Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A mitochondrial enzyme found in a wide variety of cells and tissues. It is the final enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Ferrochelatase catalyzes ferrous insertion into protoporphyrin IX to form protoheme or heme. Deficiency in this enzyme results in ERYTHROPOIETIC PROTOPORPHYRIA.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
A membrane-bound flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent aromatization of protoporphyrinogen IX (Protogen) to protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX). It is the last enzyme of the common branch of the HEME and CHLOROPHYLL pathways in plants, and is the molecular target of diphenyl ether-type herbicides. VARIEGATE PORPHYRIA is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde, orthophosphate, and NADP+ to yield L-4-aspartyl phosphate and NADPH. EC
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
Compounds derived from TYROSINE via betalamic acid, including BETAXANTHINS and BETACYANINS. They are found in the Caryophyllales order of PLANTS and some BASIDIOMYCETES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A class of phosphotransferases that catalyzes the transfer of diphosphate-containing groups. EC 2.7.6.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
Porphyrinogens which are intermediates in the heme biosynthesis. They have four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Coproporphyrinogens I and III are formed in the presence of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase from the corresponding uroporphyrinogen. They can yield coproporphyrins by autooxidation or protoporphyrin by oxidative decarboxylation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PORPHOBILINOGEN into the hydroxymethylbilane preuroporphyrinogen (UROPORPHYRINOGENS) in several discrete steps. It is the third enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. In humans, deficiency in this enzyme encoded by HMBS (or PBGD) gene results in a form of neurological porphyria (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.
A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate to 2,3-dihydrodipicolinate using NAD(P)+ as a cofactor. It is found in BACTERIA and higher plants involved in the biosynthesis of DIAMINOPIMELIC ACID and LYSINE.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Cholestadiene derivatives containing a hydroxy group anywhere in the molecule.
An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
3-Chloro-4-(3-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)pyrrole. Antifungal antibiotic isolated from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia. It is effective mainly against Trichophyton, Microsporium, Epidermophyton, and Penicillium.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway to LEUCINE, forming isopropyl malate from acetyl-CoA and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used for flavoring food.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC, EC, EC, and EC
A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.
The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the pathway for histidine biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. ATP reacts reversibly with 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to yield N-1-(5'-phosphoribosyl)-ATP and pyrophosphate. EC
Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A mitosporic fungal species used in the production of penicillin.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of glutamine-derived ammonia and another molecule. The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.5.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
An actinomycete from which the antibiotic OLEANDOMYCIN is obtained.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Sugar analogs in which the ring oxygen is replaced by a sulfur.
An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
Compounds formed by condensation of secologanin with tryptamine resulting in a tetrahydro-beta-carboline which is processed further to a number of bioactive compounds. These are especially found in plants of the APOCYNACEAE; LOGANIACEAE; and RUBIACEAE families.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC
The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
An NADP+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde to L-glutamyl 5-phosphate. It plays a role in the urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A tricyclic pentaglycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces strains that inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by adhering to DNA. It is used as a fluorescent dye and as an antineoplastic agent, especially in bone and testicular tumors. Plicamycin is also used to reduce hypercalcemia, especially that due to malignancies.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The second enzyme in the committed pathway for CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxygenation step in the biosynthesis of STEROLS and is thought to be a rate limiting enzyme in this pathway. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of SQUALENE to (S)-squalene-2,3-epoxide.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Compounds with triple bonds to each side of a double bond. Many of these are CYTOTOXINS and are researched for use as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the deamination of THREONINE to 2-ketobutyrate and AMMONIA. The role of this enzyme can be biosynthetic or biodegradative. In the former role it supplies 2-ketobutyrate required for ISOLEUCINE biosynthesis, while in the latter it is only involved in the breakdown of threonine to supply energy. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the cyclization of hydroxymethylbilane to yield UROPORPHYRINOGEN III and water. It is the fourth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by UROS gene. Mutations of UROS gene result in CONGENITAL ERYTHROPOIETIC PORPHYRIA.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.

High shikimate production from quinate with two enzymatic systems of acetic acid bacteria. (1/980)

3-Dehydroshikimate was formed with a yield of 57-77% from quinate via 3-dehydroquinate by two successive enzyme reactions, quinoprotein quinate dehydrogenase (QDH) and 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, in the cytoplasmic membranes of acetic acid bacteria. 3-Dehydroshikimate was then reduced to shikimate (SKA) with NADP-dependent SKA dehydrogenase (SKDH) from the same organism. When SKDH was coupled with NADP-dependent D-glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in the presence of excess D-glucose as an NADPH re-generating system, SKDH continued to produce SKA until 3-dehydroshikimate added initially in the reaction mixture was completely converted to SKA. Based on the data presented, a strategy for high SKA production was proposed.  (+info)

Association of warfarin dose with genes involved in its action and metabolism. (2/980)

We report an extensive study of variability in genes encoding proteins that are believed to be involved in the action and biotransformation of warfarin. Warfarin is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant that is difficult to use because of the wide interindividual variation in dose requirements, the narrow therapeutic range and the risk of serious bleeding. We genotyped 201 patients for polymorphisms in 29 genes in the warfarin interactive pathways and tested them for association with dose requirement. In our study, polymorphisms in or flanking the genes VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, PROC, APOE, EPHX1, CALU, GGCX and ORM1-ORM2 and haplotypes of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, PROC, F7, GGCX, PROZ, F9, NR1I2 and ORM1-ORM2 were associated with dose (P < 0.05). VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 were significant after experiment-wise correction for multiple testing (P < 0.000175), however, the association of CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 was fully explained by linkage disequilibrium with CYP2C9*2 and/or *3. PROC and APOE were both significantly associated with dose after correction within each gene. A multiple regression model with VKORC1, CYP2C9, PROC and the non-genetic predictors age, bodyweight, drug interactions and indication for treatment jointly accounted for 62% of variance in warfarin dose. Weaker associations observed for other genes could explain up to approximately 10% additional dose variance, but require testing and validation in an independent and larger data set. Translation of this knowledge into clinical guidelines for warfarin prescription will be likely to have a major impact on the safety and efficacy of warfarin.  (+info)

Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells. (3/980)

BACKGROUND: Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. METHODS: This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). RESULTS: Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. CONCLUSION: Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Signaling pathways involved in adhesion and communication of cultured cancer cells were downregulated. The three way pathways comparison presented in this study brings light into the differences in the use of cellular pathways by tumor cells and cancer cell lines.  (+info)

Generation of new landomycins with altered saccharide patterns through over-expression of the glycosyltransferase gene lanGT3 in the biosynthetic gene cluster of landomycin A in Streptomyces cyanogenus S-136. (4/980)

Two novel landomycin compounds, landomycins I and J, were generated with a new mutant strain of Streptomyces cyanogenus in which the glycosyltransferase that is encoded by lanGT3 was over-expressed. This mutant also produced the known landomycins A, B, and D. All these compounds consist of the same polyketide-derived aglycon but differ in their sugar moieties, which are chains of different lengths. The major new metabolite, landomycin J, was found to consist of landomycinone with a tetrasaccharide chain attached. Combined with previous results of the production of landomycin E (which contains three sugars) by the LanGT3- mutant strain (obtained by targeted gene deletion of lanGT3), it was verified that LanGT3 is a D-olivosyltransferase responsible for the transfer of the fourth sugar required for landomycin A biosynthesis. The experiments also showed that gene over-expression is a powerful method for unbalancing biosynthetic pathways in order to generate new metabolites. The cytotoxicity of the new landomycins--compared to known ones--was assessed by using three different tumor cell lines, and their structure-activity relationship (SAR) with respect to the length of the deoxysugar side chain was deduced from the results.  (+info)

Nonsynonymous polymorphisms in genes in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and associations with colorectal cancer. (5/980)

The Ala(222)Val single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene for 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in one-carbon metabolism, has been associated with colorectal cancer risk. Many enzymes are involved in one-carbon metabolism, and SNPs in the corresponding genes may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined 24 nonsynonymous SNPs in 13 genes involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway in relation to the risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts. Among 376 men and women with colorectal cancer and 849 controls, a reduced risk of colorectal cancer was observed for Val/Val versus Ala carriers of MTHFR Ala(222)Val [odds ratio (OR), 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-1.00]. An increased risk was suggested for the variant carrier genotypes versus homozygous wild-type for betaine hydroxymethyltransferase Arg(239)Gln (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.07-1.83) and two linked SNPs in methionine synthase reductase, Ser(284)Thr (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.05-3.27) and Arg(415)Cys (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.15-3.56). The other SNPs were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Also, none of the SNPs were associated with risk in subgroups of dietary methyl status or were jointly associated with colorectal cancer risk in combination with another SNP, except possibly SNPs in methionine synthase and transcobalamin II. However, these analyses of gene-diet interactions were limited in statistical power. Our results corroborate previous findings for MTHFR Ala(222)Val and suggest that other genes involved in one-carbon metabolism, particularly those that affect DNA methylation, may be associated with colorectal cancer risk.  (+info)

The ISC [corrected] proteins Isa1 and Isa2 are required for the function but not for the de novo synthesis of the Fe/S clusters of biotin synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/980)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to use some biotin precursors for biotin biosynthesis. Insertion of a sulfur atom into desthiobiotin, the final step in the biosynthetic pathway, is catalyzed by biotin synthase (Bio2). This mitochondrial protein contains two iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters that catalyze the reaction and are thought to act as a sulfur donor. To identify new components of biotin metabolism, we performed a genetic screen and found that Isa2, a mitochondrial protein involved in the formation of Fe/S proteins, is necessary for the conversion of desthiobiotin to biotin. Depletion of Isa2 or the related Isa1, however, did not prevent the de novo synthesis of any of the two Fe/S centers of Bio2. In contrast, Fe/S cluster assembly on Bio2 strongly depended on the Isu1 and Isu2 proteins. Both isa mutants contained low levels of Bio2. This phenotype was also found in other mutants impaired in mitochondrial Fe/S protein assembly and in wild-type cells grown under iron limitation. Low Bio2 levels, however, did not cause the inability of isa mutants to utilize desthiobiotin, since this defect was not cured by overexpression of BIO2. Thus, the Isa proteins are crucial for the in vivo function of biotin synthase but not for the de novo synthesis of its Fe/S clusters. Our data demonstrate that the Isa proteins are essential for the catalytic activity of Bio2 in vivo.  (+info)

Regulation of yeast oscillatory dynamics. (7/980)

When yeast cells are grown continuously at high cell density, a respiratory oscillation percolates throughout the population. Many essential cellular functions have been shown to be separated temporally during each cycle; however, the regulatory mechanisms involved in oscillatory dynamics remain to be elucidated. Through GC-MS analysis we found that the majority of metabolites show oscillatory dynamics, with 70% of the identified metabolite concentrations peaking in conjunction with NAD(P)H. Through statistical analyses of microarray data, we identified that biosynthetic events have a defined order, and this program is initiated when respiration rates are increasing. We then combined metabolic, transcriptional data and statistical analyses of transcription factor activity, identified the top oscillatory parameters, and filtered a large-scale yeast interaction network according to these parameters. The analyses and controlled experimental perturbation provided evidence that a transcriptional complex formed part of the timing circuit for biosynthetic, reductive, and cell cycle programs in the cell. This circuitry does not act in isolation because both have strong translational, proteomic, and metabolic regulatory mechanisms. Our data lead us to conclude that the regulation of the respiratory oscillation revolves around coupled subgraphs containing large numbers of proteins and metabolites, with a potential to oscillate, and no definable hierarchy, i.e., heterarchical control.  (+info)

Redirection of sphingolipid metabolism toward de novo synthesis of ethanolamine in Leishmania. (8/980)

In most eukaryotes, sphingolipids (SLs) are critical membrane components and signaling molecules. However, mutants of the trypanosomatid protozoan Leishmania lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (spt2-) and SLs grow well, although they are defective in stationary phase differentiation and virulence. Similar phenotypes were observed in sphingolipid (SL) mutant lacking the degradatory enzyme sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (spl-). This epistatic interaction suggested that a metabolite downstream of SLs was responsible. Here we show that unlike other organisms, the Leishmania SL pathway has evolved to be the major route for ethanolamine (EtN) synthesis, as EtN supplementation completely reversed the viability and differentiation defects of both mutants. Thus Leishmania has undergone two major metabolic shifts: first in de-emphasizing the metabolic roles of SLs themselves in growth, signaling, and maintenance of membrane microdomains, which may arise from the unique combination of abundant parasite lipids; Second, freed of typical SL functional constraints and a lack of alternative routes to produce EtN, Leishmania redirected SL metabolism toward bulk EtN synthesis. Our results thus reveal a striking example of remodeling of the SL metabolic pathway in Leishmania.  (+info)

The antiSMASH database is a comprehensive resource on secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. It contains gene clusters identified with the current version of antiSMASH on more than 3000 finished bacterial genomes. The antiSMASH database provides a web-interface which allows simple queries as well as a query builder for complex queries. Results can be exported as lists or (if applicaple) protein or nucleotide FASTA files. In addition, there are links to the antiSMASH output page for all identified gene clusters. References:. ...
The rice pathogenic fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Besides the gibberellins, causing the bakanae effect in infected rice seedlings, the fungus produces several mycotoxins and pigments. Among the 47 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters identified in the genome of F. fujikuroi, the fumonisin gene cluster (FUM) shows very high homology t ...
The rice pathogenic fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Besides the gibberellins, causing the bakanae effect in infected rice seedlings, the fungus produces several mycotoxins and pigments. Among the 47 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters identified in the genome of F. fujikuroi, the fumonisin gene cluster (FUM) shows very high homology t ...
CMAR Questions | The Client Money and Assets Reporting return: Information on what questions are asked upon the CMAR return in GABRIEL.
Zuther, K., Mayser, P., Hettwer, U., Wu, W., Spiteller, P., Kindler, B. L. J., Karlovsky, P., Basse, C. W., and Schirawski, J. 2008. The tryptophan aminotransferase Tam1 catalyses the single biosynthetic step for tryptophan-dependent pigment synthesis in Ustilago maydis. Molecular microbiology. 68 (1):152-172. ...
Pesquisadores Participantes Roberto G. S. Berlinck David H. Sherman - Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan One of the most underexplored classes of natural products from a metabolic pathway perspective includes complex alkaloids derived from terrestrial and marine sources. In addition to the fascinating genetic and biochemical mechanisms involved in construction of these secondary metabolites,…
το κείμενο με τίτλο Elucidating and exploiting microbial bioactive product biosynthesis σχετίζετε με Βιοτεχνολογία
Srinivas, N; Jetter, P; Ueberbacher, B J; Werneburg, M; Zerbe, K; Steinmann, J; VanderMeijden, B; Bernardini, F; Lederer, A; Dias, R L A; Misson, P E; Henze, H; Zumbrunn, J; Gombert, F O; Obrecht, D; Hunziker, P; Schauer, S; Ziegler, U; Käch, A; Eberl, L; Riedel, K; DeMarco, S J; Robinson, J A (2010). Peptidomimetic antibiotics target outer membrane biogenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Science, 327(5968):1010-1013.. Geib, N; Weber, T; Wörtz, T; Zerbe, K; Wohlleben, W; Robinson, J A (2010). Genome mining in amycolatopsis balhimycina for ferredoxins capable of supporting cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 306(1):45-53.. Li, D B; Woithe, K; Geib, N; Abou-Hadeed, K; Zerbe, K; Robinson, J A (2009). Chapter 19. In vitro studies of phenol coupling enzymes involved in vancomycin biosynthesis. In: Hopwood, D A. Complex Enzymes in Microbial Natural Product Biosynthesis, Part A: Overview Articles and Peptides. Amsterdam: Elsevier, ...
Extending the database of microbial sequence space is a central measure for improving the discovery of novel antibiotics in DZIF. We apply high-throughput next generation genome sequencing of potential microbial producers and systematic microbial genome analyses for genome mining, to identify new types of natural producers outside of common bacterial groups. We integrate genome and transcriptome sequence analyses with metabolomics to investigate the genetic regulation of bacterial natural product biosynthesis, with the goal to discover novel antibiotic compounds and specifically induce and control their production. Presently, we focus on the biosynthetic potential of myxobacteria, in close collaboration with the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (Prof. Dr. Rolf Müller, Prof. Dr. Joachim Wink).. DZIF is funded by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung ...
Time and place: Seminar: Capturing transient interactions of proteins involved in natural product biosynthesis Aug. 19, 2019 11:15 AM-12:00 PM, Berzelius, Department of chemistry ...
Bacteria - Biosynthetic pathways of bacteria: Many prokaryotes are able to convert any given carbon source into biosynthetic building blocks-e.g., amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, lipids, sugars, and enzyme cofactors. The amount and activity of each enzyme in these biosynthetic pathways are carefully regulated so that the cell produces only as much of any compound as is needed at any time. During the process of evolution, some bacteria have lost genes that encode certain biosynthetic reactions and are hence likely to require nutritional supplements. For example, Mycoplasma, whose DNA content is about one-quarter the size of that of E. coli, has many nutritional requirements and has even
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Drivers of metabolic diversification: how dynamic genomic neighbourhoods generate new biosynthetic pathways in the Brassicaceae. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Link for Professor OConnor. Abstract: Plants, which make thousands of complex natural products, are outstanding chemists. Through the concerted action of enzymes that are assembled into metabolic pathways, nature creates chemical complexity from simple starting materials. I will highlight some of the unusual enzymatic transformations that plants use to make complex, bioactive natural products, and will also discuss methods by which these pathways can be harnessed for metabolic engineering. The focus is on the biosynthesis of the monoterpenes called iridoids, and the alkaloids derived from iridoids, known as the monoterpene indole alkaloids. The discovery, functional characterization and mechanistic study of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these important compounds in several medicinal plant species will be discussed.. ...
Our goal is to develop the yeast host and tools for natural product (NP) expression, using novel genomic and synthetic biology technologies. We will showcase these tools through heterologous expression of 600 natural product gene clusters from 10 filamentous fungi of diverse ecological origin. Our project will address all aspects of the genome to natural product process, including high-throughput and cost-effective gene cluster DNA synthesis, gene transcription and protein expression in yeast, through natural product biosynthesis.
Are you looking for microbial production of enzymes ppt ? Get details of microbial production of enzymes ppt.We collected most searched pages list related with microbial production of enzymes ppt and more about it...
Discussions of therapeutic suppression of hedgehog (Hh) signaling almost exclusively focus on receptor antagonism; however, hedgehogs biosynthesis represents a unique and potentially targetable aspect of this oncogenic signaling pathway. Here, we review a key biosynthetic step called cholesterolysis from the perspectives of structure/function and small molecule inhibition. Cholesterolysis, also called cholesteroylation, generates cholesterol-modified Hh ligand via autoprocessing of a hedgehog precursor protein. Post-translational modification by cholesterol appears to be restricted to proteins in the hedgehog family. The transformation is essential for Hh biological activity and upstream of signaling events. Despite its decisive role in generating ligand, cholesterolysis remains conspicuously unexplored as a therapeutic target.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism. Unlike primary metabolites, absence of secondary metabolites does not result in immediate death, but rather in long-term impairment of the organisms survivability, fecundity, or aesthetics, or perhaps in no significant change at all. Secondary metabolites are often restricted to a narrow set of species within a phylogenetic group. Secondary metabolites often play an important role in plant defense against herbivory and other interspecies defenses. Humans use secondary metabolites as medicines, flavorings, and recreational drugs. Secondary metabolites aid a plant in important functions such as protection, competition, and species interactions, but are not necessary for survival. One important defining quality of secondary metabolites is their specificity. Usually, secondary metabolites are specific to an individual species. Research also shows that ...
or https:// means youve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. ...
Despite remarkable medical advances, including improved sanitation, effective vaccines, and antibiotics, bacterial infections remain a serious threat to human health. Annually, over 17 million people succumb to bacterial infections, with an increasing proportion due to antibiotic resistance. Therefore, there is urgent and continuous need for new antibiotics. Small molecule metabolites from microbes have been a highly productive source of chemical matter that ultimately led to most of todays clinically used antibiotics. Many of these natural products are derived from polyketide synthase (PKS) or non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) families, including well-known antibiotics such as the beta-lactams, tetracyclines, macrolides, and glycopeptides. With the rising resistance to these proven antibiotic classes, alternative sources of antibiotics must be discovered. The ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) have been attracting interest as one such source of ...
To the best of our knowledge, we have described the following for the first time: 1) A relationship between severe insulin resistance and elevated levels of circulating FASN. 2) Circulating FASN was inversely associated with adipose tissue FASN expression. This supports the hypothesis that circulating extracellular FASN levels increase in parallel with the metabolic stress of the cells, as indicated by their decreased amounts of intracellular FASN levels. 3) Decreased concentration of circulating FASN is a good correlate of improvement in insulin action and metabolic control, as evidenced during subtle lifestyle interventions or surgery-induced weight loss. And 4) FASN plasma levels work as a marker of insulin sensitivity only in the context of metabolic stress, given that rosiglitazone, which promotes lipid biosynthesis and storage, did not lead to changes in circulating FASN.. We cannot exclude the possibility that the liver could also contribute to circulating FASN. In fact, weight loss ...
The 5-methyl-2-pyrrolylcarbonyl moiety of the aminocoumarin antibiotics clorobiocin and coumermycin A1 is the key pharmacophore for targeting the ATP-binding site of GyrB for inhibition of the bacterial type-II topoisomerase DNA gyrase. During the late stage of clorobiocin and coumermycin A1 biosynthesis, the pyrrolyl-2-carboxyl group is transferred from the peptidyl carrier proteins Clo/CouN1 to the 3-hydroxyl of the 4-methoxy-L-noviosyl scaffold by the action of the acyltransferases Clo/CouN7. CouN1 and CouN7 have now been heterologously expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. The apo form of CouN1 is converted to the acyl-holo form by loading with pyrrolyl-2-carboxyl-S-pantetheinyl moieties from synthetic pyrrolyl- and 5-methylpyrrolyl-CoAs by the action of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase Sfp. CouN7 acts as an acyltransferase, moving the pyrrole acyl moieties from CouN1 to the noviose sugar of descarbamoylnovobiocin. When the 5-methylpyrrolyl-2-carboxyl-thioester of CouN1 is the
Highlights DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803868 Biosynthesis Extending the Biosynthetic Repertoire in Ribosomal Peptide Assembly Bradley S. Moore* bacteriocins · biosynthesis · enzymes · natural products · ribosomal peptides Natural products are quite inspiring. To chemists, they inspire the development of new synthetic methods and the creation of ever more sensitive analytical techniques. Biologists, on the other hand, exploit natural products in the discovery of new molecular targets and drugs, as well as to learn more about the way cells or whole organisms communicate with each other. Natural products also motivate biochemists to explore new ways in which nature assembles complex organic molecules. Such products, in one form or another, have helped transform modern science. In this post-genomic era, the scientific field of natural product biosynthesis has witnessed a constant flow of fascinating discoveries outlining new biochemical transformations in secondary metabolism. Most recently, cyclic ...
Figure: Structure of rishirilid A and organization of the rishirilid biosynthetic gene cluster. Although structures of several ABC transporters have been reported (cited in 3) not much is known about substrate binding domains of these transporters and about the mechanisms how ABC transporters select and translocate their substrates. Aside the ABC transporter system the rishirilid gene cluster contains rslT4 which most probably is involved in the export of rishirilid into the extracellular space. RslT4 belongs to the EmrB/QacA transporter family which is known to be drug:H+ antiporter with 12 transmembrane domains sharing conserved sequence motifs.. The main focus of the proposed project is to understand the exact function of RslT1, RslT2, RslT3 and RslT4 by structural and functional studies.. The specific aims of the proposal are:. ...
The synthesis and excretion of bile acids comprise the major pathway of cholesterol catabolism in mammals. Synthesis provides a direct means of converting cholesterol, which is both hydrophobic and insoluble, into a water-soluble and readily excreted molecule, the bile acid. The biosynthetic steps t …
contributors:[{last:Sorokin,middle:I,first:I︠U︡,function:author},{last:Kadota,first:Hajime,function:author},{last:International Biological Programme. Section PM.,function:author},{last:Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR.,function:author}],title:Techniques for the assessment of microbial production and decomposition in fresh waters,style:apa,source:conference,isbn:null,title2:,oclc:2967066,pubnonperiodical:{year:1972,volume:,publisher:Blackwell Scientific [for] International Biological Programme,city:Oxford,title:Techniques for the assessment of microbial production and decomposition in fresh waters},conference:{:},datasource:http:\/\/,pubtype:{main:pubnonperiodical ...
Biosynthesis of PAM after Dox induction. Identical wells of iPAM cells were treated with 0.25 or 2.0 μg/ml Dox for 48 h and then incubated with [35S]Met for
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a fast-track mechanism that allows genetically unrelated organisms to exchange genes for rapid environmental adaptation. We developed a new phyletic distribution-based software, HGT-Finder, which implements a novel bioinformatics algorithm to calculate a horizontal transfer index and a probability value for each query gene. Applying this new tool to the Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus nidulans genomes, we found 273, 542, and 715 transferred genes (HTGs), respectively. HTGs have shorter length, higher guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and relaxed selection pressure. Metabolic process and secondary metabolism functions are significantly enriched in HTGs. Gene clustering analysis showed that 61%, 41% and 74% of HTGs in the three genomes form physically linked gene clusters (HTGCs). Overlapping manually curated, secondary metabolite gene clusters (SMGCs) with HTGCs found that 9 of the 33 A. fumigatus SMGCs and 31 of the 65 A. nidulans SMGCs share
The adipocyte plays a crucial role in metabolic regulation, serving as a storage depot for fatty acids and as an endocrine cell to manage energy utilization and feeding behavior [1, 2]. The mass of adipose tissue is maintained by a well-controlled balance of cell proliferation (hyperplasia) and increase in fat cell size (hypertrophy). Increases in adipocyte hypertrophy result from the uptake and assimilation of extracellular fatty acids into cytosolic triacylglycerol-rich lipid droplets. The primary sources of these extracellular fatty acids are those that are 1) associated with circulating albumin or 2) hydrolyzed from triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein particles such as chylomicrons or very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Since chylomicrons are short-lived fatty acid carriers present only during the post-prandial period, it is accepted that VLDL particles represent the major source of circulating fatty acids in the form of triacylglycerols. Triacylglycerols are the major component of VLDL and ...
Natural product biosynthesis; non-ribosomal peptides; bioinorganic and biophysical chemistry; oxygen activation; sustainable chemistry; biofuels My laboratory is interested in the chemical biology of enzymes involved in pharmaceutical biosynthesis and bioenergy production. We are interested in developing tools to understand the detailed molecular mechanisms of these potent catalysts, and ultimately leverage them for the synthesis of natural products of pharmacological or industrial importance. As a result, we utilize a large spectrum of techniques in our studies, ranging from genome mining, molecular biology, metabolic engineering, enzymology, transient kinetics, and biophysical spectroscopy. Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis. There is growing interest in developing biochemical strategies to produce compounds with similar properties to petroleum-derived fuels. We are exploring enzymatic routes to produce hydrocarbons from biologically-derived fatty acid precursors, with the ultimate goal of preparing a ...
Teredinidae are a family of highly adapted wood-feeding and wood-boring bivalves, commonly known as shipworms, whose evolution is linked to the acquisition of cellulolytic gammaproteobacterial symbionts harbored in bacteriocytes within the gills. In the present work we applied metagenomics to charac …
In the present study we addressed the question of whether the biosynthesis of secondary carotenoids in H. pluvialisproceeds via an independent second pathway that operates outside the chloroplast, as the accumulation of the astaxanthin esters in cytosolic lipid vesicles might indicate. According to our data for PDS, we conclude that, at least for this relatively early biosynthetic step of carotenogenesis, no second cytosolic pathway exists and that higher biosynthetic activity is coupled to higher amounts of enzyme. Up-regulation on both the mRNA and protein levels was observed upon induction of SC synthesis. Because of slight variability in the extent of SC accumulation between parallels (Grünewald, 1997), we do not interpret the small difference between the maxima in PDS mRNA and protein levels as a sign for post-translational regulation events-at least the main part of up-regulation takes place at the mRNA level.. Bouvier et al. (1998) showed that pepper PDS mRNA increased under different ...
Release of neurotransmitters:. - Usually follows arrival of an action potential at the synapse - whereby the voltage across the cell membrane (membrane potential) of a cell (in this case a presynaptic neuron) rapidly rises and falls. Myelin sheath - consists of Schwann cells that encircle axon like a jelly roll, act as insulators and are separated by gaps of unsheathed axon called Nodes of Ranvier. Instead of a continuous traveling down the axon, the action potential jumps from node to node (called saltatory conduction), thereby speeding up propagation of impulse.. ✐ Follows a graded electrical potential.. ✐ Occurs without electrical stimulation as a low level baselinerelease. Neurotransmitter synthesis - made via just a few biosynthetic steps, from simple precursors, such as amino acids readily available from diet. Have excitory or inhibitory effect (or both), depending only on the type of receptors they activate - an excitory effect increases the probability that the target cell will ...
THE eating quality of Australian beef continues to rise, with the national average MSA Index reaching 57.56 points in 2015-17 - thats a large rise of 0.84 index points since the 2010-11 grading year, a newly released report has shown. The post MSA eating quality performance continues to rise appeared first on Beef Central ...
Yamada K.; Morisaki M.; Kumaoka H., 1983: Different biosynthetic pathways of the pyrimidine moiety of thiamin in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
17693715] The border sequence of the balhimycin biosynthesis gene cluster from Amycolatopsis balhimycina contains bbr, encoding a StrR-like pathway-specific regulator. (J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. , 2007 ...
Sú to anadromné (t.j. sťahovavé) alebo sladkovodné ryby severnej pologule. Posteriórny myodóm je hlboký, pričom okohybné svaly, ktoré ním prechádzajú sa pripájajú na svalstvo trupu. Brušné plutvy sú v abdominálnom postavení. Tuková plutnička je vždy prítomná. Žiabrové blany siahajú ďaleko dopredu, sú neprirastené k hrádzi. Kostných lúčov je 7 - 20 kostných lúčov. Stavcov je 50-75, posledné 3 sú otočené nahor. Pelvický axilárny výbežok je prítomný. Pylorických príveskov je 11-210. Maximálna dĺžka tela je 1,5 m. Vajcovody chýbajú, zastupujú ich peritoneálne záhyby. [1][2]. Pozri aj charakteristiku v článku lososotvaré. ...
This enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway for UDP-alpha-D-ManNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-mannuronic acid), an important precursor of B-band lipopolysaccharide ...
Data Availability StatementThe revised coding sequences of are deposited in GenBank under accession quantities KX281943, KX281944, and KX281945, respectively. variety of supplementary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes, including 12 sesquiterpene synthases (STSs), one non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), and a polyketide synthase (PKS) [6]. These enzymes are necessary for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes, non-ribosomal peptides, and polyketides, respectively. Included in this, six supplementary metabolite gene clusters harbouring genes encoding four STS genes and one each of NRPS and PKS had been also found expressing at notable amounts in the sclerotium [7]. Genome mining provides emerged being a potential avenue to gain access to the chemical variety encoded in basidiomycete fungal genomes [10]. The large numbers of STS genes in the genome features the potential of in making diverse sesquiterpenoids. Many sesquiterpenoids possess powerful antibiotic and cytotoxic actions because of their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic thiolation-thioesterase structure of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. AU - Frueh, Dominique P.. AU - Arthanari, Haribabu. AU - Koglin, Alexander. AU - Vosburg, David A.. AU - Bennett, Andrew E.. AU - Walsh, Christopher T.. AU - Wagner, Gerhard. PY - 2008/8/14. Y1 - 2008/8/14. N2 - Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS) produce numerous secondary metabolites with various therapeutic/antibiotic properties. Like fatty acid synthases (FAS), these enzymes are organized in modular assembly lines in which each module, made of conserved domains, incorporates a given monomer unit into the growing chain. Knowledge about domain or module interactions may enable reengineering of this assembly line enzymatic organization and open avenues for the design of new bioactive compounds with improved therapeutic properties. So far, little structural information has been available on how the domains interact and communicate. This may be because of inherent ...
Read A Rice Semi-Dwarf Gene, Tan-Ginbozu (D35), Encodes the Gibberellin Biosynthesis Enzyme, ent-Kaurene Oxidase, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
12855716] Cloning, sequencing and heterologous expression of the medermycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. AM-7161: towards comparative analysis of the benzoisochromanequinone gene clusters. (Microbiology. , 2003 ...
Medical Xpress is a web-based medical and health news service that features the most comprehensive coverage in the fields of neuroscience, cardiology, cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more.
Tiny Earth plans to sequence hundreds of genomes from antimicrobial-producing soil microbes and identify novel biosynthetic gene clusters.
Medema, M. H., Kottmann, R., Yilmaz, P., Cummings, M., Biggins, J. B., Blin, K., de Bruijn, I., Chooi, Y. H., Claesen, J., Coates, R. C., Cruz-Morales, P., Duddela, S., et al. Minimum information about a biosynthetic gene cluster Nature Chemical Biology 2015 11:625-631 PMID:26284661 ...
Some are organized by biosynthetic pathway (terpenes) and some are by apparent structure without regard to pathway (pyrrolizidines). A couple are named after plant nomenclature where they are found (berberines). ...
Third edition of this authoritative work on microbial biochemistry Describes a multitude of biosynthetic pathways in great detail Provides the reader with
The product of the reaction, alpha-ribazole 5-phosphate, forms part of the corrin biosynthesis pathway and is a substrate for EC ...
Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was ...
Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation and characterization of low-indole-3-acetic acid-producing mutants from bradyrhizobium elkanii. AU - Yagi, Ken. AU - Matsumoto, Taku. AU - Chujo, Tetsuya. AU - Nojiri, Hideaki. AU - Omori, Toshio. AU - Minamisawa, Kiwamu. AU - Nishiyama, Makoto. AU - Yamane, Hisakazu. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - We isolated 11 low-indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing mutants of Bradyrhizobium elkanii by Tn5 mutagenesis. The amount of IAA produced by each mutant was 2.2-13.6% of that of the wild-type. It was found by resting cell reactions that the biosynthetic step to convert indole-3-pyruvic acid to indole-3-acetaldehyde was blocked in all the mutants.. AB - We isolated 11 low-indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing mutants of Bradyrhizobium elkanii by Tn5 mutagenesis. The amount of IAA produced by each mutant was 2.2-13.6% of that of the wild-type. It was found by resting cell reactions that the biosynthetic step to convert indole-3-pyruvic acid to indole-3-acetaldehyde was ...
Wholesale Sea Buckthorn Extract - Select 2017 high quality Wholesale Sea Buckthorn Extract products in best price from certified Chinese Sea Buckthorn Seeds Extract manufacturers, Sea Buckthorn Oil suppliers, wholesalers and factory on
TY - JOUR. T1 - An essential role for de novo biosynthesis of L-serine in CNS development. AU - Furuya, Shigeki. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - L-Serine plays a versatile role in intermediary metabolism in eukaryotic cells. The physiological significance of its de novo biosynthesis, however, remains largely unexplored. We demonstrated previously that neurons lose the ability to synthesize L-serine after their final differentiation and thus depend on astrocytes to supply this amino acid. This is due to a lack of neuronal expression of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh), which initiates de novo L-serine synthesis via the phosphorylated pathway from the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate. In rodent brain, Phgdh is expressed exclusively by the neuroepithelium/radial glia/astrocyte lineage. In humans, serine deficiency disorders can result from a deficiency of Phgdh or other enzymes involved in serine biosynthesis in the phosphorylated pathway. Patients with such disorders have ...
Sea buckthorn has been the secret medicine that ancient Tibetan people have used for thousands of years.... The Tibetans used sea buckthorn oil for skin ailments of all kinds. From eczema to deep burns, sea buckthorn
Aspergillus fumigatus is a major human pathogen that causes hundreds of thousands of infections yearly with high mortality rates. In contrast, Aspergillus fischeri and the recently described Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis, the two species most closely related to A. fumigatus, are not known to be pathogenic. Some of the cards of virulence that A. fumigatus possesses are secondary metabolites that impair the host immune system, protect from host immune cell attacks, or acquire key nutrients. Secondary metabolites and the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that typically encode them often vary within and between fungal species. To gain insight into whether secondary metabolism-associated cards of virulence vary between A. fumigatus, A. oerlinghausenensis, and A. fischeri, we conducted extensive genomic and secondary metabolite profiling analyses. By analyzing multiple A. fumigatus, one A. oerlinghausenensis, and multiple A. fischeri strains, we identified both conserved and diverged secondary ...
Sea buckthorn oil or Omega 7 is naturally derived from the berries of the sea buckthorn plant and can support a healthy immune system.
Latin Name Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R. Br.Chinese Name 博落回Family PapaveraceaePart of the Plant Used Fruit/SeedActive Ingredients Alkaloids, Sanguinari
Kjøp Weleda Sea Buckthorn Body Oil 100ml , eksklusive hudprodukter, hårprodukter, makeup og skjønnhetsprodukter hos med gratis levering.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides. The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes (e.g.NADH, NADPH). These elements create monomers, the building blocks for macromolecules. Some important biological macromolecules include: proteins, which are composed of amino acid monomers joined via peptide bonds, and DNA molecules, which are ...
PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS- Nourishes dry skin, lastingly preserves its maisture content- Ideal after wearing your compression stockingsContents: 200 mlAvailabl
PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS- Nourishes dry skin, lastingly preserves its maisture content- Ideal after wearing your compression stockingsContents: 200 mlAvailabl
Biosynthetic Pathway, Fruit, Fruits, Genes, Goal, Identification, Set, Transcription Factors, Transcriptome, Transcriptome Analysis, Watermelon
Das DECHEMA-Forschungsinstitut betreibt interdisziplinäre Forschung für nachhaltige Technologien auf den Themen Werkstoff- und Korrosionsforschung, chemische Technik, Elektrochemie und Biotechnologie
"Biosynthetic Pathways". Archived from the original on 2011-06-26. Retrieved 24 November 2010. Ritter, Stephen K. (May 31, 2004 ...
Gerhards, Nina; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Li, Shu-Ming (2014-12-10). "Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids". Toxins ...
Gomollon-Bel, Fernando; Delso, Ignacio; Tejero, Tomas; Merino, Pedro (2014-11-12). "Biosynthetic Pathways to Glycosidase ... In the Streptomyces subrutilus species, a secondary pathway branching from the manojirimycin precursor results in 1- ...
The biosynthetic pathway to ergine starts like most other ergoline alkaloid- with the formation of the ergoline scaffold. This ... Gerhards, Nina; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Li, Shu-Ming (2014-12-10). "Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids". Toxins ...
The biosynthetic pathways to ergocryptine starts with the prenylation of L-tryptophan in an SN1 fashion with ... Gerhards N, Neubauer L, Tudzynski P, Li SM (December 2014). "Biosynthetic pathways of ergot alkaloids". Toxins. 6 (12): 3281-95 ... Mutation experiments altering these enzymes independently stopped the pathway at abrine. This indicates that cooperation ... old yellow enzyme gene controls the branch point between Aspergillus fumigatus and Claviceps purpurea ergot alkaloid pathways ...
Complex biosynthetic pathways for glycans. Usually glycans are found either bound to protein (glycoprotein) or conjugated with ... They affect the pathway and fate of glycoproteins. There are many glycan-specific diseases, often hereditary diseases. There ... They are involved in cellular signaling pathways and modulate cell function. They are important in innate immunity. They ...
Liu B, Raeth T, Beuerle T, Beerhues L (January 2010). "A novel 4-hydroxycoumarin biosynthetic pathway". Plant Molecular Biology ...
The biosynthetic pathways differ among organisms. In E. coli and other enterobacteriaceae, ThMP is phosphorylated to the ... Webb ME, Marquet A, Mendel RR, Rébeillé F, Smith AG (October 2007). "Elucidating biosynthetic pathways for vitamins and ... Caspi R (14 September 2011). "Pathway: superpathway of thiamine diphosphate biosynthesis I". MetaCyc Metabolic Pathway Database ... The biosynthetic pathways are regulated by riboswitches. If there is sufficient thiamine present in the cell then the thiamine ...
In addition to evolving individual molecules, she has used directed evolution to co-evolve enzymes in biosynthetic pathways, ... Schmidt-Dannert, C.; Umeno, D.; Arnold, F. H. (July 1, 2000). "Molecular breeding of carotenoid biosynthetic pathways". Nature ... To circumvent this problem, she evolved the enzymes in the pathway to use NADH instead of NADPH, allowing for the production of ... metabolic pathways, genetic regulatory circuits, and organisms. In nature, evolution by natural selection can lead to proteins ...
... biosynthetic pathway determination; protein engineering; drug delivery; molecular biology; structural biology; cell biology; ...
"Glycerophospholipid Biosynthetic Pathway". WikiPathways. 2019-11-01. "Uniprot". UniProt. 2019-11-01. "Uniprot". UniProt. 2019- ... The later pathways in human is part of the WikiPathways machine readable pathway collection. As of late 2007, two structures ...
An enzyme in the biotin biosynthetic pathway". J. Biol. Chem. 250: 4029-4036. Portal: Biology v t e (EC 2.6.1, Pyridoxal ...
... and other cell biosynthetic and metabolic pathways. Genera at the base of each clade are amoeboid and phagotrophic. The close ... on the basis of the presence of ergosterol in their membranes and being capable of synthesis of lysine via the AAA pathway. The ...
Whereas the α-aminoadipate (AAA) pathway is part of the glutamate biosynthetic family. The DAP pathway is found in both ... In organisms that synthesise lysine, two main biosynthetic pathways exist, the diaminopimelate and α-aminoadipate pathways, ... the aminotransferase pathway uses two enzymes, and the dehydrogenase pathway uses a single enzyme. These four variant pathways ... The diaminopimelate (DAP) pathway belongs to the aspartate derived biosynthetic family, which is also involved in the synthesis ...
Its exact synthesis pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate is still unknown. Bilobalide and ginkgolide have similar biosynthetic ... Such formation went through the mevalonate pathway (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate MEP pathway. In order to generate ... Dewick, P. M. Medicinal Natural Products: Products:A Biosynthetic Approach. Third Edition ed.; Wiley&Sons: West Sussex, England ... pathways. Bilobalide is formed by partially degraded ginkgolide. Bilobalide is derived from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP ...
Park, Je Won; Ban, Yeon Hee; Nam, Sang-Jip; Cha, Sun-Shin; Yoon, Yeo Joon (1 December 2017). "Biosynthetic pathways of ... LPAD pathway). It also was approved under the accelerated approval pathway. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted ... ISBN 978-0-12-411492-0. "FDA approves a new antibacterial drug to treat a serious lung disease using a novel pathway to spur ... Amikacin liposome inhalation suspension was the first drug approved under the US limited population pathway for antibacterial ...
There are two distinct lysine biosynthetic pathways: the diaminopimelic acid pathway and the α-aminoadipate pathway. The most ... The diaminopimelic acid biosynthetic pathway of lysine belongs to the aspartate family of amino acids. This pathway involves ... This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular ... The other pathway of glycine biosynthesis is known as the glycolytic pathway. This pathway converts serine synthesized from the ...
Regarding the biosynthesis of aureothin, the biosynthetic pathway would be begun with chorismic acid. P-nitrobenzoate is ... "Oxidative Modification Enzymes in Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways". Comprehensive Natural Products III (Third Edition). 1: 479 ... The aurF is one of the aureothin biosynthetic enzymes and it is referred to as a nonheme diiron oxygenase that is responsible ... ISBN 978-1-4649-6334-6. He, Jing; Hertweck, Christian (1 March 2004). "Biosynthetic Origin of the Rare Nitroaryl Moiety of the ...
This enrichment was consistent with two biosynthetic pathways. The labeling pattern determined that domoic acid can be ... Further investigation is needed to resolve the final isomerization reaction to complete the pathway to Domoic acid. Using ...
doi:10.1016/S0922-338X(98)80026-3. Rohdich, F.; Bacher, A.; Eisenreich, W. (2005). "Isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways as anti- ... 1-Deoxyxylulose is a precursor to terpenes via the nonmevalonic acid pathway. L-Xylulose accumulates in the urine in patients ...
MetaCyc Metabolic Pathway Database. Retrieved 2022-02-17. Crawford, Irving P. (1989). "Evolution of a Biosynthetic Pathway: The ... In the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway specifically the tryptophan synthesis portion, AnPRT draws anthranilate and 5- ... AnPRT is vital in these organisms because it is a vital step in the pathway to synthesis tryptophan, an essential amino acid in ... C.A. Fulcher (2010-02-12). "Pathway: L-tryptophan biosynthesis". ...
"A biosynthetic pathway for anandamide". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (36): 13345-50. Bibcode:2006PNAS.. ... The neurons, neural pathways, and other cells where these molecules, enzymes, and one or both cannabinoid receptor types are ... in Neuro2A cells is mediated by the MEK-ERK MAPK pathway and is suppressed by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway". The ... Schematic of brain pathways involved in food intake Watkins BA, Kim J (2014). "The endocannabinoid system: helps to direct ...
"A biosynthetic pathway for anandamide". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103 ( ...
"Discovery and characterization of terpenoid biosynthetic pathways of fungi". Methods in Enzymology. Natural Product ... In order to define and characterize a biosynthetic gene cluster, all the putative genes within said cluster must first be ...
Plants can synthesize IAA by several independent biosynthetic pathways. Four of them start from tryptophan, but there is also a ... distribution and function of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in bacteria". Crit Rev Microbiol. 39 (4): 395-415. doi: ... biosynthetic pathway independent of tryptophan. Plants mainly produce IAA from tryptophan through indole-3-pyruvic acid. IAA is ... Whitehead, T. R.; Price, N. P.; Drake, H. L.; Cotta, M. A. (25 January 2008). "Catabolic pathway for the production of skatole ...
The biosynthetic pathway for Lipid A in E. coli has been determined by the work of Christian R. H. Raetz in the past >32 years ... "Discovery of new biosynthetic pathways: the lipid A story". Journal of Lipid Research. 50 Suppl (Suppl): S103-S108. doi:10.1194 ...
"Discovery of new biosynthetic pathways: the lipid A story". Journal of Lipid Research. 50 Suppl: S103-S108. doi:10.1194/jlr. ...
Their biosynthetic pathways in bacteria are complex and interconnected. Oxaloacetate produces oxalate by hydrolysis. ... These are nonessential amino acids, and their simple biosynthetic pathways occur in all organisms. Methionine, threonine, ... The urea cycle is a metabolic pathway that results in the formation of urea using one ammonium molecule from degraded amino ... It is an anabolic pathway occurring in plants and bacteria utilizing the enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. Some ...
Liu, B.; Raeth, T.; Beuerle, T. & Beerhues, L. (2010). "A novel 4-hydroxycoumarin biosynthetic pathway". Plant Mol. Biol. 72 (1 ...
Milne, B.; Long, P.; Starcevic, A.; Hranueli, D.; Jaspars, M. (2006). "Spontaneity in the patellamide biosynthetic pathway". ... The biosynthetic gene cluster for patellamide A contains the genes patA, patB, patC, patD, patE, patF and patG. These genes, ... "Patellamide a and C biosynthesis by a microcin-like pathway in Prochloron didemni, the cyanobacterial symbiont of Lissoclinum ...
Major metabolic pathways in metro-style map. Click any text (name of pathway or metabolites) to link to the corresponding ... This difference exemplifies a general principle that NADPH is consumed during biosynthetic reactions, whereas NADH is generated ... Single lines: pathways common to most lifeforms. Double lines: pathways not in humans (occurs in e.g. plants, fungi, ... Many of the metabolites in the glycolytic pathway are also used by anabolic pathways, and, as a consequence, flux through the ...
... pathway, and a downstream target of this pathway is the protein kinase B (PKB) (Hodge et al., 2007). IL-6 activated PKB can ... negative regulation of collagen biosynthetic process. *positive regulation of MAPK cascade. *hepatic immune response ... It appears that unlike IL-6 signalling in macrophages, which is dependent upon activation of the NFκB signalling pathway, ... Recent work has shown that both upstream and downstream signalling pathways for IL-6 differ markedly between myocytes and ...
In many biosynthetic processes enzymes interact with each other to produce small compounds or other macromolecules.[citation ... The recruitment of signaling pathways through PPIs is called signal transduction and plays a fundamental role in many ... basing their functionalities on the theory that proteins involved in common pathways co-evolve in a correlated fashion across ...
Wheeler GL, Jones MA, Smirnoff N (May 1998). "The biosynthetic pathway of vitamin C in higher plants". Nature. 393 (6683): 365- ...
For example, α-Linolenic acid is classified as a n−3 or omega-3 fatty acid, and so it is likely to share a biosynthetic pathway ... The most commonly researched fatty acid biosynthetic pathways are n−3 and n−6. ... Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are biosynthetic precursors to endocannabinoids with antinociceptive, anxiolytic, and ... Zechner, R.; Strauss, J. G.; Haemmerle, G.; Lass, A.; Zimmermann, R. (2005). "Lipolysis: pathway under construction". Curr. ...
另外,瘦素活化可以刺激PI3K/AKT(英语:PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway)及AMPK/Akt訊息傳遞路徑,磷酸肌醇3-激酶的活化可增強N-甲基-D-天門冬胺酸受體及AMPA受體(英语:AMPA receptor)產生胞吐作用,增強興奮性訊 ... glycerol biosynthetic process. · tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein. · female pregnancy. · circadian rhythm. · ... regulation of steroid biosynthetic process. · leukocyte tethering or rolling. · regulation
Simple supplementation with cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) will not be enough as there's a complete biosynthetic pathway[which?] ... pro-apoptotic dual-role proteins in five major DNA repair pathways: Fail-safe protection against carcinogenesis". Mutat. Res. ...
R. Netzer, M. H. Stafsnes u. a.: Biosynthetic pathway for γ-cyclic sarcinaxanthin in Micrococcus luteus: heterologous ...
... hence the presence of the phosphate in the serine biosynthetic pathway) to glycaldehyde. Glycaldehyde was condensed with ... These pathways have been studied extensively in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Despite the disparity in ... The serendipitous pathway was very inefficient, but was possible due to the promiscuous activity of various enzymes. It started ... Two natural pathways for PLP are currently known: one requires deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP), while the other does not, hence ...
Isolation of a UDP-glucose: Flavonoid 5-O-glucosyltransferase gene and expression analysis of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in ... "Therapeutic potential of inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in the treatment of inflammation and cancer". 》Journal of Clinical ...
... elucidation of the cleavage step in the Fusarium carotenoid pathway". Molecular Microbiology. 64 (2): 448-60. doi:10.1111/j. ... "Novel apocarotenoid intermediates in Neurospora crassa mutants imply a new biosynthetic reaction sequence leading to ... "Identification of the gene responsible for torulene cleavage in the Neurospora carotenoid pathway". Molecular Genetics and ...
"Complete Reconstitution of the Human Coenzyme A Biosynthetic Pathway via Comparative Genomics". The Journal of Biological ...
The glycine conjugation pathway consists of two steps. First benzoate is ligated to CoASH to form the high-energy benzoyl-CoA ... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC).. ... CYP2D6 inhibitors: Hydroxylation via the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6 is the major pathway of metabolism of dextroamphetamine. ... In species where aromatic hydroxylation of amphetamine is the major metabolic pathway, p-hydroxyamphetamine (POH) and p- ...
Regulation of its expression occurs via multiple pathways. These include protein-protein interactions, like those with TdIF1. ... DNA biosynthetic process. *DNA modification. *response to ATP. *double-strand break repair via nonhomologous end joining ... The 2-15nt DNA fragments produced in vivo are hypothesized to act in signaling pathways related to DNA repair and/or ...
Zhang, Y.; Morar, M.; Ealick, S.E. (2008). "Structural biology of the purine biosynthetic pathway". Cellular and Molecular Life ... R. Caspi (2019-09-23). "Pathway: 5-hydroxybenzimidazole biosynthesis (anaerobic)". MetaCyc Metabolic Pathway Database. ... "Pathway: 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis I". MetaCyc Metabolic Pathway Database. Retrieved 2022-02-02. ... PPi The biosynthesis pathway next combines PRA with glycine in a process driven by ATP giving glycineamide ribonucleotide (GAR ...
These two sites catalyze the last two steps of the de novo uridine monophosphate (UMP) biosynthetic pathway. After addition of ... an energy-carrying molecule in many important biosynthetic pathways. In humans, the gene that codes for this enzyme is located ... P. falciparum OPRTase follows a random pathway in OMP synthesis and degradation. Transition state analyses have used isotopic ... The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "FluoropyrimidineActivity_WP1601". Orotidine 5'-phosphate ...
Because sterigmatocystin (ST) is an intermediate of the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway and is produced by the BSL-1 organism ... Aspergillus nidulans, it serves as a model for studying regulation of the aflatoxin biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC). ...
Lees ND, Skaggs B, Kirsch DR, Bard M (March 1995). "Cloning of the late genes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway of ... Databases Flow Chart of Metabolic Pathways at ExPASy IUBMB-Nicholson Metabolic Pathways Chart SuperCYP: Database for Drug- ... Cytochrome-Metabolism Archived 3 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine Metabolic pathways Metabolism reference Pathway Archived ... The oxidation pathway starts with the removal of the amino group by a transaminase. The amino group is fed into the urea cycle ...
Single events instead occurred due to the lack of selection pressure for the retention of genes especially if part of a pathway ... "Decay of mutualistic potential in aphid endosymbionts through silencing of biosynthetic loci: Buchnera of Diuraphis". ... gene involved in the recombinase pathway. This event happened during the removal of a larger region containing ten genes for a ... has experienced a vast reduction of functional activity with a major exception compared to other parasites still retain the bio-synthetic ...
... synthesis is composed of 10 biosynthetic modules consisting of the typical domains associated with PKS biosynthetic pathways ( ... This strain was found to contain the biosynthetic gene cluster for anthracimycin production. Anthracimycin is the product of a ... See Figure 1). Formation of the decalin ring is part of the PKS pathway and not a post-tailoring event. This occurs via a ... type I polyketide synthase (PKS). This modular synthetic pathway uses a trans-acyltransferase (AT) domain to load successive ...
... and deoxy sugar biosynthetic pathways. The first type I PKS gene, NcsE, codes for the enediyne moiety. The second type I PKS ... Liu, W; Nonaka, K; Christenson, SD; Shen, B (25 Mar 2005). "The neocarzinostatin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces ... Horsman, GP; Chen, Y; Thorson, JS; Shen, B (Jun 22, 2010). "Polyketide synthase chemistry does not direct biosynthetic ...
"Transcriptome Mining of Active Biosynthetic Pathways and Their Associated Products in Streptomyces flaveolus". Angewandte ...
These drugs target the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway by inhibiting the C-14 α-demethylase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, thus ... They work in a similar way as azoles but have their effects earlier on in the ergosterol synthesis pathway. Allylamines allow ...
The next two steps in the biosynthetic pathway is the methylation by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) of the two hydroxyl groups on ... From this point on the biosynthetic pathway of aflatoxin B1 becomes much more complicated, with several major skeletal changes ... Singh R, Hsieh DP (January 1977). "Aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway: elucidation by using blocked mutants of Aspergillus ... March 2004). "Clustered pathway genes in aflatoxin biosynthesis". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 (3): 1253-62. Bibcode:2004ApEnM ...
The biosynthetic pathway of N-arachindonoyldopamine is not well understood. It has been proposed to be conjugated from ... and activator protein 1 signaling pathways". Journal of Immunology. 172 (4): 2341-2351. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.172.4.2341. ISSN ... N-acyl-dopamines induce COX-2 expression in brain endothelial cells by stabilizing mRNA through a p38 dependent pathway". ...
... which is a C8-C7 sterol isomerase in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. Hydropathy analysis of the σ1 receptor indicates ... even though σ1 receptors have been linked circumstantially to a wide variety of signal transduction pathways. Links between σ1 ...
... coenzyme that is reduced to NADPH primarily by the pentose phosphate pathway to provide reducing power in biosynthetic ...
Guerra, G.S., Balan, A. Genetic and structural determinants on iron assimilation pathways in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas ... antibiotic production and biosynthetic potential of the Arabidopsis leaf microbiome". Nature Microbiology. 3 (8): 909-919. doi: ...
"Yellow flowers generated by expression of the aurone biosynthetic pathway". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ...
Identification of a general biosynthetic pathway of 3-acyltetronates and further investigation of the biosynthetic pathway of ...
Priming beta-ketosynthase from the r1128 polyketide biosynthetic pathway ... Timeline for Protein Priming beta-ketosynthase from the r1128 polyketide biosynthetic pathway from c.95.1.2: Chalcone synthase- ... Lineage for Protein: Priming beta-ketosynthase from the r1128 polyketide biosynthetic pathway. *Root: SCOPe 2.08 *. Class c: ... More info for Protein Priming beta-ketosynthase from the r1128 polyketide biosynthetic pathway from c.95.1.2: Chalcone synthase ...
Characterisation of some genes involved in the early steps of the biosynthetic pathway for oxytetracycline in Streptomyces ...
White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP), ... suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in ...
Controls Metabolite Flow through the Chlorophyll Biosynthetic Pathway. "The Journal of Biological Chemistry", 07 Octubre 2015, ... Controls Metabolite Flow through the Chlorophyll Biosynthetic Pathway. ... complex is important for the accumulation of ChlH and for channeling metabolites into the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. ... Given the phototoxic nature of tetrapyrroles, this pathway must be tightly regulated and an important regulatory role is ...
Citramalate synthase yields a biosynthetic pathway for isoleucine and straight- and branched-chain ester formation in ripening ... Citramalate synthase yields a biosynthetic pathway for isoleucine and straight- and branched-chain ester formation in ripening ... A plant pathway that initiates with the formation of citramalate from pyruvate and acetyl-CoA by citramalate synthase (CMS) is ... The citramalate pathway, beforehand solely described in microorganisms, is proven to operate in ripening apple and contribute ...
Genes that have previously been reported to participate in the multi-step pathway in Coffea sp. (coffee) and Camellia sinensis ... Biochemical characterization of the enzymes (XMTs) encoded by these genes strongly suggest an unprecedented major pathway to ... How has gene duplication played a role in the independent evolution of flux through the caffeine pathway? To answer these ... caffeine biosynthesis evolved convergently in plants and raise two major questions about the evolution of the caffeine pathway ...
title = "Multiform biosynthetic pathway of syringyl lignin in angiosperms",. abstract = "To clarify the pathway for ... Yamauchi K, Yasuda S, Hamada K, Tsutsumi Y, Fukushima K. Multiform biosynthetic pathway of syringyl lignin in angiosperms. ... Multiform biosynthetic pathway of syringyl lignin in angiosperms. In: Planta. 2003 ; Vol. 216, No. 3. pp. 496-501. ... Multiform biosynthetic pathway of syringyl lignin in angiosperms. Kazuchika Yamauchi, Seiichi Yasuda, Katsuyoshi Hamada, Yuji ...
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review article on the role of rhizobial biosynthetic pathways of amino acids, ... Role of rhizobial biosynthetic pathways of amino acids, nucleotide bases and vitamins in symbiosis. ... Randhawa GS, Hassani R. Role of rhizobial biosynthetic pathways of amino acids, nucleotide bases and vitamins in symbiosis. ... The production of ornithine and anthranilic acid, the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathways of arginine and tryptophan, ...
Biosynthetic Pathway Engineering Strategies. / Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia; Pisarchik, Alexander.. Protein Engineering Handbook, ... Biosynthetic Pathway Engineering Strategies. Protein Engineering Handbook, Volume 1 & Volume 2. Vol. 2 Wiley-VCH, 2011. pp. 849 ... Schmidt-Dannert C, Pisarchik A. Biosynthetic Pathway Engineering Strategies. In Protein Engineering Handbook, Volume 1 & Volume ... Schmidt-Dannert, C & Pisarchik, A 2011, Biosynthetic Pathway Engineering Strategies. in Protein Engineering Handbook, Volume 1 ...
NAD Biosynthetic Pathways. NAD+ was first reported in 1906 as a product of yeast fermentation [23,24]. The potential importance ... NAD+ is the last enzymatic product of three important biosynthetic pathways in the mammalian metabolism, the kynurenine (de ... Sasaki, Y.; Araki, T.; Milbrandt, J. Stimulation of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Biosynthetic Pathways Delays Axonal ... The Preiss-Handler and the salvage pathways are the other sources of NAD+ [37,38,39]. The Preiss-Handler pathway comprises ...
Psychopathological symptoms in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism--possible pathways. Horm Metab Res. 2012 Mar. 44(3):202 ...
This disclosure further describes biosynthetic methods for making these compounds. In some embodiments, the biosynthetic ... This disclosure further describes biosynthetic methods for making these compounds. In some embodiments, the biosynthetic ... BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS AND PRODUCTS - This disclosure describes biosynthesized compounds including anhydromevalonolactone and β- ... EP 3540069 A3 20191204 - BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS AND PRODUCTS. Title (en). BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS AND PRODUCTS ...
Our results indicate that plant genomes are remarkably plastic, and that dynamic GNs generate new biosynthetic pathways in ... Our results indicate that plant genomes are remarkably plastic, and that dynamic GNs generate new biosynthetic pathways in ... Our results indicate that plant genomes are remarkably plastic, and that dynamic GNs generate new biosynthetic pathways in ... Our results indicate that plant genomes are remarkably plastic, and that dynamic GNs generate new biosynthetic pathways in ...
Biosynthetic gene pathways associated with vitamin production. Microbes are known to synthetize vitamins, which are essential ... Carotenoid biosynthetic process was present in all samples, except in green olives, while response to redox state, lactose ... Metabolic pathways associated with SCFAs production. The most widely studied microbial metabolites in relation to human health ... The least common pathways represented across the metagenomes were butyrate metabolic processes, as the metagenomes contained ...
Phloroglucinol mediates cross-talk between the pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic pathways in pseudomonas ... Phloroglucinol mediates cross-talk between the pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic pathways in pseudomonas ... Phloroglucinol mediates cross-talk between the pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic pathways in pseudomonas ... Phloroglucinol mediates cross-talk between the pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic pathways in pseudomonas ...
Although their biosynthesis has been studied for several decades, the regulatory mechanisms of the benzoxazinoid pathway remain ... Although their biosynthesis has been studied for several decades, the regulatory mechanisms of the benzoxazinoid pathway remain ... Our finding is the first report of the transcriptional regulation mechanism of the benzoxazinoid pathway. ... Our finding is the first report of the transcriptional regulation mechanism of the benzoxazinoid pathway. ...
Biosynthetic pathway for the C45 polyprenol, solanesol, in tobacco. Eiichiro Fukusaki, Shinya Takeno, Takeshi Bamba, Hiroshi ... Biosynthetic pathway for the C45 polyprenol, solanesol, in tobacco. / Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Takeno, Shinya; Bamba, Takeshi et al ... Biosynthetic pathway for the C45 polyprenol, solanesol, in tobacco. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 2004 Sep;68(9): ... Biosynthetic pathway for the C45 polyprenol, solanesol, in tobacco. In: Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 2004 ; Vol ...
Purification and characterisation of the BIOH protein from the biotin biosynthetic pathway ... Purification and characterisation of the BIOH protein from the biotin biosynthetic pathway ...
The pattern of metabolites produced by feeding putative pathway intermediates to these mutants provided unambiguous support for ... Neo8 catalyses transfer of N-acetylglucosamine to 2-DOS early in the pathway, while Neo15 catalyses transfer of the same ... of N-acetylglucosaminylribostamycin was still observed in a strain deleted of the neo16 gene and fed with suitable pathway ... aminosugar to ribostamycin later in the pathway. The in vitro substrate specificity of Neo15, purified from recombinant ...
"Biosynthetic Pathways". Archived from the original on 2011-06-26. Retrieved 24 November 2010. Ritter, Stephen K. (May 31, 2004 ...
Characterization of the dTDP-Fuc3N and dTDP-Qui3N biosynthetic pathways in Campylobacter jejuni 81116 ... Characterization of the dTDP-Fuc3N and dTDP-Qui3N biosynthetic pathways in Campylobacter jejuni 81116. DOI. Resolve DOI: https ... Characterization of the dTDP-Fuc3N and dTDP-Qui3N biosynthetic pathways in Campylobacter jejuni 81116. From National Research ...
Biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and shunt pathway」の研究トピックを掘り下げます。これらがまとまってユニークなフィンガープリントを構成します。 ... Biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and shunt pathway. Shigeki Tsuchiya, Yuko Cho, Keiichi Konoki, Kazuo Nagasawa, Yasukatsu ... Biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and shunt pathway. / Tsuchiya, Shigeki; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi その他. ... title = "Biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and
Alteration of lignin biosynthetic pathways in sorghum enhances its deconstruction by adapted microbial consortia (Proposal ID: ... Alteration of lignin biosynthetic pathways in sorghum enhances its deconstruction by adapted microbial consortia: WT_Day7_7 ...
... tissue-specific metabolite-expression analysis in order to identify possible key genes involved in TAs biosynthetic pathways. ... Metabolic engineering is strongly dependent on identifying the key genes in biosynthetic pathways toward the products of ... The biosynthetic pathways of tanshinones and phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza. Molecules 20, 16235-16254 (2015). ... Most of the genes associated with the TAs biosynthetic pathway were expressed mainly in the aerial parts of the plants. None of ...
  • Biochemical characterization of the enzymes (XMTs) encoded by these genes strongly suggest an unprecedented major pathway to theobromine, a precursor to caffeine. (
  • Our results indicate that plant genomes are remarkably plastic, and that dynamic GNs generate new biosynthetic pathways in different Brassicaceae lineages by shuffling the genes encoding a core palette of triterpene‐diversifying enzymes, presumably in response to strong environmental selection pressure. (
  • Biosynthetic enzymes for the aminoglycosides butirosin and neomycin. (
  • In the prokaryotic pathway, the first and the third reactions are catalyzed by phosphatidylglycerol phosphate synthase (Pgps) belonging to the transferase family and cardiolipin synthase (Cls) belonging to the hydrolase family, while in the eukaryotic pathway, those same reactions are catalyzed by unrelated homonymous enzymes: Pgps of the hydrolase family and Cls of the transferase family. (
  • In this review, it is proposed that the eukaryote pathway evolved directly from a prokaryotic pathway by the neofunctionalization of the bacterial enzymes. (
  • Study of the relationship between flavonoids content and changes in the enzymes implicated in their biosynthetic pathway, during development of Citrus sinensis cv. (
  • The relationship among flavonoids content and the degree of expression of enzymes implicated in their biosynthetic pathway permits to determine which are the enzymes responsible for control the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites in Citrus. (
  • The researchers revealed that MPA biogenesis requires very unique cooperation between biosynthetic enzymes and β-oxidation catabolic machinery. (
  • They hope their work will prompt more research on this phenomenon since there is only very limited knowledge about the subcellular localization of fungal biosynthetic enzymes and their involvement in product formation and intermediate trafficking. (
  • humans with mutations in genes that encode Moco biosynthetic enzymes display lethal neurological and developmental defects," the researchers wrote. (
  • Structural and Functional studies of crucial pathway enzymes / proteins from E. histolytica & H. pylori i) Cysteine Biosynthetic pathway, sulfur metabolism in E. histolytica ii) Crucial signaling and cytoskeletal proteins involved in Phagocytic cup formation in E. histolytica iii) Replication initiation proteins from H. pylori . (
  • A total of 82 unigenes encoding eight enzymes in furanocoumarin biosynthetic pathway were first obtained. (
  • Seven genes that encoded key enzymes in the downstream furanocoumarin biosynthetic pathway and expressed more in roots than leaves were screened. (
  • The comprehensive expression and functional characterisation of the multigene families encoding the 2-ODD enzymes of the GA pathway in wheat and barley will provide the basis for a better understanding of GA-regulated development in these species. (
  • We are developing new biocatalysts and metabolic pathways for selective and efficient C-F bond formation under mild conditions through the isolation, characterization, and mechanistic investigation of new enzymes involved in biological halogenations. (
  • by adding b6 you aren't necessarily specifically targeting the enzymes that are involved in the psilocybin biosynthetic pathway. (
  • Both adipocytes and seeds contain lipase enzymes to liberate fatty acids for export when they are required for fuel or biosynthetic purposes. (
  • The idea is to characterise the biosynthetic pathway in the organism, then apply genetic engineering to manufacture the appropriate enzymes in useable quantities. (
  • But identifying the enzymes, producing them outside the natural host and then successfully ensuring that each enzyme operates efficiently, and at its appropriate point in the pathway, is extremely difficult. (
  • 2002). Camalexin originates from tryptophan and CYP79B2 and CYP71B15 (PAD3) are P450 enzymes that catalyze important steps in its biosynthetic pathway (Glawischnig, 2007). (
  • Type 1, α/β hydrolase-like thioesterase (TE) domains are essential offloading enzymes, releasing covalently bound products from fatty acid, polyketide, and non-ribosomal peptide biosynthetic complexes. (
  • During this period, the expression of related genes with the biosynthesis pathway, as ACS, DFR and GST, increase in a significantly way (amounts of 1400, 1800 and 12000 fold expression respectively in contrast to the basal levels). (
  • It is the product of the enzyme amidophosphoribosyltransferase which attaches ammonia from glutamine to phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) at its anomeric carbon: PRPP + glutamine → PRA + glutamate + PPi The biosynthesis pathway next combines PRA with glycine in a process driven by ATP giving glycineamide ribonucleotide (GAR). (
  • A total of 63 transcripts were annotated as involved in the tannin biosynthesis pathway. (
  • Annotation of genes involved in the condensed tannin biosynthesis pathway has provided the basis for further studies of the genetic control of this important trait in sainfoin. (
  • carotene biosynthesis pathway (Ye et al . (
  • We have also discovered novel potential therapeutic targets involved in M. tuberculosis virulence, with valorization potential (filed patents), in the biosynthesis pathway of the mycolic acid-containing lipids . (
  • Given the phototoxic nature of tetrapyrroles, this pathway must be tightly regulated and an important regulatory role is attributed to Mgchelatase enzyme at the branching between the heme and chlorophyll pathway. (
  • In this pathway, the oxygenase MpaB', which is intriguingly homologous to a latex-clearing enzyme, was identified as the long-sought key enzyme responsible for oxidative cleavage of the farnesyl side chain that is structurally similar to rubber. (
  • The porphyrias are a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders that result from the decreased activity of a specific enzyme of the heme pathway and are characterized by the overproduction and excretion of heme intermediates in urine and/or stool and their accumulation in certain tissues [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • HMBS is the third enzyme involved in heme pathway and catalyzes the head to tail condensation of four molecules of PBG to form the lineal tetrapyrrole HMB. (
  • Overexpression of the NAD + biosynthetic enzyme NMNAT1 leads to preservation of injured axons. (
  • To raise intracellular NMN levels we expressed the NMN biosynthetic enzyme NAMPT or applied nicotinamide riboside (NR) to neurons expressing NRK1, a nicotinamide riboside kinase that converts NR to NMN. (
  • Furthermore, infection upregulated the expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, ornithine decarboxylase, diverting the iNOS substrate l -arginine toward the synthesis of polyamines. (
  • Meanwhile at Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts, Christopher Walsh's team has synthesised the fungal metabolite terraquinone A, which has antitumour activity, by identifying the biosynthetic pathway in a fungus and then reconstituting the natural five-enzyme pathway in a reactor. (
  • Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of branched-chain amino acids. (
  • This inability results from mutations in the GLO gene coding for L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the last step in the vitamin C biosynthetic pathway. (
  • Solving those problems will require metabolic genetic engineering, which is the frontier in industrial microbiology these days - because while it is now easy to insert a gene that codes for a single enzyme, inserting a metabolic pathway if far more complicated. (
  • Here, we report the characterization of a member of the common bean isoflavone reductase (EC, PvIFR1) gene family, an enzyme that participates in the last steps of the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoids. (
  • The trypanothione pathway combines 2 metabolic pathways: the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and the glutathione pathway. (
  • This illustrates the fundamental challenge of GMO metabolic engineering: to not make unintended changes by disrupting the many intersecting biochemical pathways and thereby disrupting the complex plant processes that depend on them. (
  • Tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TBS) is one of the vital biochemical pathways found in organisms. (
  • Outline of the major biosynthetic pathways after 12-16 days after they got money for drugs. (
  • This finding could be a step towards determining the complete biosynthetic pathway of STX. (
  • Researchers were able to transfer the complete biosynthetic pathway from Magnetospirillum into foreign bacteria. (
  • The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis: Structural and genetic diversity. (
  • Li G , Qin B , Li S , Yin Y , Zhao J , An W , Cao Y , Mu Z . LbNR -Derived Nitric Oxide Delays Lycium Fruit Coloration by Transcriptionally Modifying Flavonoid Biosynthetic Pathway. (
  • Pathway: 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis I". MetaCyc Metabolic Pathway Database. (
  • MetaCyc Metabolic Pathway Database. (
  • Cave microorganisms were exposed to a variety of stimuli for the purpose of secondary metabolic pathway activation and potential acceleration of techniques for drug discovery. (
  • A plant pathway that initiates with the formation of citramalate from pyruvate and acetyl-CoA by citramalate synthase (CMS) is proven to contribute to the synthesis of α-ketoacids and vital odor-active esters in apple ( Malus × domestica ) fruit. (
  • An undiminished metabolic flow through the rhizobial pathways for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines and the synthesis of biotin, nicotinic acid, riboflavin and thiamine by rhizobium appear to be requirements for normal symbiosis. (
  • Various modes of axonal protection mediated by the manipulation of NAD + synthesis pathways. (
  • The ability to endow a simple bacterium with a biosynthetic pathway only found in animals is critical for synthesis at commercially relevant scales. (
  • The structure of cholesterol was known by 1932 and the chief elements of the biosynthetic pathway of it synthesis were explicated in 1956. (
  • As the chemical synthesis of pN-Phe does not follow green chemistry principles and impedes provision of pN-Phe to engineered bacterial cells in some contexts, we sought to design a de novo biosynthetic pathway for pN-Phe in Escherichia coli . (
  • Finally, we introduced the W192A mutation into Synechocystis 6803 cells and show that the Gun4-porphyrin complex is important for the accumulation of ChlH and for channeling metabolites into the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. (
  • Formulate biosynthetic pathways for simple metabolites. (
  • The aim of this study are to isolate the secondary metabolites from two plants as mentioned, to propose the biosynthetic pathway of new isolated compounds, to synthesize the stilbene analogues, to evaluate the bioactivities of isolated and synthesised compounds as well as to discuss the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the results from bioassays. (
  • These high-value metabolites are biosynthesized through phenylpropanoid, mevalonate, 2-C-methyl- d -erythritol-4-phosphate, amino acid, glucose, acetate-malonate pathway, or combined pathways. (
  • Our results showed that both bioactive metabolites GA 1 and GA 4 were produced, demonstrating that both the 13-hydroxylation and the non-13-hydroxylation GA biosynthetic routes were functional in grape berries. (
  • They circulate in the blood by binding to a protein carrier, serum albumin where they travel to the tissue for use in metabolism or biosynthetic pathways. (
  • These results illuminate the cellular adaptations occurring in the Walker strains to alleviate the toxic effects that can occur during membrane protein production, whilst providing changes in metabolism pathways required for membrane protein biogenesis. (
  • Using metabolic inhibitors of the plastidic and cytosolic isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways, we demonstrated that the prenyl moiety on the prenylated stilbenoids derives from the plastidic pathway. (
  • In this study, researchers demonstrated that fosmidomycin (FSM) inhibited the first step of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by deoxyxylulose phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) in staphylococci. (
  • Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. (
  • Besides providing heme and its breakdown products, which are essential constituents of almost all organisms, the pathway supplies the chlorophyll (Chl) crucial for photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants ( Tanaka and Tanaka, 2007 ). (
  • Synthetic biology is explored through CRISPR/Cas9-directed engineering of heterologous biosynthetic pathways in yeast. (
  • IMAGE: Engineered biosynthetic pathway for production of glycyrrhizin in yeast. (
  • Six candidate genes were heterologously expressed individually and in combination in yeast and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), resulting in the identification of one canonical FAD2 that converts oleic to linoleic acid, three divergent FAD2-like acetylenases that convert linoleic into crepenynic acid, and two bifunctional FAD2s with Δ12 and Δ14 desaturase activity that convert crepenynic into the further desaturated dehydrocrepenynic acid, a polyacetylene pathway intermediate. (
  • The scientists included an array of genes from various organisms to build the biosynthetic pathway in the yeast. (
  • Researchers from Delft University of Technology have engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase ethanol yield from biomass waste by eliminating production of glycerol (glycerol production is essential to reoxidize NADH produced in biosynthetic processes), reoxidizing NADH instead by the reduction of acetic acid to ethanol. (
  • All‐vs‐all comparisons of OSC neighbourhoods and phylogenomic analysis were used to investigate the sequence similarity and evolutionary relationships of the numerous candidate triterpene biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) observed. (
  • Bioinformatic analyses show that the dual role of PhlD in the biosynthesis of DAPG and the regulation of pyoluteorin production could have arisen within the pseudomonads during the assembly of these biosynthetic gene clusters from genes and gene subclusters of diverse origins. (
  • Biosynthetic gene clusters of aliphatic azoxy natural products. (
  • These results suggest that syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms operates via multiple pathways that depend on the species. (
  • A major focus of our work is studying cofactor biosynthetic pathways in mycobacteria, and elucidating the role that these pathways play in pathogenesis. (
  • Molybdenum cofactor (Moco) biosynthesis is an evolutionarily conserved pathway in archaea, eubacteria, and eukaryotes, including humans. (
  • The production of ornithine and anthranilic acid, the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathways of arginine and tryptophan, respectively, seems to be essential for effective symbiosis of Sinorhizobium meliloti with alfalfa. (
  • It is discovered that the kanamycin biosynthetic pathway contains an early branch point, governed by the substrate promiscuity of a glycosyltransferase, that leads to the formation of two parallel pathways in which early intermediates are further modified. (
  • We previously synthesized genetically predicted biosynthetic intermediates, Int-A′ and Int-C′2, and also Cyclic-C′ which was not predicted based on gene, and identified them all in the toxin-producing cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis (TA04) and the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Axat-2). (
  • We design and create new biosynthetic pathways in microbial hosts for in vivo production of biofuels from abundant crop feedstocks and pharmaceuticals from natural products or natural product scaffolds. (
  • Recent advances in the metabolic pathways and microbial production of coenzyme Q. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology , Springer Verlag, 2022, 38 (4), pp.58. (
  • To our knowledge our results represent the first in vitro assembly of a complete type II polyketide synthase enzymatic pathway to natural products,' the researchers reported. (
  • The gibberellin (GA) pathway plays a central role in the regulation of plant development, with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs: GA20ox, GA3ox, GA2ox) that catalyse the later steps in the biosynthetic pathway of particularly importance in regulating bioactive GA levels. (
  • The variable abundance of both bioactive GAs throughout berry growth suggests complex regulation of this pathway. (
  • PDF] The neomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces fradiae NCIMB 8233: genetic and biochemical evidence for the roles of two glycosyltransferases and a deacetylase. (
  • Understanding carotenoid biosynthetic pathway control points using metabolomic analysis and natural genetic variation. (
  • The importance of GA signalling in determining plant stature is clear from evidence in both wild and crop species showing phenotypic effects of genetic variation in GA biosynthetic and signalling genes. (
  • We engage a multidisciplinary approach involving genome mining, target identification, and genetic engineering of biosynthetic pathways to discover and produce new pharmaceutically-relevant molecules. (
  • Neither do vertebrates have a period in their development in which the mevalonate biosynthetic pathway-that synthesizes farnesyl pyrophosphate, farnesol, and cholesterol-comes to a complete halt. (
  • Angucyclines are aromatic polyketides produced in Streptomycetes via complex enzymatic biosynthetic pathways. (
  • Volatile lactones from Streptomycetes arise via the Antimycin biosynthetic pathway. (
  • Because of the enzymatic arrangement found in both pathways, it seems that the eukaryotic pathway evolved by convergence to the prokaryotic pathway. (
  • 2020. A knowledge-driven protocol for prediction of proteins of interest with an emphasis on biosynthetic pathways. . (
  • These proteins are implicated in diverse pathways including cell proliferation, growth and protein transport. (
  • L-Lysine is the homologue of L-ornithine, and it too functions as an alkaloid precursor, using pathways analogous to those noted for ornithine. (
  • This disclosure further describes biosynthetic methods for making these compounds. (
  • Terpenoids are a group of natural compounds derived from five-carbon isoprene units and are classified according to the number and structural organization of these biosynthetic building blocks. (
  • Despite their importance, the biosynthetic pathways of these compounds remain to be elucidated. (
  • In this study, gene expression tracking was performed by transcriptome mining, co-expression network analysis, and tissue-specific metabolite-expression analysis in order to identify possible key genes involved in TAs biosynthetic pathways. (
  • To complete the linear pathway for acetic acid reduction, we expressed an NAD + -dependent, acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli into a gpd1Δ gpd2Δ strain of S. cerevisiae. (
  • Clock-regulated genes are over-represented among all of the classical plant hormone and multiple stress response pathways, suggesting that all of these pathways are influenced by the circadian clock. (
  • In true sense quiescent lines with their characteristic cellular responses are more prone to oxidative stress perception following downstream response pathways. (
  • Both dihydrostilbenes and oligostilbenoids were derived from phenylpropanoid pathway but the route of dihydrostilbenes has its own special network. (
  • Their biosynthesis is metabolically interconnected and diverges in the central metabolite 4-coumaroyl CoA of the phenylpropanoid pathway. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Role of rhizobial biosynthetic pathways of amino acids, nucleotide bases and vitamins in symbiosis. (
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review article on the role of rhizobial biosynthetic pathways of amino acids, nucleotide bases and vitamins in rhizobium-legume symbiosis. (
  • When he moved to UC Santa Cruz in 2019, his lab continued to work on the guanitoxin biosynthetic pathway in collaboration with the other two labs. (
  • They catalyse a single three-step reaction included in all sterol biosynthetic pathways. (
  • We believe that (i) N is a non-conventional CYP51 substrate, preferred in TB and perhaps other Trypanosomatidae and (ii) functional similarity of TC CYP51 to animal/fungal orthologues is a result of evolutionary convergence (including F105I mutation), leading to different pathways for sterol production in TC versus TB. (
  • The Biosynthetic Incorporation of the Intact Leucine Skeleton into Sterol by the Trypanosomatid Leishmania mexicana. (
  • They are synthesized by two main pathways, the so-called eukaryotic pathway, exclusively found in mitochondria, and the prokaryotic pathway, present in most bacteria and archaea. (
  • Plant isoprenoids are derived from the cytoplasmic mevalonate (MVA) and the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways, which generate the isoprenoid precursors dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). (
  • Alzheimer's Disease: Is a Dysfunctional Mevalonate Biosynthetic Pathway the Master-Inducer of Deleterious Changes in Cell Physiology? (
  • De Loof A, Schoofs L. Alzheimer's Disease: Is a Dysfunctional Mevalonate Biosynthetic Pathway the Master-Inducer of Deleterious Changes in Cell Physiology? (
  • It emerges from comparative analysis, in evolutionary retrospect, of the characteristics of the mevalonate biosynthetic pathways in insects versus vertebrates, and of the drastic effects of the absence of farnesol and its esters with juvenile hormone (JH) activity. (
  • A dysfunctional mevalonate biosynthetic pathway, with farnesol at its very heart, can disturb "Golgicrine" activity, reduce mitochondrial multiplication, alter Ca 2+ homeostasis, and cause massive apoptosis in specific tissues. (
  • Hence, there exists a difficulty in uncovering the other functions of farnesol, besides being an intermediate in the mevalonate pathway. (
  • It was proved that the mevalonate pathway and farnesol play key roles in Ca 2+ homeostasis. (
  • The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. (
  • The conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate is an early step in the biosynthetic pathway for cholesterol. (
  • Expression of the complete pathway, to include INO1 , allows for production of glucaric acid from glucose via the key cellular intermediate glucose-6-phosphate. (
  • The resulting external aldimine can lose a proton, carbon dioxide, or an amino acid sidechain to become a quinonoid intermediate, which in turn can act as a nucleophile in several reaction pathways. (
  • Mari Yotsu-Yamashita and co-workers, Tohoku University and Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan, have converted Int-C'2 (pictured, top), a biosynthetic intermediate of STX, into a tricyclic bisguanidine compound, Cyclic-C' (pictured, bottom), through an oxidative cyclization method catalyzed by Pd/C under basic conditions. (
  • Alternatively, a compound produced as an intermediate in leucine breakdown to HMG-CoA (e.g. dimethylcrotonyl-CoA) could be directly reduced to produce an isoprene alcohol followed by phosphorylation to enter the isoprenoid pathway post-MVA. (
  • We have for several years been bioprospecting to identify interesting organisms, genes and biosynthetic pathways and to isolate and characterize active components. (
  • a ) Diagram of mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) biosynthesis pathways. (
  • Be carefull of equating mammalian neurotransmitter biosynthetic pathways with the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter analogoues in fungi. (
  • Identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster for 3-methylarginine, a toxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. (
  • This study constituted the first identification of a biosynthetic pathway for this class of fungal toxins,' the team reported. (
  • However, since mitochondria evolved from a bacterial endosymbiont, it would suggest that the eukaryotic pathway arose from the prokaryotic pathway. (
  • We are constructing new biosynthetic pathways in bacterial hosts that can convert plant biomass into fuel molecules. (
  • Advances in bacterial pathways for the biosynthesis of ubiquinone. (
  • The citramalate pathway, beforehand solely described in microorganisms, is proven to operate in ripening apple and contribute to isoleucine and 2MB and PROP ester biosynthesis with out suggestions regulation. (
  • Our finding is the first report of the transcriptional regulation mechanism of the benzoxazinoid pathway. (
  • This limits our ability to exploit mechanisms of pathway regulation to maximize end product yield e.g. by use of synthetic biology approaches. (
  • We have also identified several physiological pathways enriched for clock-regulated changes in transcript abundance, suggesting they may be modulated by the circadian clock. (
  • The O2-independent pathway of ubiquinone biosynthesis is essential for denitrification in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (
  • According to the literature, the metabolite biogenesis in this family derives, mainly, from mixed pathways (1827), followed by the acetate (1280) and shikimate pathways (404). (
  • Opposite action of R2R3-MYBs from different subgroups on key genes of shikimate and monolignol pathways in spruce. (
  • Discovery of parallel pathways of kanamycin biosynthesis allows antibiotic manipulation. (
  • Our focus is a better understanding of the envelope through (i) deciphering mycobacterial envelope constituents , (ii) elucidation of their metabolic pathways in order to (iii) discover mycobacterial targets for drug discovery. (
  • Comparative transcriptomics of 48 Erysimum species guides discovery of cardiac glycoside biosynthetic genes. (
  • The complete glycyrrhizin biosynthetic pathway was constructed by expressing β-amyrin synthase (βAS), two cytochrome P450s (CYP88D6 and CYP72A63), CSyGT, UGT73P12 and… view more Credit: Osaka University Osaka, Japan - Many plants, including legumes, make naturally occurring chemicals called saponins. (
  • Rather than use the well-known classical biosynthetic pathway for glycogen biosynthesis requiring GlgA glycogen synthase, this pathogen uses a recently discovered alternative pathway. (
  • An international team of scientists has identified the genes and the biosynthetic pathway that enable certain types of cyanobacteria found in freshwater environments to produce a potent neurotoxin called guanitoxin. (
  • The researchers confirmed their findings by reconstituting the guanitoxin biosynthetic pathway "in vitro" (in the test tube, without cyanobacteria). (
  • We establish de novo biosynthesis of pN-Phe from glucose in E. coli , which is also the first example of a de novo pathway design for an unnatural but commonly used non-standard amino acid. (
  • The production of paromamine in a heterologous host for the first time is reported and will evoke to explore complete biosynthetic pathways of kanamycin and related aminoglycoside antibiotics. (
  • Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including kanamycin, neomycin and ribostamycin. (
  • Ubiquinone Biosynthesis over the Entire O2 Range: Characterization of a Conserved O2-Independent Pathway. (
  • This paper provides the first direct demonstration of the biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and a shunt pathway. (
  • In this investigation attention has been concentrated on the biosynthetic pathway of porphyrins in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. (
  • Pn3G5Ara was found only in European wild species and subspecies suggesting different metabolic pathways between European and Chinese accessions. (
  • We use a combination of biochemical methods, functional genomics and microbiological approaches to (i) elucidate the cell envelope structure and determine the biological activities of its lipid constituents and (ii) decipher the structure and biosynthetic pathway of mycolic acids (MA), very-long chain fatty acids and major components of the cell envelope, essential for mycobacterial survival. (