Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Ferrochelatase: A mitochondrial enzyme found in a wide variety of cells and tissues. It is the final enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Ferrochelatase catalyzes ferrous insertion into protoporphyrin IX to form protoheme or heme. Deficiency in this enzyme results in ERYTHROPOIETIC PROTOPORPHYRIA.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.HexosaminesPolyketides: Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Tetrapyrroles: Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mevalonic AcidTerpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase: A membrane-bound flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent aromatization of protoporphyrinogen IX (Protogen) to protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX). It is the last enzyme of the common branch of the HEME and CHLOROPHYLL pathways in plants, and is the molecular target of diphenyl ether-type herbicides. VARIEGATE PORPHYRIA is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Aspartate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde, orthophosphate, and NADP+ to yield L-4-aspartyl phosphate and NADPH. EC 1.2.1.11.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Nucleoside Q: A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.5-Aminolevulinate Synthetase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 2.3.1.37.Coproporphyrinogen Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Deoxy SugarsMixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase (Isomerizing): An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.Betalains: Compounds derived from TYROSINE via betalamic acid, including BETAXANTHINS and BETACYANINS. They are found in the Caryophyllales order of PLANTS and some BASIDIOMYCETES.Coenzyme AAspartate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 2.7.2.4.Geranylgeranyl-Diphosphate Geranylgeranyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Erythritol: A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cysteine Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Diphosphotransferases: A class of phosphotransferases that catalyzes the transfer of diphosphate-containing groups. EC 2.7.6.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.Coproporphyrinogens: Porphyrinogens which are intermediates in the heme biosynthesis. They have four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Coproporphyrinogens I and III are formed in the presence of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase from the corresponding uroporphyrinogen. They can yield coproporphyrins by autooxidation or protoporphyrin by oxidative decarboxylation.Hydroxymethylbilane Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PORPHOBILINOGEN into the hydroxymethylbilane preuroporphyrinogen (UROPORPHYRINOGENS) in several discrete steps. It is the third enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. In humans, deficiency in this enzyme encoded by HMBS (or PBGD) gene results in a form of neurological porphyria (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.3.1.8Serine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.Catharanthus: A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.Dihydrodipicolinate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate to 2,3-dihydrodipicolinate using NAD(P)+ as a cofactor. It is found in BACTERIA and higher plants involved in the biosynthesis of DIAMINOPIMELIC ACID and LYSINE.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Cholestadienols: Cholestadiene derivatives containing a hydroxy group anywhere in the molecule.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Pyrrolnitrin: 3-Chloro-4-(3-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)pyrrole. Antifungal antibiotic isolated from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia. It is effective mainly against Trichophyton, Microsporium, Epidermophyton, and Penicillium.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.2-Isopropylmalate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway to LEUCINE, forming isopropyl malate from acetyl-CoA and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.12.Taxus: Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Petroselinum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used for flavoring food.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Rauwolfia: A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase: The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.ATP Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the pathway for histidine biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. ATP reacts reversibly with 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to yield N-1-(5'-phosphoribosyl)-ATP and pyrophosphate. EC 2.4.2.17.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Ribosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Heptanoates: Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Aminolevulinic Acid: A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.2.15.Penicillium chrysogenum: A mitosporic fungal species used in the production of penicillin.Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of glutamine-derived ammonia and another molecule. The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.5.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Streptomyces antibioticus: An actinomycete from which the antibiotic OLEANDOMYCIN is obtained.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)SesquiterpenesThiosugars: Sugar analogs in which the ring oxygen is replaced by a sulfur.Aminoethylphosphonic Acid: An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.PolyaminesSecologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids: Compounds formed by condensation of secologanin with tryptamine resulting in a tetrahydro-beta-carboline which is processed further to a number of bioactive compounds. These are especially found in plants of the APOCYNACEAE; LOGANIACEAE; and RUBIACEAE families.Micromonospora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.Anthranilate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC 4.1.3.27.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dihydroorotate Oxidase: An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 1.3.3.1.Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase: The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 2.4.2.10.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Glutamate-5-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An NADP+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde to L-glutamyl 5-phosphate. It plays a role in the urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Plicamycin: A tricyclic pentaglycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces strains that inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by adhering to DNA. It is used as a fluorescent dye and as an antineoplastic agent, especially in bone and testicular tumors. Plicamycin is also used to reduce hypercalcemia, especially that due to malignancies.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Dolichol: Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Tryptophan Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Squalene Monooxygenase: The second enzyme in the committed pathway for CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxygenation step in the biosynthesis of STEROLS and is thought to be a rate limiting enzyme in this pathway. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of SQUALENE to (S)-squalene-2,3-epoxide.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.SqualenePhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Acetolactate Synthase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.18.Enediynes: Compounds with triple bonds to each side of a double bond. Many of these are CYTOTOXINS and are researched for use as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Threonine Dehydratase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the deamination of THREONINE to 2-ketobutyrate and AMMONIA. The role of this enzyme can be biosynthetic or biodegradative. In the former role it supplies 2-ketobutyrate required for ISOLEUCINE biosynthesis, while in the latter it is only involved in the breakdown of threonine to supply energy. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.1.16.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Porphobilinogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC 4.2.1.24.Uroporphyrinogen III Synthetase: An enzyme that catalyzes the cyclization of hydroxymethylbilane to yield UROPORPHYRINOGEN III and water. It is the fourth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by UROS gene. Mutations of UROS gene result in CONGENITAL ERYTHROPOIETIC PORPHYRIA.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Streptomyces coelicolor: A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.

High shikimate production from quinate with two enzymatic systems of acetic acid bacteria. (1/980)

3-Dehydroshikimate was formed with a yield of 57-77% from quinate via 3-dehydroquinate by two successive enzyme reactions, quinoprotein quinate dehydrogenase (QDH) and 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, in the cytoplasmic membranes of acetic acid bacteria. 3-Dehydroshikimate was then reduced to shikimate (SKA) with NADP-dependent SKA dehydrogenase (SKDH) from the same organism. When SKDH was coupled with NADP-dependent D-glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in the presence of excess D-glucose as an NADPH re-generating system, SKDH continued to produce SKA until 3-dehydroshikimate added initially in the reaction mixture was completely converted to SKA. Based on the data presented, a strategy for high SKA production was proposed.  (+info)

Association of warfarin dose with genes involved in its action and metabolism. (2/980)

We report an extensive study of variability in genes encoding proteins that are believed to be involved in the action and biotransformation of warfarin. Warfarin is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant that is difficult to use because of the wide interindividual variation in dose requirements, the narrow therapeutic range and the risk of serious bleeding. We genotyped 201 patients for polymorphisms in 29 genes in the warfarin interactive pathways and tested them for association with dose requirement. In our study, polymorphisms in or flanking the genes VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, PROC, APOE, EPHX1, CALU, GGCX and ORM1-ORM2 and haplotypes of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, PROC, F7, GGCX, PROZ, F9, NR1I2 and ORM1-ORM2 were associated with dose (P < 0.05). VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 were significant after experiment-wise correction for multiple testing (P < 0.000175), however, the association of CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 was fully explained by linkage disequilibrium with CYP2C9*2 and/or *3. PROC and APOE were both significantly associated with dose after correction within each gene. A multiple regression model with VKORC1, CYP2C9, PROC and the non-genetic predictors age, bodyweight, drug interactions and indication for treatment jointly accounted for 62% of variance in warfarin dose. Weaker associations observed for other genes could explain up to approximately 10% additional dose variance, but require testing and validation in an independent and larger data set. Translation of this knowledge into clinical guidelines for warfarin prescription will be likely to have a major impact on the safety and efficacy of warfarin.  (+info)

Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells. (3/980)

BACKGROUND: Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. METHODS: This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). RESULTS: Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. CONCLUSION: Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Signaling pathways involved in adhesion and communication of cultured cancer cells were downregulated. The three way pathways comparison presented in this study brings light into the differences in the use of cellular pathways by tumor cells and cancer cell lines.  (+info)

Generation of new landomycins with altered saccharide patterns through over-expression of the glycosyltransferase gene lanGT3 in the biosynthetic gene cluster of landomycin A in Streptomyces cyanogenus S-136. (4/980)

Two novel landomycin compounds, landomycins I and J, were generated with a new mutant strain of Streptomyces cyanogenus in which the glycosyltransferase that is encoded by lanGT3 was over-expressed. This mutant also produced the known landomycins A, B, and D. All these compounds consist of the same polyketide-derived aglycon but differ in their sugar moieties, which are chains of different lengths. The major new metabolite, landomycin J, was found to consist of landomycinone with a tetrasaccharide chain attached. Combined with previous results of the production of landomycin E (which contains three sugars) by the LanGT3- mutant strain (obtained by targeted gene deletion of lanGT3), it was verified that LanGT3 is a D-olivosyltransferase responsible for the transfer of the fourth sugar required for landomycin A biosynthesis. The experiments also showed that gene over-expression is a powerful method for unbalancing biosynthetic pathways in order to generate new metabolites. The cytotoxicity of the new landomycins--compared to known ones--was assessed by using three different tumor cell lines, and their structure-activity relationship (SAR) with respect to the length of the deoxysugar side chain was deduced from the results.  (+info)

Nonsynonymous polymorphisms in genes in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and associations with colorectal cancer. (5/980)

The Ala(222)Val single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene for 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in one-carbon metabolism, has been associated with colorectal cancer risk. Many enzymes are involved in one-carbon metabolism, and SNPs in the corresponding genes may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined 24 nonsynonymous SNPs in 13 genes involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway in relation to the risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts. Among 376 men and women with colorectal cancer and 849 controls, a reduced risk of colorectal cancer was observed for Val/Val versus Ala carriers of MTHFR Ala(222)Val [odds ratio (OR), 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-1.00]. An increased risk was suggested for the variant carrier genotypes versus homozygous wild-type for betaine hydroxymethyltransferase Arg(239)Gln (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.07-1.83) and two linked SNPs in methionine synthase reductase, Ser(284)Thr (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.05-3.27) and Arg(415)Cys (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.15-3.56). The other SNPs were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Also, none of the SNPs were associated with risk in subgroups of dietary methyl status or were jointly associated with colorectal cancer risk in combination with another SNP, except possibly SNPs in methionine synthase and transcobalamin II. However, these analyses of gene-diet interactions were limited in statistical power. Our results corroborate previous findings for MTHFR Ala(222)Val and suggest that other genes involved in one-carbon metabolism, particularly those that affect DNA methylation, may be associated with colorectal cancer risk.  (+info)

The ISC [corrected] proteins Isa1 and Isa2 are required for the function but not for the de novo synthesis of the Fe/S clusters of biotin synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/980)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to use some biotin precursors for biotin biosynthesis. Insertion of a sulfur atom into desthiobiotin, the final step in the biosynthetic pathway, is catalyzed by biotin synthase (Bio2). This mitochondrial protein contains two iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters that catalyze the reaction and are thought to act as a sulfur donor. To identify new components of biotin metabolism, we performed a genetic screen and found that Isa2, a mitochondrial protein involved in the formation of Fe/S proteins, is necessary for the conversion of desthiobiotin to biotin. Depletion of Isa2 or the related Isa1, however, did not prevent the de novo synthesis of any of the two Fe/S centers of Bio2. In contrast, Fe/S cluster assembly on Bio2 strongly depended on the Isu1 and Isu2 proteins. Both isa mutants contained low levels of Bio2. This phenotype was also found in other mutants impaired in mitochondrial Fe/S protein assembly and in wild-type cells grown under iron limitation. Low Bio2 levels, however, did not cause the inability of isa mutants to utilize desthiobiotin, since this defect was not cured by overexpression of BIO2. Thus, the Isa proteins are crucial for the in vivo function of biotin synthase but not for the de novo synthesis of its Fe/S clusters. Our data demonstrate that the Isa proteins are essential for the catalytic activity of Bio2 in vivo.  (+info)

Regulation of yeast oscillatory dynamics. (7/980)

When yeast cells are grown continuously at high cell density, a respiratory oscillation percolates throughout the population. Many essential cellular functions have been shown to be separated temporally during each cycle; however, the regulatory mechanisms involved in oscillatory dynamics remain to be elucidated. Through GC-MS analysis we found that the majority of metabolites show oscillatory dynamics, with 70% of the identified metabolite concentrations peaking in conjunction with NAD(P)H. Through statistical analyses of microarray data, we identified that biosynthetic events have a defined order, and this program is initiated when respiration rates are increasing. We then combined metabolic, transcriptional data and statistical analyses of transcription factor activity, identified the top oscillatory parameters, and filtered a large-scale yeast interaction network according to these parameters. The analyses and controlled experimental perturbation provided evidence that a transcriptional complex formed part of the timing circuit for biosynthetic, reductive, and cell cycle programs in the cell. This circuitry does not act in isolation because both have strong translational, proteomic, and metabolic regulatory mechanisms. Our data lead us to conclude that the regulation of the respiratory oscillation revolves around coupled subgraphs containing large numbers of proteins and metabolites, with a potential to oscillate, and no definable hierarchy, i.e., heterarchical control.  (+info)

Redirection of sphingolipid metabolism toward de novo synthesis of ethanolamine in Leishmania. (8/980)

In most eukaryotes, sphingolipids (SLs) are critical membrane components and signaling molecules. However, mutants of the trypanosomatid protozoan Leishmania lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (spt2-) and SLs grow well, although they are defective in stationary phase differentiation and virulence. Similar phenotypes were observed in sphingolipid (SL) mutant lacking the degradatory enzyme sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (spl-). This epistatic interaction suggested that a metabolite downstream of SLs was responsible. Here we show that unlike other organisms, the Leishmania SL pathway has evolved to be the major route for ethanolamine (EtN) synthesis, as EtN supplementation completely reversed the viability and differentiation defects of both mutants. Thus Leishmania has undergone two major metabolic shifts: first in de-emphasizing the metabolic roles of SLs themselves in growth, signaling, and maintenance of membrane microdomains, which may arise from the unique combination of abundant parasite lipids; Second, freed of typical SL functional constraints and a lack of alternative routes to produce EtN, Leishmania redirected SL metabolism toward bulk EtN synthesis. Our results thus reveal a striking example of remodeling of the SL metabolic pathway in Leishmania.  (+info)

The antiSMASH database is a comprehensive resource on secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. It contains gene clusters identified with the current version of antiSMASH on more than 3000 finished bacterial genomes. The antiSMASH database provides a web-interface which allows simple queries as well as a query builder for complex queries. Results can be exported as lists or (if applicaple) protein or nucleotide FASTA files. In addition, there are links to the antiSMASH output page for all identified gene clusters. References:. ...
Zuther, K., Mayser, P., Hettwer, U., Wu, W., Spiteller, P., Kindler, B. L. J., Karlovsky, P., Basse, C. W., and Schirawski, J. 2008. "The tryptophan aminotransferase Tam1 catalyses the single biosynthetic step for tryptophan-dependent pigment synthesis in Ustilago maydis." Molecular microbiology. 68 (1):152-172. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06144.x ...
Pesquisadores Participantes Roberto G. S. Berlinck David H. Sherman - Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan One of the most underexplored classes of natural products from a metabolic pathway perspective includes complex alkaloids derived from terrestrial and marine sources. In addition to the fascinating genetic and biochemical mechanisms involved in construction of these secondary metabolites,…
το κείμενο με τίτλο Elucidating and exploiting microbial bioactive product biosynthesis σχετίζετε με Βιοτεχνολογία
Srinivas, N; Jetter, P; Ueberbacher, B J; Werneburg, M; Zerbe, K; Steinmann, J; VanderMeijden, B; Bernardini, F; Lederer, A; Dias, R L A; Misson, P E; Henze, H; Zumbrunn, J; Gombert, F O; Obrecht, D; Hunziker, P; Schauer, S; Ziegler, U; Käch, A; Eberl, L; Riedel, K; DeMarco, S J; Robinson, J A (2010). Peptidomimetic antibiotics target outer membrane biogenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Science, 327(5968):1010-1013.. Geib, N; Weber, T; Wörtz, T; Zerbe, K; Wohlleben, W; Robinson, J A (2010). Genome mining in amycolatopsis balhimycina for ferredoxins capable of supporting cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 306(1):45-53.. Li, D B; Woithe, K; Geib, N; Abou-Hadeed, K; Zerbe, K; Robinson, J A (2009). Chapter 19. In vitro studies of phenol coupling enzymes involved in vancomycin biosynthesis. In: Hopwood, D A. Complex Enzymes in Microbial Natural Product Biosynthesis, Part A: Overview Articles and Peptides. Amsterdam: Elsevier, ...
Bacteria - Biosynthetic pathways of bacteria: Many prokaryotes are able to convert any given carbon source into biosynthetic building blocks-e.g., amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, lipids, sugars, and enzyme cofactors. The amount and activity of each enzyme in these biosynthetic pathways are carefully regulated so that the cell produces only as much of any compound as is needed at any time. During the process of evolution, some bacteria have lost genes that encode certain biosynthetic reactions and are hence likely to require nutritional supplements. For example, Mycoplasma, whose DNA content is about one-quarter the size of that of E. coli, has many nutritional requirements and has even
Link for Professor OConnor. Abstract: Plants, which make thousands of complex natural products, are outstanding chemists. Through the concerted action of enzymes that are assembled into metabolic pathways, nature creates chemical complexity from simple starting materials. I will highlight some of the unusual enzymatic transformations that plants use to make complex, bioactive natural products, and will also discuss methods by which these pathways can be harnessed for metabolic engineering. The focus is on the biosynthesis of the monoterpenes called iridoids, and the alkaloids derived from iridoids, known as the monoterpene indole alkaloids. The discovery, functional characterization and mechanistic study of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these important compounds in several medicinal plant species will be discussed.. ...
Our goal is to develop the yeast host and tools for natural product (NP) expression, using novel genomic and synthetic biology technologies. We will showcase these tools through heterologous expression of 600 natural product gene clusters from 10 filamentous fungi of diverse ecological origin. Our project will address all aspects of the genome to natural product process, including high-throughput and cost-effective gene cluster DNA synthesis, gene transcription and protein expression in yeast, through natural product biosynthesis.
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Discussions of therapeutic suppression of hedgehog (Hh) signaling almost exclusively focus on receptor antagonism; however, hedgehogs biosynthesis represents a unique and potentially targetable aspect of this oncogenic signaling pathway. Here, we review a key biosynthetic step called cholesterolysis from the perspectives of structure/function and small molecule inhibition. Cholesterolysis, also called cholesteroylation, generates cholesterol-modified Hh ligand via autoprocessing of a hedgehog precursor protein. Post-translational modification by cholesterol appears to be restricted to proteins in the hedgehog family. The transformation is essential for Hh biological activity and upstream of signaling events. Despite its decisive role in generating ligand, cholesterolysis remains conspicuously unexplored as a therapeutic target.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism. Unlike primary metabolites, absence of secondary metabolites does not result in immediate death, but rather in long-term impairment of the organisms survivability, fecundity, or aesthetics, or perhaps in no significant change at all. Secondary metabolites are often restricted to a narrow set of species within a phylogenetic group. Secondary metabolites often play an important role in plant defense against herbivory and other interspecies defenses. Humans use secondary metabolites as medicines, flavorings, and recreational drugs. Secondary metabolites aid a plant in important functions such as protection, competition, and species interactions, but are not necessary for survival. One important defining quality of secondary metabolites is their specificity. Usually, secondary metabolites are specific to an individual species. Research also shows that ...
To the best of our knowledge, we have described the following for the first time: 1) A relationship between severe insulin resistance and elevated levels of circulating FASN. 2) Circulating FASN was inversely associated with adipose tissue FASN expression. This supports the hypothesis that circulating extracellular FASN levels increase in parallel with the metabolic stress of the cells, as indicated by their decreased amounts of intracellular FASN levels. 3) Decreased concentration of circulating FASN is a good correlate of improvement in insulin action and metabolic control, as evidenced during subtle lifestyle interventions or surgery-induced weight loss. And 4) FASN plasma levels work as a marker of insulin sensitivity only in the context of metabolic stress, given that rosiglitazone, which promotes lipid biosynthesis and storage, did not lead to changes in circulating FASN.. We cannot exclude the possibility that the liver could also contribute to circulating FASN. In fact, weight loss ...
The 5-methyl-2-pyrrolylcarbonyl moiety of the aminocoumarin antibiotics clorobiocin and coumermycin A1 is the key pharmacophore for targeting the ATP-binding site of GyrB for inhibition of the bacterial type-II topoisomerase DNA gyrase. During the late stage of clorobiocin and coumermycin A1 biosynthesis, the pyrrolyl-2-carboxyl group is transferred from the peptidyl carrier proteins Clo/CouN1 to the 3-hydroxyl of the 4-methoxy-L-noviosyl scaffold by the action of the acyltransferases Clo/CouN7. CouN1 and CouN7 have now been heterologously expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. The apo form of CouN1 is converted to the acyl-holo form by loading with pyrrolyl-2-carboxyl-S-pantetheinyl moieties from synthetic pyrrolyl- and 5-methylpyrrolyl-CoAs by the action of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase Sfp. CouN7 acts as an acyltransferase, moving the pyrrole acyl moieties from CouN1 to the noviose sugar of descarbamoylnovobiocin. When the 5-methylpyrrolyl-2-carboxyl-thioester of CouN1 is the
Highlights DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803868 Biosynthesis Extending the Biosynthetic Repertoire in Ribosomal Peptide Assembly Bradley S. Moore* bacteriocins · biosynthesis · enzymes · natural products · ribosomal peptides Natural products are quite inspiring. To chemists, they inspire the development of new synthetic methods and the creation of ever more sensitive analytical techniques. Biologists, on the other hand, exploit natural products in the discovery of new molecular targets and drugs, as well as to learn more about the way cells or whole organisms communicate with each other. Natural products also motivate biochemists to explore new ways in which nature assembles complex organic molecules. Such products, in one form or another, have helped transform modern science. In this post-genomic era, the scientific field of natural product biosynthesis has witnessed a constant flow of fascinating discoveries outlining new biochemical transformations in secondary metabolism. Most recently, cyclic ...
Figure: Structure of rishirilid A and organization of the rishirilid biosynthetic gene cluster. Although structures of several ABC transporters have been reported (cited in 3) not much is known about substrate binding domains of these transporters and about the mechanisms how ABC transporters select and translocate their substrates. Aside the ABC transporter system the rishirilid gene cluster contains rslT4 which most probably is involved in the export of rishirilid into the extracellular space. RslT4 belongs to the EmrB/QacA transporter family which is known to be drug:H+ antiporter with 12 transmembrane domains sharing conserved sequence motifs.. The main focus of the proposed project is to understand the exact function of RslT1, RslT2, RslT3 and RslT4 by structural and functional studies.. The specific aims of the proposal are:. ...
The synthesis and excretion of bile acids comprise the major pathway of cholesterol catabolism in mammals. Synthesis provides a direct means of converting cholesterol, which is both hydrophobic and insoluble, into a water-soluble and readily excreted molecule, the bile acid. The biosynthetic steps t …
contributors:[{last:Sorokin,middle:I,first:I︠U︡,function:author},{last:Kadota,first:Hajime,function:author},{last:International Biological Programme. Section PM.,function:author},{last:Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR.,function:author}],title:Techniques for the assessment of microbial production and decomposition in fresh waters,style:apa,source:conference,isbn:null,title2:,oclc:2967066,pubnonperiodical:{year:1972,volume:,publisher:Blackwell Scientific [for] International Biological Programme,city:Oxford,title:Techniques for the assessment of microbial production and decomposition in fresh waters},conference:{:},datasource:http:\/\/www.worldcat.org,pubtype:{main:pubnonperiodical ...
Biosynthesis of PAM after Dox induction. Identical wells of iPAM cells were treated with 0.25 or 2.0 μg/ml Dox for 48 h and then incubated with [35S]Met for
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a fast-track mechanism that allows genetically unrelated organisms to exchange genes for rapid environmental adaptation. We developed a new phyletic distribution-based software, HGT-Finder, which implements a novel bioinformatics algorithm to calculate a horizontal transfer index and a probability value for each query gene. Applying this new tool to the Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus nidulans genomes, we found 273, 542, and 715 transferred genes (HTGs), respectively. HTGs have shorter length, higher guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and relaxed selection pressure. Metabolic process and secondary metabolism functions are significantly enriched in HTGs. Gene clustering analysis showed that 61%, 41% and 74% of HTGs in the three genomes form physically linked gene clusters (HTGCs). Overlapping manually curated, secondary metabolite gene clusters (SMGCs) with HTGCs found that 9 of the 33 A. fumigatus SMGCs and 31 of the 65 A. nidulans SMGCs share
The adipocyte plays a crucial role in metabolic regulation, serving as a storage depot for fatty acids and as an endocrine cell to manage energy utilization and feeding behavior [1, 2]. The mass of adipose tissue is maintained by a well-controlled balance of cell proliferation (hyperplasia) and increase in fat cell size (hypertrophy). Increases in adipocyte hypertrophy result from the uptake and assimilation of extracellular fatty acids into cytosolic triacylglycerol-rich lipid droplets. The primary sources of these extracellular fatty acids are those that are 1) associated with circulating albumin or 2) hydrolyzed from triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein particles such as chylomicrons or very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Since chylomicrons are short-lived fatty acid carriers present only during the post-prandial period, it is accepted that VLDL particles represent the major source of circulating fatty acids in the form of triacylglycerols. Triacylglycerols are the major component of VLDL and ...
Natural product biosynthesis; non-ribosomal peptides; bioinorganic and biophysical chemistry; oxygen activation; sustainable chemistry; biofuels My laboratory is interested in the chemical biology of enzymes involved in pharmaceutical biosynthesis and bioenergy production. We are interested in developing tools to understand the detailed molecular mechanisms of these potent catalysts, and ultimately leverage them for the synthesis of natural products of pharmacological or industrial importance. As a result, we utilize a large spectrum of techniques in our studies, ranging from genome mining, molecular biology, metabolic engineering, enzymology, transient kinetics, and biophysical spectroscopy. Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis. There is growing interest in developing biochemical strategies to produce compounds with similar properties to petroleum-derived fuels. We are exploring enzymatic routes to produce hydrocarbons from biologically-derived fatty acid precursors, with the ultimate goal of preparing a ...
In the present study we addressed the question of whether the biosynthesis of secondary carotenoids in H. pluvialisproceeds via an independent second pathway that operates outside the chloroplast, as the accumulation of the astaxanthin esters in cytosolic lipid vesicles might indicate. According to our data for PDS, we conclude that, at least for this relatively early biosynthetic step of carotenogenesis, no second cytosolic pathway exists and that higher biosynthetic activity is coupled to higher amounts of enzyme. Up-regulation on both the mRNA and protein levels was observed upon induction of SC synthesis. Because of slight variability in the extent of SC accumulation between parallels (Grünewald, 1997), we do not interpret the small difference between the maxima in PDS mRNA and protein levels as a sign for post-translational regulation events-at least the main part of up-regulation takes place at the mRNA level.. Bouvier et al. (1998) showed that pepper PDS mRNA increased under different ...
Release of neurotransmitters:. - Usually follows arrival of an action potential at the synapse - whereby the voltage across the cell membrane (membrane potential) of a cell (in this case a presynaptic neuron) rapidly rises and falls. Myelin sheath - consists of Schwann cells that encircle axon like a jelly roll, act as insulators and are separated by gaps of unsheathed axon called Nodes of Ranvier. Instead of a continuous traveling down the axon, the action potential jumps from node to node (called saltatory conduction), thereby speeding up propagation of impulse.. ✐ Follows a graded electrical potential.. ✐ Occurs without electrical stimulation as a low level "baseline"release. Neurotransmitter synthesis - made via just a few biosynthetic steps, from simple precursors, such as amino acids readily available from diet. Have excitory or inhibitory effect (or both), depending only on the type of receptors they activate - an excitory effect increases the probability that the target cell will ...
THE eating quality of Australian beef continues to rise, with the national average MSA Index reaching 57.56 points in 2015-17 - thats a large rise of 0.84 index points since the 2010-11 grading year, a newly released report has shown. The post MSA eating quality performance continues to rise appeared first on Beef Central ...
Yamada K.; Morisaki M.; Kumaoka H., 1983: Different biosynthetic pathways of the pyrimidine moiety of thiamin in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
17693715] The border sequence of the balhimycin biosynthesis gene cluster from Amycolatopsis balhimycina contains bbr, encoding a StrR-like pathway-specific regulator. (J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. , 2007 ...
This enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway for UDP-alpha-D-ManNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-mannuronic acid), an important precursor of B-band lipopolysaccharide ...
Read "A Rice Semi-Dwarf Gene, Tan-Ginbozu (D35), Encodes the Gibberellin Biosynthesis Enzyme, ent-Kaurene Oxidase, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
12855716] Cloning, sequencing and heterologous expression of the medermycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. AM-7161: towards comparative analysis of the benzoisochromanequinone gene clusters. (Microbiology. , 2003 ...
Medical Xpress is a web-based medical and health news service that features the most comprehensive coverage in the fields of neuroscience, cardiology, cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more.
Some are organized by biosynthetic pathway (terpenes) and some are by apparent structure without regard to pathway (pyrrolizidines). A couple are named after plant nomenclature where they are found (berberines). ...
Third edition of this authoritative work on microbial biochemistry Describes a multitude of biosynthetic pathways in great detail Provides the reader with
Wholesale Sea Buckthorn Extract - Select 2017 high quality Wholesale Sea Buckthorn Extract products in best price from certified Chinese Sea Buckthorn Seeds Extract manufacturers, Sea Buckthorn Oil suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Sea buckthorn has been the secret medicine that ancient Tibetan people have used for thousands of years.... The Tibetans used sea buckthorn oil for skin ailments of all kinds. From eczema to deep burns, sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn oil or Omega 7 is naturally derived from the berries of the sea buckthorn plant and can support a healthy immune system.
Latin Name Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R. Br.Chinese Name 博落回Family PapaveraceaePart of the Plant Used Fruit/SeedActive Ingredients Alkaloids, Sanguinari
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides. The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes (e.g.NADH, NADPH). These elements create monomers, the building blocks for macromolecules. Some important biological macromolecules include: proteins, which are composed of amino acid monomers joined via peptide bonds, and DNA molecules, which are ...
Biosynthetic Pathway, Fruit, Fruits, Genes, Goal, Identification, Set, Transcription Factors, Transcriptome, Transcriptome Analysis, Watermelon
Das DECHEMA-Forschungsinstitut betreibt interdisziplinäre Forschung für nachhaltige Technologien auf den Themen Werkstoff- und Korrosionsforschung, chemische Technik, Elektrochemie und Biotechnologie
How does Sea buckthorn dried pulp differ from Sea buckthorn oil meal?. According to the single source of origin it is the synonyms, according to the other it is the different things. The second sources point up that there are milled Sea buckthorn seeds in oil meal, and there are only berry skins in dried pulp.. Sea buckthorn dried pulp produced by Altai-Zanddorn does not contain Sea buckthorn seeds; they are separated from fruit pulp at the first stage of berry processing and seeds are left intact.. Useful properties of Sea buckthorn dried pulp. Sea buckthorn dried pulp is a high-energy product with big content of carbos, cellulose, protein and ash. Besides of that dried pulp has anti-oxidant action as well as it contains high concentration of vitamin B group (folic and nicotinic acid) and organic acids (tartaric, apple and amber acids).. Thus Sea buckthorn dried pulp can be used for production of functional food and biologically active additives to enhance their nutritive value.. Even more, ...
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Sea Buckthorn has 1300 years of traditional uses with modern scientific research to back it up. Learn more on how sea berry can help you!
Sea buckthorn berry oil is oil which treats cancer, skin ailments, lowers fatigue, prevent infections, cardiovascular problems and insulin level.
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Learn more about Sea Buckthorn at Portsmouth Regional Hospital Principal Proposed Uses: None Uses Other Proposed Uses: Preventing Colds ...
Číslo patentu: E 19925. Dátum: 07.06.2012. Autori: Amari Gabriele, Linney Ian, Rizzi Andrea, Biagetti Matteo, Rancati Fabio. MPK: A61K 31/4709, A61K 9/00, A61K 31/439.... Značky: beta2-adrenergných, zlúčeniny, agonistov, aktivitou, receptorov, antagonistov, muskarínových. Text:. ...(C 1 C 6)alkylu, (C 1-C 5)aIkoxy a aryl(C 1-C 5) aIkyIuC je neprítomné alebo je vybrané zo skupiny pozostávajúca z -O-, -CO-, -OC(O)-, -C(OO)-, -S-, S(O)-, -S(O)2- a -N(R 7)- alebo je jednou z nasledujúcich skupín C 1-C 18kde R 7 je H alebo je vybrané zo skupiny pozostávajúca z lineárnaho aleob rozvetveného (C 1 Ca)alkylu, (Cg-Cgcykloalkylu, (C 3-Ca)heterocykloalkylu, arylu. ary,(C 1-Ce)aIkyIu, (C 1-C 5)aIkoxy(C 1 C 5)aIkyIu a heteroarylu a.... ...
Randomizovaná a kontrolovaná. Boli hodnotené 3 oblasti: oblasť, na ktorú bola aplikovaná deionizovaná voda (negatívna kontrola), oblasť, na ktorú bol aplikovaný Bi-Oil, a oblasť, na ktorú bol aplikovaný 1% roztok lauryl sulfátu sodného (pozitívna kontrola - dráždidlo pokožku). Skúšobné výrobky boli aplikované pomocou náplasti na volárnu stranu predlaktia a odstránené po 24 hodinách. Bola hodnotená pokožka a zaznamenané reakcie po 24, 48, 72 a 96 hodinách po aplikácii. Počas hodnotenia boli prítomní dermatológovia. Reakcie pokožky boli hodnotené na stupnici 0 - 4 (kde 0 je bez reakcie a 4 je zapálené začervenanie ...
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Minor aberrant pathways of cholesterol biosynthesis normally produce only trace levels of abnormal sterol metabolites but may assume major importance when an essential biosynthetic step is blocked. Cholesta-5,8-dien-3beta-ol, its Delta(5,7) isomer, and other noncholesterol sterols accumulate in subjects with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a severe developmental disorder caused by a ...
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Not too many people are familiar with the sea buckthorn, also known as the "sea berry" and/or "sandthorn," but this shrubs berries are antioxidant fruits that everyone should know about.. ...
Characterization of the GDP-D-Mannose Biosynthesis Pathway in Coxiella burnetii: The Initial Steps for GDP-β-D-Virenose Biosynthesis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Learn more about Buckthorn at LewisGale Regional Health System Alternate Names Common Buckthorn Purging Buckthorn Uses Principal Proposed Uses: ...
The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access. Shodhganga Mirror Site ...
You may already be aware of the internal and external benefits of Sea Buckthorn, but you may not be familiar with SeabuckWonders. They were the first to introduce this phenom resource to the states. They offer a skincare line that is both organic and vegan. These products are simply lovely. Theyre not the first skincare line Ive tried containing Sea Buckthorn, but they are by far the best. They appear to sit quietly in the background while their inferior competitors take center stage. I hope this changes. seabuckwonders.com ...
The cell-free enzymology of the biosynthesis of the 2,3- trans forms of flavan-3-ols and the oligomeric 2,3- transproanthocyanidins is now known except for the final condensation step to the...
PNMT / PENT, 0.1 ml. The product of this gene catalyzes the last step of the catecholamine biosynthesis pathway, which methylates norepinephrine to form epinephrine (adreline).
This enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway for UDP-alpha-D- ManNAc(3)NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-mannuronic acid), an important precursor of B-band lipopolysaccharide ...
"Biosynthetic Pathways". Retrieved 24 November 2010. . It is as one of the monomers for manufacture of some polyesters and as a ...
Biosynthetic pathwayEdit. Plants exclusively of the genus Capsicum produce capsaicinoids, which are alkaloids.[26] Capsaicin is ... The general biosynthetic pathway of capsaicin and other capsaicinoids was elucidated in the 1960s by Bennett and Kirby, and ... In 2006, it was discovered that the venom of a certain tarantula species activates the same pathway of pain as is activated by ... are responsible for identifying leucine as another precursor to the branched-chain fatty acid pathway.[24] It was discovered in ...
Complex biosynthetic pathways for glycans. Usually glycans are found either bound to protein (glycoprotein) or conjugated with ... They affect the pathway and fate of glycoproteins. There are many glycan-specific diseases, often hereditary diseases. There ... They are involved in cellular signaling pathways and modulate cell function. They are important in innate immunity. They ...
Park, Je Won; Ban, Yeon Hee; Nam, Sang-Jip; Cha, Sun-Shin; Yoon, Yeo Joon (1 December 2017). "Biosynthetic pathways of ...
Liu, B.; Raeth, T.; Beuerle, T.; Beerhues, L. (2010). "A novel 4-hydroxycoumarin biosynthetic pathway". Plant Mol. Biol. 72: 17 ...
... biosynthetic pathway determination; protein engineering; drug delivery; molecular biology; structural biology; cell biology; ...
"Melanin biosynthetic pathway". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2017-09-25. Pubchem. "Melanin". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017 ... The first step of the biosynthetic pathway for both eumelanins and pheomelanins is catalysed by tyrosinase. Tyrosine → DOPA → ... Signaling pathways that upregulate melanization in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) also may be implicated in the ... Trichochromes (formerly called trichosiderins) are pigments produced from the same metabolic pathway as the eumelanins and ...
This enrichment was consistent with two biosynthetic pathways. The labeling pattern determined that domoic acid can be ...
CoQ10 shares a biosynthetic pathway with cholesterol. The synthesis of an intermediary precursor of CoQ10, mevalonate, is ... An important enzyme in this pathway is HMG-CoA reductase, usually a target for intervention in cardiovascular complications. ... genes that are not directly related to the CoQ10 biosynthetic process). The role of statins in deficiencies is controversial.[6 ...
An enzyme in the biotin biosynthetic pathway". J. Biol. Chem. 250: 4029-4036. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ...
The biosynthetic pathways are regulated by riboswitches. If there is sufficient thiamine present in the cell then the thiamine ... The biosynthetic pathways may differ among organisms. In E. coli and other enterobacteriaceae, ThMP may be phosphorylated to ... "Elucidating biosynthetic pathways for vitamins and cofactors". Nat Prod Rep. 24 (5): 988-1008. doi:10.1039/b703105j. PMID ... The cytosolic enzyme transketolase is a key player in the pentose phosphate pathway, a major route for the biosynthesis of the ...
There are two distinct lysine biosynthetic pathways: the diaminopimelic acid pathway and the α-aminoadipate pathway. The most ... The diaminopimelic acid biosynthetic pathway of lysine belongs to the aspartate family of amino acids. This pathway involves ... This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular ... The other pathway of glycine biosynthesis is known as the glycolytic pathway. This pathway converts serine synthesized from the ...
Wheeler GL, Jones MA, Smirnoff N (May 1998). "The biosynthetic pathway of vitamin C in higher plants". Nature. 393 (6683): 365- ... Most of these pathways are derived from products found in glycolysis and other pathways. For example, one pathway goes through ... Plants use multiple pathways to synthesize vitamin C. The major pathway starts with glucose, fructose or mannose (all simple ... Minor pathways may be specific to certain parts of plants; these can be either identical to the vertebrate pathway (including ...
"Histidine biosynthetic pathway and genes: structure, regulation, and evolution". Microbiological Reviews. 60 (1): 44-69. ISSN ... Roche Biochemical Pathways Map Roche biochemical pathways map *^ a b Alifano, P; Fani, R; Liò, P; Lazcano, A; Bazzicalupo, M; ... This pathway requires energy in order to occur therefore, the presence of ATP activates the first enzyme of the pathway, ATP- ... For example, as shown in the pathway, His4 catalyzes 4 different steps in the pathway.[13] ...
Phosphopantetheine fulfills two demands in these biosynthetic pathways. First, the intermediates remain covalently linked to ... 4'-Phosphopantetheine is an essential prosthetic group of several acyl carrier proteins involved in pathways of primary and ...
The biosynthetic pathways to ergocryptine starts with the prenylation of L-tryptophan in an SN1 fashion with ... Gerhards, N.; Neubauer, L.; Tudzynski, P.; Li, S.-M. Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids. Toxins (Basel). 2014, 6, 3281- ... Gerhards, N.; Neubauer, L.; Tudzynski, P.; Li, S.-M. Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids. Toxins (Basel). 2014, 6, 3281- ... Gerhards, N.; Neubauer, L.; Tudzynski, P.; Li, S.-M. Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids. Toxins (Basel). 2014, 6, 3281- ...
Chhabra, Namrata (November 15, 2015). "Effect of Lead poisoning on heme biosynthetic pathway". Clinical Cases: Biochemistry For ...
"A biosynthetic pathway for anandamide". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (36): 13345-50. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10313345L. doi: ... The neurons, neural pathways, and other cells where these molecules, enzymes, and one or both cannabinoid receptor types are ... but also the PI3/PKB and MEK/ERK pathway (Galve-Roperh et al., 2002; Davis et al., 2005; Jones et al., 2005; Graham et al., ... Schematic of brain pathways involved in food intake Watkins BA, Kim J (2014). "The endocannabinoid system: helps to direct ...
"A biosynthetic pathway for anandamide". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103 ( ...
P450 monooxygenases are involved in the amygdalin biosynthetic pathway. A point mutation in a bHLH transcription factor ...
Precedent for similar reactions is found in biosynthetic pathways. DNA hydroxymethylation has been proposed to act as a ... Grin, I; Ishchenko, AA (May 2016). "An interplay of the base excision repair and mismatch repair pathways in active DNA ... specific epigenetic mark opposing DNA methylation, rather than a passive intermediate in the de-methylation pathway. DNA ...
Plants can synthesize IAA by several independent biosynthetic pathways. Four of them start from tryptophan, but there is also a ... distribution and function of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in bacteria". Crit Rev Microbiol. 39 (4): 395-415. doi: ... biosynthetic pathway independent of tryptophan. Plants mainly produce IAA from tryptophan through indole-3-pyruvic acid. IAA is ... As of 2010, the signal transduction pathways are as follows: IAA/HRP activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and c-Jun ...
... biosynthetic pathway utilizes a variety of enzymes. Genes code for the enzymes on the Mg-tetrapyrroles of both ... Zeiger & Taiz 2006, Figure 7.11.A: The biosynthetic pathway of chlorophyll Ishikita H, Saenger W, Biesiadka J, Loll B, Knapp EW ... The pathway then uses either a light-dependent process, driven by the enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. ...
The biosynthetic pathway for Lipid A in E. coli has been determined by the work of Christian R. H. Raetz in the past >32 years ... "Discovery of new biosynthetic pathways: the lipid A story". Journal of Lipid Research: S103-S108. Raetz C, Whitfield C (2002 ...
"Discovery of new biosynthetic pathways: the lipid A story". Journal of Lipid Research: S103-S108. Raetz CR; Garrett TA; ...
Milne, B.; Long, P.; Starcevic, A.; Hranueli, D.; Jaspars, M. (2006). "Spontaneity in the patellamide biosynthetic pathway". ... The biosynthetic gene cluster for patellamide A contains the genes patA, patB, patC, patD, patE, patF and patG. These genes, ... "Patellamide a and C biosynthesis by a microcin-like pathway in Prochloron didemni, the cyanobacterial symbiont of Lissoclinum ...
hormone-mediated signaling pathway. • follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway. • regulation of receptor activity. • G- ... progesterone biosynthetic process. • female gamete generation. • positive regulation of bone resorption. • regulation of ... transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of ...
Wang X, Quinn PJ (2010). "Lipopolysaccharide: Biosynthetic pathway and structure modification". Prog. Lipid Res. 49 (2): 97-107 ... The presumed mechanism for the association of endotoxin with obesity is that endotoxin induces an inflammation-mediated pathway ... Patil PB, Sonti RV (2004). "Variation suggestive of horizontal gene transfer at a lipopolysaccharide (lps) biosynthetic locus ... Evidence for a new glycosylation pathway of the gonococcal lipooligosaccharide". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (48): 30345-51. PMID ...
In Arabidopsis, the biosynthetic pathways of aliphatic and indole glucosinolate defense compounds are well-characterized. ... In Arabidopsis, the biosynthetic pathways of aliphatic and indole glucosinolate defense compounds are well-characterized. ... and add to our knowledge about how biochemical pathways are connected to cellular processes. Specifically, a group of protein ... and add to our knowledge about how biochemical pathways are connected to cellular processes. Specifically, a group of protein ...
The porphyrias are a group of inherited disorders resulting from enzyme defects in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Acute ... The porphyrias are a group of inherited disorders resulting from enzyme defects in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Acute ...
... in biosynthetic pathway of alkaloid accumulation (and at the same time also in the primary metabolic pathways that provide ... Recent studies have revealed that metals have great potential in enhancing biosynthetic pathway in cell cultures. Addition of ... enhancement of biosynthetic pathway resulting in increased accumulation of alkaloids. Metal treatment resulted in reduced ... blocks for alkaloid biosynthetic pathway to proceed). These include, Fe that is cofactor of enzymes as, geraniol-10-hydroxylase ...
The cytosolic presence of PfCPO provides evidence for a hybrid heme-biosynthetic pathway in the malarial parasite. (C) 2009 ... A unique hybrid pathway has been proposed for de novo heme biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum involving three different ... While parasite mitochondrion and apicoplast have been shown to harbor key enzymes of the pathway, there has been no ...
  • The glucosinolate defense compounds are suitable as model metabolites for studying pathway orchestration, as they are present in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (hereafter Arabidopsis) that offers extensive 'omics databases, bioinformatics tools as well as large mutant collections. (frontiersin.org)
  • In Arabidopsis, the biosynthetic pathways of aliphatic and indole glucosinolate defense compounds are well-characterized. (frontiersin.org)
  • Within the cell, biosynthetic pathways are embedded in protein-protein interaction networks. (frontiersin.org)
  • Additionally, how do specific pathways couple to surrounding protein-protein interaction networks within the cell? (frontiersin.org)
  • Arabidopsis mutants with a ltered t ryptophan r egulation ( atr ) have been used to elucidate how the tryptophan pathway is controlled. (genetics.org)
  • In Arabidopsis, the biosynthetic pathways of aliphatic and indole glucosinolate defense compounds are well-characterized. (frontiersin.org)
  • The glucosinolate defense compounds are suitable as model metabolites for studying pathway orchestration, as they are present in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (hereafter Arabidopsis) that offers extensive 'omics databases, bioinformatics tools as well as large mutant collections. (frontiersin.org)
  • Arabidopsis phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase: Molecular genetic analysis of triplicate tryptophan pathway genes, Plant Cell , 1995, 7: 447. (springer.com)
  • We report the genetic and phenotypic analysis of insertional mutations disrupting SETH1 and SETH2 , which encode Arabidopsis homologs of two conserved proteins involved in the first step of the GPI biosynthetic pathway. (plantcell.org)
  • The purified fusion proteins were injected into chickens and polyclonal lgY·s were purified from egg yolk Accumulation of CHS and CHI, as well as products of the pathway, were compared during the first eight days of Arabidopsis development. (vt.edu)
  • Phage-derived antibodies against CHS and CHI provide valuable tools for future experiments addressing Western blot analysis, immunolocalization experiments, and disruption of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway by introduction of the corresponding genes into transgenic Arabidopsis plants. (vt.edu)
  • Our analyses reveal distinct functional networks with substantial interconnection among the identified interactors for both pathway-specific markers, and add to our knowledge about how biochemical pathways are connected to cellular processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Experimental studies have shown that the biosynthetic machinery for polyketide and nonribosomal peptides involves multi-functional megasynthases like Polyketide Synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) which utilize a thiotemplate mechanism similar to that for fatty acid biosynthesis. (igi-global.com)
  • I activated the polyketide biosynthetic pathway by engineering two regulatory genes, and optimized the culture conditions to increase the titer of chromomycins. (usu.edu)
  • The type III polyketide synthase (PKS) involved in the biosynthesis of spirolaxine was identified in this research, which is important for complete elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway of this anti-Helicobacter pylori natural product. (usu.edu)
  • The reconstructed pathway for rubrofusarin in S. cerevisiae allows the production of a core scaffold molecule with a branch-point role in several fungal polyketide pathways, thus paving the way for production of further natural pigments and bioactive molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the reconstruction verifies the suggested pathway, and as such, it is the first example of utilizing a synthetic biological "bottom up" approach for the validation of a complex fungal polyketide pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2001). Biosynthesis of the vancomycin group of antibiotics: characterisation of a type III polyketide synthase in the pathway to (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine. (core.ac.uk)
  • 2008). Exploiting the mosaic structure of trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases for natural product discovery and pathway dissection. (core.ac.uk)
  • Pereira B, Zhang H, De Mey M, Lim CG, Li Z-J, Stephanopoulos G. Engineering a novel biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli for production of renewable ethylene glycol. (ugent.be)
  • On the other hand, we used Escherichia coli as a platform for heterologous expression of PKSs and engineering of particular biosynthetic pathways to generate chemical diversity in natural products. (usu.edu)
  • Five transcription factors have been predicted to be involved in the biosynthetic pathway of aliphatic glucosinolate, namely SEPALLATA 3 (SEP3), PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3-like 5 (AtbHLH15/PIL5), ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), AGAMOUS-like 15 (AGL15) and GLABRA 3 (GL3). (elsevier.com)
  • Meanwhile, three other genes with high potential to be involved in the aliphatic glucosinolates biosynthetic pathway were identified, i.e., methylthioalkylmalate-like synthase 4 (MAML-4) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASP1 and ASP4). (elsevier.com)
  • These findings can be used to complete the aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway in A. thaliana and to update the information on the glucosinolate-related pathways in public metabolic databases. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, in recent years there have been major advances in development of computational methods which can analyze genome sequences to identify genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis and help in deciphering the putative chemical structures of their biosynthetic products based on analysis of the sequence and structural features of the proteins encoded by these genes. (igi-global.com)
  • Now, imagine the people as proteins, and when each one receives the message, they perform some function that will then signal the next protein in the pathway to perform a function until the endgame target is reached. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each pair of homologous proteins in the pathways may govern the formation of a moiety with same or similar structure. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Proteins of the p24 family form a rather unique family of abundant, small (20-24 kDa) type I trans-membrane proteins in the early biosynthetic pathway. (biologists.org)
  • in contrast, MC14 and MC7 showed low HYD3 / CYP97C , suggesting that they may be useful in biofortification efforts aimed at promoting the accumulation of provitamin A. The results of this study demonstrate the use of maize germplasm to provide insight into the regulation of genes involved in the carotenoid pathway, which would thus better enable us to select promising varieties for biofortification efforts. (mdpi.com)
  • Diseases like cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's are often rooted in aberrant signal transduction and abnormal pathway regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • These complexes may function in global regulation of carbon partitioning between metabolic pathways in developing seeds. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Regulation and response mechanisms are largely unknown, and even the metabolic pathways themselves are not fully elucidated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2001). Here we discuss the significance of the recent finding that several genes involved in the arginine (Arg) and leucine (Leu) biosynthesis participate in a new alternative route of the AAA pathway (Miyazaki et al. (springer.com)
  • b C. elegans is missing all three genes of the arginine (R) biosynthetic pathway, but vertebrates have maintained them for use in the urea cycle (see text). (asm.org)
  • Moreover, we show that cyp83B1 mutants have lesion-mimic phenotypes, suggesting that multiple stress pathways are activated by loss of CYP83B1 function. (genetics.org)
  • When mutated, several KRE pathway genes and members of the PKC1-mediated MAP kinase pathway have synthetic lethal interactions as double mutants. (rupress.org)
  • The effects of the microRNA (miRNA) processing genes Gemin3 and Gemin4 on cellular signaling pathways could have a major impact on the risk of cancer. (peerj.com)
  • Research into the individual nutrient-sensitivities of the HBP, AMPK, and mTOR pathways has revealed a complex regulatory dynamic, where their unique responses to macromolecule levels coordinate cell behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Complex sets of interactions between the HBP, AMPK, and mTOR pathways integrate nutritional signals to respond to changes in the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • It induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells by down-regulating mainly the activation of MAPK and mTOR pathways. (nature.com)
  • Survival of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae requires a functional mevalonate pathway, which produces isopentenyl diphosphate, the essential building block of isoprenoids. (elsevier.com)
  • The respective amino acid is converted to a glucosinolate in seven consecutive enzymatic reactions constituting the core pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • It consists of two discrete parts, a pathway for the reduction of a sulfur source to sulfide, and a simple two-step pathway to combine the sulfide with the amino acid serine to produce cysteine. (kelmacmedical.us)
  • The analysis of NAPE‐PLD‐deficient mice exhibited the presence of NAPE‐PLD‐independent pathways for the NAE formation in vivo . (els.net)
  • NAPE‐PLD‐dependent and ‐independent pathways. (els.net)
  • NAD+ levels are maintained by three independent pathways. (wikipathways.org)
  • Our recent studies using NAPE-PLD-/- mice also suggest that NAE is formed not only from NAPE, but also from Nacylated plasmalogen-type ethanolamine phospholipid (N-acyl-plasmenylethanolamine) through both NAPE-PLDdependent and -independent pathways. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Targeting Trehalose and Methylglucose Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthetic Pathways in M. tuberculosis - Structural and Functional Characterisation, and Early-Stage Drug Discovery of OtsA and Rv3030 (Doctoral thesis). (cam.ac.uk)
  • For the last step of the pathway two approaches are being studied: the use of diketide-CoA synthase and curcuminoid synthase from Curcuma longa, and curcumin synthase from Oryza sativa that itself catalyzes both steps. (uminho.pt)
  • This activity could be explained by the presence of two minor PI metabolic pathways: PI/inositol exchange reaction and phosphorylation of inositol by ATP prior to entering the PIP synthase pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • this classification is also reflected in a key gene of the thaumarchaeotal lipid biosynthetic pathway coding for geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate (GGGP) synthase. (uu.nl)
  • We hypothesized that there might be a molecular convergence of activated HBP and ER stress pathways leading to insulin resistance. (ias.ac.in)
  • Extensive studies have been conducted to elucidate the plant carotenoid pathway. (upm.edu.my)
  • Several lines of evidence indicate that TGF-beta1 induction is mediated by the hexosamine pathway. (nih.gov)
  • In similar experiments, involvement of the hexosamine pathway in hyperglycemia-induced production of cytokines (TGF-alpha and basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF]) was demonstrated in vascular smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • Current data indicate that the flux through the hexosamine pathway, regulated by GFAT, may be causally involved in the development of diabetic vascular disease, particularly diabetic nephropathy. (nih.gov)
  • We report a general strategy that combines targeted genome-wide mutagenesis to generate pathway variants with evolution to enrich for rare high producers. (semanticscholar.org)
  • W. S. Kim, Charles E. Chalfant and Brett Garner, " Fine Tuning Therapeutic Targeting of the Sphingolipid Biosynthetic Pathway to Treat Atherosclerosis", Current Vascular Pharmacology (2006) 4: 151. (eurekaselect.com)
  • and there is increasing evidence for the existence of pathway-specific metabolons ( Bassard and Halkier, 2017 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of this work was to trace the evolutionary pathway leading to the extant scenario in proteobacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, to date, there has been no work carried out to elucidate the pathway in this species. (upm.edu.my)