such formation went through the mevalonate pathway (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate MEP pathway. In order to generate ... Dewick, P. M. Medicinal Natural Products: Products:A Biosynthetic Approach. Third Edition ed.; Wiley&Sons: West Sussex, England ... pathways. Bilobalide is formed by partially degraded ginkgolide. Bilobalide is derived from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP ...
Park, Je Won; Ban, Yeon Hee; Nam, Sang-Jip; Cha, Sun-Shin; Yoon, Yeo Joon (1 December 2017). "Biosynthetic pathways of ... LPAD pathway). It also was approved under the accelerated approval pathway. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted ... ISBN 978-0-12-411492-0. "FDA approves a new antibacterial drug to treat a serious lung disease using a novel pathway to spur ... Amikacin liposome inhalation suspension was the first drug approved under the US limited population pathway for antibacterial ...
There are two distinct lysine biosynthetic pathways: the diaminopimelic acid pathway and the α-aminoadipate pathway. The most ... The diaminopimelic acid biosynthetic pathway of lysine belongs to the aspartate family of amino acids. This pathway involves ... This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular ... The other pathway of glycine biosynthesis is known as the glycolytic pathway. This pathway converts serine synthesized from the ...
This enrichment was consistent with two biosynthetic pathways. The labeling pattern determined that domoic acid can be ... Further investigation is needed to resolve the final isomerization reaction to complete the pathway to Domoic acid. Using ...
doi:10.1016/S0922-338X(98)80026-3. Rohdich, F.; Bacher, A.; Eisenreich, W. (2005). "Isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways as anti- ... 1-Deoxyxylulose is a precursor to terpenes via the nonmevalonic acid pathway. L-Xylulose accumulates in the urine in patients ...
"A biosynthetic pathway for anandamide". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (36): 13345-50. Bibcode:2006PNAS.. ... The neurons, neural pathways, and other cells where these molecules, enzymes, and one or both cannabinoid receptor types are ... in Neuro2A cells is mediated by the MEK-ERK MAPK pathway and is suppressed by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway". The ... Schematic of brain pathways involved in food intake Watkins BA, Kim J (2014). "The endocannabinoid system: helps to direct ...
"A biosynthetic pathway for anandamide". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103 ( ...
"Discovery and characterization of terpenoid biosynthetic pathways of fungi". Methods in Enzymology. Natural Product ... In order to define and characterize a biosynthetic gene cluster, all the putative genes within said cluster must first be ...
Plants can synthesize IAA by several independent biosynthetic pathways. Four of them start from tryptophan, but there is also a ... distribution and function of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in bacteria". Crit Rev Microbiol. 39 (4): 395-415. doi: ... biosynthetic pathway independent of tryptophan. Plants mainly produce IAA from tryptophan through indole-3-pyruvic acid. IAA is ... Whitehead, T. R.; Price, N. P.; Drake, H. L.; Cotta, M. A. (25 January 2008). "Catabolic pathway for the production of skatole ...
The biosynthetic pathway for Lipid A in E. coli has been determined by the work of Christian R. H. Raetz in the past >32 years ... "Discovery of new biosynthetic pathways: the lipid A story". Journal of Lipid Research. 50 Suppl: S103-S108. doi:10.1194/jlr. ...
Liu, B.; Raeth, T.; Beuerle, T. & Beerhues, L. (2010). "A novel 4-hydroxycoumarin biosynthetic pathway". Plant Mol. Biol. 72 (1 ...
Milne, B.; Long, P.; Starcevic, A.; Hranueli, D.; Jaspars, M. (2006). "Spontaneity in the patellamide biosynthetic pathway". ... The biosynthetic gene cluster for patellamide A contains the genes patA, patB, patC, patD, patE, patF and patG. These genes, ... "Patellamide a and C biosynthesis by a microcin-like pathway in Prochloron didemni, the cyanobacterial symbiont of Lissoclinum ...
Wang X, Quinn PJ (2010). "Lipopolysaccharide: Biosynthetic pathway and structure modification". Prog. Lipid Res. 49 (2): 97-107 ... Recently, it was shown that in addition to TLR4 mediated pathways, certain members of the family of the transient receptor ... The presumed mechanism for the association of endotoxin with obesity is that endotoxin induces an inflammation-mediated pathway ... Patil PB, Sonti RV (2004). "Variation suggestive of horizontal gene transfer at a lipopolysaccharide (lps) biosynthetic locus ...
Biosynthetic pathways help to define the subgroups of strictosidine derivatives. Strictosidine is found in the following plant ...
Gloster TM, Zandberg WF, Heinonen JE, Shen DL, Deng L, Vocadlo DJ (March 2011). "Hijacking a biosynthetic pathway yields a ... post-translational modification of proteins by O-GlcNAc is spurred by glucose flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway ... Love DC, Hanover JA (November 2005). "The hexosamine signaling pathway: deciphering the "O-GlcNAc code"". Science's STKE. 2005 ... "Crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and proteolytic cleavage regulates the host cell factor-1 maturation pathway". Proceedings of ...
The melanin biosynthetic pathway may also be affected due to mutations. Sometimes one or many of the genes responsible for ... L-DOPA is a by-product of melanin biosynthetic pathway. During melanin synthesis, L-DOPA is released to the retina in the ... Moreover, since OA1 is an organellar GPCR, it may represent an unidentified pathway in the melanosome. Until recently, it was ... the Oa1 pathway is becoming clearer and future of Oa1 research looks promising. Touloukian et al. have characterized OA1 ...
hormone-mediated signaling pathway. • follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway. • regulation of receptor activity. • G- ... progesterone biosynthetic process. • female gamete generation. • positive regulation of bone resorption. • regulation of ... transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of ...
Interactive pathway mapEdit. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1] ... acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from pyruvate. • glucose metabolic process. • pyruvate metabolic process. • regulation of ... This step is only one of the central metabolic pathway carried out by eukaryotes, in which glucose is oxidized to form carbon ... The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534".. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ...
... butenafine naftifine terbinafine Since squalene epoxidase is on the biosynthetic pathway leading to cholesterol, inhibitors of ... "Multiple genetic variants along candidate pathways influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations". ... the first oxygenation step in sterol biosynthesis and is thought to be one of the rate-limiting enzymes in this pathway. In ...
... and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the Organization of Biosynthetic Pathways" ...
Gerhard Michal, Dietmar Schomburg (2012). Biochemical Pathways: An Atlas of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2nd izd.). ... Schmidt, F.J. and McClain, W.H. (1978). "An Escherichia coli ribonuclease which removes an extra nucleotide from a biosynthetic ...
2008). «Nucleolar protein B23/nucleophosmin regulates the vertebrate SUMO pathway through SENP3 and SENP5 proteases.». J Cell ... positive regulation of cellular biosynthetic process. • positive regulation of protein ubiquitination. • regulation of protein ...
A biosynthetic pathway in which psoralen is formed is shown in the figure below. A second P-450-dependent monooxygenase enzyme ... Dewick, P.M. (2009). Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach (3rd ed.). Wiley. pp. 164-5. ISBN 978-0-471-49641-0. . ... Psoralen originates from coumarins in the shikimate pathway; its biosynthesis is shown in the figure below. The aromatic ring ... In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HRR is a major pathway for accurately removing psoralen-crosslinks.[23] In wild-type ...
RNA is thought to have preceded DNA, because of their ordering in the biosynthetic pathways. The deoxyribonucleotides used to ... One of the challenges posed by the RNA world hypothesis is to discover the pathway by which an RNA-based system transitioned to ... Since there were no known chemical pathways for the abiogenic synthesis of nucleotides from pyrimidine nucleobases cytosine and ...
The pathway for THCA biosynthesis is similar to that which produces the bitter acid humulone in hops.[36][37] ... Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), the biosynthetic precursor for THC. *Tetrahydrocannabiphorol, the heptyl homologue ...
apoptotic signaling pathway. • cellular response to mechanical stimulus. • response to lipopolysaccharide. • inflammatory ... positive regulation of TRAIL biosynthetic process. • positive regulation of apoptotic process. • tumor necrosis factor-mediated ... positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process. • signal transduction. • negative regulation of cell ... signaling pathway. • axon guidance. • negative regulation of neuron projection development. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB ...
Wheeler GL, Jones MA, Smirnoff N (May 1998). "The biosynthetic pathway of vitamin C in higher plants". Nature. 393 (6683): 365- ... Most of these pathways are derived from products found in glycolysis and other pathways. For example, one pathway goes through ... Plants use multiple pathways to synthesize vitamin C. The major pathway starts with glucose, fructose or mannose (all simple ... Minor pathways may be specific to certain parts of plants; these can be either identical to the vertebrate pathway (including ...
regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway. • regulation of lipid biosynthetic process. • regulation of lipid catabolic ... Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in apoptosis. (CDK4 in the (pink) nucleus) ...
necroptotic signaling pathway. • positive regulation of gene expression. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. • extrinsic ... receptor biosynthetic process. • activation of MAPK activity. • immune response. • leukocyte tethering or rolling. • positive ... Following TRADD binding, three pathways can be initiated.[30][31] *Activation of NF-κB: TRADD recruits TRAF2 and RIP. TRAF2 in ... apoptotic signaling pathway. • negative regulation of alkaline phosphatase activity. • regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB ...
insulin receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • regulation of transcription, DNA- ... positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • ... insulin receptor signaling pathway via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. • positive regulation of multicellular organism growth. • ... positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • ...
PA as a biosynthetic precursor[edit]. PA is a vital cell lipid that acts as a biosynthetic precursor for the formation ( ... the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway or the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway. In bacteria, only the former pathway is present, ... By the acylation of lysophosphatidic acid by lysoPA-acyltransferase (LPAAT); this is the most common pathway.[5] ... In mammalian and yeast cells, where the enzymes in these pathways are redundant, mutation of any one enzyme is not lethal. ...
Biosynthetic pathways for catecholamines and trace amines in the human brain[36][37][38] ... Interestingly, PEA can also stimulate acetylcholine release through activation of glutamatergic signaling pathways (21), and ... would support intracellular activation of signal transduction pathways (Miller, 2011). Such a co-localization would not require ... supports intracellular activation of signal transduction pathways, as suggested previously (Miller, 2011). ... Additionally, ...
glucocorticoid biosynthetic process. • positive regulation of gene expression. • positive regulation of digestive system ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure. • positive regulation ... hormone-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway. • positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to ...
Medicinal natural products : a biosynthetic approach (3rdition ed.). Wiley. pp. 380-381. ISBN 9780470742761. .. ... This model involves the inhibition of hemozoin biocrystallization in Heme Detoxification pathway, which facilitates the ...
... can conserve energy by taking up the amino acids from their surroundings and downregulating their biosynthetic pathways. ...
"Synapse-associated protein 97 selectively associates with a subset of AMPA receptors early in their biosynthetic pathway". The ...
negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors. • animal organ regeneration. • cell ... positive regulation of DNA biosynthetic process. • negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation. • epithelial to ... hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of inflammatory response. • positive regulation of ...
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-18-mediated signaling pathway. • long-chain fatty acid biosynthetic process ... Reaction R03058 at KEGG Pathway Database. *^ Ahmad S, Thulasingam M, Palombo I, Daley DO, Johnson KA, Morgenstern R, Haeggström ... leukotriene biosynthetic process. • inflammatory response. • lipoxin metabolic process. • oxidation-reduction process. • ... In another pathway, ALOX5 may act in series with a second lipoxygenase enzyme, ALOX15, to metabolize AA to lipoxin A4 (LxA4) ...
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage by p53 class mediator. • mitotic cell cycle arrest. • cellular ... regulation of DNA biosynthetic process. • regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation. • response to organic ... intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. • cellular senescence. • positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic ... cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. ...
... alternative CYP2D-mediated dopamine synthesis to the concentration of this neurotransmitter although the classic biosynthetic ...
The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "Statin_Pathway_WP430".. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ... phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic process. • negative regulation of cholesterol transporter activity. • viral process. • ... Interactive pathway mapEdit. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1] ... positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process. • negative regulation of cholesterol transport. • cholesterol ...
Genetic studies agree with the biosynthetic routes established in the precursor-feeding experiments.[1] AFLP-based studies ... uncinatum recently demonstrated that the loline alkaloid pathway is fundamentally different from that of the plant ... Blankenship JD, Houseknecht JB, Pal S, Bush LP, Grossman RB, Schardl CL (2005). "Biosynthetic precursors of fungal ... pyrrolizidines.[1] The basic loline chemical structure is assembled in several biosynthetic steps from the amino acid ...
2011). "Evidence of selection at melanin synthesis pathway loci during silkworm domestication". Molecular Biology and Evolution ... Panthee, S., Hamamoto, H., Suzuki, Y., and Sekimizu, K. (2017). In silico identification of lysocin biosynthetic gene cluster ...
1989 Regulation of the biosynthetic pathway of aromatic amino acids in Nocardia mediterranei ...
PlantCyc Pathway: ephedrine biosynthesis वेबैक मशीन पर वेबैक मशीन पर दिसम्बर 10, 2011 को पुरालेखित. ... Blankenship JD, Houseknecht JB, Pal S, Bush LP, Grossman RB, Schardl CL (2005). "Biosynthetic precursors of fungal ...
Herein we report the details of density functional theory investigations on the biosynthetic pathway of this important class of ... Extensive conformational sampling of all key intermediates along the biosynthetic pathway offered new insight into the role of ... The exo to endo conversion is identified to be energetically more favorable than another pathway emanating from the left handed ... Revisiting sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathways leading to santalene and its analogues: a comprehensive mechanistic study - ...
The amount and activity of each enzyme in these biosynthetic pathways are carefully regulated so that the cell produces only as ... During the process of evolution, some bacteria have lost genes that encode certain biosynthetic reactions and are hence likely ... Many prokaryotes are able to convert any given carbon source into biosynthetic building blocks-e.g., amino acids, purines, ... Biosynthetic pathways of bacteria. Many prokaryotes are able to convert any given carbon source into biosynthetic building ...
One is the diaminopimelic acid pathway (DAP), and... ... Among the different biosynthetic pathways found in extant ... Lysine Arginine Leucine Biosynthetic Pathway Molecular Evolution These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. ... Among the different biosynthetic pathways found in extant organisms, lysine biosynthesis is peculiar because it has two ... One is the diaminopimelic acid pathway (DAP), and the other over the a-aminoadipic acid route (AAA). A variant of the AAA route ...
Divergent non-heme iron enzymes in the nogalamycin biosynthetic pathway Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Divergent non-heme iron enzymes in the nogalamycin biosynthetic pathway. Vilja Siitonen, Brinda Selvaraj, Laila Niiranen, Ylva ... The discovery of SnoN and SnoK from the nogalamycin biosynthetic pathway significantly extends the known functions of α-KG- ... Related O-cyclizations have also been identified from biosynthetic pathways of orthosomycins (16). However, the only other ...
For MurG (21) and the related Gtf OleD, from the biosynthetic pathway of oleandomycin (22, 23), catalysis is reported to ... Structure of the TDP-epi-vancosaminyltransferase GtfA from the chloroeremomycin biosynthetic pathway. Anne M. Mulichak, Heather ... However, the Gtfs from the natural biosynthetic pathways are promising tools for the combinatorial design of new antibiotics ... Structure of the TDP-epi-vancosaminyltransferase GtfA from the chloroeremomycin biosynthetic pathway ...
IN plants the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway leads to the synthesis of the amino acid tryptophan and a number of important ... Arabidopsis Cytochrome P450 cyp83B1 Mutations Activate the Tryptophan Biosynthetic Pathway. Gromoslaw Smolen and Judith Bender ... Arabidopsis Cytochrome P450 cyp83B1 Mutations Activate the Tryptophan Biosynthetic Pathway. Gromoslaw Smolen and Judith Bender ... Arabidopsis Cytochrome P450 cyp83B1 Mutations Activate the Tryptophan Biosynthetic Pathway. Gromoslaw Smolen and Judith Bender ...
Dysfunction of the Cholesterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Huntingtons Disease. Marta Valenza, Dorotea Rigamonti, Donato Goffredo ... Dysfunction of the Cholesterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Huntingtons Disease. Marta Valenza, Dorotea Rigamonti, Donato Goffredo ... Dysfunction of the Cholesterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Huntingtons Disease Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... We show here that the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is altered in HD cells and mouse and human brain. This dysfunction is ...
In the major biosynthetic pathway of NAE, the first reaction is the formation of N‐acyl‐phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) from ... The Biosynthetic Pathways of N‐Acylethanolamines in Mammals. Smriti Sultana Binte Mustafiz, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa, ... 2013) Biosynthetic Pathways of Bioactive N‐Acylethanolamines in Brain. CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets 12: 7-6. ... 2007) Biosynthetic Pathways of the Endocannabinoid Anandamide. Chemistry and biodiversity 4: 1842-1857. ...
What is biosynthetic pathway? Meaning of biosynthetic pathway medical term. What does biosynthetic pathway mean? ... Looking for online definition of biosynthetic pathway in the Medical Dictionary? biosynthetic pathway explanation free. ... biosynthetic pathway. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia. pathway. [path´wa] a course usually followed. ... Based on different pathways involved in oxylipin biosynthesis, metabolites were classified by the main biosynthetic pathways ...
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Research on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in fungi has focused on the identification of the specific sterol structure ... Research on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in fungi has focused on the identification of the specific sterol structure ... Cloning of the late genes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae-A review. ... The pathway and its end product are also the targets for a number of antifungal drugs. Identification of essential steps in ...
The structure of monooxygenase KstA11 in the biosynthetic pathway of kosinostatin. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb5F5L/pdb ...
Gillian Francis, Rhys John, John Thomas; Biosynthetic pathway of desmosines in elastin. Biochem J 15 September 1973; 136 (1): ... Evidence is presented which suggests that the biosynthetic pathway of desmosine and isodesmosine proceeds via the aldol- ...
The folate metabolic pathway leads to synthesis of required precursors for cellular function and contains a critical node, ... therapy based on polypharmacological activities within the currently utilized bacterial biosynthetic folate pathway. ... Utility of the Biosynthetic Folate Pathway for Targets in Antimicrobial Discovery. Christina R. Bourne †. ... "Utility of the Biosynthetic Folate Pathway for Targets in Antimicrobial Discovery." Antibiotics 3, no. 1: 1-28. ...
... Author(s). Zhao, Q.; ... "A Specialized Flavone Biosynthetic Pathway Has Evolved in the Medicinal Plant, Scutellaria Baicalensis." Science Advances 2.4 ( ... We describe the characterization of a new pathway for the synthesis of these compounds, in which pinocembrin (a 4′- ... Our studies reveal a recently evolved pathway for biosynthesis of specific, bioactive 4′-deoxyflavones in the roots of S. ...
Catharanthus roseus is an important medicinal plant and the sole commercial source of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIA), anticancer compounds. Recently, triterpenoids like ursolic acid and oleanolic acid have also been found in considerable amount
Using a novel network-based integrative approach, here, we show distinct alterations in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway ( ... Inhibition of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer May 25, 2016 The precise ... Using a novel network-based integrative approach, here, we show distinct alterations in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway ( ... This is mediated by either activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway in cells expressing full-length androgen receptor (AR) or by ...
NAD+ biosynthetic pathways. NAD+ levels are maintained by three independent pathways. First, the Preiss-Handler pathway uses ... NAD+ biosynthetic pathways. NAD+ levels are maintained by three independent pathways. First, the Preiss-Handler pathway uses ... the de novo synthesis pathway of NAD from tryptophan occurs through the kinurenine pathway (5). The first step in this pathway ... the de novo synthesis pathway of NAD from tryptophan occurs through the kinurenine pathway (5). The first step in this pathway ...
Biosynthetic pathways and mechanism of action.; Biochemistry (Mosc), 2010 PubMed Europe PMC*Snyder F; Metabolic processing ... Pathway. 00071 (KEGG Pathway) Fatty acyl-CoA. Metabolite. LMFA07050000 (LIPID MAPS) Glycerol kinase EC Protein. ... Tsuboi K, Ikematsu N, Uyama T, Deutsch DG, Tokumura A, Ueda N; Biosynthetic pathways of bioactive N-acylethanolamines in ... Siegel A, Baker RR; Activities of enzymes in platelet activating factor biosynthetic pathways in the gerbil model of cerebral ...
Leveraging microbial biosynthetic pathways for the generation of drop-in biofuels Journal Article Zargar, Amin ; Bailey, ... Biosensor-based engineering of biosynthetic pathways Journal Article Rogers, Jameson K. ; Taylor, Noah D. ; Church, George M. ... It is known that leukemia cells rely on two nucleotide biosynthetic pathways, de novo and salvage, to produce dNTPs for DNA ... Biosynthetic pathways provide an enzymatic route from inexpensive renewable resources to valuable metabolic products such as ...
ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM LECTURE SLIDE 059: .... the hypothesis of the biosynthetic pathways of A and B antigens from the common ...
The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway has been hypothesized to be involved in the development of insulin resistance and diabetic ... Role of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway in diabetic nephropathy Kidney Int Suppl. 2000 Sep;77:S13-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523- ... The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway has been hypothesized to be involved in the development of insulin resistance and diabetic ... Current data indicate that the flux through the hexosamine pathway, regulated by GFAT, may be causally involved in the ...
... possesses a mobilizable pathogenicity island containing multiple virulence genes and a cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. These ... biosynthetic genes are homologous and collinear with the fas operon in Rhodococcus fascians. Reverse-transcriptase polyme... ... possesses a mobilizable pathogenicity island containing multiple virulence genes and a cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. These ... Deletion of the ipt gene in the pathway eliminated gall phenotype. Other symptoms on tobacco included production of hairy roots ...
We expressed shuffled phytoene desaturases in the context of a carotenoid biosynthetic pathway assembled from different ... and agrochemicals is driving efforts to engineer new biosynthetic pathways into microorganisms and plants. We have applied ... This new pathway was extended with a second library of shuffled lycopene cyclases to produce a variety of colored products. One ... Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia and Umeno, Daisuke and Arnold, Frances H. (2000) Molecular breeding of carotenoid biosynthetic ...
... ... The reconstructed pathway demonstrated the capacity of E. antarcticum B7 to de novo produce fatty acid molecules. Under the ... In our study we show the in silico reconstruction of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of E. antarcticum B7. To build the ... values obtained in the transcriptome analysis at 0°C and 37°C. The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway showed a total of 13 ...
... ... The analysis of both fatty acid biosynthetic pathway drafts shows that the draft generated using KEGG apparently has the most ... Manual Curation of the Metabolic Pathway of De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis. The reactions of the fatty acid synthesis pathway ... The KEGG Metabolic Pathway tool was used to highlight the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway from the resulting draft of the ...
Vanholme et al. (p. 1103, published online 15 August; see the cover) have identified a new step in the biosynthetic pathway of ... Here we describe caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) as an enzyme central to the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Arabidopsis ... Collectively, these data necessitate the revision of currently accepted models of the lignin biosynthetic pathway. ... Caffeoyl Shikimate Esterase (CSE) Is an Enzyme in the Lignin Biosynthetic Pathway in Arabidopsis ...
First we developed a simple cloning system for expression of the amorphadiene biosynthetic pathway in E. coli, which enabled ... Optimization of the mevalonate-based isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli for production of the anti-malarial ... Common methods used to improve production from engineered biosynthetic pathways include optimizing codon usage, enhancing ... However, these pathways rarely function optimally when first introduced into the host organism and can often deleteriously ...
... which encodes enzymes and a regulator involved in the biosynthetic pathway from glutamate to protoheme.. Hashimoto Y1, ...
... Mol ... and a biosynthetic pathway for type 19F capsular polysaccharide. T7 expression studies confirmed that cps19fH, cps19fK, cps19fL ...
  • Genes encoding tryptophan pathway enzymes are transcriptionally induced by a variety of stress signals, presumably to increase the production of both tryptophan and secondary metabolites during defense responses. (
  • showed decreased transcription of the genes encoding for the enzymes of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. (
  • These inhibitors are also likely to interact with the enzymatic neighbors in the folate pathway that bind products of the DHFR or DHPS enzymes and/or substrates of similar substructure. (
  • Third, the NAD+ salvage pathway recycles the nicotinamide generated as a by-product of the enzymatic activities of NAD+-consuming enzymes: sirtuins, PARPs, and the cADPR synthases (CD38 and CD157). (
  • Here, using metabolomic, proteomic, and phosphoproteomic approaches, we show that inhibition of the replication stress sensing kinase ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) reduces the output of both de novo and salvage pathways by regulating the activity of their respective rate-limiting enzymes, ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), via distinct molecular mechanisms. (
  • Some of these enzymes, e.g., the soluble SUR1 and GGP1, are shared between the two pathways, whereas others such as the CYP79s and CYP83s are specific for the respective class of glucosinolates. (
  • We found that enzymes involved in metabolic hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) are increased in AML patients. (
  • The potential commercial interest for the production of carotenoids and the cloning of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes has led to all kinds of examples of metabolic pathway engineering. (
  • A plus sign indicates that the genes for all of the enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway are present in the genome. (
  • No genes predicted to encode enzymes of this pathway were identified in the M. extorquens AM1 genome sequence. (
  • Enzymes of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway are important targets of several classes of antifungals used to treat C. albicans infections, and among those, the polyenes and the azoles have a dominant position. (
  • Here, we examine the ability of enzymes of the trypanosomal GPI biosynthetic pathway to recognize and process a series of synthetic dimannosyl-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol analogues containing systematic modifications on the mannose residues. (
  • FB biosynthetic enzymes and accessory proteins are encoded by a set of clustered and cotranscribed genes collectively named FUM, whose molecular regulation is beginning to be unraveled by researchers. (
  • By combining bioinformatics with in vitro biochemical characterization of biosynthetic enzymes, we predicted that this pathway likely generates an N-acylated dipeptide aldehyde (ruminopeptin). (
  • However, common for these examples is that the studies only aimed to produce the first stable intermediate in the respective biosynthetic pathway and have not included the heterologous expression of any tailoring enzymes responsible for modification of the synthase product. (
  • We have identified the metabolic pathways, enzymes and genes by which Xanthomonas campestris synthesizes all amino acids required to build proteins. (
  • Molecular Cloning And Characterization Of Cdna Encoding For Enzymes In The Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathway Of Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. (
  • Gene 3 consists of a fusion of two gene 1 sequences, such that a single piece of DNA encodes the enzymes necessary for the cysteine synthesis or glyoxylate cycle biochemical pathways. (
  • Out of all the biosynthetic enzymes except for cardiolipin synthase, they do not have any acyl chain specificity. (
  • Figure 1 Proposed and generally accepted pathway for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 biosynthesis and the corresponding genes and their enzymes are presented. (
  • Polyclonal antibodies against the first two enzymes of the Arabidopsis thaliana flavonoid biosynthetic pathway were developed using conventional and phage antibody technology. (
  • Many prokaryotes are able to convert any given carbon source into biosynthetic building blocks -e.g., amino acids , purines , pyrimidines , lipids , sugars, and enzyme cofactors. (
  • The amount and activity of each enzyme in these biosynthetic pathways are carefully regulated so that the cell produces only as much of any compound as is needed at any time. (
  • Here we report the structural analysis of a second enzyme from this antibiotic Gtf subfamily, the TDP-4- epi -vancosaminyltransferase GtfA from the chloroeremomycin biosynthetic pathway, which transfers 4- epi -vancosamine from TDP- epi -vancosamine to the β-OH group of residue 6 of the heptapeptide core ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • This enzyme provides a key point of control for the flow of metabolites through the pathway. (
  • First, the Preiss-Handler pathway uses dietary nicotinic acid and the enzyme nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) to generate NAMN, which is then transformed into NAAD by NAMN transferase (NMNAT). (
  • This effect is eliminated by inhibition of glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate-amidotransferase (GFAT), the rate-limiting enzyme of this pathway. (
  • These findings highlight natural product biosynthetic machinery as a rich source of novel enzyme activities, mechanisms, and structures. (
  • Within metabolism, many biosynthetic pathways are proposed to be assembled into multi-enzyme complexes called metabolons ( Srere, 1985 ). (
  • Within the crowded intracellular environment where proteins are constantly coming into physical contact, it is an open question how multi-enzyme pathways are orchestrated in response to developmental and exogenous cues. (
  • It is caused by mutations in the PANK2 (pantothenate kinase 2) gene, coding for a mitochondrial enzyme that phosphorylates vitamin B 5 in the first reaction of the CoA (coenzyme A) biosynthetic pathway. (
  • The first enzyme in this pathway, glycerol-3-P acyltransferase, catalyzes the formation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) that can be acylated to give phosphatidic acid (PA) by LPA acyltransferase. (
  • Pathway optimization and key enzyme evolution of N-acetylneuraminate biosynthesis using an in vivo aptazyme-based biosensor. (
  • Many animal lineages, including primates, have become ascorbate auxotrophs due to the loss of the terminal enzyme in their biosynthetic pathway, l -gulonolactone oxidase (GULO). (
  • The alternative pathways found in land plants and Euglena use a different terminal enzyme, l -galactonolactone dehydrogenase (GLDH). (
  • The crtYB gene of X. dendrorhous , encoding a chimeric carotenoid biosynthetic enzyme, could be inactivated by both single and double crossover events, resulting in non-carotenoid-producing transformants. (
  • A minus sign indicates that one or more of the genes encoding an enzyme in the pathway are missing in the genome. (
  • GFPT1 is the key enzyme of the hexosamine pathway yielding the amino sugar UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, an essential substrate for protein glycosylation. (
  • Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was planned in order to overexpress an enzyme involved in the plant triglycerides biosynthesis pathway, because it could be a potential application for the production of plant cell cultures accumulating triglycerides. (
  • IN plants the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway leads to the synthesis of the amino acid tryptophan and a number of important secondary metabolites including the growth regulator indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole glucosinolate defense compounds ( R adwanski and L ast 1995 ). (
  • biosynthetic pathway the sequence of enzymatic steps in the synthesis of a specific end-product in a living organism. (
  • Synthesis of unnatural flavonoids and stilbenes by exploiting the plant biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli. (
  • The folate metabolic pathway leads to synthesis of required precursors for cellular function and contains a critical node, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), which is shared between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (
  • We describe the characterization of a new pathway for the synthesis of these compounds, in which pinocembrin (a 4′-deoxyflavanone) serves as a key intermediate. (
  • Second, the de novo synthesis pathway of NAD from tryptophan occurs through the kinurenine pathway (5). (
  • The formation of the alternative biosynthetic pathways in photosynthetic eukaryotes uncoupled ascorbate synthesis from hydrogen peroxide production and likely contributed to the rise of ascorbate as a major photoprotective antioxidant. (
  • The other pathway for IPP synthesis, uncommon in bacteria, proceeds through mevalonic acid as an intermediate ( 3 ). (
  • M. tuberculosis possesses two pathways for synthesis of trehalose, the OtsA-OtsB pathway and the TreY-TreZ pathway. (
  • It is proposed that molybdopterin synthesis branches from the folic acid biosynthetic pathway at dihydrohydroxymethylpterin and that a 3-carbon phosphorylated compound such as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate may condense with dihydrohydroxymethylpterin to form the 4-carbon side chain precursor to molybdopterin. (
  • Using a transgenic line in which the synthesis of the plant hormone ethylene has been considerably lowered by antisense ACC oxidase mRNA (AS), the aliphatic ester pathway steps at which ethylene exerts its regulatory role were found. (
  • This research is focused on investigation and engineering of natural product biosynthetic pathways for efficient production of pharmaceutically important molecules or generation of new bioactive molecules for drug development. (
  • Metabolic engineering of natural product biosynthetic pathways shows its promise for creating and producing valuable compounds with chemical diversity for drug discovery. (
  • Arabidopsis mutants with a ltered t ryptophan r egulation ( atr ) have been used to elucidate how the tryptophan pathway is controlled. (
  • In Arabidopsis, the biosynthetic pathways of aliphatic and indole glucosinolate defense compounds are well-characterized. (
  • The glucosinolate defense compounds are suitable as model metabolites for studying pathway orchestration, as they are present in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (hereafter Arabidopsis) that offers extensive 'omics databases, bioinformatics tools as well as large mutant collections. (
  • Arabidopsis phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase: Molecular genetic analysis of triplicate tryptophan pathway genes, Plant Cell , 1995, 7: 447. (
  • We report the genetic and phenotypic analysis of insertional mutations disrupting SETH1 and SETH2 , which encode Arabidopsis homologs of two conserved proteins involved in the first step of the GPI biosynthetic pathway. (
  • Therefore, the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana was selected to be investigated further to identify any putative genes that are potentially involved in the aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway, most of its gene are with incomplete annotation. (
  • The purified fusion proteins were injected into chickens and polyclonal lgY·s were purified from egg yolk Accumulation of CHS and CHI, as well as products of the pathway, were compared during the first eight days of Arabidopsis development. (
  • Phage-derived antibodies against CHS and CHI provide valuable tools for future experiments addressing Western blot analysis, immunolocalization experiments, and disruption of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway by introduction of the corresponding genes into transgenic Arabidopsis plants. (
  • We further show that, in the same metabolic pathway, the homologous SnoN (38% sequence identity) catalyzes an epimerization step at the adjacent C4′′ carbon, most likely via a radical mechanism involving the Fe(IV) = O center. (
  • Also used alone to indicate a sequence of reactions that convert one biological material to another (metabolic pathway). (
  • Further genomic searches for ppyr gene-related biosynthetic components indicate that the coral possesses a metabolic pathway similar to the bacterial 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) biosynthetic pathway. (
  • DHA production, on the other hand, was maintained even in groups with high endogenous levels of DHA, possibly due to a more complex regulation of this last step in the n-3 metabolic pathway. (
  • Molecular characterization of the pentacyclic triterpenoid biosynthetic pathway in Catharanthus roseus. (
  • Characterization of biosynthetic and catabolic pathways of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. (
  • Isolation and characterization of the tobramycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces tenebrarius . (
  • Molecular cloning and characterization of a 2-deoxystreptamine biosynthetic gene cluster in gentamicin-producing Micromonospora echinospora ATCC15835. (
  • Sherman, David H. / Characterization and analysis of the pikD regulatory factor in the pikromycin biosynthetic pathway of Streptomyces venezuelae . (
  • We have applied principles of breeding, including mixing genes and modifying catalytic functions by in vitro evolution, to create new metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of natural products in Escherichia coli. (
  • Pereira B, Zhang H, De Mey M, Lim CG, Li Z-J, Stephanopoulos G. Engineering a novel biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli for production of renewable ethylene glycol. (
  • On the other hand, we used Escherichia coli as a platform for heterologous expression of PKSs and engineering of particular biosynthetic pathways to generate chemical diversity in natural products. (
  • The aim of this work is to engineer an artificial biosynthetic pathway for curcuminoids production by Escherichia coli. (
  • Among the different biosynthetic pathways found in extant organisms, lysine biosynthesis is peculiar because it has two different anabolic routes. (
  • Procaryotes and eucaryotes probably have different biosynthetic pathways for pyrimidine. (
  • Extensive conformational sampling of all key intermediates along the biosynthetic pathway offered new insight into the role of the isoprenyl side chain conformation in the formation of santalene and its analogues. (
  • Collectively, our findings demonstrate that cholesterol biosynthetic intermediates influence SULT1C2 expression in rat primary hepatocytes. (
  • As many as 15 structurally defined aflatoxin intermediates have been identified in the aflatoxin/ST biosynthetic pathway starting with the acetate, the polyketide precursors. (
  • The artificial biosynthetic pathway included three steps. (
  • The biosynthetic gene clusters for 1 and 3 have been reported to share seven pairs of homologs [7] , [9] . (
  • Bioinformatic analyses show that the dual role of PhlD in the biosynthesis of DAPG and the regulation of pyoluteorin production could have arisen within the pseudomonads during the assembly of these biosynthetic gene clusters from genes and gene subclusters of diverse origins. (
  • However, discovery of the biosynthetic gene clusters that generate these metabolites has far outpaced identification of the molecules themselves. (
  • The transcription of the genes of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is regulated via the activity of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), and we found an ∼50% reduction in the amount of the active nuclear form of SREBP in HD cells and mouse brain tissue. (
  • Therefore, in recent years there have been major advances in development of computational methods which can analyze genome sequences to identify genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis and help in deciphering the putative chemical structures of their biosynthetic products based on analysis of the sequence and structural features of the proteins encoded by these genes. (
  • Now, imagine the people as proteins, and when each one receives the message, they perform some function that will then signal the next protein in the pathway to perform a function until the endgame target is reached. (
  • Each pair of homologous proteins in the pathways may govern the formation of a moiety with same or similar structure. (
  • So far, there are three known cardiolipin remodeling pathways as well as known proteins in the different stages of the cardiolipin biosynthetic pathways. (
  • The Streptomyces venezuelae pikD gene from the pikromycin biosynthetic cluster was analyzed, and its deduced product (PikD) was found to have amino acid sequence homology with a small family of bacterial regulatory proteins. (
  • Despite its commercial importance, the VOC biosynthesis pathways in these flowers are largely unknown. (
  • Here, we combine metabolite and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of fully opened champak flowers to discover the active VOC biosynthesis pathways as well as floral scent-related genes. (
  • Summary of bacterial carotenoid biosynthesis pathways and associated genes compiled from references 1 , 3 , 8 , 12 , and 13 . (
  • for example, metabolic pathways of Corynebacterium glutamicum are rationally engineered to produce L-amino acids on an industrial scale [ 2 ]. (
  • Production of UDP-GlcNAc, the metabolic substrate for OGT, by the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway (HBP) is controlled by the input of amino acids, fats, and nucleic acids, making O-GlcNAc a key nutrient-sensor for fluctuations in these macromolecules. (
  • a The biosynthetic pathways leading to these 11 amino acids involve multiple steps. (
  • For 19 of the 20 amino acids their biosynthetic routes had not been described before. (
  • Glucose, glutamine, fatty acids, and amino acids are the primary drivers of tumor growth and act as substrates for the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). (
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that some Gtfs from the vancomycin and chloroeremomycin pathways can effectively use nonnatural substrates to generate new compounds ( 1 , 4 , 5 ). (
  • In plants, the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway provides a number of important secondary metabolites including the growth regulator indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole glucosinolate defense compounds. (
  • Integrated metabolome and transcriptome analysis of Magnolia champaca identifies biosynthetic pathways for floral volatile organic compounds. (
  • This combined approach of rational pathway assembly and molecular breeding may allow the discovery and production, in simple laboratory organisms, of new compounds that are essentially inaccessible from natural sources or by synthetic chemistry. (
  • This disclosure further describes biosynthetic methods for making these compounds. (
  • Successful construction of the curcuminoids biosynthetic pathway would mark a significant step forward in the in situ production of these poorly soluble, anti-carcinogenic compounds. (
  • This review will address the potential for antimicrobial therapy based on polypharmacological activities within the currently utilized bacterial biosynthetic folate pathway. (
  • Structural bioinformatics analysis of known secondary metabolite biosynthetic clusters has helped in formulation of predictive rules for deciphering domain organization, substrate specificity, and order of substrate channeling. (
  • Addition of NRG1 increased the abundance of the cleaved, mature form of SREBP-2 through a pathway that was blocked by addition of inhibitors of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) or dual inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2, but not by inhibition of AKT or mTORC1. (
  • Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway (HBP) inhibition leads to AML cell differentiation and cell death. (
  • Inhibition of the Δ6 desaturase pathway led to increased direct elongation to 20:3n-3 by both DHA and LA. Possibly the route by 20:3n-3 and then Δ8 desaturation to 20:4n-3, bypassing the first Δ6 desaturase step, can partly explain the maintained or even increased levels of DHA production. (
  • Five transcription factors have been predicted to be involved in the biosynthetic pathway of aliphatic glucosinolate, namely SEPALLATA 3 (SEP3), PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3-like 5 (AtbHLH15/PIL5), ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), AGAMOUS-like 15 (AGL15) and GLABRA 3 (GL3). (
  • Meanwhile, three other genes with high potential to be involved in the aliphatic glucosinolates biosynthetic pathway were identified, i.e., methylthioalkylmalate-like synthase 4 (MAML-4) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASP1 and ASP4). (
  • These findings can be used to complete the aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway in A. thaliana and to update the information on the glucosinolate-related pathways in public metabolic databases. (
  • Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. (
  • These biosynthetic genes are homologous and collinear with the fas operon in Rhodococcus fascians . (
  • The homologous genes between the sterigmatocystin pathway gene cluster in A. nidulans and aflatoxin pathway gene cluster in A. parasiticus and A. flavus is connected by line. (
  • The lysine, threonine, and methionine biosynthetic pathways share the three initial enzymatic steps, which are referred to as the Common Pathway (CP). (
  • The type III polyketide synthase (PKS) involved in the biosynthesis of spirolaxine was identified in this research, which is important for complete elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway of this anti-Helicobacter pylori natural product. (
  • For the last step of the pathway two approaches are being studied: the use of diketide-CoA synthase and curcuminoid synthase from Curcuma longa, and curcumin synthase from Oryza sativa that itself catalyzes both steps. (
  • This activity could be explained by the presence of two minor PI metabolic pathways: PI/inositol exchange reaction and phosphorylation of inositol by ATP prior to entering the PIP synthase pathway. (
  • These metabolites differ in abundance, spatial distribution, developmental control, and environmental responsiveness, implying that tryptophan primary and secondary metabolic pathways are highly regulated. (
  • Liquid-chromatography (LC) coupled to NMR and mass spectrometry (MS) extended metabolic profile coverage from primary into secondary metabolic pathways. (
  • Optimization of a heterologous pathway for the production of flavonoids from glucose. (
  • Hexosamine biosynthetic pathway mutations cause neuromuscular transmission defect. (
  • This work built a biosynthetic platform using industrial strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris with eight genes from fungi and yeast, which affords a more efficient biosynthetic process of emodin. (
  • The transfer of such biosynthetic pathways to standard industrial cell factories, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae , could offer an attractive alternative as it would allow easier fermentation and process optimization via the existing metabolic engineering strategies. (
  • Research into the individual nutrient-sensitivities of the HBP, AMPK, and mTOR pathways has revealed a complex regulatory dynamic, where their unique responses to macromolecule levels coordinate cell behavior. (
  • Complex sets of interactions between the HBP, AMPK, and mTOR pathways integrate nutritional signals to respond to changes in the environment. (
  • It induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells by down-regulating mainly the activation of MAPK and mTOR pathways. (
  • Embden-Meyerhof pathway the series of enzymatic reactions in the anaerobic conversion of glucose to lactic acid, resulting in energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (
  • pentose phosphate pathway a pathway of hexose oxidation in which glucose-6-phosphate undergoes two successive oxidations by NADP, the final forming a pentose phosphate. (
  • Increased flux of glucose through the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway (HBP) drives increased cellular O-GlcNAcylation (hyper-O-GlcNAcylation) and contributes to cancer progression by regulating key oncogenes. (
  • The pathways from [U- 13 C]-glucose to the four biochemical subunits are outlined. (
  • Kudo F, Kawabe K, Kuriki H, Eguchi T, Kakinuma K . A new family of glucose-1-phosphate/glucosamine-1-phosphate nucleotidylytransferase in the biosynthetic pathways for antibiotics. (
  • The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway utilizes up to 2-5% of glucose that enters a non-cancer cell and along with glutamine, acetyl-coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) and uridine-5′-triphosphate (UTP) are used to produce the amino sugar UDP-GlcNAc [ 5 ]. (
  • The ribose moiety (yellow) is incorporated via the pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. (
  • The analysis of NAPE‐PLD‐deficient mice exhibited the presence of NAPE‐PLD‐independent pathways for the NAE formation in vivo . (
  • NAPE‐PLD‐dependent and ‐independent pathways. (
  • NAD+ levels are maintained by three independent pathways. (
  • Our recent studies using NAPE-PLD-/- mice also suggest that NAE is formed not only from NAPE, but also from Nacylated plasmalogen-type ethanolamine phospholipid (N-acyl-plasmenylethanolamine) through both NAPE-PLDdependent and -independent pathways. (
  • This leads to hypotheses exploring the vast utility of multiple members of the folate pathway for modulating cellular metabolism, and includes an appealing capacity for prokaryotic-specific polypharmacology for antimicrobial applications. (
  • Our analyses reveal distinct functional networks with substantial interconnection among the identified interactors for both pathway-specific markers, and add to our knowledge about how biochemical pathways are connected to cellular processes. (
  • Importantly, cross-talk between these pathways fine-tunes the cellular response to nutrients. (
  • Engineering biosynthetic pathways for chemical production requires extensive optimization of the host cellular metabolic machinery. (
  • The evolutionary processes leading to these differing pathways and their contribution to the cellular roles of ascorbate remain unclear. (
  • The effects of the microRNA (miRNA) processing genes Gemin3 and Gemin4 on cellular signaling pathways could have a major impact on the risk of cancer. (
  • Balasubramanyam, M. (2009) Molecular convergence of hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and ER stress leading to insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 328 (1-2). (
  • Computational Methods for Identification of Novel Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Pathways by Genome Analysis. (
  • To determine the metabolic pathways we combined careful genome analysis with complex experimental NMR analysis. (
  • amphibolic pathway a group of metabolic reactions with a dual function, providing small metabolites for further catabolism to end products or for use as precursors in synthetic, anabolic reactions. (
  • In this chapter, the progress in development of various computational methods is discussed by different research groups, and specifically, the utility in identification of novel metabolites by genome mining and rational design of natural product analogs by biosynthetic engineering studies. (
  • Angiosperms, or flowering plants, constitute the most diverse and numerous group of land plants, and the most commercially important, producing an estimated 200,000 small molecule metabolites through conserved primary metabolism and divergent secondary pathways. (
  • 2001). Here we discuss the significance of the recent finding that several genes involved in the arginine (Arg) and leucine (Leu) biosynthesis participate in a new alternative route of the AAA pathway (Miyazaki et al. (
  • The detailed profiles of VOCs led to the discovery of pathways and genes involved in floral scent biosynthesis from RNA-seq data. (
  • in contrast, MC14 and MC7 showed low HYD3 / CYP97C , suggesting that they may be useful in biofortification efforts aimed at promoting the accumulation of provitamin A. The results of this study demonstrate the use of maize germplasm to provide insight into the regulation of genes involved in the carotenoid pathway, which would thus better enable us to select promising varieties for biofortification efforts. (
  • 1995a), a linkage of genes involved in aflatoxin formation, from early stage nor-1 gene to later stage omtA, was established indicating that the entire aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes may be clustered. (
  • We show that the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is altered in HD. (
  • We conclude that the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is impaired in HD cells, mice, and human subjects, and that the search for HD therapies should also consider cholesterol levels as both a potential target and disease biomarker. (
  • We show here that the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is altered in HD cells and mouse and human brain. (
  • The respective amino acid is converted to a glucosinolate in seven consecutive enzymatic reactions constituting the core pathway. (
  • During the process of evolution , some bacteria have lost genes that encode certain biosynthetic reactions and are hence likely to require nutritional supplements. (
  • An alternative approach is to introduce into the sheep genome the genes that encode the cysteine biosynthetic pathway. (
  • Moreover, we show that cyp83B1 mutants have lesion-mimic phenotypes, suggesting that multiple stress pathways are activated by loss of CYP83B1 function. (
  • We hypothesized that there might be a molecular convergence of activated HBP and ER stress pathways leading to insulin resistance. (
  • Several lines of evidence indicate that TGF-beta1 induction is mediated by the hexosamine pathway. (
  • In similar experiments, involvement of the hexosamine pathway in hyperglycemia-induced production of cytokines (TGF-alpha and basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF]) was demonstrated in vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • Current data indicate that the flux through the hexosamine pathway, regulated by GFAT, may be causally involved in the development of diabetic vascular disease, particularly diabetic nephropathy. (
  • Extensive studies have been conducted to elucidate the plant carotenoid pathway. (
  • Possible evolutionary relationships between streptomycin and bluensomycin biosynthetic pathways: detection of novel inositol kinase and O-carbamoyltransferase activities. (
  • The data reveal which portions of the natural substrate are important for recognition, explain why mannosylation occurs prior to inositol acylation in the trypanosomal pathway, and identify the first inhibitor of the third alpha-mannosyltransferase of the GPI biosynthetic pathway. (
  • Streptomyces turgidiscabies , a cause of potato scab, possesses a mobilizable pathogenicity island containing multiple virulence genes and a cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. (
  • The engineered Streptomyces roseiscleroticus strain constructed in this work showed higher titers of chromomycins than previously reported, which was achieved by characterizing and engineering the chromomycin biosynthetic gene cluster. (
  • Streptomyces tenebrarius H6 mainly produces three kinds of antibiotics: apramycin, carbamoyltobramycin and some carbamoylkanamycin B. In our present study, a dehydrogenase gene tacB in the tobramycin biosynthetic gene cluster was disrupted by in-frame deletion. (
  • The neomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces fradiae NCIMB8223: characterisation of an aminotransferase involved in the formation of 2-deoxystreptamine. (
  • Carotene desaturases and carotene cyclases from C40 or C30 pathways accepted and converted the C35 substrate, thus creating a C35 carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in E. coli. (
  • a prediction of various reactions in these enzymatic domains and their substrate specificities and also precise identification of the order in which these domains would catalyze various biosynthetic steps. (
  • b C. elegans is missing all three genes of the arginine (R) biosynthetic pathway, but vertebrates have maintained them for use in the urea cycle (see text). (
  • In the late steps of this ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, azoles inhibit also the Δ 22 desaturation of the sterol moiety (Fig. 1 ). (
  • Our findings indicate that the upregulation of tryptophan pathway genes might also contribute to the overaccumulation of IAA in mutant plants. (
  • Here, we present recent findings on NAE biosynthetic pathways mainly occurring in the brain. (
  • Targeting Trehalose and Methylglucose Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthetic Pathways in M. tuberculosis - Structural and Functional Characterisation, and Early-Stage Drug Discovery of OtsA and Rv3030 (Doctoral thesis). (
  • The first step in this pathway is the rate-limiting conversion of tryptophan to N-formylkinurenine (N-formylkin) by either IDO or TDO. (
  • The aim of this work was to trace the evolutionary pathway leading to the extant scenario in proteobacteria. (
  • In our study we show the in silico reconstruction of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of E. antarcticum B7. (
  • In this work, genomic reconstruction and mutagenesis were used to characterize the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in M. extorquens AM1. (
  • Reconstruction of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway from the genome sequence. (
  • Furthermore, the reconstruction verifies the suggested pathway, and as such, it is the first example of utilizing a synthetic biological "bottom up" approach for the validation of a complex fungal polyketide pathway. (
  • Nine of the eleven genes in the portion of the pathway committed exclusively to ergosterol biosynthesis have been cloned, and their essentiality for aerobic growth has been determined. (
  • Compensatory pathways have been documented for the mechanisms of resistance to the azole and polyene classes and involve alterations of specific steps in ergosterol biosynthesis. (
  • I activated the polyketide biosynthetic pathway by engineering two regulatory genes, and optimized the culture conditions to increase the titer of chromomycins. (
  • 1995b) when they found that the nor-1 and ver-1 genes were linked in a cosmid clone (NorA) with the regulatory gene aflR and a putative aflatoxin pathway gene, uvm8 (now named fas-1) in between. (
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate how EPA, DHA, and lipoic acid (LA) influence the different metabolic steps in the n-3 fatty acid (FA) biosynthetic pathway in hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon fed four dietary levels (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) of EPA, DHA or a 1:1 mixture of these FA. (
  • The burgeoning demand for complex, biologically active molecules for medicine, materials science, consumer products, and agrochemicals is driving efforts to engineer new biosynthetic pathways into microorganisms and plants. (